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Sample records for sewage derived microorganisms

  1. The effect of radiation on pathogenic microorganisms in sewage water and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annakou, O.; Elemam, M.; Aldehmani, K.; Eswayah, A.; Elammari, M.

    2003-01-01

    Libya is located in the arid and semi arid zone, heavily dependent on ground water. Due to the shortage of fresh water caused by the extensive withdrawal of ground water, which is the only available source, reusing treated sewage water for agricultural purposes is becoming essential. A conventional wastewater sewage treatment plant in Raslanoof petrochemical complex was selected as a reference plant. Raw sewage water was brought from there in order to be analyzed and irradiated, the objective of irradiation process is to eliminate all pathogenic bacteria which exist in the sewage and to identify the optimum irradiation dose that should be used in order for this water to be suitable for irrigation. In this work different types of microorganisms: bacteria, yeasts and molds were investigated. This paper presents the effect of radiation on sewage water and sludge samples together with a comparison of their microbial content before and after irradiation, also the optimum irradiating dose for eliminating each microorganism was determined

  2. Seeking key microorganisms for enhancing methane production in anaerobic digestion of waste sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nurul Asyifah; Hu, Anyi; Yu, Chang-Ping; Sharuddin, Siti Suhailah; Ramli, Norhayati; Shirai, Yoshihito; Maeda, Toshinari

    2018-04-25

    Efficient approaches for the utilization of waste sewage sludge have been widely studied. One of them is to use it for the bioenergy production, specifically methane gas which is well-known to be driven by complex bacterial interactions during the anaerobic digestion process. Therefore, it is important to understand not only microorganisms for producing methane but also those for controlling or regulating the process. In this study, azithromycin analogs belonging to macrolide, ketolide, and lincosamide groups were applied to investigate the mechanisms and dynamics of bacterial community in waste sewage sludge for methane production. The stages of anaerobic digestion process were evaluated by measuring the production of intermediate substrates, such as protease activity, organic acids, the quantification of bacteria and archaea, and its community dynamics. All azithromycin analogs used in this study achieved a high methane production compared to the control sample without any antibiotic due to the efficient hydrolysis process and the presence of important fermentative bacteria and archaea responsible in the methanogenesis stage. The key microorganisms contributing to the methane production may be Clostridia, Cladilinea, Planctomycetes, and Alphaproteobacteria as an accelerator whereas Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrospiraceae may be suppressors for methane production. In conclusion, the utilization of antibiotic analogs of macrolide, ketolide, and lincosamide groups has a promising ability in finding the essential microorganisms and improving the methane production using waste sewage sludge.

  3. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  4. Radioresistance of microorganisms in sewage sludge with special regard to the virus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, A.; Mahnel, H.; Brodorotti, H.S. v.; Ottis, K.

    1979-01-01

    Of the viral species present in surface and waste water only entero-, reo-, parvo-, and possibly paramyxoviruses are of relevance. These viruses remain infectious through to the sewage sludge stage, although then only present in small numbers. Bacteria and moulds are present in high concentrations in sewage sludge, the majority being non-pathogenis or only facultative pathogenic species. Of these only Salmonellae are of public health concern. Viruses are considerably more radiation resistant than bacteria and moulds. In sewage sludge a parvo virus was clearly the most resistant towards radiation followed, in order of decreasing resistivity, by reo- and entero-viruses. With the exception of the strongly resistant streptococcus faecalis two enterobacteria and one mould were found to be relatively radiation-sensitive. Gamma radiation is effective for inactivating all viral and bacterial contamination of sewage sludge. The dose required depends upon the radiation resistance and concentration of the individual strain. Enteroviral elimination determines the dose required for viruses and salmonella radiation the dose for bacteria. For practical sewage sludge decontamination a total irradiation dose of 500 krad has been calculated to meet normal requirements, and this dose can be raised to 1 Mrad for more stringent demands. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Evaluation of sewage sludge and slow pyrolyzed sewage sludge-derived biochar for adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (log K(OC) for C(w) = 0.01 S(w)) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62 L kg(-1) to 5.64 L kg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72 L kg(-1) to 5.75 L kg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of log K(OC) for the biochars ranged from 5.54 L kg(-1) to 6.23 L kg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95 L kg(-1) to 6.52 L kg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between log K(OC) and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Behaviour of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in biogas production from sewage sludge and municipal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter-Matsui, R.; Seipp, M.

    With a grant from VW-Stiftung a project was investigated by the 'Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Hygiene, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg' and the 'Faculty of Agriculture, Fayum, University Cairo'. The aim was to modify the biogas process to get an optimal amount of biogas and to kill the pathogen bacteria at the same time. The effect of different materials, for example, plant wastes, sewage sludge, cow dung and town refuse and their various amounts of dry matters (2% - 16%) were tested. Also the bactericidal effects of pH, Lactobacilli and higher temperatures were checked. It was found that only a pasteurisation before the fermentation decontaminate the sludge without declining amounts of biogas. It was also proved that the development of Schistosoma eggs was interrupted by the fermentation process.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High moisture content along with poor dewaterability are the main challenges for sewage sludge treatment and utilization. In this study, the effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperature (120-200 ˚C on the properties of sewage sludge derived solid fuel was investigated in the terms of mechanical dewatering character, drying character, calorific value and heavy metal distribution. Hydrothermal treatment (HT followed by dewatering process significantly reduced moisture content and improved calorific value of sewage sludge with the optimum condition obtained at 140˚C. No significant alteration of drying characteristic was produced by HT. Heavy metal enrichment in solid particle was found after HT that highlighted the importance of further study regarding heavy metal behavior during combustion. However, it also implied the potential application of HT on sewage sludge for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  8. Sewage-derived nutrient dynamics in highly urbanized coastal rivers, western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, S. I.; Saito, M.; Jin, G.; Taniguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution by domestic sewage is one of the critical environmental problems in the early stage of urbanization with significant growth of population. In case of Osaka metropolitan area in Japan, the pollution was significant until 1970s, while it has been improved by the development of sewage treatment systems. However, removal of nitrogen needs the advanced process therefore relatively large part of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is usually discharged by treated sewage effluent. Besides, increase of sewage-derived pollutant loads through the combined sewage systems during rainfall events is recognized as a new problem in recent years. However, the impacts of sewage-derived loads on the water environment of river and coastal area have not been fully evaluated in previous studies. In the present research, we aimed to examine the dynamics of sewage-derived nutrients in highly urbanized coastal rivers. Study area is located on the coastal area of Osaka bay in Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. Treated sewage effluent is discharged from three sewage treatment plants (KH, SU and SA) to a river and channels. Water and sediment samples were collected and electric conductivity (EC), chlorophyll-a (Chl.-a) and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) were measured from the discharging points to few kilometers offshore at 100-300 m intervals. Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and silica), nitrogen and carbon contents and stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ13C) of particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) in nitrate (NO3-) were measured. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration were significantly high near the discharging point then it decreased to offshore suggesting that impact zone of sewage effluent is about 1 km from the discharging point. Significant NO3-N uptake by phytoplankton as well as dilution process were suggested in the area. However, the impact zone expanded more than twofold during the rainfall

  9. DYNAMICS OF CHANGES IN MICROORGANISMS IN RHIZOSPHERE ZONE OF LAWN GRASSES IN THE SECOND YEAR AFTER THE APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the dynamics of changes in the number of selected microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone of grasses two years after the application of sewage sludge. The study was conducted on four specially prepared research plots along the main roads in Bialystok. Three doses of sewage sludge were applied: 0 (control, 7.5 and 15 kg/m2. Then the plots were seeded with two mixtures of lawn grasses: Eko and Roadside. Samples of roots with soil were collected three times during the vegetation period of 2012 (April, July and October and assayed for the total number of bacteria, the number of Gram-negative bacteria, the number of Pseudomonas fluorescens, the number of amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Microbiological tests of the rhizosphere showed seasonal variations of all investigated microbiological parameters. The greatest average of the total number of bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed on the plots in April, amylolytic bacteria in July while in the case of Pseudomonas fluorescens was observed on the plots in October. The time of measurement had the biggest impact on the number of microorganisms. An increased number of microorganisms was observed on all plots in April. Whereas, the fertilization with sewage sludge and grass mixtures did not affect the microbiological parameters.

  10. Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian

    2012-04-01

    Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the co-treatment of the municipal sewage sludge and oil wastes by using microorganism from the land farming of the PETROBRAS President Getulio Vargas refinery - REPAR; Estudos sobre o co-tratamento de lodo de esgoto domestico e residuos oleosos com microorganismos do landfarming da refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas, PETROBRAS/REPAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Nascimento Neto, Durval [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Ibirajara Jorge Evangelhista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    In the present work a set of results from the evaluation of the use of oily substrate for biodegration of municipal sewage sludge, with microorganisms from the landfaming are presented. The treatments of contaminated soil with sewage sludge, were: inoculum plus oily substrate, landfarming plus inoculum and only municipal sludge. In all treatments the municipal sewage sludge was varied. The obtained results indicate possible treatment of municipal sewage sludge with landfarming microorganisms plus oily substrates. (author)

  12. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Ziping; Wang, Hong

    2017-03-10

    A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.

  13. Using medically-derived iodine-131 to track sewage effluent in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenero, Michael P; Dilbone, Elizabeth K; Waples, James T

    2017-10-15

    Tracking sewage wastewater in a large lake is difficult. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals that can be used as indicator compounds are quickly diluted and not easy to measure. In this study, we examined the potential of using medically-derived iodine-131 ( 131 I, t ½  = 8.02 d) as a tracer for Milwaukee sewage effluent in Lake Michigan. 131 I activities in sewage effluent from two Milwaukee wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were measured in conjunction with 131 I activities in water, sediment and biota in the Milwaukee Outer Harbor and Lake Michigan. 131 I discharge rates from both WWTPS ranged from 34 ± 15 to 1807 ± 24 MBq d -1 , with average and median 131 I discharges of 278 and 129 MBq d -1 . A budget of 131 I in the Milwaukee Outer Harbor - based on measured sediment and water column inventories - showed that ∼11% of the 131 I discharged to the harbor was scavenged to bottom sediments, ∼19% decayed in the harbor water column, and ∼70% was flushed out of the harbor to Lake Michigan. From this budget, we derived a harbor flushing rate of 3.1 days. In Lake Michigan, 131 I activity was found in Cladophora algae (undetected to 91 ± 2 Bq kg -1 ) along ∼40 km of shoreline. Benthic trawl samples showed 131 I activity up to 8 km from shore. Calculated 131 I length scales were 30 km alongshore and 3.4 km offshore and corresponded to sewage effluent dispersion rates of ∼2.6 km d -1 and ∼0.3 km d -1 in along- and offshore directions. Using 131 I as a tracer of sewage effluent from other coastal municipalities to the Laurentian Great Lakes appears feasible, particularly for larger (>10 5 ) population centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotechnological Applications Derived from Microorganisms of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Azua-Bustos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert in Chile is well known for being the driest and oldest desert on Earth. For these same reasons, it is also considered a good analog model of the planet Mars. Only a few decades ago, it was thought that this was a sterile place, but in the past years fascinating adaptations have been reported in the members of the three domains of life: low water availability, high UV radiation, high salinity, and other environmental stresses. However, the biotechnological applications derived from the basic understanding and characterization of these species, with the notable exception of copper bioleaching, are still in its infancy, thus offering an immense potential for future development.

  15. Beneficial Uses Program progress report, period ending December 31, 1976. [Gamma inactivation of microorganisms in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    Progress is reported on a comprehensive program to develop the necessary technologies for cost/beneficial uses of existing and future surplus radioactive materials. The major portion of the work was concentrated on the testing of the effectiveness of ..gamma.. sources for the processing of sewage sludge to inactivate enteric viruses and bacteria and the subsequent testing of the biological effects of the treated sludge when used as fertilizer or additives to animal feeds.

  16. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  17. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC.

  18. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yuting [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), CNRS – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya; Tian, Shuanghong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Kong, Lingjun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Descorme, Claude, E-mail: claude.descorme@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), CNRS – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared. • FeSC exhibited high catalytic activity in the wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol. • A strong correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the iron leaching and the pH. • Using an acetate buffer, the iron leaching was suppressed while keeping some catalytic activity. • A simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst. - Abstract: A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared and used in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The catalysts were characterized in terms of elemental composition, surface area, pH{sub PZC}, XRD and SEM. The performances of the FeSC catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP was assessed in a batch reactor operated at 120 °C under 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressure. Complete decomposition of 2-CP was achieved within 5 h and 90% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 h of reaction. Quite a straight correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the amount of iron leached in solution and the pH of the reaction mixture at a given reaction time, indicating a strong predominance of the homogeneous catalysis contribution. The iron leaching could be efficiently prevented when the pH of the solution was maintained at values higher than 4.5, while the catalytic activity was only slightly reduced. Upon four successive batch CWAO experiments, using the same FeSC catalyst recovered by filtration after pH adjustment, only a very minor catalyst deactivation was observed. Finally, based on all the identified intermediates, a simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst.

