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Sample records for sex age educational

  1. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  2. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

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    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  3. The Effects of Children's Age and Sex on Acquiring Pro-Environmental Attitudes through Environmental Education

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    Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day program at…

  4. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5? Parents’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.

  5. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

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    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  6. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

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    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coordinated analysis of age, sex, and education effects on change in MMSE scores.

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    Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M

    2013-05-01

    We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.

  8. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

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    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  9. Importance of Sex Education Since Early Age for Preventing Sexual Harassment

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    Christofora Megawati Tirtawinata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of sex education in children could cause the violence or sexual abuse done by adults. Parents should give the lesson about early sex education to the children so that they had the right knowledge about it and knew how to treat and look after it. The method in this research was a discourse analysis of the literature in which the readings were taken in context with the research topic. Besides that, it included the observations and everyday practical experience in social life. This article described the notion of sex education, the impact of sexual harassment, the importance of sex education for children, and who would be responsible for sex education for the children. The research finds that through the moral education and faith to God, the children are expected to get protection from sexual abuse, so the nation's children as successor generation get mentally active. 

  10. Smoke-free environments: age, sex, and educational disparity in 25 Argentinean cities.

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    Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela

    2012-10-01

    There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR  = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more

  11. Sex Education

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    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is

  12. SEX EDUCATION

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    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  13. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

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    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Sex Education: Another View

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    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  15. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

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    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  16. Sex education in Portugal.

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    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  17. Sex Education Materials.

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    Singer-Magdoff, Laura

    1969-01-01

    After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…

  18. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

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    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  19. Sex education in Cyprus.

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    Patsalides, N

    1991-05-01

    The objective of educating people on family planning and sexuality issues has been carried forth by the Family Planning Association of Cyprus (FPAC) since 1971. The promotion of sex education in schools has generated respect for their expertise. Sex education has reached the agenda of the General Assembly of Parliament only to be postponed due to the April 1991 end of term dismissal. A newly elected Parliament are not expected to act immediately. The Ministry of Education Committee on Health Education has been actively counseled since 1974, and most recently in their examination of the possibilities of school sex education and training of high school teachers. The Ministry of Education has authority over primary and secondary education, which is compulsory up to 3 years of secondary education. The approach of FPAC has been to work with parents first in education lectures at various well publicized locations. The agenda was to inform about FPAC, explain the purpose and meaning of sex education, and show the Merry-Go-Round educational film followed by a question and answer session. Eventually, presentations involved children with parent observation. In 1977, authorization from the Ministry of Education gave official approval to FPAC, but not on school premises. FPAC went directly to headmasters and gained support in primary schools to organize sessions on school premises, which successfully involved many primary schools even in the much needed rural areas. Home Economics and Child Care, offered in the 5th and 6th grades was the only vehicle for gaining permission to enter secondary schools. In Larnaca, secondary school headmasters at the 3rd and 6th grade levels permitted invitations which requested parental permission. Lecture topics on human reproduction, sex roles, and disease and contraception were also provided in a follow-up letter. Higher education levels were involved through youth clubs and evening lectures. In 1988, FPAC urged the Director General of the

  20. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

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    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables.

  1. Sex education and ideals

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    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  2. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices

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    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  3. Cognitive performance in young adulthood and midlife: Relations with age, sex, and education-The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

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    Rovio, Suvi P; Pahkala, Katja; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Juonala, Markus; Salo, Pia; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Rinne, Juha O; Raitakari, Olli T

    2016-07-01

    Age, education, and sex associate with cognitive performance. We investigated associations between age, sex, education, and cognitive performance in young or middle-aged adults and evaluated data reduction methods to optimally capture cognitive performance in our population-based data. This study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The 3,596 randomly selected subjects (aged 3-18 years in 1980) have been followed up for 30 years. In 2011, a computer-based cognitive testing battery (the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery [CANTAB]) was used to assess several cognitive domains. Principal component analysis, categorical and standardized classifications were applied to the cognitive data. Among 34- to 49-year-old participants, cognitive performance declined with age, while education associated with better cognitive functions in several cognitive domains. Men had higher performance on all cognitive domains except visual or episodic memory, in which women outperformed men. The results were similar regardless of the data reduction method used. The associations between sex, age, education, and cognitive performance are already apparent in young adulthood or middle age. Principal component analyses, categorical and standardized classifications are useful tools to analyze CANTAB cognitive data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Teaching Sex Education in Thailand

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    Kay, Noy S.; Jones, Megan R.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the current situation pertaining to the teaching of sex education and identify barriers to teaching sex education among Thai health education teachers. A survey questionnaire was administered to 193 health education teachers who participated in this study. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts:…

  5. Sex Education with Young Children.

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    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  6. Teacher Evaluations of Executive Functioning in Schoolchildren Aged 9-12 and the Influence of Age, Sex, Level of Parental Education.

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    van Tetering, Marleen A J; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) develop over the period of early childhood and adolescence up until young adulthood. Individual children differ substantially in the pace at which their EFs develop, and characteristics such as sex and the level of parental education (LPE) are thought to contribute to these differences. In the present study, we assessed age-related changes in EFs as perceived and evaluated by teachers and parents as well as the influence of sex and LPE on their evaluations. We used a newly developed observer-report questionnaire, the Amsterdam Executive Function Inventory (AEFI). The AEFI assesses three important components of the executive aspects of daily life behavior in 13 questions: Attention; Self-control and Self-monitoring; and Planning and Initiative taking. Teachers and parents evaluated these aspects of executive functioning in 186 schoolchildren in grades 3-6 (age: 9-12 years). Age effects within grades and differences in social economic status between the four participating schools were controlled. Results showed a significant increase in teacher-perceived EFs from third to fourth grades and from fifth to sixth grades. This development was influenced both by the sex of the child and by the LPE. As perceived by teachers, the component self-control and self-monitoring was higher for girls than for boys, and planning abilities were higher for children from families with a higher LPE. Additional analyses showed that there is a systematic and statistically significant difference between the evaluations of the teachers and that of parents. Parents reported higher scores for planning, whereas teachers reported higher scores for self-control and self-monitoring. Evaluations by parents and teachers were different for girls, but not for boys. These findings are important because they imply that the development of EFs as perceived by parents and teachers is influenced by child-related factors. Second, there are clear differences in evaluations between

  7. Moral Pluralism and Sex Education

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    Corngold, Josh

    2013-01-01

    How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…

  8. Teacher Evaluations of Executive Functioning in Schoolchildren Aged 9-12 and the Influence of Age, Sex, Level of Parental Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tetering, Marleen A J; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) develop over the period of early childhood and adolescence up until young adulthood. Individual children differ substantially in the pace at which their EFs develop, and characteristics such as sex and the level of parental education (LPE) are thought to contribute to these

  9. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

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    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  10. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  11. Age-, sex-, and education-specific norms for an extended CERAD Neuropsychological Assessment Battery-Results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Pabst, Alexander; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Hinz, Andreas; Mehnert, Anja; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-03-08

    To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study. Multiple regressions were used to examine the association of the CERAD-NAB scores with age, sex, and education. In order to calculate the norms, quantile and censored quantile regression analyses were performed estimating marginal means of the test scores at 2.28, 6.68, 10, 15.87, 25, 50, 75, and 90 percentiles for age-, sex-, and education-specific subgroups. Multiple regression analyses revealed that younger age was significantly associated with better cognitive performance in 15 CERAD-NAB measures and higher education with better cognitive performance in all 17 measures. Women performed significantly better than men in 12 measures and men than women in four measures. The determined norms indicate ceiling effects for the cognitive performances in the Boston Naming, Word List Recognition, Constructional Praxis Copying, and Constructional Praxis Recall tests. The new norms for the extended CERAD-NAB will be useful for evaluating dementia-free German-speaking adults in a broad variety of relevant cognitive domains. The extended CERAD-NAB follows more closely the criteria for the new DSM-5 Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorder. Additionally, it could be further developed to include a test for social cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  13. Sex education vital for Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z

    1997-02-01

    This article summarizes findings from a survey conducted among adolescents in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Findings indicate that 89.3% of sex offenders were adolescents. Many high school students were engaged in premarital sexual relations, but lacked knowledge about sex and contraception. Premarital sex and sexually transmitted diseases are considered a social evil. The central government has direct jurisdiction in Tianjin and its population of 9 million. By 1989 there were 540,000, or 12% of total population, aged 12-16 years. A survey of 3231 junior middle school students aged 11-14 years revealed that 35% of girls did not know why menstruation occurred at a certain age. About 55% of boys did not know about erections. 35% considered an erect penis a part of normal physical development, but over 50% were confused. 30-50% of students who had reached menarche and sexual maturity found it difficult to find knowledgeable people. 50% received information from the mass media. 44% of girls learned from their mothers. 25% of boys and girls aged 11-12 years already had girlfriends and boyfriends. About 30% desired friends of the opposite sex and desired intimacy, love, and dependability among friends. It is argued that the backward notions of sex originated in a once feudal society that considered sex a taboo. Parents, teachers, and school authorities are resistant to introducing sex education; teachers are embarrassed by the subject matter. In Beijing about 4000 students aged 11-14 years were interviewed. These students had limited information on sex-related issues and misconceptions. Attitudes must be changed and teachers must be trained before adolescent health and sex education can be introduced into schools. The government can play a role in promoting programs for adolescents and coordinating the efforts of nongovernmental groups.

  14. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  15. Sex education and adolescent sexual behavior: do community characteristics matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Joan Marie; Kulkarni, Aniket; Hsia, Jason; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Studies point to variation in the effects of formal sex education on sexual behavior and contraceptive use by individual and community characteristics. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, we explored associations between receipt of sex education and intercourse by age 15, intercourse by the time of the interview and use of effective contraception at first sex among 15-19-year-olds, stratified by quartiles of three community characteristics and adjusted for demographics. Across all quartiles of community characteristics, sex education reduced the odds of having sex by age 15. Sex education resulted in reduced odds of having sex by the date of the interview and increased odds of using contraception in the middle quartiles of community characteristics. Variation in the effects of sex education should be explored. Research might focus on programmatic differences by community type and programmatic needs in various types of communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Children from the GAZEL cohort: II--motive for contact with the medical-educational system by age and sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, E; Vermeersch, S

    1997-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of 2582 French children aged 4 to 16 has been conducted to assess patterns of service use in relation to psychological disturbances. Details on the design, sample, survey instruments, response rate, and 12-months prevalence rates of contacts with a range of different professionals were presented in a previous article. In this second article, the psychological motives leading to contact with family doctors, school-based professionals, speech and language therapists, and mental health specialists are analyzed. The age and gender effects are assessed for each motives. On the whole, consistent sex differences were found for the types of complaints presented by service users, with emotional symptoms being more frequent amongst girls, and behavioural, developmental and learning difficulties being more frequent amongst boys. Mental health specialists were attended for a variety of reasons. Family doctors were contacted for minor emotional difficulties. Because family doctors were consulted by a high proportion of children and adolescents of our sample, the role of this professionals in the detection and management of minor psychological morbidity is emphasized.

  17. The state of cognitive functions in patients with adult onset type 2 diabetes mellitus depending on sex, age and level of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Zherdova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to the meta-analysis of studies, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have worse memory performance, information processing speed, executive functions compared to patients without DM. The level of education, the age of the patient are also important factors in the development of dementia. But research was conducted on selected populations, and the impact of demographic and social factors was studied in a particular area. The purpose of our work was to study the influence of sex, age, education level on the state of cognitive function in patients with type 2 DM in the Ukrainian population. Materials and methods. Eighty one patients with type 2 DM were examined, including 43 women and 38 men. Evaluation of the cognitive impairment was carried out in the morning using the following methods: a “5 words” test, a mental status assessment scale, a battery of tests for frontal dysfunction, an assessment of a clock drawing test. Results. The average age of patients was 55.03 ± 0.37 years, the average level of HbA1c — 8.75 ± 0.16 %, the average duration of DM — 10.03 ± 1.03 years. There was no reliable difference between men and women in the performance of neuropsychological tests. Also, no differences were found between the groups by age and level of education and the state of cognitive function. But the negative effect of age on cognitive function was found according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. Conclusions. A negative relationship between age and the state of cognitive functions was found. It is necessary to carry out further studies on the effect of other socio-cultural factors on the state of cognitive function in patients with type 2 DM.

  18. More on the New Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, Jacqueline

    1980-01-01

    Replies to Paul V. Crosbie's criticisms. Argues that: reports of teenage sexuality and pregnancy are exaggerated; sex education programs encourage acceptance of every form of sexual expression; parents cannot always control their children's participation in sex education; and teachers are not equipped to teach sex education in a neutral fashion.…

  19. Sense about Sex: Media, Sex Advice, Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…

  20. Sex Education: Talking to Toddlers and Preschoolers about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/sex-education/art-20044104 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  1. Teaching Sex Education to Multiply Handicapped Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Patricia A.; Steinmann, Mary J.

    1981-01-01

    A sex education program for an adolescent who is mentally retarded or blind must emphasize concrete teaching, visual compensators, resource persons, repetition of content, and opportunities for social learning. Nurses and special educators can serve as consultants to health educators in planning a sex education program. (JN)

  2. The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This paper applies the methods of multi-dimensional mathematical demography to project national populations based on alternative assumptions on future, fertility, mortality, migration and educational transitions that correspond to the five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) storylines. In doing so it goes a significant step beyond past population scenarios in the IPCC context which considered only total population size. By differentiating the human population not only by age and sex-as is conventionally done in demographic projections-but also by different levels of educational attainment the most fundamental aspects of human development and social change are being explicitly addressed through modeling the changing composition of populations by these three important individual characteristics. The scenarios have been defined in a collaborative effort of the international Integrated Assessment Modeling community with the medium scenario following that of a major new effort by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, OEAW, WU) involving over 550 experts from around the world. As a result, in terms of total world population size the trajectories resulting from the five SSPs stay very close to each other until around 2030 and by the middle of the century already a visible differentiation appears with the range between the highest (SSP3) and the lowest (SSP1) trajectories spanning 1.5 billion. The range opens up much more with the SSP3 reaching 12.6 billion in 2100 and SSP1 falling to 6.9 billion which is lower than today's world population.

  3. Parents' perception, students' and teachers' attitude towards school sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Assefa, Tsion; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Ambaw, Fentie

    2012-07-01

    Sex education is described as education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, family planning, body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. This study was conducted to explore perception of parents about school sex education and assess the attitude of teachers and students towards school sex education. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on randomly selected 386 students, total census of 94 teachers and 10 parents in Merawi Town from March 13-27, 2011. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using total score to determine the effect of the independent variables on the outcome variable and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. All study participants have favourable attitude towards the importance of school sex education. They also agreed that the content of school sex education should include abstinence-only and abstinence-plus based on mental maturity of the students. That means at early age (Primary school) the content of school sex education should be abstinence-only and at later age (secondary school) the content of school sex education should be added abstinence-plus. The students and the teachers said that the minimum and maximum introduction time for school sex education is 5 year and 25 year with mean of 10.97(SD±4.3) and 12.36(SD±3.7) respectively. Teacher teaching experiences and field of studies have supportive idea about the starting of school sex education. Watching romantic movies, reading romantic materials and listening romantic radio programs appear to have a contribution on the predictor of

  4. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other

  5. Sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior by education and marital status before and after admission to hospital. A register-based cohort study of the Danish population aged 50+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, Andreas; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland

    to hospital between 1999 and 2008. For this population, we identified all contacts with GPs between 1996 and 2011 to quantify the sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior within the 3-year periods before and after hospitalization, and to estimate the impact of the civil and educational status on the sex...... differentials in treatment-seeking. We found women having consistently more GP contacts across all ages, but a narrowing of the treatment-seeking behavior shortly before and after admission to hospital. We moreover found a gradient of the educational and the marital status, suggesting that groups with higher...

  6. The Advantages of Single-Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students.…

  7. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  8. METACOGNITION IN ENTREPRENEURS: PSYCHOMETRIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSOCIATED TO AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify elements that show the influence of the age and sex variables in the metacognitive level of professionals. Survey participants were 851 professionals registered in Bahia's Regional Administration Council who own their own businesses. Two validated psychometric instruments were used: Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and the Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I. The hypothesis held that the respondent's age and sex influence their Metacognitive Profile. From the Structural Equation Modeling, the results indicate that the sex variable showed no significant relationship to the Metacognitive Profile. The implications of this study provide empirical conclusions that can aid entrepreneurs, companies, higher education institutions to understand the metacognitive aspects that influence the entrepreneur’s behavior more systematically. Empirically, these results contribute so that the participating drivers of this study, as they develop metacognitive aspects, acquire a competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial performance.

  9. Conflicting Philosophies of School Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the strengths and weaknesses of the five main philosophical positions currently found in school sex education. Argues that valid sex education promotes rational sexual autonomy, requires pupils to consider the needs and wishes of others, and occurs within a moral framework. Suggests teachers adopt a supportive but neutral position. (MJP)

  10. What's Missing? Anti-Racist Sex Education!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…

  11. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  12. Changes in Adolescents' Receipt of Sex Education, 2006–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Updated estimates of adolescents? receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2006?2010 and 2011?2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents? receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents? gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Results Between 2006?2010 and 2011?2013, there were ...

  13. Putting sex education in its place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, C

    1981-04-01

    In order to help reduce fears and anxieties regarding the influence of sex education in a public school setting, school and community sexuality educators need to better articulate the difference between formal and structured sex education and non-formal, informal and incidental sex learning. Sex education is only 1 aspect of the sexual learning process. 2 main points have to be clarified for parents and the general public to set the stage for a new way to view the school and community involvement in the sexual learning process: the schools' sexuality education courses constitute only a small portion of the sexual learning process; and sexual learning is not an event for youth only, but a process spanning life. Sex education (the process) connotates an academic setting with a specific curricula taught by a trained instructor, but sexual learning relates to environmental, non-formal incidental learning from a multitude of sources. Studies indicate that teenagers receive about 90% of their contraceptive and sexuality informaation from peers and mass media and that these sources of information are becoming their preferred sources of sex education. What is needed is a way to address and improve the conditions of sexual learning in the community. As home is the ideal environment for primary and positive sexual learning, parents need support in their role as sex educators. Classroom sexuality education curricula in all school settings have a solid place in the process of sexual learning.

  14. Racial and/or Ethnic Differences in Formal Sex Education and Sex Education by Parents among Young Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderberg, Rachel H; Farkas, Amy H; Miller, Elizabeth; Sucato, Gina S; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya B

    2016-02-01

    We sought to investigate the associations between race and/or ethnicity and young women's formal sex education and sex education by parents. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 1768 women aged 15-24 years who participated in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. We assessed 6 main outcomes: participants' report of: (1) any formal sex education; (2) formal contraceptive education; (3) formal sexually transmitted infection (STI) education; (4) any sex education by parents; (5) contraceptive education by parents; and (6) STI education by parents. The primary independent variable was self-reported race and/or ethnicity. Nearly all of participants (95%) reported any formal sex education, 68% reported formal contraceptive education, and 92% reported formal STI education. Seventy-five percent of participants reported not having any sex education by parents and only 61% and 56% reported contraceptive and STI education by parents, respectively. US-born Hispanic women were more likely than white women to report STI education by parents (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.99). No other significant racial and/or ethnic differences in sex education were found. There are few racial and/or ethnic differences in formal sex education and sex education by parents among young women. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning about Sex: Resource Guide for Sex Educators. Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Whether you are someone new to the field of sex education, trying to start a library or resource center on adolescent sexual health, or an old pro, this guide should give you a basic orientation to what's available to support your work. These resources are important to advancing positive attitudes toward adolescent sexual health and the author…

  16. Sex Education: Talking to Your Teen about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might miss the best opportunities. Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started — and keep the discussion going. Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it ...

  17. Age and sex distribution of blindness in Ahoada East Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Differences exist in the impact of blindness by age and sex; the overall risk of death being higher for blind males than females. Aim: To describe the age and sex differences among the blind in Ahoada-East Local Government Area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Age and sex data were analyzed for 24 ...

  18. Need Assessment For Sex Educational Amongst The School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor H.G

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Will the sex education given to the students help in STD prevention, population control and in their future sex life. Hypothesis : In order to have a successful school based sex education programme, it is necessary to involve the students at every stage of decision making. Objectives: (! To assess the perceived need of the students of both sexes about sex education. (2 To decide about age to start with, agencies to be involved, contents to be covered during such programme. (3 To compare the responses between two sexes and to identify the areas of intervention. Study design: Cross- sectional interview based on structured questionnaire. Settings: Two private higher secondary schools (one each for boys and girls of Surat city participants: 189 students(108 boys and 81 girls of 11th and 12 the standards Statistical analysis: Chi square test and standard error of the difference between means(z test. Results: Need of sex education is universal as out of 189 students, 97 percent of them agreed to it. The preferred age to start the sex education was lower by 2 years in girls (14.6 years than boys. Doctors or health workers were the preferred choice for giving the education, however, in their absence; regular school teachers were next choice. Knowledge about the STDs and their prevention was very poor in both the sexes. Condom was largely appreciated as a means of contraception and its role in preventing the STDs was not known to many student. The awareness was largely confined to AIDS. The knowledge about the time of conception was very poor even in these adolescent girls. The poor knowledge about the various methods of contraception and the prevalent myths about various sexual behaviours such as masturbation were the areas identified for intervention

  19. It Isn't Sex Education unless...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Sylvia S.

    1981-01-01

    An effective sex education curriculum deals with both feelings and behaviors. It must address decision making and problem solving in regard to relationship formation, readiness for intercourse, use of contraception, child rearing, and social responsibility and should be incorporated into education throughout the educational process. (JN)

  20. Empowerment through Sex Education? Rethinking Paradoxical Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naezer, Marijke; Rommes, Els; Jansen, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Youth empowerment is the main goal of sex education according to Dutch Government and NGO policies. Academics from different disciplines have argued, however, that the ideal of empowerment through education is problematic, because of the unequal power relations implicated in educational practices. Building on one-and-a-half years of online and…

  1. Social Conflict and Sex Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantz, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…

  2. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  3. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  4. Sex (Education) in the City: Singapore's Sexuality Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…

  5. Season, sex, age, and education as modifiers of the effects of outdoor air pollution on daily mortality in Shanghai, China: The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; London, Stephanie J; Chen, Guohai; Zhang, Yunhui; Song, Guixiang; Zhao, Naiqing; Jiang, Lili; Chen, Bingheng

    2008-09-01

    Various factors can modify the health effects of outdoor air pollution. Prior findings about modifiers are inconsistent, and most of these studies were conducted in developed countries. We conducted a time-series analysis to examine the modifying effect of season, sex, age, and education on the association between outdoor air pollutants [particulate matter air pollution for the warm season (April-September) and cool season (October-March) separately. For total mortality, we examined the association stratified by sex and age. Stratified analysis by educational attainment was conducted for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Outdoor air pollution was associated with mortality from all causes and from cardiorespiratory diseases in Shanghai. An increase of 10 mug/m(3) in a 2-day average concentration of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), and O(3) corresponds to increases in all-cause mortality of 0.25% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.37), 0.95% (95% CI, 0.62-1.28), 0.97% (95% CI, 0.66-1.27), and 0.31% (95% CI, 0.04-0.58), respectively. The effects of air pollutants were more evident in the cool season than in the warm season, and females and the elderly were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. Effects of air pollution were generally greater in residents with low educational attainment (illiterate or primary school) compared with those with high educational attainment (middle school or above). Season, sex, age, and education may modify the health effects of outdoor air pollution in Shanghai. These findings provide new information about the effects of modifiers on the relationship between daily mortality and air pollution in developing countries and may have implications for local environmental and social policies.