  19. Occurrence of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and their application as a tracer for sewage derived pollution in urban estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Liu, Jingqin; Chen, Li; Lin, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Particle reactive organic contaminants in estuarine sediments can lead to various environmental problems affecting ecosystem and public health. In this study, the occurrence and homologous distribution pattern of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in the surficial sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China were examined along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). The composition pattern of the QACs was found to be uniform in most of the sediments analyzed throughout the PRE, and the average composition pattern was identical to that determined in the sewage sludge from Guangzhou, the biggest city in the PRE. Dialkyldimethylammonium compounds, the most abundant type of QACs, positively correlated to the total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in most of the sediments with similar composition patterns. Therefore, the QACs are proposed as potential tracers to evaluate the transport of sewage-derived pollution in estuarine environments. -- Highlights: • Analysis method is developed for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in sediment. • Occurrence of QACs is observed in the Pearl River Estuary, China for the first time. • QACs are proposed to be a tracer for sewage derived pollution in estuarine sediment. -- QACs were found to be present in the estuarine sediments in China for the first time and proposed as potential tracers for sewage-derived pollution in urban estuary

  20. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge by indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms using ammonium ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate as energy sources: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2009-11-15

    The potential of indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms enriched at initial neutral pH of the sewage sludge for bioleaching of heavy metals was investigated at initial neutral pH of the sludge using ammonium ferrous sulfate (FAS) and ferrous sulfate (FS) as an energy sources in two different sets of experiments. After 16 days of bioleaching, 56% Cu, 48% Ni, 68% Zn and 42% C were removed from the sludge using ammonium ferrous sulfate as an energy source. On the other hand, 64% Cu, 58% Ni, 76% Zn and 52% Cr were removed using ferrous sulfate. Further, 32% nitrogen and 24% phosphorus were leached from the sludge using ferrous sulfate, whereas only 22% nitrogen and 17% phosphorus were removed using ammonium ferrous sulfate. The BCR sequential extraction study on speciation of metals showed that using ammonium ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate, all the metals remained in bioleached sludge as stable form (F4 fraction). The results of the present study indicate that the bioleached sludge would be safer for land application. Also, the fertilizing property was largely conserved in the bioleached sludge using both the substrates.

  1. Retrospective characterization of a vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 isolate from sewage in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedepsidis, Evaggelos; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Pliaka, Vaia; Kottaridi, Christine; Bolanaki, Eugenia; Levidiotou-Stefanou, Stamatina; Komiotis, Dimitri; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2007-11-01

    Retrospective molecular and phenotypic characterization of a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 1 isolate (7/b/97) isolated from sewage in Athens, Greece, in 1997 is reported. VP1 sequencing of this isolate revealed 1.87% divergence from the VP1 region of reference strain Sabin 1, while further genomic characterization of isolate 7/b/97 revealed a recombination event in the nonstructural part of the genome between a vaccine strain and a nonvaccine strain probably belonging to Enterovirus species C. Amino acid substitutions commonly found in previous studies were identified in the capsid coding region of the isolate, while most of the attenuation and temperature sensitivity determinants were reverted. The ultimate source of isolate 7/b/97 is unknown. The recovery of such a highly divergent derivative of a vaccine strain emphasizes the need for urgent implementation of environmental surveillance as a supportive procedure in the polio surveillance system even in countries with high rates of OPV coverage in order to prevent cases or even outbreaks of poliomyelitis that otherwise would be inevitable.

  2. Characterization of a highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 isolated from sewage in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Soile; Savolainen, Carita; Laine, Pia; Hirttiö, Päivi; Lamminsalo, Elisa; Penttilä, Eija; Jöks, Silver; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2004-05-01

    Two types of vaccine-derived polioviruses have been recently designated to emphasize the different origins of the evolved viruses: circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) associated with outbreaks of paralytic disease and strains isolated from chronically infected immunodeficient individuals (iVDPV). We describe here a type 3 VDPV (PV3/EST/02/E252; later E252) isolated from sewage collected in Tallinn, Estonia, in October 2002. Due to aberrant properties in subtyping, the virus was subjected to detailed characterization. Partial genomic sequencing suggested that the closest relative was the oral vaccine strain PV3/Sabin, but the two virus strains shared only 86.7% of the 900 nucleotides (nt) coding for the capsid protein VP1. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete genome [nt 19 to poly(A)] revealed multiple nucleotide substitutions throughout the genome and a possible Sabin 3/Sabin 1-recombination junction site in the 2C coding region. A calculation based on the estimated mutation frequency of the P1 region of polioviruses suggested that the E252 virus might have replicated in one or more individuals for approximately 10 years. No persons chronically excreting poliovirus are known in Estonia. Amino acid substitutions were seen in all known antigenic sites, which was consistent with the observed aberrant antigenic properties of the virus demonstrated by both monoclonal antibodies and human sera from vaccinated children. In spite of the apparent transmission potential, no evidence was obtained for circulation of the virus in the Estonian population.

  3. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  4. Adsorption of cadmium by biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge: Impact factors and adsorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tan; Zhou, Zeyu; Han, Rong; Meng, Ruihong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2015-09-01

    Static equilibrium experiments were carried out to investigate the impact factors and the mechanism of cadmium adsorption on biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge. An appropriate dosage of biochar is sufficient; in the experiment, 0.2% is the optimal dosage for the largest removal capacity, while the removal capacity of biochar reduces with the increasing dosage. pH is another dominant factor of the adsorption process. The removal capacity of biochar is lower than 20 mg·g(-1) when the solution initial pH is lower than 2 pH units, comparatively retaining more than 40 mg·g(-1) at the solution initial pH higher than 3 pH units. Temperature has weak influence on the adsorptive performance. The main mechanism of the adsorption process of biochar for cadmium mainly involves (1) surface precipitation by forming insoluble cadmium compounds in alkaline condition, and (2) ion exchange for cadmium with exchangeable cations in the biochar, such as calcium ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction and partial characterization of a leukotoxin from a plaque-derived Gram-negative microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C C; McArthur, W P; Baehni, P C; Hammond, B F; Taichman, N S

    1979-01-01

    The plaque-derived gram-negative microorganism Y4 identified as a member of the genus Actinobacillus, was tested for a soluble cytotoxic factor(s). Sonication or incubation of viable Y4 microorganisms in distilled water or normal human serum resulted in liberation of a soluble material which was cytotoxic in vitro for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The Y4 soluble sonic extract was also cytotoxic to human peripheral blood monocytes. However, human lymphocytes, platelets, and fibroblasts, as well as rabbit, rat, and mouse leukocytes and chicken embryo fibroblasts, were not killed by exposure to the Y4 sonic extract. No hemolytic activity was detected in the Y4 sonic extract. No hemolytic activity was detected in the Y4 sonic extract. Consequently, the factor(s) in the Y4 sonic extract was referred to as Y4 leukotoxin. The Y4 leukotoxin was inactive at 4 degrees C, heat sensitive (56 degrees C, 30 min), and inactivated by proteases. The cytotoxic effect of Y4 leukotoxin on PMNs was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The leukotoxin did not bind to viable PMNs at 4 degrees C but did bind to dead PMN membrane components at both 4 and 37 degrees C. The addition of bovine serum albumin (51 mg/ml) to PMN-Y4 leukotoxin cultures inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase from the PMNs, but did not prevent the death of the cells as indicated by electron microscopy. Lysosomal markers were released in parallel to the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase from Y4 leukotoxin-treated PMNs. The addition of 0.02 M ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid to these cultures inhibited release of lysosomal markers but enhanced the release of lactate dehydrogenase. These results suggested that a soluble leukotoxin with specificity for only human PMNs and monocytes can be liberated from viable Y4. What role this leukotoxin plays in the pathogenicity of the Y4 microorganism is not yet known. However, this leukotoxin is one of the first materials from a plaque-derived

  6. Putting bugs to the blush: metabolic engineering for phenylpropanoid-derived products in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Summeren-Wesenhagen, Philana V; Marienhagen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, or stilbenes are secondary plant metabolites which serve as pigments and scent compounds or provide protection against environmental stress. Due to their antioxidant properties they also have been widely recognized for their benefit on human health. Traditionally, such compounds are extracted from their natural plant sources, but this approach is limited by low abundance and environmental, seasonal as well as regional variations in yield. Chemical synthesis is not a true alternative for the large scale production of more complex phenylpropanoid-derived substances since chemical synthesis becomes commercially unfeasible as the structural complexity of these plant natural products increases. In the last years, many biosynthetic pathways for plant natural products have been elucidated through the advancements in DNA sequencing technologies. In combination with new recombinant DNA technologies this technical progress opens the door toward the functional integration of full biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived compounds in microorganisms. We believe that this approach has great potential to provide sufficient quantities of the desired plant natural product from cheap and renewable resources. This commentary highlights recent advances in the microbial production of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds with an emphasis on flavonoids and stilbenes.

  7. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Sofer, Danit; Handsher, Rachel; Swartz, Tiberio; Delpeyroux, Francis; Mendelson, Ella

    2006-12-20

    Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95%) documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6)) and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6) and 5x10(4)). Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0) amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5). VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of environmental VDPV. Our study underscores the importance of the

  8. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95% documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6 and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6 and 5x10(4. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0 amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5. SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of

  9. Elimination of pathogenic microorganisms contained in sewage sludge by different anaerobic digestion technologies; Eliminacion de microorganismos patogenos contenidos en lodos de depuradora mediante diferentes tecnologias de digestion anaerobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Morales, J. A.; Hernandez Lehmann, A.; Herandez Munoz, A. F.

    2010-07-01

    sewage sludge should be treated to facilitate handling and avoid possible problems like the smell of pathogens. These treatments modify the properties of the sludge making them more suitable for reuse or disposal. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Identification of groundwater microorganisms capable of assimilating RDX-derived nitrogen during in-situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kun-Ching; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a nitroamine explosive, is commonly detected in groundwater at military testing and training sites. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial community capable of using nitrogen derived from the RDX or RDX intermediates during in situ bioremediation. Active groundwater microorganisms capable of utilizing nitro-, ring- or fully-labeled (15)N-RDX as a nitrogen source were identified using stable isotope probing (SIP) in groundwater microcosms prepared from two wells in an aquifer previously amended with cheese whey to promote RDX biodegradation. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were derived from the (15)N-labeled DNA fractions, suggesting the presence of metabolically active bacteria capable of using RDX and/or RDX intermediates as a nitrogen source. None of the derived sequences matched RDX-degrading cultures commonly studied in the laboratory, but some of these genera have previously been linked to RDX degradation in site groundwater via (13)C-SIP. When additional cheese whey was added to the groundwater samples, 28 sequences grouped into Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria were identified. The data suggest that numerous bacteria are capable of incorporating N from ring- and nitro-groups in RDX during anaerobic bioremediation, and that some genera may be involved in both C and N incorporation from RDX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of a metagenome-derived protease from contaminated agricultural soil microorganisms and its random mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengjian; Zhang, Liang; Li, Fajia; Meng, Can; Zeng, Rong; Deng, Jie; Shen, Peihong; Ou, Qian; Wu, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Proteases are typical key enzymes that hydrolyze proteins into amino acids and peptides. Numerous proteases have been studied, but the discovery of metagenome-derived proteases is still significant for both commercial applications and basic research. An unexplored protease gene sep1A was identified by function-based screening from a plasmid metagenomic library derived from uncultured contaminated agricultural soil microorganisms. The putative protease gene was subcloned into pET-32a (+) vector and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS, then the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. The detailed biochemical characterization of the Sep1A protein was performed, including its molecular characterization, specific activity, pH-activity profile, metal ion-activity profile, and enzyme kinetic assays. Furthermore, the protein engineering approach of random mutagenesis via error-prone PCR was applied on the original Sep1A protein. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the purified recombinant Ep48 protein could hydrolyze casein. Compared with the original Sep1A protein, the best variant of Ep48 in the random mutagenesis library, with the Gln307Leu and Asp391Gly changes, exhibited 2.62-fold activity at the optimal reaction conditions of 50 °C and pH 9.0. These results are the first step toward a better understanding of the properties of Sep1A protein. Protein engineering with error-prone PCR paves the way toward the metagenome-derived genes for biotechnological applications.