  6. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Appraising the Vatican's Approach to Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David M.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the Vatican publication, "Educational Guidance in Human Love," which underscores the responsibilities of family and church in sex education. Affirms the positive aspects of the report and points to its weaknesses and omissions. Suggests possible responses to the document by parishes and schools. (DMM)

  8. Sex Education and Sex Stereotypes: Theory and Practice. Working Paper No. 198.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This paper presents an explanation of practitioners' reactions to sex equitable sex education. Several constraints can prohibit practitioners from engaging in sex equitable sex education: (1) lack of community support; (2) lack of expertise in human sexuality education; (3) vagueness of school committee views; and (4) lack of answers to logistical…

  9. Curriculum Guide in Sex Education for the TMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Kathy L.

    Presented is a sex education curriculum guide for teachers of trainable retarded students ages 12 to 21 years. The guide is divided into six units: body parts, gender identification, and restroom signs; living things; reproduction; growth; adolescence, menstruation, and street language; and maturity (including sexual feelings and birth control).…

  10. Sex Education Knowledge Differences between Freshmen and Senior College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…

  11. Sex Bias in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Edward

    Practical information is provided on sexual harassment within the vocational education context. A definition of sexual harassment is followed by examples of practices or behaviors that may be used to determine sexual harassment, including both physical conduct and communication. Possible impacts of sexual harassment in a vocational training…

  12. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Multiple Choices of Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rashea; Sanders, Megan; Anderman, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Sex education in middle and high school health classes is critically important because it frequently comprises the primary mechanism for conveying information about sexual health to adolescents. Deliver evidence-based information on HIV and pregnancy prevention practices and they will be less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, the theory…

  14. Undergraduates Perspectives on Sex Education and Teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines undergraduates' perspective on sex education and teenage pregnancy in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population was 250 undergraduates of Covenant University. Frequency tables, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected ...

  15. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  16. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  17. Changes in Adolescents' Receipt of Sex Education, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Updated estimates of adolescents' receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Using nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents' receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents' gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Between 2006-2010 and 2011-2013, there were significant declines in adolescent females' receipt of formal instruction about birth control (70% to 60%), saying no to sex (89% to 82%), sexually transmitted disease (94% to 90%), and HIV/AIDS (89% to 86%). There was a significant decline in males' receipt of instruction about birth control (61% to 55%). Declines were concentrated among adolescents living in nonmetropolitan areas. The proportion of adolescents talking with their parents about sex education topics did not change significantly. Twenty-one percent of females and 35% of males did not receive instruction about methods of birth control from either formal sources or a parent. Declines in receipt of formal sex education and low rates of parental communication may leave adolescents without instruction, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas. More effort is needed to understand this decline and to explore adolescents' potential other sources of reproductive health information. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-Sex Schools and Classrooms. The Informed Educator Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In October 2006, the U.S. Department of Education introduced the so-called "single-sex regulations," which brought the issue of single-sex education to the forefront of discussion among educators, policymakers, and parents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that single-sex education can have a positive impact on student achievement. However,…

  19. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.

  20. Knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers in Enugu to school based sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniebue, P N

    2007-12-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitude to sex education among secondary school teachers in Enugu. A cross sectional study of 300 teachers drawn from nine randomly selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Pre-tested self administered structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three hundred teachers, 215 females and 85 males were interviewed. The mean age of the teachers was 38.1+/-7.5 years. Sixty-nine (23.0%) had adequate knowledge of sex education and 282 (94.0%) approved the inclusion of sex education into the school curriculum. The commonest reason for disapproval of sex education was fear that it would lead to promiscuity amongst the students. Educational status and marital status of the teachers were significant determinants of positive attitude to sex education psex education according to the teachers is 11-15 years. Two hundred and thirty eight (79.3%) respondents were of the opinion that teachers needed to be trained to provide sex education to students and 244 (81.3%) admitted that sex education was not in the school curriculum. Secondary school teachers are in support of provision of sex education to students. However they need training and skills on how to present sex information in a positive manner to achieve the desired goal. There is need to include sex education in the school curriculum.

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  2. What should be the moral aims of compulsory sex education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steutel, J.W.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly

  3. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  4. Conclusions: Getting real about sex - embedding an embodied sex education in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alldred, P; David, ME

    2007-01-01

    GET REAL ABOUT SEX: The Politics and Practice of Sex Education explores how cultural ideas about gender, sexuality and parenthood play out in the sex and relationship education classroom. It presents new material from a detailed study and analyses the struggle to raise the status of sex and relationship education against academic and market-driven priorities. It locates the dynamics of the classroom within those of the school and asks: What do the different parties in teaching and learning -...

  5. [Sex education through popular education for health in a Brazilian rural social movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Luiz Fabiano

    Based on the ideas of Paulo Freire, the methodological framework of Popular Education for Health (PEH) provides a more adaptable method for sex education, including societal participation as well as the social, historical and cultural dimensions of the population. The purpose of this work is to relate one such PEH experience in sex education, which took the form of a community project with a group of students from 10 to 28 years of age attending Itinerant Schools and with groups from the Landless Rural Workers Movement (MST) in the state of Parana, Brazil. This work provides knowledge of certain elements that may help in developing similar projects, not only for sex education but also education for other public health issues. PEH demonstrates a method of ensuring socially effective participation in the different dimensions of health-promotion strategies. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Love grows with sex: teenagers negotiating sex and gender in the context of HIV and the implications for sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2017-03-01

    How do teenagers located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, give meaning to sexuality? This paper examines teenage black Africans investments in sex and sexuality and the gendered dynamics through which sexuality is articulated. Whilst unequal gender relations of power continue to feature prominently within relationship dynamics fuelling the gendering of HIV, attention to the micro-processes through which relationships are forged remain significant in illustrating the complex connections between love, sex and gender. Drawing on empirical findings with teenagers between the ages of 16 and 17 years old, the paper shows how relationships are conceptualised based on discourses of love. Love is inextricably bound up with sex and when teenagers talk about love and sex they also talk about condom use, multiple sexual partners and gender inequalities. What teenagers were interested in for their sexual relationships was not raised in sex education programmes at school. Implications for addressing teenage constructions of sexuality are discussed in the conclusion.

  7. Sexual risk taking in relation to sexual identification, age, and education in a diverse sample of African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Melvin C; Halkitis, Perry N; Storholm, Erik D; Kupprat, Sandra A; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Jones, Donovan; Steen, Jeff T; Gillen, Sara; McCree, Donna Hubbard

    2013-03-01

    HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education,and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types,unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to different subsets of African American MSM communities as appropriate.

  8. Mothers' Preferences Regarding Sex Education in the Home

    OpenAIRE

    Christopherson, Cynthia R

    1990-01-01

    There is a large amount of evidence suggesting a need to educate children concerning sexual issues. The extent of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and the spread of AIDS are all indicators of the lack of appropriate education. In view of these social concerns, along with the controversy concerning sex education taught in school, it would seem to be helpful if parents provided more adequate sex education. Parents are a primary source of sex education for their children, ...

  9. Appendicitis: Trends in incidence, age, sex, and seasonal variations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Appendicitis is a common clinical condition worldwide. Differences in ... Aim:To assess the trends in incidence and pattern of variation with age, sex, and seasons of the year. .... population of 465000 (an annual population growth.

  10. Reliability of the information about the history of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Differences in regard to sex, age, and educational level. The pró-saúde study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faerstein Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability of the information about the history of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. METHODS: A multidimensional health questionnaire, which was filled out by the interviewees, was applied twice with an interval of 2 weeks, in July '99, to 192 employees of the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, stratified by sex, age, and educational level. The intraobserver reliability of the answers provided was estimated by the kappa statistic and by the coefficient of intraclass correlation (CICC. RESULTS: The general kappa (k statistic was 0.75 (95% CI=0.73-0.77. Reliability was higher among females (k=0.88, 95% CI=0.85-0.91 than among males (k=0.62, 95% CI=0.59-0.65.The reliability was higher among individuals 40 years of age or older (k=0.79; 95% CI=0.73-0.84 than those from 18 to 39 years (k=0.52; 95% CI=0.45-0.57. Finally, the kappa statistic was higher among individuals with a university educational level (k=0.86; 95% CI=0.81-0.91 than among those with high school educational level (k=0.61; 95% CI=0.53-0.70 or those with middle school educational level (k=0.68; 95% CI=0.64-0.72. The coefficient of intraclass correlation estimated by the intraobserver agreement in regard to age at the time of the diagnosis of hypertension was 0.74. A perfect agreement between the 2 answers (k=1.00 was observed for 22 interviewees who reported prior prescription of antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSION: In the population studied, estimates of the reliability of the history of medical diagnosis of hypertension and its treatment ranged from substantial to almost perfect reliability.

  11. Pupil-led sex education in England (RIPPLE study): cluster-randomised intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M

    Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.

  12. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  13. Age and sex influences on running mechanics and coordination variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Katherine A; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s -1 . A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups. Significant sex-age interaction effects were found for heel-strike hip flexion and ankle in/eversion angles and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle. In older adults, mid-stance knee flexion angle, ankle inversion and abduction moments and hip abduction and external rotation moments differed by sex. Older compared with younger females had reduced coordination variability in the thigh-shank transverse plane couple but greater coordination variability for the shank rotation-foot eversion couple in early stance. These results suggest there may be a non-equivalent aging process in the movement mechanics for males and females. The age and sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability highlight the need for sex-based analyses for future studies examining injury risk with age.

  14. Adolescents' Preferences regarding Sex Education and Relationship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of the quality of a Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) intervention, their preferences for sources of SRE and how these vary as a function of gender, school's faith and school type. Design: A non-experimental design was used. Setting: The participants (N = 759…

  15. Measuring trends in age at first sex and age at marriage in Manicaland, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, I; Mushati, P; Hallett, T; Mupambireyi, Z; Nyamukapa, C; Garnett, G P; Gregson, S

    2009-04-01

    To identify reporting biases and to determine the influence of inconsistent reporting on observed trends in the timing of age at first sex and age at marriage. Longitudinal data from three rounds of a population-based cohort in eastern Zimbabwe were analysed. Reports of age at first sex and age at marriage from 6837 individuals attending multiple rounds were classified according to consistency. Survival analysis was used to identify trends in the timing of first sex and marriage. In this population, women initiate sex and enter marriage at younger ages than men but spend much less time between first sex and marriage. Among those surveyed between 1998 and 2005, median ages at first sex and first marriage were 18.5 years and 21.4 years for men and 18.2 years and 18.5 years, respectively, for women aged 15-54 years. High levels of reports of both age at first sex and age at marriage among those attending multiple surveys were found to be unreliable. Excluding reports identified as unreliable from these analyses did not alter the observed trends in either age at first sex or age at marriage. Tracing birth cohorts as they aged revealed reporting biases, particularly among the youngest cohorts. Comparisons by birth cohorts, which span a period of >40 years, indicate that median age at first sex has remained constant over time for women but has declined gradually for men. Although many reports of age at first sex and age at marriage were found to be unreliable, inclusion of such reports did not result in artificial generation or suppression of trends.

  16. Changes in formal sex education: 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Santelli, John S; Singh, Susheela

    2006-12-01

    Although comprehensive sex education is broadly supported by health professionals, funding for abstinence-only education has increased. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 2002 NSFG, changes in male and female adolescents' reports of the sex education they have received from formal sources were examined. Life-table methods were used to measure the timing of instruction, and t tests were used for changes over time. From 1995 to 2002, reports of formal instruction about birth control methods declined among both genders (males, from 81% to 66%; females, from 87% to 70%). This, combined with increases in reports of abstinence education among males (from 74% to 83%), resulted in a lower proportion of teenagers' overall receiving formal instruction about both abstinence and birth control methods (males, 65% to 59%; females, 84% to 65%), and a higher proportion of teenagers' receiving instruction only about abstinence (males, 9% to 24%; females, 8% to 21%). Teenagers in 2002 had received abstinence education about two years earlier (median age, 11.4 for males, 11.8 for females) than they had received birth control instruction (median age, 13.5 for both males and females). Among sexually experienced adolescents, 62% of females and 54% of males had received instruction about birth control methods prior to first sex. A substantial retreat from formal instruction about birth control methods has left increasing proportions of adolescents receiving only abstinence education. Efforts are needed to expand teenagers' access to medically accurate and comprehensive reproductive health information.

  17. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  18. Perceptions of sources of sex education and targets of sex communication: sociodemographic and cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Susan; Harris, Gardenia; Meyers, Adena

    2008-01-01

    As part of a larger survey study on young adult sexuality conducted over a 17-year period at a Midwest U.S. university, more than 6,000 college students completed questions on the sources of their sex education and the degree to which they have communicated about sex with various types of individuals. Participants reported receiving more sex education from peers and media than from parents (and mothers more than fathers). Respondents also reported communicating more about sex with peers than with parents or any other categories of individuals. Differences were found in the degree of sex education from various sources and in communication with various targets based on gender, ethnic background, and social class. Furthermore, changes were found over the 17-year period. More recent cohorts of students perceived that they received more sex education from media, peers, and professionals, and communicated more about sex with professionals, relative to earlier cohorts.

  19. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  20. Single-Sex Education in Public School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers have studied the effectiveness of single-sex education (SSE), the findings have been mixed. This exploratory study reports the perceived goals and effectiveness of single-sex education based on interviews with a small group of educators involved with SSE in various ways. Research participants included a school principal and…

  1. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  2. Thinking in Sex Education: Reading Prohibition through the Film "Desire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jen

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…

  3. The Use and Misuse of Pleasure in Sex Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Lustig, Kara; Graling, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Since Michelle Fine's writing on the missing discourse of desire in sex education, there has been considerable prompting among sexuality educators and feminist scholars to incorporate talk of pleasure into sex education curricula. While the calls for inclusion continue, few have actually examined the curricula for a pleasure discourse or…

  4. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Education Justice: A Call for Comprehensive Sex Education and the Inclusion of Latino Early Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Claudia; Guzman, Bianca L.

    2013-01-01

    Many sex education programs do not conceptualize adolescent sexuality as a normative process of development, thus sexuality is not part of a holistic picture of health education.The current project examines the multiple determinants of adolescent boys' sexual behaviors in the context of developing sex education. Limited research has examined the…

  6. Sex, lies and disclosures: Researchers and the reporting of under-age sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Strode

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Children are a vulnerable group and require legal protection due to their youth and inexperience. Resultantly, various provisions in the law ensure the care and protection of children through mechanisms such as the mandatory reporting of abuse. A recent change in the law has broadened the mandatory reporting obligations by requiring any person who is aware of a sexual offence having been committed against a child to report this to the police. Given that it is a sexual offence to have sex below the age of 16 researchers involved in research with teenagers in which they may become aware that that they are engaging in sex or sexual activity but are under the age4 of 16 will be obliged to inform the police of this fact. The issue of reporting under-age sex is very complex as in our view there are various categories of under-age sex. We argue that researchers should not comply with the mandatory reporting obligations for underage consensual, non-exploitative sexual activity but in all other cases there should be reporting. We argue that because the mandatory reporting of underage sex/ activity (even consensual and non-exploitative activity may alienate children from services and “punish” them by reporting their conduct to the police, advocacy is needed for a change to the Sexual Offences Act to ensure consistency with the approach taken in the Children’s Act which enables such children to access sexual and reproductive services..

  7. Challenges of Teacher Training in Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the existing gaps in sex education in the student population of the Center for Research in Teaching and Education of the National University of Costa Rica, and its purpose is to contribute to the decision-making process to improve training for these students. A questionnaire was applied, using a structured sample stratified by unequal clusters, to 242 regular undergraduate students. The margin of error was 1.5 % and the confidence level was 95%. Data was tabulated using the CSPRO software and analyzed with the R software. A focus group was also held with teachers in sexuality courses in order to reflect on the results of the questionnaire application. Data was analyzed through the Integral Sexuality Approach and suggests that students lack the information necessary to exercise healthy, safe, and violence-free sexuality. This condition leads them to high risk situations because of the rare or lack of contraceptive use and the practice of coitus interruptus and makes them experience fears and guilt when being sexually active. Students have low sexual autonomy, which makes them vulnerable to violent situations and gives them stereotypes and prejudices that lead them to discriminate others for their sexual orientation or to become victims. In general, they are unaware of their reproductive and sexual rights and, therefore, are not capable of demanding them. These indicators should warn teacher training institutions to improve and strengthen their sexual education processes.

  8. Sex Education, Sexual Labor, and Education: The Need for Alternative Sexual Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This paper interrogates education's relationship to labor through a consideration of sex education's relationship to sexual labor. Beginning with a basic question--why does sex education exist as a federally funded project?--the author examines sex education's relationship to normativity and sexual labor throughout its history as a federally…

  9. Effect of Single-Sex Education on Progress in GCSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…

  10. Space Age Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  11. Aging obviates sex-specific physiological responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Michael R; Taylor, Jessica L; Mangis, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    Both sex and aging have been shown to affect physiological responses to exercise. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether aging impacted the sex-specific nature of physiological responses to exercise commonly noted among young adults. Ten aged men (69.0 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SE) and 10 aged women (71.6 ± 1.3 years) reporting similar levels of habitual physical activity performed a 30-min exercise session at 60-65% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake. Cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic variables were assessed before exercise, at the 15th and 30th min of exercise, and at 5 and 15 min into a passive postexercise recovery period. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed via two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures; significance was set at P physiological variable of interest were identified, but not once was a significant effect of group (i.e., sex) detected. Exercise-induced physiological responses to prolonged, moderate intensity exercise were similar among aged men and aged women. This evidence that the sexually dimorphic nature of physiological responses to exercise is obviated with age should be taken into account when prescribing health-related exercise training programs for older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adaptive immunity to rhinoviruses: sex and age matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard Antonia L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinoviruses (RV are key triggers in acute asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that men suffer from infectious diseases more frequently and with greater severity than women. Additionally, the immune response to most infections and vaccinations decreases with age. Most immune function studies do not account for such differences, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if the immune response to rhinovirus varies with sex or age. Methods Blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 63 healthy individuals and grouped by sex and age (≤50 years old and ≥52 years old. Cells were cultured with rhinovirus 16 at a multiplicity of infection of 1. The chemokine IP-10 was measured at 24 h as an index of innate immunity while IFNγ and IL-13 were measured at 5 days as an index of adaptive immunity. Results Rhinovirus induced IFNγ and IL-13 was significantly higher in ≤50 year old women than in age matched men (p 0.005. There was no sex or age based difference in rhinovirus induced IP-10 expression. Both IFNγ and IL-13 were negatively correlated with age in women but not in men. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-menopausal women have a stronger adaptive immune response to rhinovirus infection than men and older people, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be determined. Our findings highlight the importance of gender and age balance in clinical studies and in the development of new treatments and vaccines.

  13. Perceptions of sex education for young people in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mturi, Akim J; Hennink, Monique M

    2005-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of young people, parents and teachers concerning sex education in Lesotho. It was conducted at a time when the national government was considering the introduction of Population and Family Life Education, which includes sex education, into the national school curriculum. Forty-six focus group discussions were held with young people (10), parents (30) and teachers (6) to identify current sources of sex education and views of the proposed introduction of school-based sex education in Lesotho. Findings show the limited and problematic sources of sex education for adolescents in Lesotho. They also highlight broad support for the introduction of sex education in the national school curriculum among young people, parents and teachers. Of key importance for the development of a sex education curriculum is the balance between providing young people with information and developing their skills in sexual empowerment and negotiating sexual pressure. The use of pupil-centred interactive pedagogies was seen as essential. Teachers, however, highlighted the need for training in the delivery of sex education, which includes instruction on course materials, teaching methodologies and developing sensitivity to teaching sexual issues to young people.

  14. Chronic stress and neural function: accounting for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, V N; Beck, K D; Bowman, R E; Frankfurt, M; Maclusky, N J

    2007-10-01

    Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply to only half the population (males) and, more specifically, to young, adult males. Females show different cognitive responses to stress. In contrast to impaired cognition in males after chronic stress, female rodents show enhanced performance on the same memory tasks after the same stress. Not only cognition, but anxiety, shows sex-dependent changes following chronic stress--stress is anxiolytic in males and anxiogenic in females. Moreover, behavioral responses to chronic stress are different in developing as well as aging subjects (both sexes) as compared to adults. In aged rats, chronic stress enhances recognition memory in both sexes, does not alter spatial memory, and anxiety effects are opposite to young adults. When pregnant dams are exposed to chronic stress, at adulthood the offspring display yet different consequences of stress on anxiety and cognition, and, in contrast to adulthood when the behavioral effects of stress are reversible, prenatal stress effects appear enduring. Changing levels of estradiol in the sexes over the lifespan appear to contribute to the differences in response to stress. Thus, theories of stress dependent modulations in CNS function--developed solely in male models, focused on peripheral physiological processes and tested in adults--may require revision when applied to a more diverse population (age- and sex-wise) at least in relation to the neural functions of cognition and anxiety. Moreover, these results suggest that other stressors and neural functions should be investigated to determine whether age, sex and gonadal hormones also have an impact.

  15. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Influence of age, sex and pregnancy status on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were obtained from 80 rabbits of mixed breeds comprising adults, growers and weaners between June and August 2005 to determine the mean variations in packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Total Protein (TP) as affected by sex, age and pregnancy status. The mean variation in PCV, Hb and ...

  17. Preschoolers' Beliefs about Sex and Age Differences in Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Mariss; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assesses beliefs of 32 male and 35 female middle-class preschool children about the frequency and intensity with which girls, boys, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Children's beliefs are complex; they vary as a function of the target person's age and sex and of the specific emotion. (SLD)

  18. Children's Age, Intelligence and Sex as Variables Mediating Reactions to TV Commercials: Repetition and Content Complexity Implications for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Donald W.; And Others

    To learn if differences in age, intelligence, and sex account for differences in children's recall of TV commercials and in the degree of insistence with which they request that the advertised product be purchased, 54 gifted, 71 normal, and 53 educable mentally retarded children of both sexes were questioned after viewing commercials for breakfast…

  19. Survey of Consciousness on Sex Education : "A Series of Sex Education"

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 壽子; 大西, 真由実; Hisako, KOBAYASHI; Mayumi, ONISHI; 鈴鹿短期大学; 鈴鹿短期大学; SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE; SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE

    1998-01-01

    It is 50 years since public sex education was adopted in Japan. Since then, remarkable and sometimes worrying changes have occurred in the attitudes of young people, particularly young women. This study reports our investigation of opinions among students from the third year of junior high school to the second year of junior college. These results will be a basis for future guidance. 1) To what extent do you think sexual intercourse may be permitted in dating? As a part of preserving friendsh...

  20. Should the Sexes Be Separated for Secondary Education--Comparisons of Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Pamela; Smithers, Alan

    1999-01-01

    English researchers compared the academic and social benefits of single sex and coeducational schools, examining test scores and interviewing 100 college students (balanced for sex and type of school) about their experiences and their ease of adjustment to higher education. Results indicated that segregating the sexes did not increase…

  1. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  2. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  3. Sex Education: New Resources Help Parents Talk with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    To help parents talk with children about sexual health, the Kaiser Family Foundation and National PTA developed a series of free resources for parents (e.g., the booklet "Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education") to increase parent involvement and communication around sex education. This paper notes the importance of parents…

  4. Adolescents attitude towards sex education; a study of senior high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted specifically to find out about adolescents attitude towards sex education and their opinions on various sexual issues that are incumbent on development to adulthood sexuality. It was also to establish the need for sex education in schools. A descriptive design was used with a sample size for the ...