  12. Identification of groundwater microorganisms capable of assimilating RDX-derived nitrogen during in-situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kun-Ching [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States); Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B. [CB& I Federal Services, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Chu, Kung-Hui, E-mail: kchu@civil.tamu.edu [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a nitroamine explosive, is commonly detected in groundwater at military testing and training sites. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial community capable of using nitrogen derived from the RDX or RDX intermediates during in situ bioremediation. Active groundwater microorganisms capable of utilizing nitro-, ring- or fully-labeled {sup 15}N-RDX as a nitrogen source were identified using stable isotope probing (SIP) in groundwater microcosms prepared from two wells in an aquifer previously amended with cheese whey to promote RDX biodegradation. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were derived from the {sup 15}N-labeled DNA fractions, suggesting the presence of metabolically active bacteria capable of using RDX and/or RDX intermediates as a nitrogen source. None of the derived sequences matched RDX-degrading cultures commonly studied in the laboratory, but some of these genera have previously been linked to RDX degradation in site groundwater via {sup 13}C-SIP. When additional cheese whey was added to the groundwater samples, 28 sequences grouped into Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria were identified. The data suggest that numerous bacteria are capable of incorporating N from ring- and nitro-groups in RDX during anaerobic bioremediation, and that some genera may be involved in both C and N incorporation from RDX. - Highlights: • Cheese whey addition resulted in 28 different clones associated with RDX degradation. • The 28 clones belong to Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. • SIP identified 15 clones using RDX and/or its metabolites as a nitrogen source. • The clones clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes.

  13. Identification of groundwater microorganisms capable of assimilating RDX-derived nitrogen during in-situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Ching; Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a nitroamine explosive, is commonly detected in groundwater at military testing and training sites. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial community capable of using nitrogen derived from the RDX or RDX intermediates during in situ bioremediation. Active groundwater microorganisms capable of utilizing nitro-, ring- or fully-labeled 15 N-RDX as a nitrogen source were identified using stable isotope probing (SIP) in groundwater microcosms prepared from two wells in an aquifer previously amended with cheese whey to promote RDX biodegradation. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were derived from the 15 N-labeled DNA fractions, suggesting the presence of metabolically active bacteria capable of using RDX and/or RDX intermediates as a nitrogen source. None of the derived sequences matched RDX-degrading cultures commonly studied in the laboratory, but some of these genera have previously been linked to RDX degradation in site groundwater via 13 C-SIP. When additional cheese whey was added to the groundwater samples, 28 sequences grouped into Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria were identified. The data suggest that numerous bacteria are capable of incorporating N from ring- and nitro-groups in RDX during anaerobic bioremediation, and that some genera may be involved in both C and N incorporation from RDX. - Highlights: • Cheese whey addition resulted in 28 different clones associated with RDX degradation. • The 28 clones belong to Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. • SIP identified 15 clones using RDX and/or its metabolites as a nitrogen source. • The clones clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes

  14. Characteristics and adsorption study of the activated carbon derived from municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tiecheng; Yao, Sicong; Chen, Hengli; Yu, Xin; Wang, Meicheng; Chen, Yao

    2017-10-01

    Sewage sludge-based activated carbon is proved to be an efficient and low-cost adsorbent in treatment of various industrial wastewaters. The produced carbon had a well-developed pore structure and relatively low Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Adsorptive capacity of typical pollutants, i.e. copper Cu(II) and methylene blue (MB) on the carbon was studied. Adsorptions were affected by the initial solution pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. Results showed that adsorption of Cu(II) and MB on the produced carbon could reach equilibrium after 240 min. The average removal rate for Cu(II) on the carbon was high, up to 97% in weak acidic conditions (pH = 4-6) and around 98% for MB in a very wide pH range (pH = 2-12). The adsorption kinetics were well fitted by the pseudo-second order model, and both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could well describe the adsorption process at room temperature. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) and MB on sewage sludge-based activated carbon were 114.94 mg/g and 125 mg/g, respectively. Compared with commercial carbon, the sewage sludge-based carbon was more suitable for heavy metal ions' removal than dyes'.

  15. Effects of Biochar-Derived Sewage Sludge on Heavy Metal Adsorption and Immobilization in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Dan; Gao, Fengxiang; Li, Mengke; Luo, Xianping

    2017-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 °C. Maximum adsorption capacities (qm) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg·g−1, respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg·g−1, respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the multi-metal solution due to competitive adsorption, whereas the capacity for Cr increased. Surface precipitation is an important mechanism in the sorption of these metals on BC400. The 360-day incubation experiment showed that BC400 application reduced metal mobility in contaminated soils, which was attributed to the substantial decreases in the acid-soluble fractions of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn (72.20%, 70.38%, 50.43%, and 29.78%, respectively). Furthermore, the leaching experiment using simulated acid rain indicated that the addition of BC400 enhanced the acid buffer capacity of contaminated soil, and the concentration of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the leachate was lower than in untreated soil. Overall, this study indicates that sewage sludge biochar application reduces the mobility of heavy metal in co-contaminated soil, and this adsorption experiment is suitable for the evaluation of biochar properties for remediation. PMID:28644399

  16. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of removing microorganisms to disinfect patient-derived dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Watamoto, Takao; Matsumoto, Takuya; Abe, Keiko; Kobayashi, Munemasa; Akashi, Yoshihiro; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    Disinfection of dental impressions is an indispensable procedure for the control of cross-contamination; however, there is limited information on the efficacy of disinfection under clinical conditions. The objective of this study was to clinically evaluate the disinfection efficacy of commercially available agents in removing oral pathogens from patient-derived impressions. Impressions from 54 patients were divided into groups and either left undisinfected or underwent 1 of 5 disinfection treatments: (1) 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), (2) 1% sodium hypochlorite (SH), (3) 0.25% benzalkonium chloride (BC), (4) 1 ppm ozonated water (OW), or (5) the Hygojet/MD520 system (HJ). An impression culture technique using a brain heart infusion agar medium was used to visualize the microbial contamination on the surface of the impression cultures. The persistent presence of oral pathogens on the impression cultures was examined using selective isolation agar plates. The isolation frequencies of streptococci, staphylococci, Candida, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species from undisinfected impressions were 100%, 55.6%, 25.9%, 25.9% and 5.6%, respectively. Disinfection with HJ and BC removed the microorganisms with the greatest efficacy, followed by GA, SH, and OW. Potential bacterial contamination could be detected even after disinfection had been performed. Combined use of BC plus GA or SH removed oral pathogens almost completely from dental impressions. This investigation showed that potential contaminants are still present, even after general disinfection procedures. Therefore, either HJ or the combined use of BC with GA or SH is recommended for clinical and laboratory use.

  17. P contribution derived from phosphate solubilizing microorganism activity, rock phosphate and SP-36 determination by isotope 32P technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anggi Nico Flatian; Iswandi Anas; Atang Sutandi; Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The 32 P isotope technique has been used to trace P nutrients in the soil and soil-plant systems. The use of the isotope 32 P has made it possible to differentiate the P contribution derived from phosphate solubilizing microorganism activity and the fertilizer P in the soil. The aims of the study were to obtain the quantitative data of P contribution derived from phosphate-solubilizing microorganism activity (Aspergillus niger and Burkholderia cepacia), rock phosphate and SP-36 through P uptake by the plants using isotope 32 P technique and also to study the effects on growth and production of corn plants. The results were showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganism, rock phosphate and SP-36 was produced specific activity ( 32 P) lower than control. The results were indicated that all treatments could contribute P for the plants. The lower specific activity was caused by supply P from rock phosphate and SP-36, and also was caused by solubilized of unavailable 31 P from PSM activity, which decreased specific activity on labeled soil. The combination of phosphate-solubilizing microorganism and SP-36 treatments produced the highest P contribution, significantly higher than control and SP-36 only. Phosphate derived from combination of microorganism and SP-36 treatments ranging from 56.06% - 68.54% after 50 days planting, after 35 days planting, 51.96% - 59.65% on stover, 46.33% - 47.70% on grain and 53.02% - 59.87% on corn cob. In addition, the treatments could significantly support the plant growth and yield. It is expressed by increased number of leave at 35 days after planting, dry weight of leave at 35 days after planting and dry weight of grain. (author)

  18. Tracking sewage derived contamination in riverine settings by analysis of synthetic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Candela, Lucila; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2011-07-01

    A study has been made of the presence and reactivity of the most commonly used surfactants, both anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, and alkyl ethoxysulfates, AES) and non-ionic (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs, and nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs), in water and surface sediments from the middle stretch of the Guadalete River in SW Spain (12 stations). Average values were between 0.1 and 3.7 mg kg(-1) in sediment, and between 0.2 and 37 μg L(-1) in water. The sorption of surfactants was dominated by hydrophobic mechanisms, so those homologues having longer alkyl chains (e.g. C(18)AEO) showed higher relative percentages and concentrations in sediments compared with water. Local and sharply higher concentrations of these compounds were observed at three sampling stations (7, 9 and 12), indicating the occurrence of wastewater discharges into the river. By analysing the distributions of different surfactant homologues and their metabolites we were able to distinguish between sewage contamination from sources discharging treated and untreated wastewaters. Upstream (stations 1-2), LAS concentrations were below 30 μg L(-1) and the composition of their degradation intermediates (sulfophenyl carboxylic acids, SPCs) (160 μg L(-1)) was dominated by short-chain homologues (C(6)-C(9)SPCs), indicating that the degradation of this surfactant is at an advanced stage. The highest concentration (487 μg L(-1)) of SPCs was detected near the effluent outlet of a sewage treatment plant (STP) (station 12). Sampling stations (7 and 9) affected by untreated wastewater discharges were the only ones showing the presence of the most reactive and biodegradable SPC isomers and homologues (e.g. C(11)SPC). Here, LAS reached the highest concentration values measured (>2 mg L(-1)), and showed a homologue distribution closer to that of commercial mixtures than LAS found at the other stations.

  19. Micro-TLC Approach for Fast Screening of Environmental Samples Derived from Surface and Sewage Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrated analytical capability of micro-planar (micro-TLC) technique comprising one and two-dimensional (2D) separation modes to generate fingerprints of environmental samples originated from sewage and ecosystems waters. We showed that elaborated separation and detection protocols are complementary to previously invented HPLC method based on temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and UV-DAD detection. Presented 1D and 2D micro-TLC chromatograms of SPE (solid-phase extraction) extracts were optimized for fast and low-cost screening of water samples collected from lakes and rivers located in the area of Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland. Moreover, we studied highly organic compounds loaded in the treated and untreated sewage waters obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant "Jamno" near Koszalin City (Poland). Analyzed environmental samples contained number of substances characterized by polarity range from estetrol to progesterone as well as chlorophyll-related dyes previously isolated and pre-purified by simple SPE protocol involving C18 cartridges. Optimization of micro-TLC separation and quantification protocols of such samples were discussed from the practical point of view using simple separation efficiency criteria including total peaks number, log(product Δ hR F ), signal intensity and peak asymmetry. Outcomes of the presented analytical approach, especially using detection involving direct fluorescence (UV366/Vis) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) visualization are compared with UV-DAD HPLC-generated data reported previously. Chemometric investigation based on principal components analysis revealed that SPE extracts separated by micro-TLC and detected under fluorescence and PMA visualization modes can be used for robust sample fingerprinting even after long-term storage of the extracts (up to 4 years) at subambient temperature (-20 °C). Such approach allows characterization of wide range of sample components

  20. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260-380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity.

  1. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SS liquefaction bio-chars were effective on MG and MB removal from aqueous. • MG adsorption capacity depended strongly on carboxylic and phenolic groups. • Metal release accounted for nearly 30% of the total MG adsorbed on bio-chars. • Acetone and low temperature favor effective adsorbent production by liquefaction. - Abstract: Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260–380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity

  2. Research on the influence of anaerobic stabilization of various dairy sewage sludge on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs with the use of effective microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge was taken from a dairy WWTP belonging to Mlekovita Cooperative in Wysokie Mazowieckie. There were excess sludge, flotation sludge and a mixture of excess and flotation sludge from pre-treatment of dairy sewage. The initial content of 16 PAHs in excess sludge before fermentation was approximately 689µg·kg -1 in dry mass, whereas in post-flotation sludge (which constituted around 30% of raw sludge) it was approximately 95µg·kg -1 in dry mass. A mixture of excess and flotation sludge had the content of 497,7µg·kg -1 in dry mass. Through comparison of particular hydrocarbons content in raw sewage sludge to the total PAHs content, it was shown that tricyclic compounds, which constituted 46,3% of the PAHs sum (excess sludge), and tetracyclic compounds, which constituted 60,0% of the PAHs sum (flotation sludge), were the dominating fractions. In the sludge subjected to fermentation in reactors with mixed sludge and surplus activated sludge, the general trend of the course of changes in concentrations of PAHs was similar. Both in the sludge inoculated with EM and in that not inoculated with EM, a significant increase in the total PAHs contents was observed in the first fermentation phase (acidic fermentation) after 7 days of the process. Addition of EM into the sludge did not prevent the PAHs release, and therefore higher concentrations of PAHs sum were recorded during the hydrolysis stage than in sludge before fermentation. A decrease in the sum of PAHs was observed after 2 weeks of fermentation in relation to the quantity observed after 1 week of fermentation (except from post-flotation sludge). In the following weeks, there was further decrease in the concentration of the 16 PAHs sum in all sludge types. However, in sludge without EM inoculation, it was lower than in sludge with EM inoculation. The loss of the majority of tested hydrocarbons was reported in the final phase of fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus from sewage and stream waters in Hispaniola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjé, Jan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Martin, Javier; Gary, Howard E; Caceres, Victor M; Venczel, Linda; Macadam, Andrew; Dobbins, James G; Burns, Cara; Wait, Douglas; Ko, Gwangpyo; Landaverde, Mauricio; Kew, Olen; Sobsey, Mark D

    2004-04-01

    Twenty-one cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) were reported on the island of Hispaniola in 2000. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) type 1 in stool samples obtained from patients. As a complement to the active search for cases of AFP, environmental sampling was conducted during November and December 2000, to test for cVDPV in sewage, streams, canals, and public latrines. Fifty-five environmental samples were obtained and analyzed for the presence of polioviruses by use of cell culture followed by neutralization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of the 23 positive samples, 10 tested positive for poliovirus type 1, 7 tested positive for poliovirus type 2, 5 tested positive for poliovirus type 3, and 1 tested positive for both poliovirus type 2 and type 3. By sequence analysis of the complete viral capsid gene 1 (VP1), a 2.1%-3.7% genetic sequence difference between 7 type 1 strains and Sabin type 1 vaccine strain was found. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses are highly related to cVDPV isolated from clinical cases and form distinct subclusters related to geographic region. Our findings demonstrate a useful role for environmental surveillance of neurovirulent polioviruses in the overall polio eradication program.