  5. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.

  6. Aging Education: A Worldwide Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the "longevity dividend" they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life's later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued…

  7. An Educational Response to Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  8. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  9. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  10. What do young people want from sex education? The results of a needs assessment from a peer-led sex education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Oakley, Ann; The Ripple Study Team

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents data on the need for sexual health information and advice of 4353 students aged 13/14 years in 13 English secondary schools. Data were collected by peer educators as part of a sex education programme, and through a questionnaire survey administered by researchers. Data illustrate young people's need for concrete information and advice on issues related to physical development and puberty; transmission of sexually transmitted diseases; accessing and using condoms and other contraception; using sexual health services; managing relationships and dealing with jealousy, love and sexual attraction; how people have sex; sexual pleasure; masturbation; and homosexuality. Differences between the concerns and interests raised by young people and current UK guidance on sex and relationships education are examined, and the implications of these findings for designing future policy and effective school based sex education programmes are discussed. The paper highlights some of the wider social norms around sex and sexuality that influence young people's understanding and sexual behaviour, and the importance of addressing these within sex education is noted. Factors influencing the processes of expressing and assessing needs are explored.

  11. Factors affecting sex education in the school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G W; Soon, R; Thomas, J M; Kaneshiro, B

    2011-06-01

    To describe the current status of school based sex education and to determine predictors of providing a comprehensive sex education curriculum. Cross-sectional mailed survey Hawaii Seventh and eighth grade health teachers Participants were surveyed regarding the content, quality, and influences on sex education for the 2007 to 2008 academic year. Measures of association (chi-square, ANOVA) and multiple logistic regression were used to determine predictors for teaching comprehensive sex education topics including sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention. Approximately 80% of teachers incorporated some form of sex education into their curriculum and 54.4% of teachers incorporated a comprehensive education. Teachers indicated that personal values and the availability of curriculum had the greatest influence on the content of the curriculum. Specific factors which were associated with an increased likelihood of providing a comprehensive curriculum included teaching in a public school (public 66.7% versus private 34.6%, P = 0.01), receiving formal training in sex education (received training 77.8% versus did not receive training 50.0%, P = 0.03) and having contact with a student who became pregnant (contact 72.7% versus no contact 46.7%, P = 0.04). Although most teachers incorporate some form of sex education, only half incorporate a comprehensive curriculum. Personal values as well as teacher resources play an important role in the content of the curriculum. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nurses Urged to Prepare for Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Editors' note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month we reprint a brief "Professional Practice" note from the June 1969 issue about what was described as the first family planning conference for nurse educators. Speakers emphasized the need to make this subject a routine part of nursing school curricula (despite debates over the nurse's role in family planning), "so that nurses can counsel out of wisdom and not from piety or ignorance." Speakers included James Lieberman, MD, who years later coauthored with his daughter a teen sex guide, and Alan Guttmacher, MD, then president of Planned Parenthood, whose Center for Family Planning Program Development within that organization was later renamed the Guttmacher Institute in his honor.Nurses today are deeply involved in sexual and reproductive health care. In this issue, public health specialist Diane Santa Maria and colleagues offer ways to advance sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents by devising more friendly, youth-oriented clinical settings.

  13. Where Do Chinese Adolescents Obtain Knowledge of Sex? Implications for Sex Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Sex education in China has been promoted for many years, but limited data are available regarding the sources from which adolescents receive sex-related knowledge. The present study was designed to examine the sources from which Chinese adolescents obtain their information on puberty, sexuality and STI/HIV/AIDS, and whether there are any…

  14. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  15. Sex Education Representations in Spanish Combined Biology and Geology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.

  16. "Love without sex is friendship. Sex without love is desire": sex life in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Berger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sexuality in old age. This is a comparative study between classes "A" and "D". The main objective of this paper is to state the following paradox: on the one hand, sexuality in old age has been affirmed and valued in the construction of feminine self-esteem, on the other, can not only blame the woman who can not adhere to them, as well as produce a new homogenization of "being old" now associated with the proper management of sexuality.

  17. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with [3H]prazosin, [3H]yohimbine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype

  18. Gluten Intolerance: Sex- and Age-Related Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Llorente-Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD according to sex and age.

  19. Importance of social work socio- educational intervention of sex education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Quiroz A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively and quietly. In search of the definitions given by the FITS (International Federation of Social Workers said that through educational institutions can identify problems at individual, household  and community level, considering this educational unit as a source of wealth for intervention and create opportunities for promotion and prevention social problems. The school environment is an area that can work in collaboration with the directors and management team to articulate the lines of action that are necessary to deal with any problems. That may arise in this area should guide the social worker, prevent and rehabilitate as specificity of their profession and recognize these bio-psycho-social changes that develop students and students who make up this educational unit, as during this educational process to develop their personality, learning social skills related to work in our society and interact with their environment. (Levels micro-meso-macro. It is for this and needs that arise in our youth and students is that we understand and incorporate processes involving atingentes for learning development issues and includes areas related to sex education, sexuality and identity to support families in this discovery.In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively andquietly. In search of the

  20. [Beliefs, attitudes and knowledge about sex education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, L; Bustos, L; González, L; Palma, D; Villagrán, J; Muñoz, S

    2000-06-01

    Previous reports show that Chilean teenagers have an inadequate knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. To compare the knowledge about sexuality among adolescents coming from private and public schools, with and without sexual education programs. A structured anonymous inquiry, containing multiple choice and open questions, was applied to a sample of 229 adolescents attending seventh and eighth grade of junior school, in private and public schools of Temuco, Chile. Eleven percent of adolescents had already their first sexual intercourse at a mean age of 12.2 +/- 2.4 years old. Of these, 96% came from public schools. An overall analysis of tests, disclosed a 53% of correct answers to the inquiry. Adolescents coming from private schools had a better performance than those coming from public schools. Sexual attitudes were not influenced by sexual education programs. Adolescents coming from private schools have a better sexual knowledge level and more conservative attitudes towards sexuality. Overall knowledge is inadequate albeit overvalued. These teenagers are high risk group for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases and require efficient sexual education programs.

  1. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by parental education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2012-01-01

    ¿470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Results Boys had a higher child and adolescent......Background Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. Objective To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary...... mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls...

  2. How age matters : Exploring contemporary Dutch debates on age and sex work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. Coumans (Sara Vida)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSocial protection policies regarding sex work in The Netherlands use ‘age’ as an instrument to create binaries between adults and young people. The concept ‘chronological age’ assumes that age is a static feature and supports the process of categorization; however, age is a socially

  3. Federal Funding to Promote Sex Equity in Education: 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan S.; Goodman, Melanie A.

    This publication discusses federal funds which are available for research and development in sex equity in education. A major objective is to identify specific Federal funding opportunities for projects focusing on sex equity. Another objective is to help individuals understand the overall Federal pattern of support for activities to promote sex…

  4. Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to help parents determine what is being taught to their children about sex education in school, offering tips on how to talk to children about these issues. The first section presents pointers from the "Talking with Kids" campaign: start early; initiate conversations; talk about sex and relationships; create an open…

  5. Neuropsychological sex differences associated with age of initiated use among young adult cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision making and age of initiated use, specifically that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother's education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females.

  6. Teaching skills and personal characteristics of sex education teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje; Timmerman, M.C.

    This article examines relationships between various dimensions of teachers' professionalism, that is, pedagogical content knowledge and personal characteristics. Using Shulman's notion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) we explored the practical knowledge of twenty sex education teachers using

  7. Sex Education for Young Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edith Marie; Farley, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    The article briefly reviews the research and controversy concerning sex education for handicapped children and offers five guidelines including build self-esteem, answer questions clearly and accurately, avoid threats and jokes, and respect children's privacy. (DB)

  8. Effect of age and sex on warfarin dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Khoury,1 Marwan Sheikh-Taha2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Objective: We examined the potential effect of sex and age on warfarin dosing in ambulatory adult patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients attending an anticoagulation clinic. We included patients anticoagulated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism who had a therapeutic international normalized ratio of 2–3 for 2 consecutive months. We excluded patients who had been on any drug that is known to have a major interaction with warfarin, smokers, and heavy alcohol consumers. Out of 340 screened medical records, 96 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome assessed was warfarin total weekly dose (TWD. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the TWD among the ages (P<0.01; older patients required lower doses. However there was no statistically significant difference in the TWD between sexes (P=0.281. Conclusion: Age was found to have a significant effect on warfarin dosing. Even though women did require a lower TWD than men, this observation was not statistically significant. Keywords: warfarin, INR, anticoagulation, vitamin K antagonists, age

  9. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    by inhabitants in the county of Funen (n = 466567). The number of individuals concurrently using two to four drugs (minor PP) and five or more drugs (major PP) was calculated on a random day in 1994. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical (ATC) classification index. The main...... therapeutic class (second level of the ATC code) was used as an indicator for the type of health problem. A stepwise backwards logistic regression was used to identify predictors of major PP. Odds ratios were calculated for different drug classes, and the age and sex of all drug users. RESULTS: On a random...... day, 8.3% of the population were exposed to minor PP and 1.2% to major PP. The prevalence of PP increased with age, and from the age of 70 years, two thirds of all drug users were PP users. Drug use was 50% more prevalent among women than men, but over the age of 70, the sexes did not differ...

  10. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, “Distance Education in Technological Age”. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study

  11. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  12. Parents' views on sex education in schools: How much do Democrats and Republicans agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Leslie; Levitz, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    More than 93 percent of parents place high importance on sex education in both middle and high school. Sex education in middle and high school is widely supported by parents regardless of their political affiliation. Using data from a large diverse sample of 1,633 parents of children aged 9 to 21 years, we examined whether views on sex education differed by parents' political affiliation. More than 89 percent of parents that identified as Republicans or Democrats support including a wide range of topics in sex education including puberty, healthy relationships, abstinence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and birth control in high school. In middle school, 78 percent or more of both parents that identified as Republicans and Democrats support the inclusion of those topics. Controlling for key demographic factors, parents that identified as Democrats are more likely than those that identified as Republicans to support the inclusion of the topics of healthy relationships, birth control, STDs, and sexual orientation in both middle and high school. However, a strong majority of Republican parents want all these topics included in sex education. Sex education which includes a broad set of topics represents an area of strong agreement between parents of both political parties.

  13. Parents' views on sex education in schools: How much do Democrats and Republicans agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Kantor

    Full Text Available More than 93 percent of parents place high importance on sex education in both middle and high school. Sex education in middle and high school is widely supported by parents regardless of their political affiliation. Using data from a large diverse sample of 1,633 parents of children aged 9 to 21 years, we examined whether views on sex education differed by parents' political affiliation. More than 89 percent of parents that identified as Republicans or Democrats support including a wide range of topics in sex education including puberty, healthy relationships, abstinence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and birth control in high school. In middle school, 78 percent or more of both parents that identified as Republicans and Democrats support the inclusion of those topics. Controlling for key demographic factors, parents that identified as Democrats are more likely than those that identified as Republicans to support the inclusion of the topics of healthy relationships, birth control, STDs, and sexual orientation in both middle and high school. However, a strong majority of Republican parents want all these topics included in sex education. Sex education which includes a broad set of topics represents an area of strong agreement between parents of both political parties.

  14. Cognitive function and associated factors among older people in Taiwan: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cognitive function and the risk and the protective factors by age and sex among Taiwanese older people. The data were from a nation-representative panel of older people in Taiwan. The participants completing both the 2003 and 2007 waves were included for analysis in this study (n=3228). Descriptive analysis and generalized linear model were applied, and the samples were stratified by age groups and by sex. The factors related to higher cognitive function at the intercept included being younger, male, higher education, and doing unpaid work. At the time slope, the age effect and physical function difficulties would reduce the cognitive function across time, while education and providing informational support would increase the cognitive function across time. There were age- and sex-differences in the factors related to cognitive function, particularly on the working status and social participation. Different health promotion strategies to target these populations should be accordingly developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 'Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth': Sex talk and sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattman, Rob; Chege, Fatuma

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we highlight and address some of the problems involved in teaching HIV/AIDS education in southern and eastern Africa, and especially in generating open discussion among pupils about sex and sexuality. The paper draws on the findings of a UNICEF-funded study, in which we were involved, as research consultants (2001). The study focused on 'young people, gender, sexuality and HIV/AIDS education' and was conducted in Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In Botswana, Rwanda and Kenya, teachers and young people were interviewed about their attitudes towards and experiences of teaching/learning HIV/AIDS education. Young people were also interviewed more generally, in all the countries, about what it was like being a boy or girl of their age. We argue that HIV/AIDS education, as it is commonly taught, as a series of moral injunctions (against pre marital sex) effectively silences young people, and means that sex 'becomes' naughty when they do talk about it. We propose HIV/AIDS pedagogies, which emulate the practices our researchers adopted when researching the identities and views of boys and girls, especially concerning gender and sexuality. By addressing young people as experts about themselves and in a holistic and non-judgemental way, our interviewees were able to speak about anxieties and pleasures, many of which related to sexuality. This, they had not been able to do with other adults, and even with other children. We focus on the regulation and production of gender identities through the ways boys and girls talked about sex in our interviews and also in their participation in HIV/AIDS classes. In particular we look at how boys and girls 'performed' gender when discussing sexuality with boys often very loud and girls quiet, with boys presenting themselves as sexual and girls presenting themselves as asexual. We argue for approaches to HIV/AIDS education which challenge gender power relations without alienating boys by

  16. Beliefs in the paranormal: age and sex differences among elderly persons and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Tipton, S M; Rowe, J L

    1999-12-01

    Beliefs in the paranormal were rated stronger in younger as compared to elderly adults by Emmons and Sobal in 1981, and sex correlates of paranormal beliefs appeared to be stronger in women than in men by Irwin in 1994. This research studied possible linkages between age and sex with a comparative analysis between results of Vitulli and Luper's 1998 survey among undergraduate students and data from elderly men (M = 72 yr., SD = 9.2, n = 21) and women (M = 69.3 yr., SD = 7.7, n = 55). Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey was administered to elderly persons living in apartment complexes and private homes, participating in activities in a recreation center, or attending a continuing-education seminar. A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance from responses on the 12-item survey showed that undergraduate men and elderly women had the highest ratings on paranormal beliefs. The self-selecting characteristics of a segment of the elderly sample led to a post hoc univariate analysis of variance by partitioning that sample into those who were attending a continuing-education seminar versus all other elderly persons. Summated ratings (total scores) for this survey showed main effects for these subsamples and for sex. Sex and age differences were discussed in the context of the hypothesis of social marginality.

  17. Relationship between cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress and declarative memory decline during aging: Impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Sex Squad: Engaging Humour to Reinvigorate Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Gere, David

    2016-01-01

    The Sex Squad is a collective of US-based college students, who create and perform monologues, scenes and musical parodies for ninth graders (ranging in age from 13 to 15). The Sex Squad is the central element in the "AMP!" programme for adolescent sexual health, developed at the University of California-Los Angeles in collaboration with…

  19. Teaching sex education: are Scottish school nurses prepared for the challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, J

    2004-02-01

    Teaching sex education to school pupils in Scotland continues to be a controversial issue. In reality there is lack of leadership, strategy and an uncoordinated approach to delivering this important topic. The school nurse is frequently identified as a suitable professional to lead the way because it is assumed that school nurses are well educated in the field of sexual and reproductive health. Nationally, little is known about the educational status of Scottish school nurses and there is no research evidence available from which generalisations can be made. This study aims to explore the educational preparation of school nurses that underpins teaching sex education to school pupils in Scotland. A cross-sectional descriptive study was completed in September 1998. The results confirmed that school nurses in Scotland are predominantly female and 70% of the respondents (n=117) were over the age of 40 years of age. No common basic nursing qualification was identified. The majority of school nurses in Scotland perceive sex education to be part of their role and 39% (n=65) testified that specific sexual health training had been undertaken. Many lack confidence in this area of practice and are aware of extensive educational needs in relation to teaching sexual health and reproductive health. Despite these findings 75% (n=126) were actively involved in teaching sex education to school pupils.

  20. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  1. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Distance Education in Technological Age

    OpenAIRE

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-01-01

    Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...

  3. Sex education in the pedagogical practice of public school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Borges Rufino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study was performed with 29 teachers from three public state schools in Goiânia, Goiás state. The teachers answered a semi-structured questionnaire that aimed at verifying the pedagogical practice in sex education, difficulties related to the theme, and the need for training. Most teachers were male (69% and aged between 25 and 35 years (74%. Half held a graduate degree (54% in human sciences (49%. Nearly all teachers find difficulties in working the topic (89% and need training (93%. Contents on sexuality were not addressed in the Political Pedagogical Projects (76% and the biology program aimed at teaching the theme (55%, a reality that disagrees with the National Curricular Standards, which is based on transversality. Partnerships between health and education must be established, particularly between the Family Health Strategy the higher education institutions, providing public school teachers with the necessary didactic-pedagogical support to address sexuality in the classroom. Descriptors: Sexuality; Schools; Nursing; Public Health.

  4. Comprehensive Sex Education: Research and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Since 1997 the federal government has invested more than $1.5 billion dollars in abstinence-only programs--proven ineffective programs which censor or exclude important information that could help young people protect their health. In fact, until recently, programs which met a strict abstinence-only definition were the only type of sex education…

  5. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  6. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Queer Breeding: Historicising Popular Culture, Homosexuality and Informal Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…

  8. Use of Sexuality-Focused Entertainment Media in Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustifter, Ruth; Blumer, Markie L. C.; O'Reilly, Jessica; Ramirez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The literature on the impact of entertainment media on sex education is typically pathology-focused, unclear regarding the effects of such usage, and void of dialogue between those who actually work in the areas of sexuality education and entertainment. To address this gap, this paper is the product of joint authorship between media figures from…

  9. How Sex Education Research Methodologies Frame GLBTIQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The "bullied" gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and otherwise Queer (GLBTIQ) student is a fairly recent figure in the sexuality education research literature. GLBTIQ students have previously been problematised by sex education research in a range of different ways and have been the subjects of varying methodological…

  10. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  11. Promoting Sex Education Among Teenagers Through an Interactive Game: Reasons for Success and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Kwan, Alvin C M; Reynolds, Rebecca; Mellecker, Robin R; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace; Hong, Athena; Leung, Ching Yin

    2015-06-01

    A game application, "Making Smart Choices", was developed to fill the gap of limited easy-to-access resources available on sex education in Hong Kong and to disseminate correct knowledge and positive attitudes toward sex to teenagers using popular platforms such as tablets, Facebook, and the Web. Three versions of the game (iPAD, Facebook, and Web-based) were developed using HTML5. A theoretical framework that involved game-based learning and participatory design approach was used to design, develop, modify, and optimize the game for use with secondary school students (n=1176) 12-16 years of age. Pre- and post-test scores of students' safer sex knowledge were compared to test the effectiveness of the game. Students' survey and interviews were analyzed to assess participant feelings and attitudes toward the game. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test indicated that students' sex knowledge (n=788) improved with a medium effect size (0.477) after playing the game. Increases in positive attitudes toward sex and relationship and in awareness of making smart sexual choices were reported from student surveys and interviews. Students described the game as "interesting," "interactive," "informative," and "real-to-life." We advocate that the participatory design approach, which supports collaborative efforts of different stakeholders, is an effective framework for developing game-based learning tools for sex education. Our work provides preliminary findings that suggest game-based learning, preferably delivered through popular interactive platforms, can be effective in promoting sex education to teenagers.

  12. Greek students' knowledge and sources of information regarding sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziou, V; Perdikaris, P; Petsios, K; Gymnopoulou, E; Galanis, P; Brokalaki, H

    2009-09-01

    Human sexuality is a complex part of life and is considered a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore there is an increased need for adequate and comprehensive sex education, especially for teenagers and young adults. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the level of students' sexual knowledge, as well as to identify their sources of information regarding sexual life and reproduction. A cross-sectional study using a designed self-report questionnaire was performed. The study population consisted of 936 students who were attending 10 high schools and four medical schools in Attica. Data were collected after obtaining permission from the Pedagogic Institute of the Greek Ministry of Education. The main sources of students' sexual information about reproduction were friends (29.1%) and parents (24.0%), whereas school was reported by 14.3% of them. The preferred sources of information, according to students' perceptions, were sex education specialists (65.6%), followed by school (39.1%), parents (32.2%) and friends (27.7%). The importance of school, peer and parent support upon adolescents' sexual life was revealed by the results of the study. Students' knowledge level on sex topics is not satisfactory and therefore there is a need for sex education specialists and special courses regarding sex education in Greek schools.

  13. A Survey of English Teenagers' Sexual Experience and Preferences for School-Based Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Katie; Wallace, Louise M.; Dunn, Orla; Brown, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy amongst the under-16s are causing increasing concern. There is limited evidence about the sexual behaviour and sex education preferences of this age group, especially of those from Black and minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to provide data on early heterosexual risk behaviour,…

  14. Sex-Typing of Occupations in the Israeli Education System: Students versus Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1997-01-01

    Rating of the femininity/masculinity of 27 occupations was undertaken by four age groups in the Israeli education system: 14-year-olds (n=194); 17-year-olds (n=183); university students (n=89); and teachers (n=148). Results indicated that sex-related stereotypes of occupations continue to be maintained among youth and adults. (JOW)

  15. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools: The Views and Experiences of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…

  16. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  17. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  18. Reimagining Gender through Policy Development: The Case of a "Single-Sex" Educational Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthirt Cohen, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, a feminist educational organisation in the USA for young women, ages 14-21, adopted a policy in order to clarify their target constituency of girls and young women. The policy defined "girls and young women" not as a designation associated with fixed biological sex, but instead as a self-determined identity label creating an explicit…

  19. Age and Sex Effects on Plasma Metabolite Association Networks in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignoli, Alessia; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We

  20. The State of Sex Education in North Carolina: Is Abstinence-Only Education Working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.

  1. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ashley; Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  2. PERSEPSI GURU MENGENAI SEX EDUCATION DI SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lichteria Panjaitan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of technology, especially information technology in Indonesia in the building society XXI century. Indonesia has begun to enter the stage of the telematics community will certainly have a major impact on all levels of life of the Indonesian nation, especially in children. The emergence of a great revolution throughout the world of children's playground, Internet presence replaces the open airy space for children's play, besides presenting impression's Internet pornography and violence can harm the development of children's personality. Sexual deviance behavior at the level of schooling is quite surprising, of course. This is a challenge for education and should be used as a rationale for the need for innovation in learning. Things into consideration are for this. Sex education in early childhood is considered taboo in society. Guru is one of the determining factors of high and low quality of education has a strategic position in transforming sex education to learners. Therefore, this study tries to analyze how perceptions of teachers on sex education at the primary school level, the research method used is a descriptive method. Keywords: Perception of teachers, sex education, learners in primary schools.

  3. Sex, age, and sex hormones affect recall of words in a directed forgetting paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-01-02

    During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. "Use Condoms for Safe Sex!" Youth-Led Video Making and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa; MacEntee, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Situated at the intersection between child-led visual methods and sex education, this paper focuses on the potential of youth-led video making to enable young people to develop guiding principles to inform their own sexual behaviour. It draws on findings from a video-making project carried out with a group of South African young people, which…

  5. Sex Is Like Jelly Beans: Educating Students on the Risks of Oral Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin; Harris, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a description of an innovative workshop that educated college students about the risks of unprotected sexual behavior, particularly oral sex, and methods of risk reduction using a metaphor of "sharing and eating jelly beans." Intervention development was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model.…

  6. The ARIC-PET amyloid imaging study: Brain amyloid differences by age, race, sex, and APOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Schneider, Andrea L C; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Xueqi; Green, Edward; Gupta, Naresh; Knopman, David S; Mintz, Akiva; Rahmim, Arman; Sharrett, A Richey; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Wong, Dean F; Mosley, Thomas H

    2016-08-02

    To evaluate differences in amyloid deposition in a community-based cohort without dementia by age, sex, race, education, and APOE ε4 allele status. Recruited from the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 329 participants without dementia, ages 67-88 years, were imaged using florbetapir PET at 3 US community sites (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi). Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated; global cortical SUVR >1.2 was evaluated as the primary outcome. Age, race, sex, education level, and number of APOE ε4 alleles were evaluated in multivariable models including vascular risk factors, brain white matter hyperintensity and total intracranial volume, and cognitive status. A total of 141 of the participants (43%) were black. In multivariable models, odds of elevated SUVR was increased in participants with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.65 per 10 years of age) and black race (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.23-3.51) but did not differ by educational level. Each ε4 allele was associated with increased odds of elevated SUVR (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.61-4.39). In this community-based cohort without dementia, florbetapir uptake is associated with older age and APOE genotype. Black race was associated with higher SUVR, after adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, cognitive status, white matter hyperintensity volume, and APOE genotype, with effect sizes nearing those seen for APOE ε4. Replication of these findings is needed in other cohorts, and reasons for and consequences of these observed differences by race warrant further study. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Taking account of what young women want from school sex education: two groups from Scotland and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sinead

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.

  8. [Sex education of children and adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, H

    2000-06-01

    There is a remarkable ignorance about sexuality among Chilean teenagers, as underscored by the paper by Fernández et al, published in this issue. The authors analyze the biological, psychological and social consequences of the lack of parental and school sexual education. Among them, there is an increasing incidence of unwanted pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases in teenagers. Child abuse, neglect, battering, mortality and maternal deprivation are more frequent among the offspring of teenage parents. School desertion caused by unwanted pregnancies will seriously jeopardize the education and training of these teenagers, perpetuating the cycle of poverty.

  9. Adolescents' Preferences for Source of Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…

  10. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  11. "Just Say No" Isn't Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for sex education and the inclusion of accurate information in materials produced for young people. Materials that address sexual reproduction, puberty, teenage pregnancy, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases are reviewed, and recommended titles for print and nonprint materials are listed together with resources for…

  12. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  13. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  14. Life Science Teachers' Decision Making on Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Puneet Singh

    2013-01-01

    The desires of young people and especially young bodies are constructed at the intersections of policies that set the parameters of sex education policies, the embodied experiences of students in classrooms, and the way bodies are discussed in the complex language of science. Moreover, more research points to the lack of scientifically and…

  15. Sex Education, A Way Forward towards Biology Curriculum Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the need for the inclusion of sex education in the secondary school biology curriculum in Anambra State since the noninclusion was viewed as an inadequacy in the biology curriculum. The study was a survey design. Three research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study.

  16. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  17. Cultural, religious and socio-economic factors affecting sex education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, S

    1991-05-01

    Although professional pressure groups attempted to address the need for formal sex education in the 1970's, the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT) has successfully introduced sex education subjects into school programs. It has also been endorsed as a major resource by the Ministry of Health; however, the Ministry of Education has been backsliding recently on sex education and in general has not generated zealous supporters of sex education. Different attitudes and practices prevail. Sex education is not usually discussed in the home, but there is support for sex education in schools. Its importance is recognized. Turkish society tends to be conservative particularly among middle socioeconomic stratum. Upper classes tend to be more liberal, and lower classes perceive sexuality as the normal way of life. The term sex is associated with eroticism, sex education as sex techniques; so sexuality must fall within the confines of health education. Within the Muslim faith, views on sex support discussion of sexual issues with couples, for example, or among students of Islamic jurisprudence. According to Quaranic teachings, women have a right to a sex life, including divorce options if sexuality is not fulfilled. Misinterpretations of Quaranic teachings have hindered the effort to plan an appropriate sex education program. Islamic values are liberal in their support for family planning. The FPAT's objective is to change the image of sex education and eliminate the fear that established values will be challenged by sex education.

  18. Performance in eyeblink conditioning is age and sex dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Löwgren

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder. In this study we assessed the performance in eyeblink conditioning in 42 typically developing children between 6 and 11 years old as well as in 26 adults. Older children produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than younger children and adults produced more than children. In addition, females produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than males among both children and adults. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of age and sex on the performance when studying eyeblink conditioning as a measure of cerebellar development.

  19. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  20. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion.

  1. The Condom Works in All Situations? Paradoxical Messages in Mainstream Sex Education in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…

  2. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…

  3. "This Is How You Hetero:" Sexual Minorities in Heteronormative Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaica, Steven; Kwon, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of sex education has been questioned, as students participate in high rates of unsafe sex after completion. Without exploring various sexual minority (SM) identities (e.g., gay, lesbian, and bisexual) and forms of sex, sex education may be especially unhelpful for SMs by perpetuating the heteronormative (i.e., assuming heterosexuality…

  4. Sex Education beyond School: Implications for Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juping

    2010-01-01

    The negative consequences of teenage sexual behaviour are issues of concern in Britain and many other western countries. Over one-quarter of British young people are reported to become sexually active prior to the age of 16 and the rate of teenage pregnancy remains one of the highest in Western Europe. Current UK Government policy on sex education…

  5. Evaluation outcomes of a sex education strategy in high schools of Pavia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benni, Emanuela; Sacco, Sara; Bianchi, Leonardo; Carrara, Roberto; Zanini, Chiara; Comelli, Mario; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to provide process and effectiveness evaluations of a sex education intervention realized with interactive techniques in high schools of Pavia (Italy). Six public high schools, divided into 'treated' and 'control' units, voluntarily joined this mixed-methods study. Only second-year classes were enrolled: treated adolescents followed a sex education course, performed by trained 'near-peer educators' (undergraduate medical students) with interactive techniques. All adolescents compiled an anonymous effectiveness evaluation questionnaire at baseline (pre-test) and 3 months later (post-test). Sexual knowledge and reported behavioural changes were compared between the two groups through linear mixed-effects models. The process was assessed through a satisfaction questionnaire for treated students, monitoring cards for working group members and cards/diaries for educators. The final sample consisted of 547 treated and 355 control adolescents (mean age = 15.28 ± 0.61 years). Highly significant changes (p educators generally provided positive evaluations, although difficult communication was perceived. The intervention was effective in improving adolescents' sexual knowledge. The present work highlighted that in Italy sex education in adolescence is still neglected: this could encourage misinformation and health-risk behaviour. Young people perceive the need for a serious health-promoting action in which they could play an active role, spreading educational messages with organized interactive methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Configurations of Parental Preferences Concerning Sources of Sex Education for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Roger W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The research purpose of this study was not merely parental preferences concerning sources of sex education for adolescents, but more importantly, parental preferences of combinations of social institutions as sources of sex education. (Author)

  7. Age differences in vocal emotion perception: on the role of speaker age and listener sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Antarika; Isaacowitz, Derek; Schirmer, Annett

    2017-10-24

    Older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults perceiving vocal emotions. To better characterise this effect, we explored its relation to age differences in sensory, cognitive and emotional functioning. Additionally, we examined the role of speaker age and listener sex. Participants (N = 163) aged 19-34 years and 60-85 years categorised neutral sentences spoken by ten younger and ten older speakers with a happy, neutral, sad, or angry voice. Acoustic analyses indicated that expressions from younger and older speakers denoted the intended emotion with similar accuracy. As expected, younger participants outperformed older participants and this effect was statistically mediated by an age-related decline in both optimism and working-memory. Additionally, age differences in emotion perception were larger for younger as compared to older speakers and a better perception of younger as compared to older speakers was greater in younger as compared to older participants. Last, a female perception benefit was less pervasive in the older than the younger group. Together, these findings suggest that the role of age for emotion perception is multi-faceted. It is linked to emotional and cognitive change, to processing biases that benefit young and own-age expressions, and to the different aptitudes of women and men.

  8. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by parental education in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust; Arntzen, Annett; Cnattingius, Sven; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary by age and country, and how much of the sex differences can be explained by external causes of death. Data on all live-born children were received from national birth registries for 1981-2000 (Denmark: n=1,184,926; Norway: n=1,090,127; and Sweden n=1,961,911) and for 1987-2000 (Finland: n=841,470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Boys had a higher child and adolescent mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls. The gradient in mortality was mostly similar for boys and girls. Among 1-19-year-olds, 32% of boys' deaths and 27% of girls' deaths were due to external causes. Boys' excess mortality was only partly explained by educational inequalities or by deaths from external causes. A more detailed analysis is needed to study whether the share of avoidable deaths is higher among children whose parents have had a shorter education time.

  9. Special Education Teachers Attitudes toward Teaching Sex Education to Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Carolann

    2017-01-01

    The attitudes and opinions of special education teachers may potentially reveal insight as to how and why teachers choose to include sex education in their curriculum for self-contained special education classrooms designed to serve students with developmental disabilities. The main objective in developing this study was to gather information…

  10. Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on educational attainment and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.

  11. Endogenous sex hormones and memory performance in middle-aged Greek women with subjective memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Eleni; Apostolakis, Michail; Christidi, Foteini; Rizos, Demetrios; Kaparos, George; Panoulis, Konstantinos; Augoulea, Areti; Alexandrou, Andreas; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Zalonis, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-02-01

    The changing hormonal milieu during the menopausal transition may contribute to the development of memory disorders. We aimed to assess the association of sex hormones with memory function in a sample of Greek middle-aged women. This pilot study included 44 women with subjective memory complaints. Memory performance was evaluated using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the Brief Visuospatial Memory test (BVMT), and the verbal digits backwards test (VSPAN), to assess verbal, visuospatial, and working memory performance, respectively. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Green Climacteric Scale. VSPAN backwards scores were positively associated with log-transformed free androgen index (logFAI), in models adjusted for age, education, log-transformed free estrogen index (logFEI), hypertension, and the intensity of menopausal symptoms. BVMT total scores were predicted by logFAI (b-coefficient = 0.424, p value = 0.002), education, and combined climacteric symptomatology, in a model adjusted for age, logFEI, and hypertension. Women with circulating estradiol above the median value of 10 pg/mL had better total HTLV total scores compared to women with estradiol values below the median (HTLV total scores, estradiol ≤ 10 pg/mL vs. > 10 pg/mL: 24.2 ± 3.6 vs. 30.0 ± 7.9, p value = 0.007 unadjusted). This association was affected by education and remained independent of menopausal symptoms and testosterone levels, education, and hypertension (model R 2 = 22.3%; b-coefficient = 0.318, p value = 0.024). Endogenous total estradiol is associated with verbal episodic memory, while logFAI is associated with working memory performance and visuospatial episodic memory in this sample of postmenopausal women. These associations were not influenced by age, education, or menopausal symptoms. Larger studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of our findings.

  12. The Effects of Sex and Age on the Perceptions of TV Characters: An Inter-Age Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Elliot S.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation of how viewers of daytime serials rate actors playing TV characters of varying age found that the age of a TV character and ratings of that character are not causally related, although a relationship was observed between age and sex--young males, middle-aged females--and ratings. (JVP)

  13. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

  14. The Salience and Utility of School Sex Education to Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…

  15. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  16. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  17. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  18. Influence of level of education on disability free life expectancy by sex: the ILSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicuci, N; Noale, M

    2005-12-01

    To assess the effect of education on Disability Free Life Expectancy among older Italians, using a hierarchical model as indicator of disability, with estimates based on the multistate life table method and IMaCh software. Data were obtained from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging which considered a random sample of 5632 individuals. Total life expectancy ranged from 16.5 years for men aged 65 years to 6 years for men aged 80. The age range for women was 19.6 and 8.4 years, respectively. For both sexes, increasing age was associated with a lower probability of recovery from a mild state of disability, with a greater probability of worsening for all individuals presenting an independent state at baseline, and with a greater probability of dying except for women from a mild state of disability. A medium/high educational level was associated with a greater probability of recovery only in men with a mild state of disability at baseline, and with a lower probability of worsening in both sexes, except for men with a mild state of disability at baseline. The positive effects of high education are well established in most research work and, being a modifiable factor, strategies focused on increasing level of education and, hence strengthening access to information and use of health services would produce significant benefits.

  19. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  20. Sex- and age-related differences in clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Thorsgaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) according to sex and age, including comparison of sex- and age-specific mortality of PPCI patients with that of the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This population-based follow-up study included 7,385 ST...

  1. The Burden of Blindness According To Age and Sex In Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are differences in the impact of blindness by age and sex; blind males having a higher risk for death than females. The aim of this study was to describe the age and sex difference among the blind in some Niger Delta communities of Nigeria. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was done ...

  2. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  3. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  4. Teens could get new message on waiting for sex. Sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-21

    It's best to wait until you are older to have sex. But if you decide to have intercourse, use a condom. We'll show you how. That's the message most New Jersey teens get in their sex education classes. It's the law. But a new source of federal funding could help advocates of "abstinence-only" education find a way around that requirement. The state Department of Health and Senior Services is considering whether to apply for federal money limited to programs teaching teens that abstinence is the only certain way to prevent pregnancy and avoid contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The federally funded programs also would have to teach that sex before marriage is morally wrong. About $50 million for these abstinence-only programs was quietly tucked into the welfare bill that President Clinton signed into law in 1996. New Jersey is eligible to receive $843,000. The health department is hearing from people on both sides of the issue, said Celeste Wood, who plans to submit a report to Health Commissioner Len Fishman by the end of the month. Fishman will then decide whether New Jersey should apply for the money, she said. Historically, debate between "comprehensive" and "abstinence-only" sex education has centered around the classroom and education department. Comprehensive programs teach both abstinence and contraception. Abstinence-only programs prohibit discussion of contraception. Comprehensive education advocates have won that battle in New Jersey public schools. The state's core curriculum standards currently call for schools to teach teens about both abstinence and contraception. But the new federal money is being funneled through state health departments. "This skates around the schools by bringing the money in through the public health arena," said Daniel Daley, director of public policy for the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the US. "They are trying to influence community-based programs and make an end-run around the schools

  5. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1994-10-01

    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.

  6. Impact of timing of sex education on teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: cross-sectional survey of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiogu, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether the time at which sex education was provided had any impact on reported cases of unintended pregnancies. A cross-sectional survey of secondary school students and their teachers was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. The participants were 1,234 students aged 14-17 years and 46 teachers in 5 secondary schools in South Eastern Nigeria. The outcome measures were reported pregnancies within the last 3 years by type of school and class level; class level at the time of receiving sex education at school; and age at the time of receiving sex education at home. In all schools, sex education was provided at all the junior and senior secondary school levels (JSS and SSS, respectively). Overall, reported cases of unintended pregnancies were highest among the junior students. In the private schools, four in ten teachers reported pregnancies among JSS 3 students. Almost four in ten teachers in public schools reported pregnancies among JSS 2 students. Of all the students, about three in ten reported pregnancies among JSS 2 and 3 students respectively. At home, sex education was provided at the mean age of 16 years (SD ± 2.2). All participants cited financial need and marital promise as major predisposing factors. About four in ten students did not use contraceptives during their first sexual experience. This study highlights the need to introduce sex education much earlier, possibly before the JSS levels. At home, sex education may have greater impact if provided before the age of 14 years. Efforts should be made to address the factors predisposing to teenage pregnancy.

  7. Effect of Sex Education Programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of school-going adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esere, Mary Ogechi

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Peer Educator Outreach on the Likelihood and Acceleration of Clinic Utilization among Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Hui, Sam K; Shivkumar, Narayanan; Gowda, Chandrasekhar; Pushpalatha, R

    2016-01-01

    Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers. Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization. More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p educator outreach. Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.

  9. The association between major depression prevalence and sex becomes weaker with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2016-02-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) than men, and the annual prevalence of MDE declines with age. Age by sex interactions may occur (a weakening of the sex effect with age), but are easily overlooked since individual studies lack statistical power to detect interactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate age by sex interactions in MDE prevalence. In Canada, a series of 10 national surveys conducted between 1996 and 2013 assessed MDE prevalence in respondents over the age of 14. Treating age as a continuous variable, binomial and linear regression was used to model age by sex interactions in each survey. To increase power, the survey-specific interaction coefficients were then pooled using meta-analytic methods. The estimated interaction terms were homogeneous. In the binomial regression model I (2) was 31.2 % and was not statistically significant (Q statistic = 13.1, df = 9, p = 0.159). The pooled estimate (-0.004) was significant (z = 3.13, p = 0.002), indicating that the effect of sex became weaker with increasing age. This resulted in near disappearance of the sex difference in the 75+ age group. This finding was also supported by an examination of age- and sex-specific estimates pooled across the surveys. The association of MDE prevalence with sex becomes weaker with age. The interaction may reflect biological effect modification. Investigators should test for, and consider inclusion of age by sex interactions in epidemiological analyses of MDE prevalence.

  10. "Sex Will Make Your Fingers Grow Thin and Then You Die": The Interplay of Culture, Myths, and Taboos on African Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Reproductive Health Education with Their Daughters Aged 10-14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Terry, Martha Ann; Doswell, Willa

    2018-06-01

    This paper examines the convergence of culture, myths, and taboos surrounding reproductive health issues African immigrant women, living in the United States, learned during childhood in their countries of origin. We also discuss how mothers' perceptions of reproductive health education (RHE) influenced the education of their own daughters aged 10-14 years. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected via interviews and demographic survey. The sample size was 20 African immigrant mothers living in a mid-sized city in the U.S. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Myths and taboos related to menstruation, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS were reported by the women interviewed. Discussion of these issues was largely taboo, and most myths the mothers learned growing up pertained to sexual intercourse, pregnancy prevention, and pregnancy termination using non-hormonal ingested substances. Myths and taboos about sexual issues are widespread in Africa and are propagated to control sexual behavior, especially that of unmarried people, particularly women. By examining these myths and taboos, we are able to somewhat contextualize the mothers' immigrant experience regarding RHE. Although myths were reported, the majority of mothers did not appear to believe them. The most significant taboo reported was sexual intercourse. This in turn led to mothers' overemphasis on abstinence for their daughters. It is also noteworthy that this sample contained mainly African women who overall were highly educated, spoke English, and could adequately navigate life in the U.S. It is unclear what the results would be if we were to examine African immigrant women with less achievements in these areas.

  11. Differences in caregiver daily impression by sex, education and career length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Okayama, Masanobu; Kuwabara, Masanari; Makino, Nobuko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Sano, Takashi; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-03-01

    We previously proposed the concept of caregiver daily impression (CDI) as a practical tool for emergency triage. We herein assessed how CDI varies by sex, education and career length by determining CDI scores as quantitative outcome measures. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a self-reported questionnaire among caregivers in 20 long-term care facilities in Hyogo, Japan. A total of 10 CDI variables measured participants' previous experience of emergency transfers using a scale from 0-10. The resulting total was defined as the CDI score. We hypothetically considered that higher scores indicated greater caregiver focus. The CDI scores were compared by sex, education and career length using analysis of covariance. A total of 601 personal caregivers were evaluated (mean age 36.7 years; 36% men). The mean career length was 6.9 years, with the following groupings: 1-4 years (38%), 5-9 years (37%) and >10 years (24%). After adjustment for sex and education, the CDI scores for the variable, "poor eye contact," significantly differed between caregivers with ≥10 and Sex-related differences in CDI might also exist. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 17: 410-415. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  13. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  14. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  15. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  16. Seventy Years of Sex Education in "Health Education Journal": A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines key debates and perspectives on sex education in "Health Education Journal" ("HEJ"), from the date of the journal's first publication in March 1943 to the present day. Matters relating to sexuality and sexual health are revealed to be integral to "HEJ'"s history. First published as Health…

  17. From I to We: Sex Education as a Form of Civics Education in a Neoliberal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Randazzo, Renee

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the question of how a sex education curriculum can be a form of civics education, moving students from a discourse of personal responsibility to a discourse that represents a "we" voice and takes into consideration not only the other person but society. In two 8-week classes delivered in a charter school to a…

  18. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  19. Education for the atomic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    The rapid development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy has necessarily led to an increasing demand for manpower trained in the various branches of nuclear science and technology. The expansion of education and training in these fields has not always been able to keep pace with the steady rise in demand, and many countries have been faced with the problem of an acute shortage of trained personnel. Training in nuclear science and technology is one of the major problems that are being tackled by the International Atomic Energy Agency. But obviously a problem of this magnitude cannot be solved solely by the direct effort of international organizations; its solution would call for the concerted effort of every nation interested in the development of atomic energy. Besides, there must be a suitable educational base for the success of any kind of advanced training. In other words, general educational institutions will have to complete the groundwork that must precede any kind of specialization in nuclear science and technology. The need has long been felt for an exchange of expert views on the subject, for a detailed discussion of the problem as a whole. This was recently done at an international seminar organized jointly by IAEA and UNESCO, the two international bodies which have major responsibilities in this field. The opening session of the seminar was followed by four main sessions. The first session dealt with the role of the universities in nuclear education, the second was concerned with education in nuclear technology in the engineering colleges, the third one discussed the education and training at nuclear research centres and the fourth session was devoted to the role of international organizations in this field. The four main sessions were complemented by panel discussions on (a) nuclear education at the secondary school level, (b) nuclear education at the advanced University level, (c) training in health physics, and (d) special problems. During the

  20. Education for the atomic age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The rapid development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy has necessarily led to an increasing demand for manpower trained in the various branches of nuclear science and technology. The expansion of education and training in these fields has not always been able to keep pace with the steady rise in demand, and many countries have been faced with the problem of an acute shortage of trained personnel. Training in nuclear science and technology is one of the major problems that are being tackled by the International Atomic Energy Agency. But obviously a problem of this magnitude cannot be solved solely by the direct effort of international organizations; its solution would call for the concerted effort of every nation interested in the development of atomic energy. Besides, there must be a suitable educational base for the success of any kind of advanced training. In other words, general educational institutions will have to complete the groundwork that must precede any kind of specialization in nuclear science and technology. The need has long been felt for an exchange of expert views on the subject, for a detailed discussion of the problem as a whole. This was recently done at an international seminar organized jointly by IAEA and UNESCO, the two international bodies which have major responsibilities in this field. The opening session of the seminar was followed by four main sessions. The first session dealt with the role of the universities in nuclear education, the second was concerned with education in nuclear technology in the engineering colleges, the third one discussed the education and training at nuclear research centres and the fourth session was devoted to the role of international organizations in this field. The four main sessions were complemented by panel discussions on (a) nuclear education at the secondary school level, (b) nuclear education at the advanced University level, (c) training in health physics, and (d) special problems. During the

  1. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  2. Associations Between AUDIT-C and Mortality Vary by Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine A.; Bowe, Thomas; Henderson, Patricia; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1–4, 5–8, 9–12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9–12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5–8 and 9–12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or “vital sign” that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems. (Population Health Management 2010;13:263–268) PMID:20879907

  3. Associations between AUDIT-C and mortality vary by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H S; Bradley, Katharine A; Bowe, Thomas; Henderson, Patricia; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-10-01

    We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1-4, 5-8, 9-12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9-12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5-8 and 9-12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or "vital sign" that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems.