  4. Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Håkansson, Sebastian; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-08-01

    During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential.

  5. Combating Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Plant-Derived Antimicrobials: A Minireview of the Mechanistic Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs as an alternative therapeutic strategy to combat microbial infections. Historically, plant extracts have been used as a safe, effective, and natural remedy for ailments and diseases in traditional medicine. Extensive research in the last two decades has identified a plethora of PDAs with a wide spectrum of activity against a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. Active components of many plant extracts have been characterized and are commercially available; however, research delineating the mechanistic basis of their antimicrobial action is scanty. This review highlights the potential of various plant-derived compounds to control pathogenic bacteria, especially the diverse effects exerted by plant compounds on various virulence factors that are critical for pathogenicity inside the host. In addition, the potential effect of PDAs on gut microbiota is discussed.

  6. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to microorganisms involved in hypersensitivity pneumonitis induce a Th1-polarized immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Loeffert, Sophie; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Millon, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula [actinomycetes], Mycobacterium immunogenum [mycobacteria], and Wallemia sebi and Eurotium amstelodami [filamentous fungi]) and are involved in HP. Our objectives were to determine the cross talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response varied according to the microbial extract tested. The phenotypic activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and levels of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by the ability of MoDCs to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation in a mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR). E. amstelodami-exposed (EA) MoDCs expressed higher percentages of costimulatory molecules than did W. sebi-exposed (WS), S. rectivirgula-exposed (SR), or M. immunogenum-exposed (MI) MoDCs (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs, and MI-MoDCs induced CD4(+) T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response. The present study provides evidence that, although differences were initially observed between MoDCs exposed to filamentous fungi and MoDCs exposed to bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested.

  8. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  9. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  10. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of a metagenome-derived L-lysine decarboxylase gene from subtropical soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Gao, Hua; Gao, Zhen; Zhao, Huaxian; Yang, Ying; Wu, Qiaofen; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Chengjian

    2017-01-01

    L-lysine decarboxylase (LDC, EC 4.1.1.18) is a key enzyme in the decarboxylation of L-lysine to 1,5-pentanediamine and efficiently contributes significance to biosynthetic capability. Metagenomic technology is a shortcut approach used to obtain new genes from uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a subtropical soil metagenomic library was constructed, and a putative LDC gene named ldc1E was isolated by function-based screening strategy through the indication of pH change by L-lysine decarboxylation. Amino acid sequence comparison and homology modeling indicated the close relation between Ldc1E and other putative LDCs. Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that Ldc1E contained a highly conserved motif Ser-X-His-Lys (Pxl), and molecular docking results showed that this motif was located in the active site and could combine with the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The ldc1E gene was subcloned into the pET-30a(+) vector and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. The maximum activity of Ldc1E occurred at pH 6.5 and 40°C using L-lysine monohydrochloride as the substrate. Recombinant Ldc1E had apparent Km, kcat, and kcat/Km values of 1.08±0.16 mM, 5.09±0.63 s-1, and 4.73×103 s-1 M-1, respectively. The specific activity of Ldc1E was 1.53±0.06 U mg-1 protein. Identifying a metagenome-derived LDC gene provided a rational reference for further gene modifications in industrial applications.

  12. The effect of chemical vapor deposition temperature on the performance of binder-free sewage sludge-derived anodes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huajun; Jia, Yufeng; Shen, Dongsheng; Zhou, Yuyang; Chen, Ting; Chen, Wei; Ge, Zhipeng; Zheng, Shuting; Wang, Meizhen

    2018-04-13

    Conversion of sewage sludge (SS) into value-added material has garnered increasing attention due to its potential applications. In this study, we propose a new application of the sewage sludge-derived carbon (SSC) as an electrode without binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). SS was firstly converted into SSC monoliths by methane chemical vapor method at different temperature (600, 800, 1000 or 1200°C). Scanning electron microscopy images showed that carbon micro-wires were present on the surfaces of the samples prepared at 1000 and 1200°C. The results showed that it was beneficial for converting sludge into a highly conductive electrode and increasing carbon content of the electrode at higher temperatures, thereby improving the current generation. The conductivity results show that a higher temperature favors the conversion of sludge into a highly conductive electrode. The MFC using an SSC anode processed at 1200°C generated the maximum power density of 2228mWm -2 and the maximum current density of 14.2Am -2 . This value was 5 times greater than that generated by an MFC equipped with a graphite anode. These results present a promising means of converting SS into electrode materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF SEWAGE WASTE WATERS BY THE PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM ISOLATED FROM SEWAGE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchander Merugu; V.Namratha; Nagaraju Devanuri

    2015-01-01

    Microbial based treatments are more economical, ecofriendly and sustainable alternative for waste treatment to existing chemical or physical treatment methods. The metabolic rate of microorganisms effect pH, BOD, COD, DO, concentration of suspended solids present in waste waters. Phototrophic consortium from sewage water was used in the present study to remediate sewage water. Treatment with bacteria caused a significant decrease in some of the parameters tested for waste water. Remediation o...

  15. Influence of fertilisation with sewage sludge-derived preparation on selected soil properties and prairie cordgrass yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa, Ewa; Mrowiec, Maciej; Lach, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using a fertilizer obtained from waste substances on selected physical and chemical properties of soil and biomass yield Spartina pectinate. The fertilizer used for soil (C) fertilisation contained sewage sludge (SS), waste soil fractions of brown coal (BC), brown coal ash (BCA) enriched with mineral potassium (K) fertilizer (C+SS+BC+BCA+K). The composition of the preparation was developed by the authors and adjusted to the quality of the fertilised soil and the individual characteristics of the plant. It was assumed that the preparation should replace expensive conventional fertilisation methods, allow for management of waste substances and improve soil properties, leading to a high yield of Spartina pectinata used as energy crop. The plants were grown on the soil from the Huta Częstochowa steelworks effect zone. The soil was light, with acid reaction (pH KCl =5.5), with small contents of such contaminants as Cd and Zn and elevated Pb content. Based on a three-year pot experiment, the paper presents the results of the examinations concerning the effect of fertilisation on soil pH, hydrolytic acidity, sorptive properties, content of humic acids, organic coal and total nitrogen in soil and crop yielding. The effect of the use of the fertilizer (C+SS+BC+BCA+K) was compared with the use of the sludge (C+SS), sludge with mineral fertilizers (C+SS+NPK), mixture of brown coal and mineral fertilizers (C+BC+NPK) and effect of only mineral fertilizers (C+NPK). Fertilisation with (C+SS+BC+BCA+K) led to the increase in soil pH from 5.5 to 6.0, which is considered sufficient for light soils. The fertilised soil was characterized by sorption capacity of ca. 5.8 cmol(+)/kg, and, after fertilisation with O+W+P, reached the value of ca. 8.0 cmol(+)kg -1 . Consequently the soil can be regarded as of good quality in terms of its capability to store nutrients. The C:N ratio was also extended from 11:1 (control soil) to 14:1 (C

  16. Biological Composition of Sewage Sludge in the Aspect of Threats to the Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bień January

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the prerequisites for sustainable development is integrated waste management, including sewage sludge. Besides its good fertilization properties, sewage sludge, which is an inevitable by-product of sewage treatment, accumulates toxic chemical substances and dangerous pathogenic and toxicogenic organisms. Uncontrolled introduction of sewage sludge into soil might pose a serious threat to food chain and natural soil microflora. This in effect might disturb the ecological balance in a particular ecosystem. This study presents author’s own investigations of the sanitary conditions of sewage sludge and the conditions after the processes of aerobic and anaerobic stabilization. The investigated sewage sludge originated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The sewage sludge samples were transferred onto proliferation and diagnostic media. The results of the analysis obtained in this study confirmed that sewage sludge is a material which is rich in microorganisms, including pathogenic bacterial species such as: Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Mycological tests demonstrated that sewage sludge is a material which is conducive to proliferation of yeast-like and mould-like fungi, among which both pathogenic and toxinogenic species can be present. Quantitative analysis of the investigated sewage sludge demonstrated that the processes of stabilization reduce the content of microorganisms but they do not guarantee product safety in sanitary terms. A huge variability and variety of biological composition points to the need for further research in the field of sanitary characteristics of sewage sludge and survival rate in microorganisms from different types of sewage sludge.

  17. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  18. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  19. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity of two cationic BODIPY derivatives with application in the photoinactivation of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Maximiliano L; Ballatore, M Belén; Reynoso, Eugenia; Quiroga, Ezequiel D; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2017-01-27

    Two cationic BODIPYs 3 and 4 were synthesized by acid-catalyzed condensation of the corresponding pyrrole and benzaldehyde, followed by complexation with boron and methylation. Compound 3 contains methyl at the 1,3,5 and 7 positions of the s-indacene ring and a N,N,N-trimethylamino group attached to the phenylene unit, while 4 is not substituted by methyl groups and the cationic group is bound by an aliphatic spacer. UV-visible absorption spectra of these BODIPYs show an intense band at ∼500 nm in solvents of different polarities and n-heptane/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/water reverse micelles. Compound 3 exhibits a higher fluorescence quantum yield (Φ F  = 0.29) than 4 (Φ F  = 0.030) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) due to sterically hindered rotation of the phenylene ring. BODIPYs 3 and 4 induce photosensitized oxidation of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) with yields of singlet molecular oxygen of 0.07 and 0.03, respectively. However, the photodynamic activity increases in a microheterogenic medium formed by AOT micelles. Also, both BODIPYs sensitize the photodecomposition of l-tryptophan (Trp). In presence of diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) or D-mannitol, a reduction in the photooxidation of Trp was found, indicating a contribution of type I photoprocess. Moreover, the addition of KI produces fluorescence quenching of BODIPYs and reduces the photooxidation of DPBF. In contrast, this inorganic salt increases the photoinduced decomposition of Trp, possibly due to the formation of reactive iodine species. The effect of KI was also observed in the potentiation of the photoinactivation of microorganisms. Therefore, the presence of KI could increase the decomposition of biomolecules induced by these BODIPYs in a biological media, leading to a higher cell photoinactivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioplastics from microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, José M; García, Belén; Sandoval, Angel; Naharro, Germán; Olivera, Elías R

    2003-06-01

    The term 'biomaterials' includes chemically unrelated products that are synthesised by microorganisms (or part of them) under different environmental conditions. One important family of biomaterials is bioplastics. These are polyesters that are widely distributed in nature and accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in the form of storage granules, with physico-chemical properties resembling petrochemical plastics. These polymers are usually built from hydroxy-acyl-CoA derivatives via different metabolic pathways. Depending on their microbial origin, bioplastics differ in their monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physical properties. Most of them are biodegradable and biocompatible, which makes them extremely interesting from the biotechnological point of view.

  2. Assessment of impact of culture conditions on capability of wastewater's microorganisms to flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the significant sources of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Kola North. Sewage coming to the ground waters, surface waters and near shore marine basin have a complex negative impact on the biocenosis of water objects. Considering the fact that basin self-purification process in climatic environment of the Far North is slow, it seems to be current problem to research influence of external factors on the native microorganisms involved in the biological transformation of most pollutants. Along with oxygenizing activity microorganisms are able to accumulate pollutant in the cells and to form floccules. As a result, microorganisms fix the dissolved contaminants that may be mechanically derived from water. Using the data on the chemical makeup of some urban and domestic sewage, nutrient media have been developed where microorganisms isolated from effluents have been cultivated. As major characteristics of the cultivation media affecting the intensity and direction of metabolic processes in microorganisms, the ratios C / N, C / P and N / P have been chosen. Intensity growth of bacteria in experimental nutrient media has been studied and the flocculating activity of bacterial suspensions has been determined. The rate of these microorganisms (Pseudomonas spp. and cultures of bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family average has been 70∙103 and 117∙103 cells/h respectively. The growth rate of each culture on different composition nutrient media has varied within three orders, and has correlated with the relative content of phosphates in the nutrient media. The flocculating potential does not depend on the ratio of biogenic elements C / N, C / P and N / P. Both cultures have shown the ability to precipitate suspended matter at the level of 50 % or more after cultivation on nutrient media similar in composition to habitat conditions.