  4. Education for the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1992-01-01

    To be effective in the current rapidly changing environment, individuals need more than a knowledge base. They also need information literacy which includes techniques for exploring new information, synthesizing it, and using it in practical ways. Undergraduate education should focus on such resource-based learning directed at problem solving.…

  5. Risk of Stroke in Migraineurs Using Triptans. Associations with Age, Sex, Stroke Severity and Subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albieri, Vanna; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2016-01-01

    for a first stroke were identified in the Danish Registries. Information on stroke severity/subtype and cardiovascular risk factors was available for stroke patients. FINDINGS: Of the 49,711 patients hospitalized for a first stroke, 1084 were migraineurs using triptans. Adjusting for age, sex, income......, and educational level, risk for stroke was higher among migraineurs in respect to all strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.01-1.14) and ischemic strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.00-1.14). Risk for hemorrhagic stroke was increased but only in women (RR 1.41; CI 1.11-1.79). Risk was for mild strokes (RR 1.31; CI 1.16-1.48) while risk...

  6. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  7. Collaborating to Plan and Implement a Sex Education Curriculum for Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James; Kahn, Laurie G.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara A.; Knowles, Christen

    2017-01-01

    Sex education is not only a necessary component of public school curriculum, but it is also an important opportunity for students with and without disabilities to learn about their own development as emerging adults. Although comprehensive sex education is not federally mandated, many states and districts choose to offer some form of sex education…

  8. Protective Effects of Middle School Comprehensive Sex Education with Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…

  9. Academic and Vocational Education for Incarcerated Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…

  10. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4±17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7±2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0±1.7% versus 92.1±2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice

  11. Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lirng, J.F.; Fuh, J.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Wang, S.J. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiology and Neurological Inst.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4{+-}17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7{+-}2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0{+-}1.7% versus 92.1{+-}2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice.

  12. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A

    2016-03-01

    the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50-89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  13. Compulsive buying disorder clustering based on sex, age, onset and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Baño, Marta; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Goméz-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-07-01

    In spite of the revived interest in compulsive buying disorder (CBD), its classification into the contemporary nosologic systems continues to be debated, and scarce studies have addressed heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype through methodologies based on a person-centered approach. To identify empirical clusters of CBD employing personality traits, as well as patients' sex, age and the age of CBD onset as indicators. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method defining a combination of the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion and log-likelihood was used. Three clusters were identified in a sample of n=110 patients attending a specialized CBD unit a) "male compulsive buyers" reported the highest prevalence of comorbid gambling disorder and the lowest levels of reward dependence; b) "female low-dysfunctional" mainly included employed women, with the highest level of education, the oldest age of onset, the lowest scores in harm avoidance and the highest levels of persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness; and c) "female highly-dysfunctional" with the youngest age of onset, the highest levels of comorbid psychopathology and harm avoidance, and the lowest score in self-directedness. Sociodemographic characteristics and personality traits can be used to determine CBD clusters which represent different clinical subtypes. These subtypes should be considered when developing assessment instruments, preventive programs and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. INDIGENOUS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OPINION ON SEX EDUCATION IN A SCHOOL OF DOURADOS - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaldo de Albuquerque Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of the population consists of adolescents aged by 12 to 19 years. During this period of human life occur several behavioral factors involving sexuality that intrigues many researchers, teachers and parents and according to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs, sex education must be taught in schools as a crosscutting theme. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions and attitudes towards sexual education among elementary school Indigenous teachers in a rural school in Dourados-MS. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire completed by individual teachers. The results show that teachers consider important to work with sex education in elementary schools involving different areas of knowledge and with the help of health professionals. Most teachers work or have worked this theme in his classes, and consider the students receptive and interested, however, some teachers have difficulty in approaching the subject. One of the difficulties encountered are related to the low acceptance of their parents, highlighting the need for guidance on the same theme. The Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais ensures that the sex education should begin in early school years.

  15. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  16. Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Experiences Among Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Implications for Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jessica Penwell; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism since the 1990s has led to growing demand for sex education that meets the needs of persons on the autism spectrum. Yet there is a dearth of research documenting the firsthand experiences and perspectives of autistic individuals. A thematic analysis was conducted of in-depth, Internet-facilitated interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum who were recruited from Internet community spaces between November 2012 and May 2013. Inclusion criteria were self-identification as a person on the autism spectrum, being a U.S. resident, being aged 18 or older, and having the ability to communicate orally or through writing. Participants were aged 18-61 and were living in the community at the time of interview, most with limited extrafamilial support. They were less likely than the general population to be heterosexual or gender-conforming and were more likely to have experienced romantic or sexual debut after age 18. Participants' most common concerns were courtship difficulties and sensory dysregulation in the context of partnered sexuality. These concerns were exacerbated by inadequate and inappropriate sex education experiences. Participants addressed challenges by using sensory barriers (e.g., latex gloves); planning when and how to have sex; negotiating alternatives to sexual scripts predicated on nondisabled experience; and practicing explicit and intentional communication. Individuals on the autism spectrum would benefit from sex education that normalizes differences (e.g., in identities and experiences of sexuality), is offered throughout young adulthood, addresses disability-relevant sensory and communication needs, and includes practicing neurotypical sociosexual norms. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  17. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  18. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  19. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  20. Empathy mediates the effects of age and sex on altruistic moral decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B. Rosen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM, which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet.One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female, aged 19 to 86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice everyday life situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships.A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision-making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM.Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called positivity effect and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological

  1. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  2. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  3. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  4. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI Report of...

  5. Leadership Behaviour: Does Sex and Level of Education Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sumnaya Kumasey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined individual differences in leadership behaviour in the Ghanaian business sector. Specifically, sex differences as well as level of education on leadership behaviour were examined. Cross-sectional survey design was used to study 95 participants conveniently sampled from selected organizations within the Greater Accra Metropolis. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a cross-section of people in the organization. Test of normality and reliability testing were conducted as part of the preliminary analysis. Multivariate test was used to test the hypotheses in the study. The result showed that females showed significantly people-oriented leadership behaviour than their male counterparts. However, level of education did not significantly influence the leadership behaviour of participants. Implications and limitations of the study are provided.

  6. Age- and sex-specific thorax finite element model development and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    The shape, size, bone density, and cortical thickness of the thoracic skeleton vary significantly with age and sex, which can affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool to assess injury risk. However, current computational models only represent certain ages and sexes in the population. The purpose of this study was to morph an existing finite element (FE) model of the thorax to depict thorax morphology for males and females of ages 30 and 70 years old (YO) and to investigate the effect on injury risk. Age- and sex-specific FE models were developed using thin-plate spline interpolation. In order to execute the thin-plate spline interpolation, homologous landmarks on the reference, target, and FE model are required. An image segmentation and registration algorithm was used to collect homologous rib and sternum landmark data from males and females aged 0-100 years. The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was applied to the homologous landmark data to quantify age- and sex-specific isolated shape changes in the thorax. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model was morphed to create age- and sex-specific thoracic shape change models (scaled to a 50th percentile male size). To evaluate the thoracic response, 2 loading cases (frontal hub impact and lateral impact) were simulated to assess the importance of geometric and material property changes with age and sex. Due to the geometric and material property changes with age and sex, there were observed differences in the response of the thorax in both the frontal and lateral impacts. Material property changes alone had little to no effect on the maximum thoracic force or the maximum percent compression. With age, the thorax becomes stiffer due to superior rotation of the ribs, which can result in increased bone strain that can increase the risk of fracture. For the 70-YO models

  7. Age and sex differences in paranormal beliefs: a response to Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, H J

    2000-04-01

    Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999) report evidence of age and sex differences in the strength of paranormal beliefs. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered in terms of differential item functioning. It is suggested that respondents' interpretation of paranormal belief test items may vary with age and sex, and that such differences in the strength with which such beliefs are endorsed has not been conclusively established by Vitulli, et al.

  8. Topographic anatomy of the eyelids, and the effects of sex and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); I.M. Leenders (Ineke); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To describe the effects of sex and age on eyeball, eyelid, and eyebrow position. METHODS: A cross sectional cohort study was performed in which both eyes of 320 normal subjects aged between 10 and 89 years were included. Of each 10 year age cohort,

  9. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  10. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  11. Gaming for Safer Sex: Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people

  12. People with Intellectual Disabilities Talk About Sexuality: Implications for the Development of Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, D; Kok, G; Stoffelen, J M T; Curfs, L M G

    2017-01-01

    Existing sex education programmes have failed in involving people with intellectual disabilities in the development of these programmes. Not involving the target population decreases the likelihood that the sex education programme will be effective. This study was conducted to assess the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on several sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 people with intellectual disabilities covering topics such as: sex education, relationships, sex, social media, parenthood and support. The reported frequency of sex education the participants receive is low. Their knowledge regarding sex education is mainly limited to topics such as safe sex, contraception and STI's and tends to be superficial. Additionally, knowledge on safe sex does not always translate to safe sex behaviour. Finally, relationships are important for most participants; mainly because they don't want to be alone. Findings from both this study and literature shows that there seems to be a need for high quality sex education. Topics to consider to include are: online relationships, social media and parenthood. It would also be beneficial to focus on sexuality-related skills. Finally, to increase the effectiveness of a sex education programme, it is advisable that a theory-and evidence-based framework, such as Intervention Mapping, is used for its development.

  13. Same-sex sexual relationships in the national social life, health and aging project: making a case for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports.

  14. Worth the Wait? The Consequences of Abstinence-Only Sex Education for Marginalized Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Sharon E.; Hoefer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    "Abstinence-only" sex education, which is still widely used across the United States, does not prepare students to engage in healthy adult relationships. Prior research evidence indicates that abstinence-only education is less effective at preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than comprehensive sex education.…

  15. The Effects of Sex Education on Psychological Counselling Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadaroglu, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Sex education is not included in Turkey's national curriculum and is rarely referenced in school and university curricula. This is even true for those undertaking training in psychological counselling where the need may be great. Only a very few university schools of education offer an elective sex education course. A group of 64 guidance and…

  16. Constructing the Ideal Muslim Sexual Subject: Problematics of School-Based Sex Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…

  17. Getting "Foolishly Hot and Bothered"? Parents and Teachers and Sex Education in the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Hera

    2012-01-01

    The reluctance of parents to provide sex education has been a problem for educators since the first attempts at the modernisation of sex education in the early twentieth century, yet the sexual needs, desires and fears of parents are rarely even mentioned in pedagogical debates. This article examines the intense anxiety and embarrassment felt by…

  18. Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

  19. Characterizing the normative profile of 18F-FDG PET brain imaging: sex difference, aging effect, and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov; Miyata, Yoko; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate findings of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) in normal subjects to clarify the effects of sex differences, aging, and cognitive reserve on cerebral glucose metabolism. Participants comprised 123 normal adults who underwent 18F-FDG PET and a neuropsychological battery. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to investigate sex differences, and aging effects. The effects of cognitive reserve on 18F-FDG uptake were investigated using years of education as a proxy. Finally, we studied the effect of cognitive reserve on the recruitment of glucose metabolism in a memory task by dichotomizing the data according to educational level. Our results showed that the overall cerebral glucose metabolism in females was higher than that in males, whereas male participants had higher glucose metabolism in the bilateral inferior temporal gyri and cerebellum than females. Age-related hypometabolism was found in anterior regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus. These areas are part of the attentional system, which may decline with aging even in healthy elderly individuals. Highly educated subjects revealed focal hypermetabolism in the right hemisphere and lower recruitment of glucose metabolism in memory tasks. This phenomenon is likely a candidate for a neural substrate of cognitive reserve. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Inequalities in Cancer Deaths by Age, Gender and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gróf, Marek; Vagašová, Tatiana; Oltman, Marián; Skladaný, Ľubomír; Maličká, Lenka

    2017-12-01

    The economy of each state provides a significant amount of money into the health care system with the aim of knowing the health status of its population in the context of socioeconomic characteristics for effective resource allocation. In recent years, there is a growing number of cancer deaths in Slovakia. Therefore, the structure of cancer deaths according to its primary determinants, such as age, sex and education with the aim of effective implementation of prevention programs in Slovakia was examined. Main source of data on deaths from 1996 to 2014 was provided by National Health Information Centre in Slovakia. However, data were available only from 2011. Standardized mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated by the method of direct standardization using European standard population. The R project for statistical computing was used for calculation of statistically significant differences among various groups of mortality. The results show that people with primary education die from cancer later than people with higher education. However, major differences related to both sex and age are present in people with university education. A different variety of cancers occur in childhood (neoplasm of brain), adolescents (neoplasm of bone), young adults (neoplasm of brain), or adults (lung cancer and breast cancer). Malignant neoplasm of brain was more prevalent at higher education levels, Malignant neoplasm of bladder and Malignant melanoma of skin were more prevalent at the university level of education. The results can be useful for economists to define the health priorities in each country, make the financial decisions in economics, and thus contribute to better health, economic growth, as well as effective spending of health expenditures. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.

  1. Age and sex variation in serum albumin concentration: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Gary; Batstone, Gifford F; Jones, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, a common reference interval for serum albumin is widely used irrespective of age or sex. Implicit in this is that laboratories produce analytically similar results. This paper challenges the validity of this approach. A three-week collection of results sent to all primary care centres in England has been analysed by age, sex and laboratory. In all, 1,079,193 serum albumin reports were included in this analysis. The mean population serum albumin concentration increases to peak at around age 20 years and then decreases with increasing age. Values in females decrease more rapidly but become close to male values at 60 years. The variation between laboratories was large and potentially clinically significant. Reference intervals for serum albumin should be stratified by age and sex. Until there is greater methodological standardization, laboratories should determine their own reference intervals and not accept a single consensus reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Peer Educator Outreach on the Likelihood and Acceleration of Clinic Utilization among Sex Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy Krishnamurthy

    Full Text Available Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers.Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization.More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p < .001. In addition, 18% of all syndrome-based STI detected come from clinic visits in which the sex worker reports no symptoms, underscoring the importance of inducing clinic visits in the detection of STI. Additional models to test the robustness of these findings indicate consistent beneficial effect of peer educator outreach.Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.

  3. School nurses and sex education: surveillance and disciplinary practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, Mark; Piercy, Hilary; Massey, Marie-Therese; Gregory, Trudy

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore how school nurses perceive the influence of schools on their role in delivering sex and relationship education in primary schools. School nurses play a key role in sex education in English schools. However, sex education is a contentious issue meaning the sex education of children is often an area of tension within the curriculum. However, the impact of these tensions upon school nursing practice is poorly described. Three focus groups with a convenience sample of 16 nurses experienced in conducting sex and relationship education were conducted during 2006. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and subjected to a thematic analysis. Four themes were identified in the data: 'covert surveillance' refers to school staff conducting clandestine surveillance of the classroom actions of the nurse; 'overt surveillance' reflects how nurses felt they were being openly monitored by teachers in the classroom; 'Teacher attitude' refers to the interventions of the supervising teacher in the classroom during the sex education session and 'resistance practices' detailed how nurses attempted to manage the disciplinary practices of the school. School nurses need to be pragmatic about the fact that there will be some attempts by the school to regulate sex education. Developing an early dialogue with the school can mediate this. Closer working practices and the involvement of school nurses in the development of sex education policy and practice is vital to ensure that they continue to make a valuable contribution to sex education in schools.

  4. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a crosssectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students

  5. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a cross- sectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students

  6. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  7. Birth size and gestational age in opposite-sex twins as compared to same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Develo......It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project....... In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95% CI -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age......, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co...

  8. Sex education sources and attitudes toward sexual precautions across a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Mandy L; Bates, Larry W

    2003-04-01

    75 college students responded to Moore and Barling's AIDS questionnaire. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory, and a background survey regarding sex education and sexual and religious activity. The most commonly reported sources of sex education were peers, parents, and high school courses, respectively. Ratings of the most important of 10 potential sources of sex education included peers, high school courses, and religious institutions, respectively. None of these were significantly correlated with future condom use. Virgins reported more open communication with parents about sex. Sexual experience was positively related to more confusion about sexual precautions but negatively related to foreclosed attitudes toward such precautions. Some types of religious involvement (church attendance and campus religious organization membership) were related to foreclosed attitudes. Data in attitudinal and sex education were compared with data collected in 1991. Although students more frequently reported having received sex education in 2000, their attitudes toward utilizing sexual precautions have become somewhat more diffused.

  9. China’s marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390

  10. Age- and sex-tailored serum phosphate thresholds do not improve cardiovascular risk estimation in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Bonello, Monica; Gambaro, Alessia; Sturniolo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Disordered metabolism of phosphorus is one of the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Age and sex may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and subsequently its serum level. We evaluated if age- and sex-specific cutoffs for hyperphosphatemia may define cardiovascular risk better than the current guideline cutoffs. We used data from 16,834 subjects participating in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality rates were analyzed in CKD patients for both the classic definitions (CH; i.e., NKF-KDOQI and K-DIGO) and a tailored definition (TH) of hyperphosphatemia by means of regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. The cutoffs for TH were represented by the 95th percentile of an age- and sex-matched non-CKD population. Serum phosphorus levels showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.12; pdefinition and CVD was marginally better compared with the CH definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.13; p=0.030 vs. OR=1.55, 95% CI, 0.98-2.44; p = 0.059), the TH model was not superior in predicting CVD or mortality. Our data suggest that a tailored, age- and sex-specific definition of hyperphosphatemia is not superior to conventional definitions in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.

  11. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P swimming (P swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age.

  13. Age-related changes in the craniofacial region in a modern Greek population sample of known age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Bertsatos, Andreas; Papageorgopoulou, Christina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate ageing changes in craniofacial region in both sexes and evaluate whether these shape changes are substantial to achieve age discrimination of samples used in anthropological analyses. The study sample consisted of 157 crania of known sex and age (81 males and 76 females) belonging to individuals who lived in Greece during the twentieth century. The sample was divided in three age groups: young adults (YA, 18-39 years old), middle adults (MA, 40-59 years old) and old adults (OA, >60 years old). The three-dimensional coordinates of 31 ecto-cranial landmarks were digitized using a Microscribe 3DX contact digitizer, and landmark configurations were analyzed using the generalized least-squares Procrustes method. The results indicate that both males and females show significant difference among the age groups; however, shape differences can not be used for age group discrimination due to a large range on the accuracy of age group classification. The morphometric changes related to age were different between sexes.

  14. Older adult education in Lithuanian ageing society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemaitaityte I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of the demographic ageing of the population and educational opportunities for older adults in Lithuania. Ageing population is a natural outcome of demographic evolution of society. However, a growing number of older people in Lithuania as well as in other European countries requires continuous revision of societal resources in social security, economics, education, health care areas and their adjustment to the new demands. Though current discussion in Lithuania highlights the inclusion of older adults into active social life through educational activities, the studies in diverse areas show that a small number of older people take part in lifelong learning. For this reason and in the attempt to make older people feel satisfaction with life it is necessary to encourage their activity, to promote their social roles, to give them opportunities to take up voluntary tasks, educational and cultural functions and study new subjects.

  15. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  16. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    -sectional sample of 2006 individuals. The data exhibited high quality with a low missing rate of under 5% in any age groups for each variable. Effects of age and sex on the changes in the four health variables were assessed using multiple regression models with age and sex interactions included. Upon the highly......-related decline in women than in men but neither the overall sex difference nor age-sex interaction reached statistical significance. For hearing function, while no sex difference was found at middle frequency, women had better sensitivity at high frequency and men were more sensitive at low frequency...

  17. Higher and Further Education Institution Policies on Student and Staff Involvement in Commercial Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…

  18. Contraception, Copulation Domination, and the Theoretical Barrenness of Sex Education Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Sex education which deals with the problem of teenage pregnancy and is based upon the essentialist view of sex as heterosexual copulation constitutes misrepresentation of sexuality to young people. The alternative of encouraging adolescents to pursue sexual satisfaction through activities other than copulation is ignored in sex education…

  19. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  20. Role of Estrogen and Other Sex Hormones in Brain Aging. Neuroprotection and DNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Sandra; Stevnsner, Tinna; Gredilla, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS) owing to its low DNA repair capacity. Sex hormones, particularly estrogens, possess potent antioxidant properties and play important roles in maintaining normal reproductive and non-reproductive functions. They exert neuroprotective actions and their loss during aging and natural or surgical menopause is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic decline, cognitive impairment and increased risk of age-related disorders. Moreover, loss of sex hormones has been suggested to promote an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, a feature often observed in menopausal women and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although data on the relation between sex hormones and DNA repair mechanisms in the brain is still limited, various investigations have linked sex hormone levels with different DNA repair enzymes. Here, we review estrogen anti-aging and neuroprotective mechanisms, which are currently an area of intense study, together with the effect they may have on the DNA repair capacity in the brain. PMID:29311911

  1. Role of Estrogen and Other Sex Hormones in Brain Aging. Neuroprotection and DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zárate

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS owing to its low DNA repair capacity. Sex hormones, particularly estrogens, possess potent antioxidant properties and play important roles in maintaining normal reproductive and non-reproductive functions. They exert neuroprotective actions and their loss during aging and natural or surgical menopause is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic decline, cognitive impairment and increased risk of age-related disorders. Moreover, loss of sex hormones has been suggested to promote an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, a feature often observed in menopausal women and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although data on the relation between sex hormones and DNA repair mechanisms in the brain is still limited, various investigations have linked sex hormone levels with different DNA repair enzymes. Here, we review estrogen anti-aging and neuroprotective mechanisms, which are currently an area of intense study, together with the effect they may have on the DNA repair capacity in the brain.

  2. Age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemenkov Yu.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis. Material and Methods. Features of acidity in esophagus and cardial part of stomach was studied in 175 children aged 4 to 17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis by pH-monitoring. pH-monitoring was carried by «Gastroscan-24». Age and sex characteristics have been identified on examination results. Results. Children of preschool age experience the most unfavorable reflux from the stomach to the esophagus. Boys experience the pathological reflux more severely. Conclusions: Effectiveness of esophageal clearance is lower in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux progresses are more favorably in a standing position, especially in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux occurs more often in the supine position and has a longer and more aggressive course in preschool age boys.

  3. Effects of Age and Sex on Hospital Readmission in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Karmarkar, Amol; Adhikari, Deepak; Ottenbacher, Kenneth; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2018-01-04

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission after acute hospital discharge for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals and postacute discharge settings. Individuals (N=52,877) with Diagnosis Related Group codes of TBI, who were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65, 66 to 75, and ≥76 years. Not applicable. All-cause hospital readmission. Sex differences in 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission were found among all age groups (Preadmission were in the 2 oldest groups (66-75 and ≥76y). For both sexes, the oldest group (≥76y) had the highest adjusted 90-day readmission risk (eg, 90-d readmission: odds ratio, 2.32 [95% confidence interval, 2.01-2.69] for men; odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.43] for women). Among those readmitted within 90 days, the youngest group (18-40y) had the highest cumulative readmission percentage (35% for both sexes) within the first week of hospital discharge. Age and sex were significantly associated with hospital readmission during the first 90 days postdischarge in our TBI sample. Specifically, those aged 66 to 75 or ≥76 years had the highest readmission risk over 90 days for both sexes. The findings suggest that clinicians should consider age and sex in discharge planning and for the entire episode of care for the population with TBI. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conjectures concerning cross-sex hormone treatment of aging transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis; Lips, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people are now in place. However, little attention has been paid to the issue of treatment suitability for older people. Does existing treatment need to be adapted as subjects age, and does it make a difference if treatment is only started when the subject is already older? To assess the necessity of adapting cross-sex hormone administration for elderly transsexual people. Risks/benefits of continued use of cross-sex hormones with regard to bone health, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Due to lack of data on the subject population, sex hormone treatment of other conditions in older non-transsexual people has been taken as the best available analogy to determine the extent to which these might be applicable to comparable transsexual persons. Findings in transsexual people receiving cross-sex hormone treatment sometimes modified the above approach of applying guidelines for the elderly to the aging transsexual population. Testosterone administration to female-to-male transsexual persons (FtoM) carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. For those with high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency the dose can be reduced. Administration of estrogens to male-to-female transsexual persons (MtoF), particularly when combined with progestins, does significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (almost a twofold incidence compared with the general population). This may require dose adjustment or changing from oral to safer transdermal estrogens. Tumors of the breasts, prostate and pituitary may occur. In FtoM, breast cancer can occur even after breast ablation. Older subjects can commence cross-sex hormone treatment without disproportionate risks. Cross-sex hormones may be continued into old age but monitoring for cardiovascular disease and malignancies, both of the old and new sex, is recommended. MtoF will have more health complications in old age than Fto

  5. The Comparison of Sex Education with and without Religious Thoughts in Sexual Function of Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Yousefzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important events in human life is marriage. Sexual satisfaction is one of the effective factors in a successful marriage. Accordingly, sexual health education is necessary. Sex education should be in line with the cultural, religious, and social infrastructures of the society. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of sex education with and without religious teachings on sexual performance of married women. Methods: This clinical trial with a pretest-posttest design was performed in four health centers that were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling, in 2013. A total of 64 women were chosen with regard to the inclusion criteria, such as formal marriage and first marriage, age of marriage ≥ 1, married life with husband, monogamous marriage, and participating in training sessions (sexual health education and sexual health based on religious teachings that were held for six weeks. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and a demographic characteristics form were used to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient in SPSS, version 16. Results: In the intervention group, the mean score of Female Sexual Function Index was significantly different before and after the training program (P=0.03. The subgroups of sexual desire, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction in the intervention group and subgroups of arousal and sexual satisfaction in the control group were significantly different after the intervention (P

  6. Multiculturalism and inconsistency in the perception of sex education in Australian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahbobi, Ghanim

    2012-01-01

    A group of individuals who share common beliefs form a culture in which they communicate their values and attributes about certain aspects of society. Sex education remains one of the early teachings that humans experience irrespective of the race or level of development of a given society. However, different cultures perceive sex education differently due to differences in attitudes and beliefs, leading to significant diversity in the management of sex education among different societies across the globe. Many studies have found that in a traditional society with a homogeneous culture, the foremost reason for the different approaches to sex education is related to traditional values, in addition to other factors such as religion and political belief. In order to improve sex education, and consequently, sexual health in a modern multicultural society such as Australia, it becomes imperative to identify the inconsistency in beliefs about sex education among individuals with different cultural backgrounds in the Australian population. In this report, the author highlights similarities and differences in the methods employed by certain cultures of the Australian population. The report considers the different cultural environments of specific societies, the prevalence of sex education in these societies and how culture influences the prevalence. The concluding thoughts reflect on the success of the education programs in Australia, based on the idea that resolving the problems of sex education needs support from a number of bodies within Australian society.

  7. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from "Sex under the Age of 25".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25." Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18-24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12-17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.

  8. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (pChinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  9. Correlation of Sex Education and the Racial Composition of a School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaa, Kelly

    The purpose of the project was to determine whether there was a correlation between the racial makeup of a school district and the decision to provide sex education in its schools. Interviews were conducted with six different school districts across Santa Clara County, California. After the interviews, it was determined that the racial diversity did not play a role in deciding if sex education would be taught. This researcher did learn that a lack of educational funding had an effect on the school districts and their decisions. Due to this lack of funding for schools, educational programs, such as sex education, were not being provided to the students.

  10. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7–18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and ‘age × sex’ interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7–12 and 13–18 years. As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  11. Regarding the influence of sex and aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han SB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sang Beom HanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Republic of KoreaI read with great interest the article by Ahn et al1 entitled “Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease”, in which the authors revealed the sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease (DED in Korean adult population. They also showed the differences in patterns of DED following ocular surgery according to sex.1 The large population-based cross-sectional study was undoubtfully well designed and conducted, and suggests that matching of age and sex is recommended in further researches on DED.1However, I would like to point out that there exist controversies regarding the effect of aging and sex on DED. Our previous study showed that age had no significant association with the prevalence of DED in adults of 65 years or older, while female sex was significantly related to increased prevalence of DED.2 By contrast, studies in the US demonstrated that prevalence of DED increased with aging both in male and female populations.3,4 Moreover, there are differences in pathophysiology of DED according to age. Although dysfunction of lacrimal and meibomian glands may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DED in the elderly, DED associated with visual display terminal use or contact lens wear is more common in young and middle-aged patients.5 Therefore, I believe these differences in the pathogenesis should be considered in the evaluation of the effects of sex and aging on DED.Authors' replyJong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim11Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South KoreaWe thank the author for taking a

  12. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  13. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Achievement Level and Sex Differences in Levels of Interests and the Interest-Educational Choice Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Neal

    1978-01-01

    The prediction of level of post-high-school educational choice was investigated using the theme scores of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, sex and achievement level as predictors. Results indicated significant relationships between interests and educational choice, moderated in some cases by sex and achievement level. (Author)

  15. A History of Sex Education in the United States since 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Valerie J.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a historical perspective toward the current public school practices of American sex education. The primary time frames include the progressive era (1880-1920), intermediate era (1920-1960), the sexual revolution era (1960s and 1970s), and the modern sex education era (1980s to the present). In each period, we highlight key developments…

  16. The Role of Sexuality and Sex Equity in the Education of Disabled Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Katherine; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This article tackles the broad issue of the intersection of sexuality, disability, and sex education. Myths and stereotypes about the nonsexual disabled woman are examined, as are issues of identity, dating and other loving relationships, sexual abuse, sex education, sexuality related services, and inclusion of disabled students in curriculum and…

  17. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  18. Rethinking Difference and Sex Education: From Cultural Inclusivity to Normative Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggis, Jane; Mulholland, Monique

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to problematise what is meant by 'difference' and consider what such a reinterpretation might mean for methodological interventions in sex education research. Our concern is the tendency for sex education research to treat difference as a set of categories to be "added-on", such as religious difference, cultural…

  19. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  20. Television sex education panics? An analysis of three public debates in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Mols (Anouk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013, television sex education show Dokter Corrie instigated a heated public debate in the Netherlands. This study places the Dokter Corrie uproar in a broader perspective and identifies the moral dimensions in the reactions to three Dutch television sex education shows: Open en Bloot

  1. Public Opinion on School-Based Sex Education in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Forrest L.; Valois, Robert F.; Oldendick, Robert; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to determine opinions on the use of abstinence only versus comprehensive sex education by registered voters in South Carolina. A cross-sectional, random-digit dial sample was utilized. Approximately 81% of respondents indicated support for sex education that emphasizes abstinence but also teaches about the benefits…

  2. Young Sexual Citizens: Reimagining Sex Education as an Essential Form of Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) pose a significant threat to the health and well-being of populations worldwide, and to young people in particular. Despite empirical evidence that comprehensive sex education is an important tool for prevention, the legitimacy and content of sex education in schools continue to be challenged by conservative…

  3. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  4. Making Smart Choices: A Serious Game for Sex Education for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Chu, Samuel K. W.; Hong, Athena W. L.; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace M. Y.; Mellecker, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Current educational resources for sex education in Hong Kong are mainly designed to be used in classroom. They are mostly text-based and are unattractive to the most vulnerable adolescent group. As discussion on sex is still taboo in Chinese society, self-learning resources can supplement classroom teaching. This paper describes an interactive…

  5. Understanding Parental Views of Adolescent Sexuality and Sex Education in Ecuador: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerves, Elena; López, Silvia; Castro, Cecilia; Ortiz, William; Palacios, María; Rober, Peter; Enzlin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Parents' contribution to sex education is increasingly receiving research attention. This growing interest stems from recognition of the influence that parental attitudes may have both on young people's sexual attitudes and behaviour, and on school-based sex education. Studies regarding parental attitudes towards sexuality are, however, still…

  6. Relationship between serum insulin level and age and sex in 980 patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianlin; Ji Naijun; Mei Yubin; Wang Chengyao; Fan Bifu; Chen Donghai; Guan Li; Tong Lijun; Li Fuyuan; Gao Meiying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum insulin level in essential hypertension patients and its relationship with age and sex. Methods: The levels of serum insulin were determined with radioimmunoassay in 980 essential hypertension patients and 120 controls. Results: The levels of serum insulin in the essential hypertension patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (t=4.280, P<0.01). However, there were no significant differences among the levels in different sex and age groups. The same held true for women before and after menopause as well as different stages of hypertension. Conclusion: The average serum insulin level in EH patients was significantly higher than the level in controls, and had positive correlation to mean arterial pressure. But no significant differences were found among different sex and age groups, so serum insulin could be a new independent risk factor of essential hypertension

  7. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  8. Maths performance as a function of sex, laterality, and age of pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Topolski, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Sex differences in math/spatial performance demand explanations. Within the biological view, the complexity and number of variables make the explanation difficult at best. Laterality and age of pubertal onset have been investigated prominently in this context but rarely considered as interactions in the same study. Some 468 college subjects with SAT MATH (SAT M) scores were divided into 12 groups defined by sex, laterality, and age (early, middle, and late) of pubertal onset. Significant main effects for sex and age of onset emerged, as did an interaction between lateral preference and pubertal onset. Generally males outperformed females. The combination of maleness, sinistrality, and early maturation was associated with high SAT M scores. Sinistrality and late maturation among females predicted very poor math performance.

  9. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  10. Influence of sex and age on fasting and post-prandial gallbladder volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzi, P.; Putinati, S.; Barbieri, D.; Trevisani, L.; Limoni, G.; Lupi, L.; Bighi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Aging and female sex are major risk factors for cholesterol gallstones: in addition to hepatic secretion of lithogenic bile, decreased gallbladder contractility may play a role in such physiological conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of age and sex on gallbladder kinetics in healthy subjects. Gallbladder volume was measured on the US images of 157 fasting subjects using the sum-of-cylinders method. No significant difference was observed between males and females. On the contrary, age was shown to have a significant positive correlation with fasting gallbladder volume, particulary in males. In a second group of 63 healthy volunteers gallbladder volumes were evaluated both before and after a standard meal. The subjects were grouped according to age, and fasting gallbladder volume appeared to be significantly greater in the groups formed by older people. Gallbladder volumes were compared in younger groups (under 35), and gallbladder emptying resulted to be much more complete in males than in females. On the contrary, no significant differences was observed between males and famales over50 - which suggests a possible role of sex - and age-related hormonal factors. The above changes in gallbladder function may facilitate bile stasis which might in turn contribute to the increased risk for cholesterol gallstones notoriously associated with advanced age and female sex

  11. The sex ratio of offspring is associated with the mothers' age at menarche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early menarcheal age is a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancers and is also associated with an increased spontaneous abortion rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between early menarcheal age and the offspring sex ratio. METHODS We recorded the sex...... of 21208 live born infants, all singletons, born to 10 847 premenopausal women (mean attending age: 37.5 ± 7.2 years, range 22-54) who attended our clinics for obstetrical and gynaecological assessment. We calculated the sex ratio of newborn infants in relation to the mothers' age of menarche (from 9 to 18...... years) and to the number of infants per woman (i.e. fertility index). RESULTS A low offspring sex ratio (males/females) of 0.800 was observed in mothers who entered menarche at the age of 9 years; the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) compared with those of control group with menarche at age 14...

  12. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  13. Provocative questions in parochial sex education classes: higher incidence in younger students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan; Breuner, Cora C; Lozano, Paula

    2008-10-01

    Recent data show US adolescents are engaging in sexual activity at earlier ages; however, little is known about young teens' sexual attitudes and behaviors. Examining teens' questions in sex education classes may provide insight into these attitudes and behaviors. Quasi cohort study Parochial middle school sex education classes 5(th) through 8(th) graders Students' anonymous written questions submitted at the outset of sex education classes between 2003 and 2005. Questions were classified into topic categories. Three additional variables were then coded for each question. Ethics/guidance questions included requests for advice or value judgments. Prohibited questions included the topics homosexuality, abortion, masturbation, and contraception. "Red flag" questions were those that suggested consideration of or engagement in sexual behavior. Among 473 questions submitted by 410 students, the most popular topics for 5(th)/6(th) graders were pregnancy and puberty, and for 7(th)/8(th) graders puberty and menstruation. 41 questions (8.6%) were prohibited. 29 questions (6.2%) asked about ethics/guidance. 18 questions (3.81%) were coded as red flag questions. A chi-square analysis showed that 5(th)/6(th) graders asked more questions in the ethics/guidance (8.3% versus 3.64%) and red flag question categories (5.53% versus 1.82%) (P < 0.05) than 7(th)/8(th) graders. Although provocative questions represent a minority of these middle students' queries, these requests suggest the urgency of providing appropriate guidance to young teens, given the risks of early sexual activity. The role of school education programs, physicians and parents in addressing questions of this sort should be considered.

  14. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  15. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  16. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  17. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  18. Effects of Sex and Education on Cognitive Change Over a 27-Year Period in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Emilie T; Laughlin, Gail A; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; McEvoy, Linda K

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated how cognitive function changes with age and whether rates of decline vary by sex or education in a large, homogenous longitudinal cohort characterized by high participation rates, long duration of follow-up, and minimal loss to follow-up. Between 1988 and 2016, 2,225 community-dwelling participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study, aged 31 to 99 years at their initial cognitive assessment, completed neuropsychological testing approximately every 4 years, over a maximum 27-year follow-up. Linear mixed effects regression models defined sex-specific cognitive trajectories, adjusting for education and retest effects. Significant decline across all cognitive domains began around age 65 years and accelerated after age 80 years. Patterns of decline were generally similar between sexes, although men declined more rapidly than women on the global function test. Higher education was associated with slower decline on the tests of executive and global functions. After excluding 517 participants with evidence of cognitive impairment, accelerating decline with age remained for all tests, and women declined more rapidly than men on the executive function test. Accelerating decline with advancing age occurs across multiple cognitive domains in community-dwelling older adults, with few differences in rates of decline between men and women. Higher education may provide some protection against executive and global function decline with age. These findings better characterize normal cognitive aging, a critical prerequisite for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive impairment, and lay the groundwork for future studies of health and behavioral factors that affect age-related decline in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age and Sex Variation In Prevalence Of Chronic Medical Conditions In Older Residents of U.S. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly L.; Boscardin, W. John; Steinman, Michael A.; Schwartz, Janice B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate patterns in prevalences of chronic medical conditions over the agespan of long-term stay nursing home residents and between the sexes with data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING U.S. nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample comprising 11,788 long-term stay residents (3003 (25%) men and 8785 women) aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) was used to group ICD-9 codes to identify the 20 most prevalent chronic medical conditions. SAS survey procedures were used to account for design effects of stratification and clustering to generate nationally representative estimates of prevalences of medical conditions. RESULTS Average age was 84 y, with women older than men (85 vs. 81, p=0.02) with 67% of women ages 80–95. Women required more ADL assistance. The most frequent chronic medical conditions were hypertension (53, 56%: men, women), dementia (45, 52%), depression (31, 37%), arthritis (26, 35%), diabetes mellitus (26, 23%), gastrointestinal reflux -GERD (23, 23%), atherosclerosis (24, 20%), congestive heart failure -CHF (18, 21%), cerebrovascular disease (24, 19%) and anemia (17, 20%). Sex differences in prevalences existed for all but constipation, GERD, and hypertension. Diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and lipid disorders decreased with age in men and women. Atrial fibrillation, anemia, arthritis, CHF, and dementia, and thyroid disease increased with age in both men and women. Age-related patterns differed between the sexes for diabetes, hypertension, and Parkinson’s disease. CONCLUSION The profile of chronic medical conditions varies over the agespan of nursing home residents and differs between men and women. This knowledge should guide educational and care efforts in long-term care. PMID:22463062

  20. "Virginity Is a Virtue: Prevent Early Sex"--Teacher Perceptions of Sex Education in a Ugandan Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex education is a politically contentious issue in many countries, and there are numerous, competing ideologies relating to the most appropriate methods to teach young people about sexual and reproductive health. This paper examines policy and practice in Uganda in light of two contrasting ideologies, namely morally conservative and comprehensive…

  1. School-Based Sex Education and Neuroscience: What We Know about Sex, Romance, Marriage, and Adolescent Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Johnson, Megan; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Galván, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many school-based abstinence-only sex education curricula state that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological effects. Recent advances in neuroscience have expanded our understanding of the neural underpinnings of romantic love, marriage, sexual desire, and sexual behavior and improved our…

  2. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibin Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6 deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions.

  3. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  4. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

  5. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Student Judgments of the risks of HIV-Infection as a function of sexual practice, sex of target and partner, and age and sex of student

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, Russell; Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a male or a female acquiring either a new male sexual partner or a new female one. The greater risks of unprotected sex compared to other practices and the enhanced risks of these practices within g...

  7. Feminism and the physical : sex education, physical education and dress reform in Victoria, 1880-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Lois

    2017-01-01

    In the late ninetheenth century Australia, an "ideal" woman was married and a mother. Limited to her domestic sphere, she depended completely for her well-being on men. Feministes wanted to improve woman's lot and make her more independent, both by extending her traditional spere and by giving her greater autonomy within it. I argue that the physical aspect of emancipation was the most important to women. Feminists justified sex education, physical exercise and dress ...

  8. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Effect of AGE and Sex on thyroid hormone levels in normal egyptian individuals using RIA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; El-Seify, S.; Megahed, Y.M.; El-Arab, A.

    1993-01-01

    This work aims to estimate total serum levels of thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) as well as the pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) in different categories of normal egyptian individuals classified according to age and sex. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometritassay (IRMA) techniques were used. Results of this study indicate that T 3 and T 4 concentrations decreased significantly with advancing age. This decrement was statistically significant in both sexes and could be attributed to the decline in TBG concentration in the elderly. TSH level was not influenced by sex, however, a slight decrease was observed in the elderly perhaps due to decreased TSH receptors and or cyclic AMP activity. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  11. Linking Temperamental Shyness and Social Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: Moderating Influences of Sex and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Tiffany Y L; Lahat, Ayelet; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-10-01

    Although childhood shyness has been linked to social anxiety problems, the factors playing a role in this association have gone largely unexplored. Here we examined the potential moderating roles of sex and age on this relation in a sample of 119 (75 girls) children (10-12 years) and adolescents (14-16 years). As predicted, shyness was positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. Sex, but not age, served as a moderating factor in linking shyness and social anxiety. Specifically, shyness was more strongly associated with social anxiety symptoms among girls than boys. These results suggest the importance of considering sex differences when examining the relation between shyness and social anxiety in childhood and adolescence.

  12. Influence of age and sex on mineral absorption from the alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, W.H.; Pories, W.J.; Michael, E.; Peer, R.M.; Zaresky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of age and sex on mineral absorption, especially iron and zinc, from the alimentary tract has been studied in a rat model using radioisotope retention measurements by means of a whole body counter for small animals. The body burden measurements made after oral administration of each radioisotope showed that the radionuclides were absorbed and retained more by young than by old rats, and more by female than by male animals. The sex effect was slight in young rats and became very pronounced in year-old animals. Old female breeder rats absorbed more of the radioisotopes than virgin adult females. The animal results agree well with human stable and radioisotope Fe and with the limited data on radiozinc absorption. The experimental model seems to have general applicability for investigating the influences of age and sex on trace mineral absorption

  13. Effects of age, sex, and university status on life-satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S M; Giannakopoulos, E

    1994-02-01

    Diener, et al.'s 1985 Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to 1749 adult Australians to examine differences between men and women, university students and nonuniversity students, and among 17- to 22-, 23- to 29-, and 30- to 40-yr.-olds. No significant differences in life-satisfaction emerged in relation to sex or university status, but age showed a significant effect as higher life-satisfaction characterized older subjects. No interactions were found for any combination of the three variables. The results are interpreted in terms of egalitarian sex-role ideologies regarding sex, status-specific criteria in the assessment and conceptualisation of life-satisfaction for university status, and maturity trends in viewing life events concerning age.

  14. Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cady, Gillian; Miller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p age-by-sex-by-activity interaction, p=0.04). High heritability estimates for DXA and pQCT measures varied across bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  17. [Sex education as a cornerstone for a healthy teenage sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero V, Adela

    2011-10-01

    Sexuality is more than reproduction, it is an intrinsic part of each of us, is how we develop and relate with others and with the environment of the society to which we belong. Adolescence is a period with special vulnerability for the development of risky behaviors. In Chile, a progressive decrease in the age of sexual activity onset is observed, particularly in lower socioeconomic strata. The main consequences in sexual health are teenage pregnancies and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. The main strategy for the prevention of this risks is a thorough sexual education, that has to be timely, objective, based on scientific evidence, friendly and confidential.

  18. STUDENTS JUDGMENTS OF THE RISKS OF HIV-INFECTION AS A FUNCTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICE, SEX OF TARGET AND PARTNER, AND AGE AND SEX OF STUDENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEARS, R; ABRAHAM, C; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D

    1995-01-01

    Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a

  19. Gender and age in media education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereotypes and safely-looking conservatist behaviours may lead to harassment and even violence. That is why understanding media messages and identifying overt and covert forms of discrimination are of special interest of educators. In this article several activities for class teachers are presented to encourage them to introduce the touchy topic of gender and age inequalities into their school practice.

  20. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  1. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  2. Sex and Age Differences in Achievement Goal Orientations in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel; Kürkçü, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in the achievement goal orientations of students, which may vary as they progress through their lifespan. However, research examining achievement goal orientations in the Turkish cultural context is scarce. Based on contextual and developmental theories, the aim of this study was to examine sex and age differences…

  3. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  4. Description of age, sex and site distribution of large bowel cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims/Objective: To determine the distribution of bowel cancer with special emphasis on age, sex and site. Methods: One hundred and sixty cases of histologically confirmed large bowel cancers at Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1991 – December 2000 were reviewed. The records were collected from the ...

  5. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  6. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  7. Age Stereotypes as a Function of Sex, Race, and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of race, age, sex, and vocational preference on attitudes toward older workers in a study of 125 business students. Results showed Blacks rated a younger worker more favorably and an older worker less favorably than Whites on three of four work-related dimensions. (JAC)

  8. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  9. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  10. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  11. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  12. Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Effects of Breed, Sex and Age on some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Rabbits. C A Chineke, F A Adeniran, A G Olugun, C ON Ikeobi, O A Oseni. Abstract. (Tropical Journal of Animal Science: 2003, 6(2): 85-90). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Age, Sex and Atherogenic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of atherogenic risk in type 2 DM and non-DM patients and to relate age and sex with atherogenic risk of the patients. A total of 192 participants, consisting of one hundred (100) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and ninety-two (92) healthy controls were randomly selected ...