  3. Floating mucus aggregates derived from benthic microorganisms on rocky intertidal reefs: Potential as food sources for benthic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2011-09-01

    Mucus films, flocs or foams consisting of fine sand, algae and detritus frequently occur in the surface waters of rocky intertidal reef flats during incoming tide. These masses are referred to as mucus aggregates. We examined the developmental process of mucus aggregates and their abundance, distribution, migration and trophic composition. The trophic composition of mucus aggregates was then compared to those of sediments to evaluate their potential nutritional value for benthic animals. The organic matter content, chlorophyll a concentration, microalgal density and bacteria-derived fatty acid contents of mucus aggregates were higher than those observed in sediment, suggesting that mucus aggregates contain not only high levels of organic matter but also dense concentrations of microalgae and bacteria; therefore, mucus aggregates may serve as a qualitatively more energetic food source for benthic fauna compared to sediments. Benthic diatoms were the most abundant organisms in mucus aggregates. Large numbers of diatoms were trapped in fine mineral particles and mucilage-like strings, suggesting that a portion of the mucus is secreted by these benthic microalgae. Mucus aggregate accounted for only 0.01-3.9% of the daily feeding requirements of the dominant detritivore, Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) over the entire sampling area. In contrast, for the species population on the back reef, where mucus aggregates ultimately accumulate, mucus aggregates provided from 0.4 to 113.3% of food for this species. These results suggest that mucus aggregate availability varies spatiotemporally and that they do not always provide adequate food sources for O. scolopendrina populations.

  4. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  5. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  6. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry to determine benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pol; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa M

    2014-04-25

    A Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five benzotriazole, four benzothiazole and five benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge. While the method was being developed, several buffers and dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up (dSPE) sorbents were tested. Citrate buffer and Z-sep+ (zirconium-based sorbent) were the most effective extraction buffer and dSPE clean-up material. The absolute recoveries were higher than 80% for all compounds (100ng/g (d.w.)) and the matrix effect was less than -20% for most compounds. The limits of detection were between 0.5 and 10ng/g (d.w.) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 1 and 25ng/g (d.w.). Repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 15% (%RSD, n=5). Several sludge samples from five sewage treatment plants in Catalonia were analysed and the most abundant compounds were 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (181.2ng/g (d.w.)) and 4-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole (

  7. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  8. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Tsukasa

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make studen...

  9. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  11. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  12. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  13. Solubilization and Elimination of Coliforms from Sewage Sludge by Sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathki, Snehal; Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of sewage secondary excess sludge is a great problem globally, and stabilization of this excess sludge by anaerobic digestion is hampered due to its constituents resistant to biodegradation. Sludge pre-treatment enhances the performance of anaerobic digestion. In this study, sewage sludge was collected from a full-scale sewage treatment plant and characterized. Ultrasonic method was used for the excess sludge disintegration of microbial flocks and cells, so as to breakdown the intracellular or extracellular polymeric materials to enhance the anaerobic digestion. The studies related to the effect of sonication on release of nutrients, increase in soluble COD and reduction in pathogenic coliforms as well as heterotrophic microorganisms and the optimization of sonication time were carried out. The results showed that the twenty minutes sonication (25 kHz) increased the soluble COD content, nutrient release and complete disappearance of fecal as well as total coliforms in the treated sludge. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. The Synthesis of L-Alanyl and β-Alanyl Derivatives of 2-Aminoacridone and Their Application in the Detection of Clinically-Important Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Marie; James, Arthur L; Orenga, Sylvain; Perry, John D; Turnbull, Graeme; Stanforth, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    In clinical microbiology the speed with which pathogenic microorganisms may be detected has a direct impact on patient health. One important strategy used in the laboratory is the growth of cultures in the presence of an enzymatic substrate which, once transformed by the appropriate microbial enzyme, generates a detectable colour or fluorescence output. Such substrates have previously been prepared by our group and others and are available as commercial diagnostic kits, however they all suffer from some degree of diffusion when used in a solid growth medium. This diffusion complicates the detection and differentiation of species in polymicrobial cultures and so we sought to improve on our previous work. In this work we have prepared and evaluated a series of novel fluorogenic enzyme substrates based on N-substituted-2-aminoacridones. All of the prepared substrates were found to be suitable for the detection and differentiation of certain microorganisms, however those based on the 2-amino-10-benzylacridone core in particular showed no apparent diffusion when incorporated into solid growth media. On transformation these substrates generated brightly fluorescent colonies that are clearly contrasted with the background medium due to the difference in emission wavelength (λem 445-450 nm for the substrate, λem 550 nm for the product). Here we have shown that our L-alanyl aminopeptidase substrate, 2-(N-L-alanylamino)-10-benzylacridone, is particularly suited to the detection of Gram-negative bacteria, and our β-alanyl aminopeptidase substrate, 2-(N- β-alanylamino)-10-benzylacridone, to the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens when grown on solid media incorporating these substrates. The resulting fluorophore shows no apparent diffusion from the colonies of interest, and the enhanced sensitivity offered by fluorescent emission may allow for the detection of these organisms as microcolonies using automated fluorescence microscopy.

  15. The Synthesis of L-Alanyl and β-Alanyl Derivatives of 2-Aminoacridone and Their Application in the Detection of Clinically-Important Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cellier

    Full Text Available In clinical microbiology the speed with which pathogenic microorganisms may be detected has a direct impact on patient health. One important strategy used in the laboratory is the growth of cultures in the presence of an enzymatic substrate which, once transformed by the appropriate microbial enzyme, generates a detectable colour or fluorescence output. Such substrates have previously been prepared by our group and others and are available as commercial diagnostic kits, however they all suffer from some degree of diffusion when used in a solid growth medium. This diffusion complicates the detection and differentiation of species in polymicrobial cultures and so we sought to improve on our previous work. In this work we have prepared and evaluated a series of novel fluorogenic enzyme substrates based on N-substituted-2-aminoacridones. All of the prepared substrates were found to be suitable for the detection and differentiation of certain microorganisms, however those based on the 2-amino-10-benzylacridone core in particular showed no apparent diffusion when incorporated into solid growth media. On transformation these substrates generated brightly fluorescent colonies that are clearly contrasted with the background medium due to the difference in emission wavelength (λem 445-450 nm for the substrate, λem 550 nm for the product. Here we have shown that our L-alanyl aminopeptidase substrate, 2-(N-L-alanylamino-10-benzylacridone, is particularly suited to the detection of Gram-negative bacteria, and our β-alanyl aminopeptidase substrate, 2-(N- β-alanylamino-10-benzylacridone, to the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens when grown on solid media incorporating these substrates. The resulting fluorophore shows no apparent diffusion from the colonies of interest, and the enhanced sensitivity offered by fluorescent emission may allow for the detection of these organisms as microcolonies using automated fluorescence microscopy.

  16. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  17. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  18. Disinfection of sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the liquids in the agriculture or its disposal like sea nutrient

  19. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  20. Sewage sludge treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  1. Effects of precipitation on the amount and quality of raw sewage entering a sewage treatment plant in Wodzisław Śląski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielowski Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the effects of precipitation on the amount and quality of raw sewage entering a sewage treatment plant in Wodzisław Śląski. It covers a six-year period between January 2010 and December 2015. The research period was divided into seven classes of precipitation intensity. The classes were characterized for their basic descriptive statistics of the raw sewage entering the investigated sewage treatment plant (STP. Data obtained from the collected material and derived from an analysis indicated a considerable influence of precipitation on the amount of sewage entering the investigated facility. Mean amount of sewage entering the STP was by 10.5% (884.9 m3·d-1 greater in B class and by 69.6% (6,153.9 m3·d-1 greater in G class than during dry weather. Individual classes of precipitation intensity were compared for their mean values of raw sewage contamination. Precipitation intensity was found to significantly affect concentrations of the investigated parameters of raw sewage contamination. Basic parameters of sewage contamination (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids were determined and their basic descriptive statistics, such as median, mean, minimum and maximum value, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated.

  2. Myotoxic phospholipases A(2) isolated from Bothrops brazili snake venom and synthetic peptides derived from their C-terminal region: cytotoxic effect on microorganism and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tassia R; Menaldo, Danilo L; Oliveira, Clayton Z; Santos-Filho, Norival A; Teixeira, Sabrina S; Nomizo, Auro; Fuly, André L; Monteiro, Marta C; de Souza, Bibiana M; Palma, Mário S; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Sampaio, Suely V; Soares, Andreimar M

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports the purification and biochemical/pharmacological characterization of two myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) from Bothrops brazili venom, a native snake from Brazil. Both myotoxins (MTX-I and II) were purified by a single chromatographic step on a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column up to a high purity level, showing M(r) approximately 14,000 for the monomer and 28,000Da for the dimer. The N-terminal and internal peptide amino acid sequences showed similarity with other myotoxic PLA(2)s from snake venoms, MTX-I belonging to Asp49 PLA(2) class, enzymatically active, and MTX-II to Lys49 PLA(2)s, catalytically inactive. Treatment of MTX-I with BPB and EDTA reduced drastically its PLA(2) and anticoagulant activities, corroborating the importance of residue His48 and Ca(2+) ions for the enzymatic catalysis. Both PLA(2)s induced myotoxic activity and dose-time dependent edema similar to other isolated snake venom toxins from Bothrops and Crotalus genus. The results also demonstrated that MTXs and cationic synthetic peptides derived from their 115-129 C-terminal region displayed cytotoxic activity on human T-cell leukemia (JURKAT) lines and microbicidal effects against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Leishmania sp. Thus, these PLA(2) proteins and C-terminal synthetic peptides present multifunctional properties that might be of interest in the development of therapeutic strategies against parasites, bacteria and cancer.

  3. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  4. Applying Nuclear Techniques to Improve Sewage Sludge Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, K; Elemam, M.; Abouzoede, A.; Faraj, M.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of sewage sludge is a very important process to eliminate all types of microorganisms and to improve its characteristics, after the irradiation process sewage sludge will have a very good ecological, economic and agricultural value where it can be used safely as a fertilizer because of its nutrient value. Sewage samples were brought from Alhadba Alkhadra wastewater treatment plant in Tripoli and the following microorganisms were isolated: E.coli, Klebsiella, Campylobacter jejune, Bacillus sp., Yeast, Fungi. Samples were then divided into seven groups and received different doses ranged between 0.5 and 3 kGy with an increment of 0.5, one sample was kept as a control sample. The effect of the ionizing radiation was noticed as yeast and fungi disappeared after receiving a dose of 0.5 kGy where as E.Coli and Campylobacter jejune needed a dose of 1 kGy to be eliminated from sludge, a dose of 1.5 kGy was enough for Klebsiella pneumonia, Finally a dose of 3 kGy was needed to clear off the Bacillus sp. bacteria. Ph and E.C. were recorded before and after the irradiation process with no changes.

  5. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on ?-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Si; Liu, Guangmin; Wu, Shuyan; Wan, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the...

  6. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  7. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  8. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes...... a wide variety of organisms. The article focuses on the functional role of microbes in the biosphere and in different types of habitats - especially in terms of flow of energy and matter....

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation and moisture on microbiological load of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.; Shamma, M.

    2002-07-01

    Concentrated municipal sewage sludge, stored for 2, 4, and 6 months, with moisture content of 2, 20, 40, 60, and 80% were exposed to doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kGy in a 60 Co package irradiator. Immediately after irradiation, total microbial count, bacterial pathogens in sewage sludge was determined. Techno-economic feasibility of irradiated sewage according to the moisture content in sewage sludge and the needed irradiation dose to eliminate pathogens was evaluated. The results indicated that, all tested sewage sludge sample, bacterial pathogens including Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., and e. coli, were detected. Used doses of gamma irradiation reduced the counts of microorganisms. D 1 0 of total count decreased with increasing the moisture level of sewage sludge. The lowest lethal dose for bacterial pathogens including Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., and e. coli is over 5 kGy and 1 kGy in air dried and watered sludge with more than 40% sewage sludge respectively, for samples taken at 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. (author)

  10. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  11. THE TOXICITY OF SEWAGE FROM SELECTED MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Butarewicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the toxicity of crude and purified sewage from three municipal sewage treatment plants located in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. The bioindicative analysis, based on the use of the Microtox M500 analyzer and Vibrio fischeri bacteria, has shown high or significant toxicity in all the raw wastewater samples, according to Persoone classification. Classification by Sawicki differentiates more the results of acute toxicity tests of crude sewage, because only 66% of samples were toxic. All treated wastewater samples showed no toxicity. The obtained results of the study indicate the efficacy of removing toxic compounds in waste water treatment plants based on the classic activated sludge technology and sequential reactors (SBR and no risk at discharging the treated sewage into the water of receivers.

  12. New insights into biodrying mechanism associated with tryptophan and tyrosine degradations during sewage sludge biodrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Krafft, Thomas; Chen, Tong-Bin; Lv, Wen-Zhou; Gao, Ding; Zhang, Han-Yan

    2017-11-01

    Sewage sludge biodrying is a treatment that uses bio-heat generated from organic degradation to remove water from sewage sludge. Dewatering is still limited during biodrying, due to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge. To study the biodrying mechanism associated with EPS compositions tryptophan and tyrosine degradations, this study investigated the microbial function in sludge biodrying material. This study conducted a taxonomic analysis of biodrying material; determined the most abundant genetic functions; analyzed the functional microorganisms involved in the degradations of tryptophan and tyrosine; and summarized the metabolic pathways. The results indicated efficient degradations of tryptophan and tyrosine were observed during the initial thermophilic phase; functional microorganisms were mainly from the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, enriched with genes involved in amino acid transport and metabolism. These findings highlight the potentially important microorganisms and typical pathways that may help improve dewaterability during biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of Evaporation Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for evaporation losses in sewage sludge drying bed was derived from first principles. This model was developed based on the reasoning that the rate at which evaporation is taking place is directly proportional to the instantaneous quantity of water in the sludge. The aim of this work was to develop a model to assist ...

  14. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  15. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    indiscriminate, deliber- ate, accidental, or regular/routine disposals), higher will be the number of coliforms in environmental samples. Further, microbiologists rely on the principle that higher the incidence of sewage indicator bacteria in any environment...

  16. Evaluation of virus recovery methods and efficiency of tannin-derived coagulants in removing total coliforms, E. coli and enteric viruses in effluents of a domestic sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabres, Rafael Bandeira; da Luz, Roger Bordin; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Nascimento, Carlos Augusto do; Nascimento, Felipe Tiago do; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, nine coagulants having potential to be used for sewage treatment were compared to assess their efficiency in removing total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and adenovirus. The coagulants tested were metallic and organic and their efficiency was compared when treating samples of raw and treated sewage (activated sludge). Before the efficiency tests of the coagulants, viral concentration methods were compared. Coagulation tests were carried out by using the jar-test system and the doses used ranged from 100 ppm to 1,000 ppm. Viral DNA was extracted and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using primers for the gene of AdV hexon. Aluminum sulfate (1,000 ppm) presented the best results for raw sewage among metal coagulants whereas Acquapol ® C118 and WW (1,000 ppm) had the most satisfactory results among organic coagulants, both reducing up to 7 logs for coliforms and 4 logs for virus. For the treated effluent, FeCl 2 (1,000 ppm) presented best results for metal coagulants, whereas, from organic coagulants, the best removal rates were for Acquapol ® 893/11 (1,000 ppm), both reducing up to 3 logs for coliforms and 4 logs for virus.

  17. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  18. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  19. Influence of bulking agents and microbial activator on thermophilic aerobic transformation of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasda, N; Limtong, P; Oliver, R; Montange, D; Panichsakpatana, S

    2005-10-01

    Bangkok, while improving the wastewater treatment in order to alleviate the river pollution, faces important amounts of sewage sludge. The sewage sludge contains organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus available for plant growth. However, it may contain pathogenic microorganisms. To be used for agricultural purposes, these pathogens should be destroyed, which can be achieved with the thermophilic phase of composting. As the sewage sludge is dense and unable to compost alone (low C/N ratio), it should be mixed with an organic by-product. Two by-products available in large quantities in Thailand (wood chips and rice husk) have been tested for mixture with sewage sludge. As these products are not easy to decompose (presence of silica in rice husk and lignin/tannins in wood chips), the addition of a microbial activator for composting has been tested in controlled conditions (small quantities of organic mixtures, 55 degrees C, moisture maintained at 60-70% of water holding capacity). The monitoring of the decomposition has been made by measuring the carbon dioxide respiration, pH, organic matter and nitrogen contents and the evolution of enzymatic activities. When mixed with sewage sludge, wood chips and rice husk do not show significant differences concerning decomposition after 63 days. The use of an activator within the experimental conditions does not improve the decomposition of organic matter contained in the mixture of sewage sludge and rice husk or wood chips.

  20. Investigation of chemotherapic action of Waltheria viscosissima against microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Lima, E. de; Maia, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The activity of chemical substances derived from the plant Waltheria viscosissima about the pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms are studied. The aquous (chloroform - water phase) and solid (ethy - lacetate phase) extracts were subjected to in vitro tests over several species of microorganisms including bacterium and fungi. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  2. Esterase screening using whole cells of Brazilian soil microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Simone M.; Oliveira, Luciana G. de; Marsaioli, Anita J., E-mail: anita@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A miniaturized enzymatic assay using fluorescent probes to reveal esterase producing microorganisms was optimized and applied to screen 64 soil bacterial strains. The best results were validated using traditional non-fluorogenic assays with acetyl and propanoyl phenylethanol to confirm the miniaturized results. The most active microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus showing esterase activity and good enantiomeric ratios for the resolution of phenylethanol derivatives (E > 30). Part of the microorganisms are kept in our laboratory in glycerol or freezedried and the best microorganisms will be deposited in the CBMAI/CPQBA/UNICAMP culture collection. (author)

  3. Informative communication of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kremenchutskу

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroorganism in combination with microbiota is considered as a “superorganism”. Microorganisms, belonging to the microbiota, are in dynamic equilibrium with a macroorganism. This balance is achieved through a molecular “language” of communication between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Molecular communication between cells leads to positive and negative results. A large number of metabolites of microorganisms that carry the information load: autoinducers is revealed. Autoinducer affect on the immune systems, and variety of metabolic processes. This affects on practically all organs and systems of maсroorganism. Studied metabolites of aerococci affect on the immune system, regenerative cycles and other processes of macroorganism. The problem of informative communication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes provides new insights about vital functions of “superorganisms”.

  4. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  5. Biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A in the sewage sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingxing; Wang, Zhangna; Wei, Dongyang; Huang, Qiyuan; Jia, Xiaoshan

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic sewage sludge capable of rapidly degrading tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was successfully acclimated in an anaerobic reactor over 280days. During the period from 0 to 280days, the TBBPA degradation rate (DR), utilization of glucose, and VSS were monitored continuously. After 280days of acclimation, the TBBPA DR of active sludge reached 96.0% after 20days of treatment in batch experiments. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) determinations, the diversity of the microorganisms after 0 and 280days in the acclimated anaerobic sewage sludge was compared. Furthermore, eleven metabolites, including 2-bromophenol, 3-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,6-dibromophenol, tribromophenol and bisphenol A, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the six primary intermediary metabolites were also well-degraded by the acclimated anaerobic sewage sludge to varying degrees. Among the six target metabolites, tribromophenol was the most preferred substrate for biodegradation via debromination. These metabolites degraded more rapidly than monobromide and bisphenol A. The biodegradation data of the intermediary metabolites exhibited a good fit to a pseudo-first-order model. Finally, based on the metabolites, metabolic pathways were proposed. In conclusion, the acclimated microbial consortia degraded TBBPA and its metabolites well under anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in sewage-contaminated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Vercammen, Ken; Passerat, Julien; Triest, David; Servais, Pierre; Cornelis, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Sewage-contaminated rivers are ecosystems deeply disturbed by human activity due to the release of heavy metals, organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals as well as faecal and pathogenic micro-organisms, which coexist with the autochthonous microbial population. In this study, we compared the percentage of resistance in faecal and heterotrophic bacteria in rivers with different degrees of sewage pollution. As a matter of fact, no correlation was found neither between the degree of sewage pollution and the percentage of antimicrobial resistant heterotrophic bacteria nor between the number of resistant faecal bacteria and that of resistant heterotrophic bacteria. Most of the resistant isolates from the Zenne river downstream Brussels were multi-resistant and the resistance patterns were similar among the strains of each phylogenetic group. The total microbial community in this polluted river (as evaluated through a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis) appeared to be dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the phylum TM7 was the third most represented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  8. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  9. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

  10. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the Geiselbullach sewage treatment plant near Munich, sewage irradiation by a 60 Co source is being investigated on a technical scale. 145 m 3 of sewage sludge are irradiated per day and then used as field fertilizer. (orig./HBR) [de

  11. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  12. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2016-05-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)) was studied in sewage sludge samples. Sorption isotherms were obtained by varying initial concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS. The maximum values of the sorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,max) varied by almost two orders of magnitude among the target PFASs: 140-281 mL g(-1) for PFOS, 30-54 mL g(-1) for PFOA and 9-18 mL g(-1) for PFBS. Freundlich and linear fittings were appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of PFASs in the sludge samples, and the derived KF and Kd,linear parameters correlated well. The hydrophobicity of the PFASs was the key parameter that influenced their sorption in sewage sludge. Sorption parameters and log(KOW) were correlated, and for PFOS (the most hydrophobic compound), pH and Ca + Mg status of the sludge controlled the variation in the sorption parameter values. Sorption reversibility was also tested from desorption isotherms, which were also linear. Desorption parameters were systematically higher than the corresponding sorption parameters (up to sixfold higher), thus indicating a significant degree of irreversible sorption, which decreased in the sequence PFOS > PFOA > PFBS.

  13. Inactivation of viruses and bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stettmund von Brodorotti, H.; Mahnel, H.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of inactivation and the resistance to gamma radiation of microorganisms usually to be found in raw sludge were examined with five viruses, three bacteria and a fungus serving as prototypes in comparative studies. All these infectious agents could reliably be inactivated by gamma rays in raw sewage sludge but they were dearly more resistant to gamma rays compared to irradiation in a liquid suspension. The reduction of the virus content required a much higher radiation dose compared to bacteria and the fungus used, excluding Streptococcus faecalis which was exceptionally resistant. Considering the content of pathogenic viruses and other agents in raw sewage sludge, the required radiation dose necessary to comply with average to strict demands for the hygienisation of sewage sludge is discussed. The radiation dose of 500 to 1,000 krad seems therefore to be sufficient. (orig.) [de

  14. Genetically modified microorganisms having improved tolerance towards l-serine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the microbiological industry, and specifically to the production of L-serine or L-serine derivatives using genetically modified bacteria. The present invention provides genetically modified microorganisms, such as bacteria, wherein the expression of genes...... tolerant towards higher concentrations of serine. The present invention also provides methods for the production of L-serine or L-serine derivative using such genetically modified microorganisms....

  15. Biodegradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B V; Chiang, F; Yuan, S Y

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effects of various factors on the aerobic degradation of nonylphenol (NP) in sewage sludge. NP (5 mg/kg) degradation rate constants (k1) calculated were 0.148 and 0.224 day(-1) for the batch experiment and the bioreactor experiment, respectively, and half-lives (t(1/2)) were 4.7 and 3.1 days, respectively. The optimal pH value for NP degradation in sludge was 7.0 and the degradation rate was enhanced when the temperature was increased and when yeast extract (5 mg/l) and surfactants such as brij 30 or brij 35 (55 or 91 microM) were added. The addition of aluminum sulfate (200 mg/l) and hydrogen peroxide (1 mg/l) inhibited NP degradation within 28 days of incubation. Of the microorganism strains isolated from the sludge samples, we found that strain CT7 (identified as Bacillus sphaericus) manifested the best degrading ability.

  16. STABILIZATION OF DEWATERED SEWAGE SLUDGE BY AEROBIC COMPOSTING METHOD: USING SAWDUST AS BULKING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A PARVARESH

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sludge production from municipal wastewater treatment plants should have quality standards before disposal in to the environment. Environmental specialists classified sewage sludge as a hazardous waste because of high organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. They belive that sewage should be stabilized before disposal and so composting of sewage sludge is an effective and economical method to stabilize. Sewage sludge compost could be used to improve soil structure and enrich the soil with nutrients. Methods. To evaluate the optimum conditions of aerobic compost, the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge from Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant and sawdust as bulking agent were used. Pilot scale study were performed in Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant. To perform this research project, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78 to 82 percent were mixed with sawdust. Turning over method of the piles with one week interval were applied to aerate the mixture. Temperature of the piles were monitored at different depths daily. Other parameters such as N, G, organic matters and pH were determined weekly. Total and fecal coli form, and salmonella were determined at the beginning and end of the composting process, also heavy metals were measured at the same time. Results. The results of this study showed that after days, temperature of the mixture reached up to 55 G, and were stabled for 15 days. Humidity, organic matter, organic carbon and GIN ratio of the mixture decreased over the period of the study, due to increasing the temperature. Also organic matter and humidity mainly decreased in thermofilic phase. The number of total and fecal coliform and also salmonella decreased to A class standards of US.EPA at the end of the operation. Discussion. The results of the study also showed that, this type of composting method is reliable, and simple to schedule, with high flexibility and low odor

  17. Ecology of Hypersaline Microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.

    by microorganisms. A prime example is the Dead Sea, a lake in which the 37 concentration of divalent cations (about 1.9 M Mg+2 and 0.4 M Ca+2) exceeds that of monovalent cations (1.6 M Na+ and 0.14 M K+) and of which the pH is relatively low (around 6.0). Even... such a hostile environment periodically supports dense microbial blooms (Oren, 1988). The two largest and best-studied hypersaline lakes are the Great Salt Lake in the Western United States and the Dead Sea, in the Middle East. The Great Salt Lake...