  14. Effects of age and sex on haematological and serum biochemistry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haematology and serum biochemistry) at different ages (in weeks) in male and female Japanese quails. A total of hundred (100) unsexed day-old quail chicks were purchased and sorted based on sex at the third week. Blood samples were collected ...

  15. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  16. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  17. Gender and age in media education

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereot...

  18. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  19. [The analysis of general mortality by age and sex: evidence of two types of mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Masse, H; Aubenque, M

    1984-01-01

    The departmental distributions of the probabilities of dying by age group and sex are analyzed for France in 1975. It is found that these distributions are the sum of two lognormal distributions. The authors deduce the existence of two populations that are distinguished by whether mortality was endogenous or exogenous. The relative importance of these two types of mortality is considered according to age. (summary in ENG)

  20. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Velotto; Ettore Varricchio; Maria Rosa Di Prisco; Tommaso Stasi; Antonio Crasto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes) in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60%) and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For ea...

  1. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  2. Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10 to 79 years in a cross-sectional design. Dream recall frequency increased from adolescence (ages 10-19 to early adulthood (20-29 and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30-39, proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40-49 than it did for females. For females, it began later (40-49, dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50-59. Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10-19 through 40-49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14-44 yrs. Dream theme diversity decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50-59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60-79. There was a sex difference favouring males on this measure but only for ages 10-19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in dream recall frequency from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease in dream recall frequency—primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep, parallel the observed dream recall changes but are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. However, that decreases in dream theme diversity parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that the diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that is specific to dream recall.

  3. Current Age, Age at First Sex, Age at First Homelessness, and HIV Risk Perceptions Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among Sexually Active Homeless Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Santa Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.

  4. Laughing off the Stereotypes: Age and Aging in Seniors' Online Sex-Related Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Berdychevsky, Liza

    2017-05-17

    Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors. Findings indicated that whereas the portrayal of older adults in humor typically relied on negative ageist stereotypes, their representation in seniors' online sex-related humor depended on the social identity of the butt of this humor. If it was an in-group member (oneself, another community member, or the community as a whole), the portrayal was rather positive, but when the butt belonged to the out-group (older adults in general), the depiction was far more ageist. Nonetheless, the representation of older butts of humor was generally more positive than that of the younger ones. These findings suggest that seniors tend to identify with current cultural representations of sexuality in later life and use sex-related humor as a personal means of resisting ageism. They apply two principal strategies: Distancing-reproducing certain ageist stereotypes by ascribing them to other older adults, but less so to their own group and even less than that to themselves-and equalizing older and younger individuals, even according the former an advantage regarding sexuality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of sex education curricula: measuring up to the SIECUS guidelines. Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, N A; Goodson, P; Serrins, D S; Edmundson, E; Evans, A

    1994-10-01

    Most sexuality education curricula developed the past 20 years were not thoroughly evaluated. This study provides results from a content analysis of 10 sexuality education curricula for junior and senior high school students. Nine nationally available sexuality education curricula and one curriculum guide comprised the sample. The basis for analysis was the Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education, developed by the Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S. (SIECUS) and an instrument developed to measure bias in the curricula. Trained coders found that Sex Respect and Teen Aid addressed less than half the topics suggested by the SIECUS guidelines. Several of the curricula contained gender and sexual orientation bias. Certain key concepts such as "Sexual Behavior" and "Society and Culture" were not adequately addressed by most of the curricula. Findings indicate that of 10 curricula, only six are considered acceptable for educating junior and senior high school students.

  6. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  7. Gene-environment interplay in depressive symptoms: moderation by age, sex, and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, A J; Beam, C R; Johnson, W; Kaprio, J; Korhonen, T; McGue, M; Neiderhiser, J M; Pedersen, N L; Reynolds, C A; Gatz, M

    2017-07-01

    Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms. Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60, there was an accelerating increase in depressive symptom scores with age, but this did not appreciably affect genetic and environmental variances. Overlap in genetic influences between physical illness and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women. Additionally, in men extent of overlap was greater with worse physical illness (the genetic correlation ranged from near 0.00 for the least physical illness to nearly 0.60 with physical illness 2 s.d. above the mean). For men and women, the same environmental factors that influenced depressive symptoms also influenced physical illness. Findings suggested that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...

  9. Knowledge Attitude and Perception of Sex Education among School Going Adolescents in Ambala District, Haryana, India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Randhir; Goyal, Anmol; Singh, Parmal; Bhardwaj, Anu; Mittal, Anshu; Yadav, Sachin Singh

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a highly dynamic period characterised by rapid growth and development. Adolescents have limited knowledge about sexual and reproduction health, and know little about the natural processes of puberty, sexual health, pregnancy or reproduction. Sex education should be an integral part of the learning process beginning in childhood and continuing into adult life, because it is lifelong process. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and attitude of imparting sex education in school going adolescents in rural and urban area of Ambala district. A cross sectional study design was used to study the knowledge of reproductive and sexual health among school going children. A total of 743 adolescents from age group of 13-19 year were studied, using self designed semi-structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding reproductive and sexual health among adolescents. The mean age of study subjects was 15.958±1.61 years, majority of adolescents i.e., 93.5% favour sex education. An 86.3% said sex education can prevent the occurrence of AIDS and 91.5% of adolescents prefer doctors should give them sex education followed by 83.0% school/teacher and least preference was parents 37.3%. There were substantial lacunae in the knowledge about reproductive and sexual health. Students felt that sex education is necessary and should be introduced in the school curriculum.

  10. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios.We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km(2 in Chernobyl's surroundings constitutes an

  11. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sex education and family planning services for young adults: alternative urban strategies in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J W; Diaz de May, E; Sepúlveda, Y; Santos de Garza, Y; Rosenhouse, S

    1987-01-01

    In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas.

  13. Unique sex- and age-dependent effects in protective pathways in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Ravindra; Fan, Chunlan; Rangarajan, Sunil; Sunil, Bhuvana; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Curtis, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age-based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, whereas in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr. Notably, Aged Females showed significantly greater mortality, whereas Young Females exhibited none. Tissue KIM-1 and plasma NGAL were significantly lower in Young Females than all others. IGFBP7 levels were modestly increased in both Young groups. IGFBP7 levels in Aged Females were significantly elevated at baseline relative to Aged Males, and increased linearly through day 3 , when these levels were comparable in both Aged groups. Plasma cytokine levels similarly showed a pattern of protective effects preferentially in Young Females. Expression of the drug transporter MATE2 did not explain the sex/age distinctions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels (~28-kDa species) showed elevation at day 1 in all groups with highest levels seen in Young Males. Exclusively in Young Females, these levels returned to baseline on day 3 , suggestive of a more efficient recovery. In aggregate, we demonstrate, for the first time, a distinctive pattern of response to AKI in Young Females relative to males which appears to be significantly altered in aging. These distinctions may offer novel targets to exploit therapeutically in both females and males in the treatment of AKI.

  14. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanna Merli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1 masculine sex ratios at birth and (2 a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase in behaviors associated with greater risk of HIV infection. We first simulate the relative contributions of the sex ratio at birth and the population age structure to the oversupply of males in the market for sexual partners and show that the sex ratio at birth only aggravates the severe oversupply of males which is primarily a consequence of the population age structure. We then examine the potential consequences of this demographic distortion for the spread of HIV infection and show that, to the extent that males adapt to the dearth of suitable female partners by seeking unprotected sexual contacts with female sex workers, the impact of the oversupply of males in the sexual partnership market on the spread of HIV will be severe.

  15. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008

  16. Changes in sexual behavior following a sex education program in Brazilian public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Heloísa Helena Siqueira Monteiro; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Bertoni, Neilane; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of possible changes in sexual behavior in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behavior of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.

  17. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions. A prospective study of 1765 myelographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, P

    1989-09-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.).

  18. Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisow, Nadja; Kleiter, Ingo; Gahlen, Anna; Fischer, Katrin; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Havla, Joachim; Krumbholz, Markus; Kümpfel, Tania; Aktas, Orhan; Ringelstein, Marius; Geis, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Berthele, Achim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Angstwurm, Klemens; Weissert, Robert; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Schuster, Simon; Stangel, Martin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Mayer, Christoph; Zeltner, Lena; Ziemann, Ulf; Linker, Ralf A; Schwab, Matthias; Marziniak, Martin; Then Bergh, Florian; Hofstadt-van Oy, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Oliver; Winkelmann, Alexander; Marouf, Wael; Rückriem, Lioba; Faiss, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Jarius, Sven; Trebst, Corinna; Hellwig, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset. A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p 40 years. Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

  19. Analysis of the number of enlarged pores according to site, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ahn, J Y; Lee, J I; Bae, J Y; Kim, H L; Suh, H Y; Youn, J I; Park, M Y

    2018-02-02

    Increasing the number of enlarged pores causes cosmetic problems. The difference in the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex is unclear. To analyze the distribution of the number of enlarged pores according to facial site, age, and sex. We analyzed the number of the enlarged pores and the percentage of wrinkles in the nose, forehead, and cheek from 434 polarized images. The measurement results were analyzed according to site, age, and sex. Relationship between enlarged pore counts and wrinkle severity was also analyzed. The study was conducted by using DermaVision,™ which can take cross-polarization, parallel polarization, and ultraviolet light images. The enlarged pores of the nose and forehead were more prominent than in the cheeks. Pore counts were increased with age, and the increment was significant between the 30's and 40's. There was no significant difference by gender. Enlarged pore counts were related to wrinkle severity. The number of enlarged pores differs depending on body site and increased with age. The enlarged pore counts correlate with wrinkle severity and the correlation varies depending on the body site. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  1. Relationships Between Meibomian Gland Loss and Age, Sex, and Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko

    2018-02-12

    This study evaluated relationships between meibomian gland loss (MGL) and age, sex, and dry eye. Dry eye and MGL of the lower eyelid was evaluated from 112 randomly selected subjects (66 women; mean age 62.8; SD ±15.7; and age range: 19-89 years) from Horst Riede GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. In addition, subjects were grouped into dry eye and non-dry eye by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, lid-parallel conjunctival folds and non-invasive break-up time. Symptoms were evaluated by the OSDI. Meibography of the lower eyelid was performed using a Cobra camera (bon Optic, Lübeck, Germany), and images were analyzed by its digital grading tool. Data were analyzed by backward, multiple regression analyses and Pearson correlation. Analyzing all subjects, multiple regression analyses detected that age and dry eye status (dry eye diagnosis or OSDI) but not sex were significantly related to MGL. In both, non-dry eye (n=66) and dry eye subjects (n=46), dry eye status (OSDI) but not age or sex was significantly related to MGL. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were significantly correlated with MGL, but this correlation was stronger among all subjects (Pearson correlation; r=0.536, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.520, Pdry eye group subjects (r=0.275, P=0.014). Dry eye group subjects showed significantly increased MGL of the lower eyelid. Age and dry eye status were related to MGL of the lower eyelid, but sex was not; dry eye status was the dominant factor.

  2. Differences by age and sex in the sedentary time of adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Tessa; Kelly, Paul; Mutrie, Nanette; Fitzsimons, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Previous nationally-representative research in Scotland found a j-shaped relationship between age and leisure sedentary time (ST): a decrease from young to middle-age, before rising steeply in older-age. This study investigated the effects of age and sex on weekday (including work) ST for all adults and stratified by work-status, and on weekend day ST. Differences in the relative contributions of component behaviours were also investigated. Responses from 14,367 adult (≥16 years) 2012-14 Scottish Health Survey participants were analysed using linear regressions. We found no j-shaped relationship between age and weekday ST. Instead, only 16-24 year olds reported lower levels than those over 75 years (6.6 (95% CI: 6.3-6.9) compared to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.2-7.6) hours/day; p work, and for weekend day ST for all groups. For those in work, work ST accounted for 45% of weekday ST. Television/screen ST made up over half of leisure ST on weekdays and weekend days, regardless of sex, age, or work-status. These results challenge our understanding of how ST varies by age. Interventions to reduce ST should consider differences in the relative contributions of ST behaviours by age and work-status.

  3. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.)

  4. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Internal Medicine III, Shimane Medical University, Izumo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs.

  5. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  6. Single-Sex Education in the 21st Century. Education Policy Brief. Volume 6, Number 9, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Kelly E.; Spradlin, Terry E.

    2008-01-01

    Single-sex education describes a diverse range of situations, including individual classes, programs after school, required programs, voluntary programs, and programs to remedy gender inequities and encourage cultural and racial pride. This brief addresses the genesis and legality of single-sex classrooms, the merits and critiques of single-sex…

  7. Self-esteem of physical education students: sex differences and relationships with intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Guszkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the level of self-esteem of physical education and sport students, its diversification according to sex, as well as relationships between self-esteem and the following variables: fluid intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and academic performance. Participants and procedure A total of 385 first-year undergraduates aged 18-26 years studying physical education and sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw participated in the study. The following research tools were used: the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the Social Competence Questionnaire. The average of marks obtained for all courses taken during the first year was adopted as an indicator of academic performance. Results The obtained results attest to the high self-esteem of the first-year students. Male students gave higher ratings for their body appearance and body functioning, personal power and likeability, self-control, and competence. They also indicated a higher level of global self-esteem and identity integration. The highest number of significant positive correlations connected self-esteem and emotional intelligence; slightly fewer correlations existed between self-esteem and social competence. The lowest number of significant relationships was established for fluid intelligence. Only one positive predictor of average evaluations was established in male students (self-control and female students (competence. Conclusions The profile of self-esteem of physical education students demonstrates their high self-esteem, especially in areas related to their field of study. Some variations in the components of self-esteem of male and female students reflect the differences between sexes typical for the Polish adult population.

  8. Sex and Relationships Education and Gender Equality: Recent Experiences from Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Mar

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in sex and relationships education (SRE), the Spanish education system still lacks coherent policies in this field. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, focusing specifically on Andalusia, and discusses the importance of providing SRE for young people. It first describes current Spanish education policy…

  9. The Gendered Nature of South African Teachers' Discourse on Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…

  10. Educating Teenagers about Sex in the United States. NCHS Data Brief. Number 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gladys; Abma, Joyce; Copen, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Sex education in schools and other places, as well as received from parents, provides adolescents with information to make informed choices about sex at a crucial period of their development. Using data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report examines the percentage of male and female teenagers 15-19 years who…

  11. The Comparative Research on Sex Education for Adolescents of China and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-feng, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Sex education refers to people's comprehension about sex, which involves not only sexual structure (anatomy, physiology, birth control, pregnancy, etc.), but also sexual relationships concerning human and moral problems. It includes at least sexual physiology, sexual psychology, sexual ethic, sexual law, etc., which aims to help people form the…

  12. Sex Discrimination in Higher Education and the Professions: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mary

    An annotated bibliography on sex discrimination in higher education and the professions is presented. Sex discrimination remains a major workplace problem and is found in virtually all levels of employment. The bibliography consists of 124 citations which appeared from 1984-1988. It excludes court cases and the "popular press," and although not…

  13. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  14. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  15. Estimation of sex and age of ''virtual skeletons''-a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabherr, Silke; Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi; Uldin, Tanya; Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J.; Christe, Andreas; Schnyder, Pierre; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  16. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  17. Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ... that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). ... The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health ...

  18. Conflicted Identification in the Sex Education Classroom: Balancing Professional Values With Organizational Mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Robin E

    2016-09-01

    Despite enormous resources spent on sex education, the United States faces an epidemic of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among young people. Little research has examined the role sex educators play in alleviating or exacerbating this problem. In this study, we interviewed 50 sex educators employed by public schools throughout a Midwestern, U.S. state about their experiences in the sex education classroom. Twenty-two interviewees communicated feelings of conflicted identification and provided examples of the ways in which they experienced this subjectivity in the context of their employment. We find these interviews shed light on the as-yet-understudied communicative experience of conflicted identification by delineating key sources of such conflict and discursive strategies used in its negotiation. Our results suggest that those who experience conflicted identification and who have a sense of multiple or nested identifications within their overarching professional identity may be safeguarded to some extent from eventual organizational disidentification. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in Zambia. ... The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Perspectives on sex education in relation to sexual health of teenagers in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Simalimbu, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the perspectives on sex education in relation to sexual health of teenagers in Zambia. The research aimed at exploring the perspectives of various stakeholders (teenagers, parents, teachers, pastors and traditional counsellors) on the role of sex education to promote the sexual health of young people in Zambia. The study is guided by the theoretical perspectives of the sociology of childhood, which consider childhood as a social construct and children as ...

  1. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaideep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the nee...

  2. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  3. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-04-20

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26-79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age.

  4. Influence of sex and age on the biological half-life of cadmium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of age on the whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd was studied in male mice following ip injection. The influence of sex on whole-body and organ retention was ascertained after sc injection. The whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd of the older mice was more than twice that of the younger mice, and that of the female mice was longer than that of the males. These differences demonstrate a biological difference between males and females with respect to whole-body half-life of 109 Cd. The effects of age and sex on the biological half-life of Cd in mice are assessed quantitatively

  5. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López

    2011-06-15

    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex and age differences in risk factors of marijuana involvement during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Martins, Silvia S; Strain, Eric C; Mojtabai, Ramin; Storr, Carla L

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to examine whether there are sex and age differences in psychosocial risk factors of marijuana use during adolescence. Data were drawn from 57,767 adolescents (8 th and 10 th graders) from the 2012-2013 Monitoring the Future study. We examined the association between socio-demographic and behavioral correlates with different frequencies of past-year marijuana use (non-use, occasional use: low self-esteem, low perceived harm, peer influence and perceived easy access. Besides, younger boys were more likely than younger girls to report an association between regular marijuana use with low self-esteem, peer influence, and perceived easy access but not with perceived low harm. Findings suggest the relationship between these psychosocial correlates and frequency of marijuana involvement varies across sex and age groups. These variations ask for a nuanced approach to prevention of marijuana involvement in different groups of youth.

  7. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pai...... of gender-related differences in somatosensory sensitivity and for the first time indicate that subjects with deep bite may be more sensitive to glutamate-evoked pain and thermal stimuli.......AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...

  9. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Weronika Wuenstel, Justyna; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence. The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; SŁOWIŃSKA, Małgorzata Anna; NIEDŹWIEDZKA, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059

  11. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahereh Joezy-Shekalgorabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC. Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC, continuous use of sexed semen only (SS, utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2, and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1. Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd.

  12. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.

    2014-06-01

    A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)

  13. Lumbar paraspinal muscle fat infiltration is independently associated with sex, age, and inter-vertebral disc degeneration in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Besa, Pablo; Lobos, Daniel; Campos, Mauricio; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-01-29

    To determine the association of paraspinal muscles and psoas relative cross-sectional area (RCSA) and fat signal fraction (FSF) with sex, age, and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in symptomatic patients. We retrospectively evaluated 80 adult patients with spinal symptoms using T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. We determined RCSA and FSF of the paraspinal muscles (erector spinae and multifidus) and psoas from L1-L2 to L5-S1; we determined IDD using the Pfirrmann classification. We compared differences in muscle RCSA and FSF based on sex and IDD, and we correlated age and IDD with RCSA and FSF. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we determined the impact of sex, age, and IDD on RCSA and FSF. Men exhibited larger psoas RCSA but not larger paraspinal muscles RCSA than women. Women had larger FSF in the paraspinal muscles and psoas. Increasing IDD was associated with larger FSF if ≥2 Pfirrmann grades were observed. IDD correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles, and age correlated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles and psoas. IDD was less consistently correlated with RCSA, but age correlated negatively with RCSA of all three muscles. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that sex, age, and IDD were each independently associated with FSF of the paraspinal muscles; additionally, sex and age, but not IDD, were associated with psoas FSF. RCSA was less consistently influenced by these three variables. Sex, age, and IDD are independently associated with paraspinal muscles FSF; only sex and age influence psoas FSF.

  14. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  15. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Avcu; Ersan Altun; Ihsan Akpinar; Mehmet Deniz Bulut; Kemal Eresov; Tugrul Biren

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to exam...

  16. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Someswara Rao, M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Mishra, U.C.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40 K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40 K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  17. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.; Pierret, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have mov...

  18. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with li...... of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions....

  19. Establishing blood gas ranges in healthy bovine neonates differentiated by age, sex, and breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Patrick; Krump, Lea; Kennedy, Aideen; Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P

    2018-04-01

    Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors. The study was conducted on healthy neonatal calves (n = 288), and completed over a 2-yr period. Individual calf blood gas analysis was conducted for parameters of pH, base excess, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , glucose, total hemoglobin, HCO 3 - , pCO 2 , anion gap, strong ion difference, and hematocrit levels. Regression procedures examined the combined effect of year, farm, age, breed type, sex, and hours postfeeding on each variable. Significant effects were observed for age, sex, and breed type on several of the blood gas variables. Furthermore, year, farm, and hours postfeeding appeared to have less of an influence on neonatal bovine blood gas profiles. Consequently, specific ranges based on the neonate's age, sex, and breed type will allow for more detailed and accurate diagnosis of health and ill health in neonatal calves. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  20. Age Effect in the Morphological Traits Performance for Sex Determination in Human Skulls and Mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that diagnostic performance of the morphological indicators for sexual dimorphism are reduced as they are applied in skull and mandibles of older subjects. We used 275 adult human skulls, 250 of these with mandible, all subjects with sex and age registry. Sixteen classic morphological indicators of sexual dimorphism were evaluated, this information was compared with the registry and results noted in terms of precision. The best general performance of mor...

  1. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E J Arnold

    Full Text Available The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless, more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  2. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Lab. of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  3. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  4. Using Computer Simulations for Investigating a Sex Education Intervention: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Anastasia; Bullock, Seth; Graham, Cynthia A; Ingham, Roger

    2017-05-03

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are ongoing concerns. The best method for preventing the transmission of these infections is the correct and consistent use of condoms. Few studies have explored the use of games in interventions for increasing condom use by challenging the false sense of security associated with judging the presence of an STI based on attractiveness. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of computer simulation as a serious game for sex education. Specific aims were to (1) study the influence of a newly designed serious game on self-rated confidence for assessing STI risk and (2) examine whether this varied by gender, age, and scores on sexuality-related personality trait measures. This paper undertook a Web-based questionnaire study employing between and within subject analyses. A Web-based platform hosted in the United Kingdom was used to deliver male and female stimuli (facial photographs) and collect data. A convenience sample group of 66 participants (64%, 42/66) male, mean age 22.5 years) completed the Term on the Tides, a computer simulation developed for this study. Participants also completed questionnaires on demographics, sexual preferences, sexual risk evaluations, the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), and the Sexual Inhibition Subscale 2 (SIS2) of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales-Short Form (SIS/SES - SF). The overall confidence of participants to evaluate sexual risks reduced after playing the game (Psimulations as a serious game for sex education. Engaging in the Term on the Tides game had an impact on participants' confidence in evaluating sexual risks. ©Anastasia Eleftheriou, Seth Bullock, Cynthia A Graham, Roger Ingham. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 03.05.2017.