  18. Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.E.; Sauerbeck, D.R.; L'Hermite, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sewage sludge production in Europe will continue to rise as a result of higher environmental standards, making disposal increasingly difficult in the future. A considerable part of this sludge is spread beneficially on agricultural land as an organic fertilizer, however, this outlet is very sensitive to the problems associated with the inorganic and organic contaminants which sludge inevitably contains. Much research has been devoted to the problems of contaminants in sludge and their potential effects on soil, plants, animals and man in recent years, and the European Commission's Concerted Action COST 681 has provided a valuable forum for the exchange of views and progress of research on sludge treatment and disposal. This book contains 19 papers presented to a joint meeting of Working Party 4 (Agricultural Value) and Working Party 5 (Environmental Effects) of COST 681, held at the German Federal Research Centre of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig on 6-8 June 1990. The meeting addressed two areas of current concern; the occurrence, behaviour and transfer of sludge-derived organic contaminants (Session 1), and the influence of inorganic and organic contaminants on soil micro-organisms and their activities (Session 2)

  19. Delta13C and delta15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Rau, Greg H; Kvitek, Rikk G

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  20. δ13C and δ15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. . E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic

  1. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  2. Identification of anaerobic microorganisms for converting kitchen waste to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad; Shahrom Mohd Zain; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty; Mohd Hasnain Isa

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system. (Author)

  3. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-step chlorination: A new approach to disinfection of a primary sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Yang, Mengting; Zhang, Xiangru; Jiang, Jingyi; Liu, Jiaqi; Yau, Cie Fu; Graham, Nigel J D; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Sewage disinfection aims at inactivating pathogenic microorganisms and preventing the transmission of waterborne diseases. Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents. The objective of achieving a disinfection goal and reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs remains a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, for the same chlorine dosage, a two-step addition of chlorine (two-step chlorination) was significantly more efficient in disinfecting a primary sewage effluent than a one-step addition of chlorine (one-step chlorination), and shown how the two-step chlorination was optimized with respect to time interval and dosage ratio. Two-step chlorination of the sewage effluent attained its highest disinfection efficiency at a time interval of 19 s and a dosage ratio of 5:1. Compared to one-step chlorination, two-step chlorination enhanced the disinfection efficiency by up to 0.81- or even 1.02-log for two different chlorine doses and contact times. An empirical relationship involving disinfection efficiency, time interval and dosage ratio was obtained by best fitting. Mechanisms (including a higher overall Ct value, an intensive synergistic effect, and a shorter recovery time) were proposed for the higher disinfection efficiency of two-step chlorination in the sewage effluent disinfection. Annual chlorine consumption costs in one-step and two-step chlorination of the primary sewage effluent were estimated. Compared to one-step chlorination, two-step chlorination reduced the cost by up to 16.7%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus, the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putative proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.

  6. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology.

  7. Development of the packer for sewages maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Hoo; Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2001-06-01

    In order to repair sewages, it is required to dig out the damaged sewages. But, this kind of repair work is not effective since it causes serious traffic jams and takes too much time and cost. To solve this problems, another method, which send workers or special devices into the sewages for repair work, has been used. This method gets rid of the necessity of digging out the sewages. In case of huge sewages, whose diameter are greater than 800 mm, human workers can get into the sewages and carry out repair works, but it is probable that the work can generate toxic gases. In addition, the human mistakes sometimes lead to severe disasters. For sewages with small diameters, it is difficult for human workers to go inside, so mobile robot has been used. To enhance the work condition, it is necessary to develope a device that can repair the damaged part whose conditions were inspected by sewages inspection/repair robots. For this reason, a packer was developed. The disadvantage of the previous packer was low work efficiency due to low surface contact because the previous packer inflated its center part to stick to the sewages. To increase the efficiency, V-shaped wrinkle tube was attached to the newly-developed packer. So while injecting air, the surface of the packer expands uniformly. This increases the surface contact with the sewages, which means more area can be repaired in less time. Also a camera was attached to the packer so that one can check the sewages conditions after repair work is finished. Also inspection system is connected to the control room outside the sewages. In conclusion, with the advantages mentioned above, the newly-developed packer will be very useful for sewages repair work

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  9. THE CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN GNIEWINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Karolina Milik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP serving rural areas are suggested for agricultural or natural usage. Before, however, sewage sludge is subjected to the several pre-treatments, which involve stabilization, hygienisation and pre-composting. These methods decrease mainly the amount of organic substances and presence of microorganisms, but hardly affects concentrations of heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. The addition of sewage sludge to soils could affect potential availability of heavy metals. Trace elements are distributed in the soil in various forms: solid phases, free ions in soil solution, soluble organic-mineral complexes, or adsorbed on colloidal particles. In the study the concentrations of trace elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn, Al, As, Se, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ga, Li, Mo, Sr, Mg, K, Ru, Tl, V, U was tested in sewage sludge obtained from (WWTP serving rural areas (PE< 9 000. In each case, the tested sewage sludge was meeting the criteria of stabilization and was used for agriculture and land reclamation purpose. All the samples were collected in 2016 and were subjected to microwave mineralization in a closed system in aqua regia. The total amound of macro and microelements were determined with a ICP-OES. It was found that the total concentrations of trace metals in all of sewage sludge are the same than Polish regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. The trace elements (cadmium: 1,16 mg·kg-1/d.m. in polish sewage sludge, respectively, much higher than those in the other countries. As a most prevalent copper and zinc were observed (111,28 mg·kg-1/d.m. and 282,94 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The concentrations of copper in polish sewage sludge are much lower (49-130 mg·kg-1/d.m. than european sewage sludge (522-562 mg·kg-1/d.m.. The two out of tested heavy metals (beryllium, bismuth

  10. Bioprocessing of sewage sludge for safe recycling on agricultural land - BIOWASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Christensen, Nina; Batstone, Damien John; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lichtfouse, Eric; Elbisser, Brigitte; Rogers, Kayne; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Dernaix, Laurence; Caria; Giovanni; Metzger, Laure; Borghi, Veronica; Montcada, Eloi

    2003-07-01

    Disposal and handling of sewage sludge are increasing problems in Europe due to the increasing quantities of the sewage sludge produced. A large amount of the sewage sludge contains small fractions of toxic chemicals, which results in problems with safe use of the sewage sludge on agricultural land. From an ecological and economical point of view, it would be essential to establish methodologies, which could allow sewage sludge to be reused as fertilizers on agricultural land. Energy efficient biotreatment processes of organic waste are, therefore, of crucial importance. BIOWASTE will offer an integrated study of this area. The typical composition of sewage sludge will be characterized with regard to key contaminating compounds. The following compounds will be in focus: Emulsifying agents such as nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from incomplete combustion processes and phthalates, which are used as additives in plastics and surfactants such as linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS). Analytical techniques suitable for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the chemical species involved in the processes under investigation will be determined. Bacteria that are able to degrade selected contaminating compounds under anaerobic and aerobic conditions will be isolated, characterized and bioaugmented for decontamination of sewage sludge through bioprocessing. Aerobic, anaerobic and combination of aerobic/anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge will be applied. A mathematical model will be developed to describe the biodegradation processes of the contaminating compounds after establishing the kinetic parameters for degradation of contaminating compounds. The bioprocessed sewage sludge will be used in eco- and plant- toxicology tests to evaluate the impact of the xenobiotics on the environment. Methodologies will be developed and applied to assess the cleanliness of the bioprocessing as a safe method for waste

  11. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sewage water quality measuring technology. Josuido suishitsu keisoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urushibara, S.; Sato, S.; Fukuoka, M. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a new bubble-cleaning dissolved oxygen analyzer with improved maintainability as a sewage water quality measuring instrument, and a sludge activity measuring instrument to measure new water quality control items for managing and controlling microorganisms. The bubble-cleaning dissolved oxygen analyzer uses a tip-detecting polarographic electrode, and has excellent maintainability because of its bubble cleaning mechanism. Since output rise resulted from the bubble cleaning is as very small as about 0.2 mg/l, continuous cleaning is possible while a measurement is continued. The continuous cleaning provides high cleaning effect because microorganism film deposition can be prevented constantly. The sludge activity measuring instrument measures automatically adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to evaluate activities in microorganisms quickly and accurately. The ATP measurement utilizes organismic luminous reaction, and performs the measurement automatically from the sample extraction to the luminous measurement by simply fractioning the test samples into test tubes. The instrument can also estimate using ATP such biomasses as MLVSS and BOD, of which measurement consumes a large amount of time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Let a sewage plant running smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Jin, Xiao-Man; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Out-dated technical equipment, occlusive information communication, inadequate sanitation, low management level and some irrational distribution structures in the existing sewage plants bring about lower sewage treatment efficiency and poorer water quality, thereby permanently harming human health and severely damaging the environment. With the rapid development of scientific-technological progress and the vigorous support of the entire international community, the existing sewage plants call for more and more intelligent operation and management in the future. This review for the first time proposes the novel concept of the “smart” sewage plant, and gives a through interpretation of its special functions and attributes. We envision that the future smart sewage plant will became an “ambient intelligence” in all aspects in the sewage plants.

  14. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  15. Sewage water treatment by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.A.; Othman, I.

    1999-06-01

    Irradiation of the outlet wastewater from Adra Plant shows that radiation sensitivity for the total count of the microorganism, fungi, and pathogenic microorganism were 0.328, 0.327, 0.305 kGy respectively at 3.4 kGy/h. No Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs were found. These results show that radiation technology in wastewater treatment at Adra Plant for reuse in irrigation safely from microbial point of view can be applied. (author)

  16. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  17. Polysaccharides from extremophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B; Schiano Moriello, V; Lama, L; Poli, A; Gambacorta, A

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter(-1) was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different alpha-D-mannoses and three different beta-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different alpha-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  18. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Santos, Teresa; Palma, Patrícia; Sengo, Joana; Morais, Marie-Christine; Cunha-Queda, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Nine different samples of sewage sludges, composts and other representative organic wastes, with potential interest to be used as agricultural soil amendments, were characterized: municipal sewage sludge (SS1 and SS2), agro industrial sludge (AIS), municipal slaughterhouse sludge (MSS), mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC), agricultural wastes compost (AWC), compost produced from agricultural wastes and sewage sludge (AWSSC), pig slurry digestate (PSD) and paper mill wastes (PMW). The characterization was made considering their: (i) physicochemical parameters, (ii) total and bioavailable heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg), (iii) organic contaminants, (iv) pathogenic microorganisms and (v) stability and phytotoxicity indicators. All the sludges, municipal or other, comply with the requirements of the legislation regarding the possibility of their application to agricultural soil (with the exception of SS2, due to its pathogenic microorganisms content), with a content of organic matter and nutrients that make them interesting to be applied to soil. The composts presented, in general, some constraints regarding their application to soil, and their impairment was due to the existence of heavy metal concentrations exceeding the proposed limit of the draft European legislation. As a consequence, with the exception of AWSSC, most compost samples were not able to meet these quality criteria, which are more conservative for compost than for sewage sludge. From the results, the composting of sewage sludge is recommended as a way to turn a less stabilized waste into a material that is no longer classified as a waste and, judging by the results of this work, with lower heavy metal content than the other composted materials, and without sanitation problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the use of ultraviolet radiation to disinfect sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiele Soares Cavallini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available agent of sewage coming from biological treatment having concentration of total suspended solids that varies from 30 to 75 mg/L. The disinfection tests were performed in a reactor in scale of laboratory work surface and the process effectiveness was evaluated applying total coliforms indicator microorganisms (TC and Escherichia coli. Although the low quality of the effluent, as far as the presence of solids and turbidity is concerned has limited the process efficiency, the results of inactivation of TC and E.coli varied of values smaller than 1 log to 5 log of inactivation with dosages of UV applied radiation that varied from 10,54 to 317,1 mWs.cm-2, allowing to conclude about the feasibility to use this technology to disinfect the secondary effluents.