  5. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  6. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  7. Influence of age and sex on quantitative parameters in CT of the brain in neurogeriatric diseases. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternovoj, S.K.; Damulin, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a study of age and sex differences of linear, volumetric, volumetric longitudinal and densitometric parameters of CT of the brain in patients with neurogeriatric diseases with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. The ventricular system of the brain and subarachnoid space was shown to increase with age; a decrease in the relative density of the white substance at the anterior horns was noted. Sex differences were most noticeable in younger patients. Average sizes of the ventricular system and subarachnoid space were indicated for men and women belonging to different age groups. A conclusion was made that assessment of CT results in neurogeriatric patients must include their age and sex

  8. Rousseau on Sex-Roles, Education and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, philosophers of education have begun taking a renewed interest in Rousseau's educational thought. This is a welcome development as his ideas are rich with educational insights. His philosophy is not without its flaws, however. One significant flaw is his educational project for females, which is sexist in the highest degree.…

  9. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  10. A Sex Education Programme for Mothers in Iran: Does Preschool Children's Sex Education Influence Mothers' Knowledge and Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeno; Riazi, Hedyeh; Firoozi, Armin; Nasiri, Maliheh

    2018-01-01

    Mothers have an important role to play in teaching their children about sexual issues and shaping children's sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. In many cases, however, mothers themselves need help and support. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a sex education programme on the knowledge and attitudes of the mothers of…

  11. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S; Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011-2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men's SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40-49 (men) or 60-69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral groups. Documenting the distribution and sociodemographic features

  12. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The role of sex, gender, and education on depressive symptoms among young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Philip A; Baker, Elizabeth H; Milner, Adrienne N

    2016-01-01

    Men are less likely to experience depression and both women and men who self-assess as high in traits associated with masculinity are less likely to experience depression. Recent theoretical developments stress that the context of gender construction varies by other aspects of social status such as education. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave III, romantic relationship sub-sample, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students in the U.S. in 1997. Wave III data were collected in 2001-2002 when they are ages 18-26. A subsample of individuals who were or currently are in a romantic relationship (N=4302) were administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). We find that femininity, not masculinity, results in less depressive symptoms among women regardless of education. Femininity is associated with less depressive symptoms among college educated men, but masculinity is associated with less depressive symptoms among non-college educated men. Sex differences in the association between gender traits and depression symptoms are smaller among those who have attended college. Results stress the importance of context for understanding the relationship between sex, gender, and depression. Individuals benefit more from both masculinity and femininity with increased education. Conversely, those with less education may be penalized for sex-gender incongruent traits in terms of mental health. These analyses are cross-sectional, making causal inference impossible. This sample is limited to young adults who were or had been in a romantic relationship at the time of the survey. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...... cases, respectively, and 0.488+/-0.028 and 0.463+/-0.025 in male and female controls, respectively. AWT decreased with increasing age in cases, and increased with the degree of current smoking in all subjects. We found significant differences in quantitative HRCT measures of emphysema and AWT between...

  15. The Role of Single-Sex Education in the Academic Engagement of College-Bound Women: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Linda J.; Riggers, Tiffani A.; Eagan, M. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: As opportunities for public and private single-sex education have expanded, the debate surrounding this issue has become more heated. Recent reviews of research on single-sex education have concluded that the evidence is mixed, due in large part to the difficulty of attributing differences between single-sex and coeducational…

  16. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning about facts of life: perspective from medical students on sources and preferences about puberty and sex education in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mubeen, Syed Muhammand; Furqan, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Puberty heralds the onset of adulthood, and is fraught with complex physiological and psychological changes and emotions. In this study, we looked at the sources of information about puberty and sex education among males and females, age at which they learned about them, and the opinions on the role of schools and parents in imparting this education among medical students.A cross-sectional pilot study, using convenience sampling was conducted among 153 medical students of the Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry (HCM&D) in Karachi. Regarding most common source of information about puberty; 23 (25.3%) males identified friends as the most important source of information. While 31 (50.0%) women identified their mothers as the most important source.Regarding most common source of information about reproductive systems and sex; 17 (27.4%) women identified school teachers as the most common source of information, while 26 (28.6%) men identified books and magazines.

  18. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  19. Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P; Courtney, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants were, on average, 17 years of age. Our outcome variables were self-report of having transactional sex ever and in the past year, when participants were an average age of 19 years. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA variables and transactional sex variables. Initial analyses were performed on both genders; exploratory analyses were then performed evaluating each gender separately. Total N=732; 574 were included in the main analyses. History of sexual molestation was significantly associated with increased odds of having transactional sex, both ever and in the past year (OR [95% CI]: 3.21 [1.26-8.18] and 4.07 [1.33, 12.52], respectively). History of rape was also significantly associated with increased odds of having had transactional sex ever and in the past year (ORs [95% CI]: 3.62 [1.38-9.52] and 3.78 [1.19, 12.01], respectively). Odds ratios in female-only analyses remained significant and were larger in magnitude compared with the main, non-stratified analyses; odds ratios in male-only analyses were non-significant and smaller in magnitude when compared with the main analyses. Both CSA variables were associated with increased likelihood of transactional sex. This association appears to vary by gender. Our results suggest that policymakers for youth in foster care should consider the unique needs of young women with histories of CSA when developing programs to support healthy relationships. Health care providers should also consider adapting screening and counseling practices to reflect the increased risk of transactional sex for female youth in foster care with a history

  20. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  1. Age and sex effects on human mutation rates. An old problem with new complexities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Base substitution mutations are far more common in human males than in females, and the frequency increases with paternal age. Both can be accounted for by the greater number of pre-meiotic cell divisions in males, especially old ones. In contrast, small deletions do not show any important age effect and occur with approximately equal frequency in the two sexes. Mutations in most genes include both types, and the sex and paternal age effect depends on the proportion of the two types. A few traits, of which Apert Syndrome is best understood, are mutation hot spots with all the mutations occurring in one or two codons, usually at one nucleotide. They occur with very high frequency almost exclusively in males and the frequency increases rapidly with paternal age. It has been suggested that the mutant cells have a selective advantage in the male germ-line prior to meiosis. Evidence for this surprising, but important, hypothesis is discussed. A possible mechanism is the conversion of asymmetrical stem-cell divisions into symmetric ones. Some traits with complex etiology show a slight paternal age effect. There is also a short discussion of the high deleterious mutation rate and the role of sexual reproduction in reducing the consequent mutation load. (author)

  2. Effect of age, sex, area and management practices on cattle mortality in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Reazul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17

  3. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  4. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  5. Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Krueger, Kurt V; Mvundura, Mercy

    2009-07-01

    Human capital estimates of labor productivity are often used to estimate the economic impact of diseases and injuries that cause incapacitation or death. Estimates of average hourly, annual, and lifetime economic productivity, both market and household, were calculated in 2007 US dollars for 5-year age groups for men, women, and both sexes in the United States. Data from the American Time Use Survey were used to estimate hours of paid work and household services and hourly and annual earnings and household productivity. Present values of discounted lifetime earnings were calculated for each age group using the 2004 US life tables and a discount rate of 3% per year and assuming future productivity growth of 1% per year. The estimates of hours and productivity were calculated using the time diaries of 72,922 persons included in the American Time Use Survey for the years 2003 to 2007. The present value of lifetime productivity is approximately $1.2 million in 2007 dollars for children under 5 years of age. For adults in their 20s and 30s, it is approximately $1.6 million and then it declines with increasing age. Productivity estimates are higher for males than for females, more for market productivity than for total productivity. Changes in hours of paid employment and household services can affect economic productivity by age and sex. This is the first publication to include estimates of household services based on contemporary time use data for the US population.

  6. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  7. Age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems among female sex workers in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs' exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs' mental health status, especially among younger FSWs.

  8. AβPP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Show Sex Differences in the Cerebellum Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Lara; Fernandez-Perez, Ivan; Herrera, Jose Luis; Anton, Marta; Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Wandosell, Francisco

    2016-09-06

    Cerebellar pathology has been related to presenilin 1 mutations in certain pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease. However, cerebellum tissue has not been intensively analyzed in transgenic models of mutant presenilins. Furthermore, the effect of the sex of the mice was not systematically analyzed, despite the fact that important gender differences in the evolution of the disease in the human population have been described. We analyzed whether the progression of amyloidosis in a double transgenic mouse, AβPP/PS1, is susceptible to aging and differentially affects males and females. The accumulation of amyloid in the cerebellum differentially affects males and females of the AβPP/PS1 transgenic line, which was found to be ten-fold higher in 15-month-old females. Amyloid-β accumulation was more evident in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, but glia reaction was only observed in the granular layer of the older mice. The sex divergence was also observed in other neuronal, survival, and autophagic markers. The cerebellum plays an important role in the evolution of the pathology in this transgenic mouse model. Sex differences could be crucial for a complete understanding of this disease. We propose that the human population could be studied in this way. Sex-specific treatment strategies in human populations could show a differential response to the therapeutic approach.

  9. Sex and age differences in physical performance: A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Esther O; Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Alemany, Joseph A; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the age- and sex-specific differences of physical fitness performances and Body Mass Index (BMI) in basic training and the operational Army. Cross-sectional Study. This secondary analysis utilizes retrospective surveys of U.S. Army Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and operational units to compare physical performances between men and women as measured by the Army Physical Readiness Test (APFT). An ANOVA was used to compare mean differences in APFT results and BMI within sex-specific populations. A post hoc Tukey test identified specific mean differences. Adjusting for age, an ANCOVA was used to compare sex and occupation (infantry and non-infantry) differences in APFT results. Surveyed populations consisted of 2216 BCT Soldiers (1573 men and 643 women) and 5515 Operational Soldiers (4987 men and 528 women). Male and female operational Soldiers had greater muscular performance (79%-125% higher APFT push-ups, 66%-85% higher APFT sit-ups) and cardiorespiratory performance (22%-24% faster APFT 2-mile run times) than BCT Soldiers. Male BCT and operational Soldiers outperform their female counterparts on tests of muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance. Sex differences in physical performances attenuated among female Soldiers in operational units compared to BCT. Among male operational Soldiers, infantry Soldiers exhibited greater cardiorespiratory and muscular performance than non-infantry Soldiers. Higher BMI was associated with higher age groups, except for female BCT Soldiers. Gaps in cardiorespiratory and muscular performances between men and women should be addressed through targeted physical training programs that aim to minimize physiological differences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Gut Microbiota with Respect to Host Strain, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gangsik; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Jeon, Che Ok; Hyun, Seogang

    2017-07-01

    Microbiota has a significant impact on the health of the host individual. The complexity of the interactions between mammalian hosts and their microbiota highlights the value of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, because of its relatively simple microbial community and ease of physiological and genetic manipulation. However, highly variable and sometimes inconsistent results regarding the microbiota of D. melanogaster have been reported for host samples collected from different geographical locations; discrepancies that may be because of the inherent physiological conditions of the D. melanogaster host. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of two D. melanogaster laboratory strains, w 1118 and Canton S, with respect to the sex and age of the host, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the widespread and abundant commensal bacterial genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, we identified Enterococcus and Leuconostoc as major host-strain-specific bacterial genera. The relative proportions of these bacterial genera, and those of the species within each, were found to differ markedly with respect to strain, sex, and age of the host, even though host individuals were reared under the same nutritional conditions. By using various bioinformatic tools, we uncovered several characteristic features of microbiota corresponding to specific categories of the flies: host-sex-bias association of specific bacteria, age-dependent alteration of microbiota across host species and sex, and uniqueness of the microbiota of female w 1118 flies. Our results, thus, help to further our understanding of host-microbe interactions in the D. melanogaster model.

  11. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  12. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  13. Electrocardiographic parameters of the American Miniature Horse: influence of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The veterinary cardiology has growing importance in equine medicine. There are studies of standardization of electrocardiographic parameters of many races, according to their stature and ability. However, no studies are in the literature with the American Miniature Horse. To evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG tracing configuration of this breed at rest and to verify the influence of age and sex on ECG parameters, 203 horses including 143 females and 60 males were divided into four age groups (foals, yearlings, adults and elderly. Electrocardiographic parameters were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads of frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. Heart rates (HR decreased with increasing age were higher in males than in females. Sinus tachycardia followed by sinus arrhythmia was dominant in both sexes. The cardiac axis was higher in males and ranged between 120° and 150° for foals, 30° and 60° for yearlings and adults, and 60° and 90° for the elderly. The P wave was bifid in several animals. The P-wave amplitude and T-wave duration from lead II and BA were larger in males than in females. The majority of the animals exhibited ST segment depression and a negative T-wave. The most common QRS complex morphology was Qr. Differences were observed between the electrocardiographic tracings of males and females, and age influenced the ECG parameters. Therefore, this study established the ECG patterns for the American Miniature Horse breed and could be used to determine the influence of age and sex on several of the studied variables.

  14. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40 K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  15. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In most cases, the available data consisted of the patient's age at the time of administration, the patient's sex, the quantity of activity administered, the clinically-determined uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid, and the time after administration at which the uptake was determined. The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) -exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = λ/sub r/ - λ/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), λ/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and λ/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of λ/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time or maximum uptake an the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptakes at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  16. Age- and sex-dependent model for estimating radioiodine dose to a normal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of an age- and sex-dependent model of radioiodine dosimetry in the thyroid and the application of the model to estimating the thyroid dose for each of 4215 patients who were exposed to 131 I in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The model was made to conform to these data requirements by the use of age-specific estimates of the biological half-time of iodine in the thyroid and an age- and sex-dependent representation of the mass of the thyroid. Also, it was assumed that the thyroid burden was maximum 24 hours after administration (the 131 I dose is not critically sensitive to this assumption). The metabolic model is of the form A(t) = K[exp(-μ 1 t) - exp(-μ 2 t)] (μCi), where μ 1 = lambda/sub r/ + lambda/sub i//sup b/ (i = 1, 2), lambda/sub r/ is the radiological decay-rate coefficient, and lambda/sub i//sup b/ are biological removal rate coefficients. The values of lambda/sub i//sup b/ are determined by solving a nonlinear equation that depends on assumptions about the time of maximum uptake and the eventual biological loss rate (through which age dependence enters). The value of K may then be calculated from knowledge of the uptake at a particular time. The dosimetric S-factor (rad/μCi-day) is based on specific absorbed fractions for photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV for thyroid masses from 1.29 to 19.6 g; the functional form of the S-factor also involves the thyroid mass explicitly, through which the dependence on age and sex enters. An analysis of sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the thyroid mass and the biological removal rate for several age groups is reported. The model could prove useful in the dosimetry of very short-lived radioiodines. Tables of age- and sex-dependent coefficients are provided to enable readers to make their own calculations. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  17. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  18. Role of Sex Hormones on Brain Mitochondrial Function, with Special Reference to Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gaignard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondria have a fundamental role in both cellular energy supply and oxidative stress regulation and are target of the effects of sex steroids, particularly the neuroprotective ones. Aging is associated with a decline in the levels of different steroid hormones, and this decrease may underline some neural dysfunctions. Besides, modifications in mitochondrial functions associated with aging processes are also well documented. In this review, we will discuss studies that describe the modifications of brain mitochondrial function and of steroid levels associated with physiological aging and with neurodegenerative diseases. A special emphasis will be placed on describing and discussing our recent findings concerning the concomitant study of mitochondrial function (oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and brain steroid levels in both young (3-month-old and aged (20-month-old male and female mice.

  19. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  20. A Study of Curriculum and Instruction in Sex Education : Toward the Better Formation of a Sense of Value through Classroom Activity and Guidance(Educational Philosophy)

    OpenAIRE

    町田, 健一; マチダ, ケンイチ; Kenichi, Machida

    2000-01-01

    The Purpose of Research Much attention has recently been paid to the importance of sex education. Conversely, it is often said that in sex education we should teach only biological facts about human bodies, but no further aspects such as the sense of value towards sex. To support this opinion, it is said that in the modern world sex does not necessarily mean love and that sex issues are too complex to be able to clarify in the domain of educational purpose. Is this really the way sex educatio...

  1. Evolution of Sex Differences in Trait- and Age-Specific Vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2016-11-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species. I provide a review of these dynamics and illustrate associated vulnerabilities in nonhuman species. The age- and sex-specific vulnerability of such traits is then illustrated for stressor-related disruptions of boys' and girls' physical growth and play behavior, as well as for aspects of boys' and girls' and men's and women's personality, language, and spatial abilities. There is much that remains to be determined, but enough is now known to reframe trait sensitivity in ways that will allow scientists and practitioners to better identify and understand vulnerable human traits, and eventually ameliorate or prevent their expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  3. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiktorsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80 were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder (p = 0.02. At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55. Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79, and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64. We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  4. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Rydberg Sterner, Therese; Mellqvist Fässberg, Madeleine; Skoog, Ingmar; Ingeborg Berg, Anne; Duberstein, Paul; Van Orden, Kimberly; Waern, Margda

    2018-01-16

    Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder ( p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men ( p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64). We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  5. Sex Education, A Way Forward towards Biology Curriculum Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Isangedighi (1986) stresses that the social tension, stress and inner turmoil ... goes further to say that this is due to indiscriminate practice of premarital sexuality among ... innate drive to act out; exposure of children to modernity; parental attitudes .... premarital sex (e.g unwanted pregnancies, child abuse, child trafficking,.

  6. The Effectiveness of Sex Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    least that much time to the study of body changes during puberty . More controversial topics such as masturbation , homosexuality, and sexual pleasure...menstruation, conception, pregnancy, and contraception. The second hour covered commonly asked questions about sex, ranging from orgasms to masturbation ...Abortion was defined briefly and sexually transmitted diseases were discussed. Emotional and physical changes in puberty were considered, and the last

  7. Race, Sex, and Their Influences on Introductory Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Cindy; Weaver, Michelle M.

    2018-01-01

    The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics or SATS was administered for three consecutive years to students in an Introductory Statistics course at Cornell University. Questions requesting demographic information and expected final course grade were added. Responses were analyzed to investigate possible differences between sexes and racial/ethnic…

  8. Single-Sex Classes in Co-Educational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robin; Kilpatrick, Sue; Hutton, Biddy

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated social and academic outcomes from single-sex classrooms in a Tasmanian coeducational government primary school. Interviews, observations and surveys formed the basis of the evidence. Teachers, parents and children reported positive benefits from the class organisation, but these differed according to gender. Staff…

  9. Attitude and Opinion of Parents about Sex Education of Adolescents and Its Contents in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad-Alizadeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexuality is a factor that is influenced by and cultural norms and rules, and these rules and norms determine acceptable behaviors in any culture. Variations of cultures existing in the world produce considerable variety in sexual norms and extensive spectrum of values and beliefs in this regards. Methods: This descriptive study was done to determine the attitude of Kermaninan parents toward sex education for adolescents and their opinion about its contents of sex education for adolescents. The sample of study was 275 couples selected by cluster sampling method form 5 city regions. In this study, a research- made questionnaire was used for data collection after determining suitable validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by using central and tendency indexes, ANOVA, t. test and Post Hoc tests (Fisher, Tukey. Results: Findings showed that on comparing attitude of both parents, there was a significant difference only in two items (14, 16. Mean 42.57± 5/9 in husbands and 43/71± 9/56 in wives attitude score. In regard to the contents of sex education, the least important item, according to both men and women, with a slight significant diference atitued approximately 50% of the total score. This finding shows that parents have no positive attitude towards sex education for adolescents. Comparing men and women in regard to their opinions about the contents of sex education, showed no significant difference between them. In regard to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items in sex education, the results were similar. Conclusion: Considering the results and importance of sexual health as claimed by WHO, we should promote knowledge and attitude of the community towards sex education.

  10. Inequality in Education, Number 18, October 1974: Sex Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.

    The contents of this volume published by the Center for Law and Education, which was established to protect and advance the legal interests of the poor through research and action on the legal implications of educational policies, include the following articles: "Introduction" and "Sexism in Public Education: Litigation…

  11. Protective effects of middle school comprehensive sex education with family involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-11-01

    School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness. This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups. In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys. Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Sex Education: Teachers’ Perceptions in the City of Cuenca 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elisabeth Manzano-Pauta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognition given to the role teachers play in sex education, and, at the same time, the apparent lack of knowledge in the area of sexuality, reflected in current literature, has led to the development of this research study. The objective of this study was to know the teachers’ perceptions about sex education in Cuenca. Specifically, we aimed to understand the assessment they have about their own knowledge, teacher satisfaction, modality, conceptions and teachers’ prejudices in classrooms. The mixed method used a sequential, explanatory strategy according to which, during the first stage, we explored the teachers’ perceptions about sex education, using a quantitative study with a survey applied to 180 teachers. Based on the results of the quantitative phase, in the second stage, the teachers’ opinions were collected through a qualitative inquiry by implementing focus group discussions. The results are shown in four categories: 1 assessment of knowledge; 2 teaching satisfaction; 3 modality; and 4 conceptions and prejudices about sex education. The categories of the study showed that sex education presents shortcomings especially related to the lack of training and knowledge in teachers, resulting in providing an education with the same prejudices that those teachers have about sexuality.

  13. Formal and informal sex education as determinants of premarital sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, G B

    1976-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding the effects of sex education in the schools and informal sex education obtained from parents, peers, the mass media, and other sources. Similarly, there is widespread interest in premarital sexual behavior, especially its determinants. This study presents several issues reflecting these concerns which have been the subject of much speculation but which have received little attention by researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate--through the use of respondent reports--how formal and informal sex education influences premarital sexual behavior during college. A national probability sample of 1177 college students was studied using face-to-face interviews with approximately equal numbers of males and females. These interviews, which were conducted for the Institute for Sex Research, included questions about past and present sexual involvement and other attitudinal, behavioral and background variables. Accordingly, the data about sexual behavior and attitudes are based on the interviewees' self-reports. Indices were created which operationalized independent variables such as familial sexual conservatism, exposure to eroticism, perceived sex knowledge, and sexual exposure and assault during childhood and adolescence. Individual items reflecting childhood sex play, masturbation, current religiosity, religiosity while growing up, social class, sources of sex information, sex education in classrooms, and high school and college dating were used. The dependent variable, premarital sociosexual involvement, is a composite measure of incidence and prevalence of premarital heterosexual involvement which meets Guttman scaling criteria. An Automatic Interaction Detector analysis was used to determine the relative influences of reported sexualization variables on premarital sexual behavior. Major findings can be summarized as follows: Heterosexual behavior progresses in stepwise fashion from elementary to advanced levels of involvement

  14. Single-Sex Education versus Coeducation in North Georgia Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine Danielle

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education is giving more liberties to school districts to offer single-sex schools in order to adequately serve the needs of students. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to test the theory of students' performances based on their educational environment by comparing students who received…

  15. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  16. Women's and Men's Choice of Higher Education--What Explains the Persistent Sex Segregation in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storen, Liv Anne; Arnesen, Clara Ase

    2007-01-01

    This article examines sex segregation in higher education in Norway. The extent to which parent's education and occupation and students' grades have an impact on the choice of male and female dominated subjects is analysed. The analysis uses a framework which integrates socialisation and rational choice perspectives. The data used are from a…

  17. Sources and Timing of Sex Education: Relations with American Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…

  18. Predictors of Access to Sex Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (SRI International, 2002) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only…

  19. The Evolution of Sex Education and Students' Sexual Knowledge in Finland in the 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo

    2010-01-01

    Finland is probably the only country where sex education has been studied in two consecutive national surveys, in 1996 and 2006 directed at biology and health education teachers, and in 2000 and 2006 by measuring adolescents' sexual knowledge. In 2006, responses from teachers and students could be combined for 339 schools. The most important…

  20. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

    2013-01-01

    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…