  20. Radiation treatment of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Yoon, J.-H.; Chung, H.-H.; Lee, M.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation treatment using gamma-rays was investigated in order to reclaim the secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The radiation treatment reduced BOD by 85% irrespective of absorbed dose, and the removals of COD, TOC and color were up to 64%, 34% and 88%, respectively, at a dose of 15 kGy. Gamma-rays effectively disinfected microorganisms and completely removed them at a dose of 0.3 kGy. The combination of gamma-rays and titanium dioxide significantly improved the treatment process. The increases of COD, TOC and color removals were 40%, 10% and 20%, respectively. As confirmed by EPR and the spin-trapping method, this increase was partly caused by the increase of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of titanium dioxide

  1. Effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application on soil residues of chiral fungicide benalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liang, Yiran; Luo, Mai; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge on the dissipation behavior of the fungicide benalaxyl and its primary metabolite benalaxyl acid in soil were studied on an enantiomeric level during a 148-day exposure experiment. Chiral separation and analysis of the two pairs of enantiomers were achieved using HPLC-MS/MS with a chiralpak IC chiral column. Benalaxyl decreased with half-life of 16.1 days in soil under tap water irrigation with preferential residue of S-benalaxyl. Benalaxyl acid was formed with great preference of R-enantiomer before 21 days while enriched in S-enantiomer afterwards. The degradation of benalaxyl was restrained by both wastewater and treated wastewater irrigation, but the enantioselectivity in S-benalaxyl residue was enhanced. Benalaxyl acid was also formed with similar enantioselectivity as in tap water irrigation. Sewage sludge could accelerate benalaxyl degradation with shorter half-life. Surprisingly, the enantioselectivity with preference degradation of S-enantiomer in sewage sludge was opposite to that in soil. More benalaxyl acid was generated with EF values always lower than 0.5 and remained longer in sewage sludge than in soil. A sterilization experiment indicated that the conversion of benalaxyl to benalaxyl acid and the enantioselectivity were determined by the microorganisms in soil or sewage sludge. Farming practices like wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application might not only influence the fate of pesticide, but also the enantioselectivity of chiral pesticide enantiomers and thus the risks of pesticide residues posed to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURAL USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN OLECKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Filkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP 2014 recommended method of utilization of sewage sludge is using it for agricultural purposes or for land reclamation. The sludge is characterized by a high content of organic substances, microelements and biogenic compounds, through which sewage sludge possess high soil formation and fertilization properties. It is assumed that in 2020 approximately 30% of the sludge production will be used for agricultural purposes, while 15% will be used for land reclamation. We have to remember that prior to the introduction of sludge into the ground, security, health and chemical requirements should be met. In order to use the sludge for agricultural purposes, the process of their disposal should be previously carried out e.g. Autoheated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD. It allows for hygienisation of sewage sludge and reducing the heavy metal content. As a result, processed sewage sludge is characterized by the presence of heavy metals in amounts which do not exceed the standards. It is also deprived of microorganisms. The stabilized sludge is characterized by high phosphorus and calcium content. Therefore there is possibility to use the examined sludge in agriculture.

  4. Isolating E.Coli Bacteriophage from Raw Sewage and Determining its Selectivity to the Host Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Imeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and destroy prokaryote cells, specifically the bacteria. They act too selective, so as each bacteriophage affects only on specific type of bacteria. Due to their specific features, bacteriophages can be used as an appropriate substitute for antibiotics in infectious diseases treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to isolate E. coli-specific bacteriophage from raw sewage. Methods: Eight samples of raw sewage, each containing approximately 50 ml of raw sewage with 10 minute gap, were prepared from Zargandeh wastewater treatment plant, Tehran, Iran. The sewages were mixed with Brain-heart infusion medium (BHI as a liquid culture medium in order to let the microorganisms grow. Incubation, purification and determination of bacteria were followed repeatedly to isolate the bacteriophage. Then it was tested on E.coli (ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 2392, and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 9610 in order to determine the bacteriophage selectivity. Results: The E.coli bacteriophages were successfully isolated from all the eight samples, that were completely able to lyse and destroy E.coli bacterial cells, though no effect was observed on other types of bacteria. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that bacteriophages act selectively. Considering the raise of antibiotic resistance in the world, bacteriophages can serve as a good substitute for antibiotics in treating infectious diseases.

  5. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  6. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  7. CHITINASE AND CHITINOLYTIC MICROORGANISM : ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Herdyastuti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase is enzyme that hydrolyzes chitin, a polimer of b-1,4-N-Acetilglucosamine which is the most abundant natural resource after cellulose. Chitinolytic microorganism can be found in  environment like soil and water that contain chitin, or in extreme environment which is known as thermofilic microorganism. Chitinolytic microorganism is identified by recognizing the morphological and physiological properties based on Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The sequence data of the 16S rRNA genes is determinated in the GeneBank nucleotide sequence database. Chitinase activity can be qualitatively determined from the clearance zone around the colony formed in agar medium containing colloidal chitin. Chitinase can be utilized as biocontrol agent and derivate chitin as the result of chitinase degradation which can be used in the fieltd of health, food, industry and waste management   Keywords: Biocontrol, chitin, chitinase,  chitinolytic microorganism

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a) is... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation...

  9. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  10. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  11. Characterization of microorganism identification in the United States in 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindel, S J; Simon, M K

    2001-07-01

    The National Inventory of Clinical Laboratory Testing Services (NICLTS) was designed to give an unbiased estimate of all patient testing performed by laboratories registered under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments in 1996. Survey data were used to develop a profile of laboratory testing primarily intended to identify microorganisms or antibodies to these microorganisms. Estimates of the extent of microorganism identification were derived from the NICLTS database by identifying associated tests and methods. The volumes for tests performed at locations that primarily prepared blood components for distribution were excluded. Organisms of public health importance were identified from the National Notifiable Disease list maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratories that were enrolled in the 1996 Online Certification Survey and Reporting System, maintained by the US Health Care Finance Administration, and that performed laboratory testing in 1996. Estimated volumes and associated confidence limits by test, method, specimen type, public health importance, and testing location. Excluding testing of the blood supply, 315 million tests (95% confidence limits, 280-354 million tests) were performed in the United States for microorganism identification. Those tests for which public health consensus requires national reporting represented 38% of this total. Although hospitals performed 46% of all microorganism identification, they only performed 33% of the testing for microorganisms of public health importance. Independent and specialty laboratories performed 38% of all testing but 65% of the testing for microorganisms of public health importance. Direct methods (methods not involving culture) were used in 77% of the tests for microorganisms of public health importance and in 42% of all identification tests. The distribution of microorganism identification testing found using NICLTS data is consistent with plans to modernize the public

  12. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  13. Ex-situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Larsen, S.B.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2008-01-01

    cells was strongly inhibited due to tannin production during alginate lysis. A clear preference for naphthalene removal was also registered due to PAH diffusion problems through the alginate beads. It was shown that the primary sludge had better potential for PAH removal compared to mixed sludge...... on living organisms. A promising approach to reduce PAH pollution is based on the implementation of the natural potential of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons. In this study Proteiniphilum acetatigenes was used for bioaugmentation during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge to improve the PAH removal....... Primary and mixed (primary: secondary sludge = 1:3) sewage sludges were collected from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and degraded under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. The primary and mixed sludge produced separately from this digestion was used for three bioaugmentation batch experiments: firstly...

  14. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  15. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  16. A Multiple-Tracer Approach for Identifying Sewage Sources to an Urban Stream System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth Edward

    2007-01-01

    The presence of human-derived fecal coliform bacteria (sewage) in streams and rivers is recognized as a human health hazard. The source of these human-derived bacteria, however, is often difficult to identify and eliminate, because sewage can be delivered to streams through a variety of mechanisms, such as leaking sanitary sewers or private lateral lines, cross-connected pipes, straight pipes, sewer-line overflows, illicit dumping of septic waste, and vagrancy. A multiple-tracer study was conducted to identify site-specific sources of sewage in Accotink Creek, an urban stream in Fairfax County, Virginia, that is listed on the Commonwealth's priority list of impaired streams for violations of the fecal coliform bacteria standard. Beyond developing this multiple-tracer approach for locating sources of sewage inputs to Accotink Creek, the second objective of the study was to demonstrate how the multiple-tracer approach can be applied to other streams affected by sewage sources. The tracers used in this study were separated into indicator tracers, which are relatively simple and inexpensive to apply, and confirmatory tracers, which are relatively difficult and expensive to analyze. Indicator tracers include fecal coliform bacteria, surfactants, boron, chloride, chloride/bromide ratio, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and water temperature. Confirmatory tracers include 13 organic compounds that are associated with human waste, including caffeine, cotinine, triclosan, a number of detergent metabolites, several fragrances, and several plasticizers. To identify sources of sewage to Accotink Creek, a detailed investigation of the Accotink Creek main channel, tributaries, and flowing storm drains was undertaken from 2001 to 2004. Sampling was conducted in a series of eight synoptic sampling events, each of which began at the most downstream site and extended upstream through the watershed and into the headwaters of each tributary. Using the synoptic

  17. EFFECT OF IRRIGATION WITH SEWAGE WASTEWATER ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION BY NAVEL ORANGE TRANSPLANTS USING 15N-LABELLED AMMONIUM SULPHATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-MOTAIUM, R.A.; SHARAF, A.N.; HASHEM, M.E.; HEGAZI, E.S.; BADAWY, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    An isotope aided study using 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate was applied to investigate nitrogen uptake and translocation from sewage water by one year old Navel orange transplants. The investigation was conducted in a pot experiment at the greenhouse for two successive seasons (2005 and 2006). Ammonium sulphate was applied to the soil at a rate of 6 g/pot. The treatments included irrigation with canal water and sewage water. Half strength Hoagland nutrient solution, nitrogen depleted, was applied to provide the required nutrients for healthy growth of the transplants. The pots were irrigated to maintain the soil moisture content at field capacity.The results indicated that there is an increase in the transplants biomass irrigated with sewage water than using canal water. A substantial increase in mineral fertilizer nitrogen ( 15 N) uptake by plant roots and translocation into shoots was observed using canal water than sewage water. The nitrogen percent derived from sewage water was higher (26.1-49.5%) than that derived from 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate (4.9-12.7%). Fertilizer nitrogen recovery was higher under canal water than under sewage water irrigation regime, although the plant biomass was higher under sewage water. Using sewage water alone can provide the orange transplants with their nitrogen requirements with no need for application of mineral fertilizer

  18. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  19. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  20. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    The toxic effects of raw domestic sewage on different groups of zooplank-ton, was tested in the laboratory for evaluating acute toxicity. 24 hr., LC-50 values for larvae of stomatopods, gastropods and chaetognaths (2-7% concentration) indicated...

  1. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  2. the economic importance of microorganism in food processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    growth of pathogenic organism which is of primary importance to the consumer. This same process could be applicable to quite a number of consumable food items. Xanthan Gum called Ticaxan - is a naturally fermented product derived from pure culture of an improve strain of Xanthomonas camperstris. This microorganism ...

  3. Assessing earthworm and sewage sludge impacts on microbiological and biochemical soil quality using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanye Jafari Vafa

    2017-06-01

    , the dependence of E. foetidaspecies on soil microorganisms as a food source declined, because of the consumption of organic waste by this epigeic species. However, the activity and impact of A. caliginosa species from endogeic group was only related to soil microbial biomass probably due to selective feeding of soil microorganisms. Conclusion: Factor analysis was used successfully in discriminating the effects of sewage sludge and earthworm either alone or in combination on soil microbial and biochemical parameters. A. caliginosa species in soils amended with sewage sludge had a positive effect on microbial community and biomass, while E. foetidaspecies had no such effect. A. caliginosa species indirectly benefited from sewage sludge application following the increase of soil microbial biomass. In summary, A. caliginosa species positively affected microbiological and biochemical properties in soils amended with sewage sludge due to its less dependence on this organic resource.

  4. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  5. Effect of hydrothermal carbonization on migration and environmental risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge during pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhengang; Zheng, Qingfu; Lang, Qianqian; Xia, Yu; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The heavy metals distribution during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge, and pyrolysis of the resultant hydrochar was investigated and compared with raw sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that HTC reduced exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fraction of heavy metals and lowered the potential risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The pyrolysis favored the transformation of extracted/mobile fraction of heavy metals to residual form especially at high temperature, immobilizing heavy metals in the chars. Compared to the chars from raw sludge pyrolysis, the chars derived from hydrochar pyrolysis was more alkaline and had lower risk and less leachable heavy metals, indicating that pyrolysis imposed more positive effect on immobilization of heavy metals for the hydrochar than for sewage sludge. The present study demonstrated that HTC is a promising pretreatment prior to pyrolysis from the perspective of immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Genetic characterization of poliovirus isolates from environmental sewage surveillance in Shandong, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ji, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Tao, Ze-Xin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Song, Li-Zhi; Feng, Yi; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Lin, Xiao-Juan; Feng, Lei; Hiromu, Yoshida; Xu, Ai-Qiang

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the genetic characteristics of poliovirus isolates from environmental sewage surveillance in Shandong province, we collected sewage samples in Jinan and Linyi City. Serotyping and VP1/ 3D sequencing were performed on polioviruses isolated from the concentrated sewage samples, and VP1 mutation and recombination were analyzed. Thirty-two of sewage samples were collected, and polioviruses were detected in 10 of the samples with a positive rate of 31.3%. Eighteen Sabin strains were isolated including three type 1, nine type 2, and six type 3 polioviruses, and the number of nucleotide substitutions in VP1 coding region varied from 0 to 4. Recombination was found in three Sabin 2 and four Sabin 3 polioviruses. Analysis of neurovirulence sites of VP1 revealed that one Sabin 1 vaccine strain had a nucleotide change of A to G at nt 2749, one Sabin 2 strain had a nucleotide change of A to G at nt 2908, three Sabin 2 strains had a nucleotide change of U to C at nt 2909, and all six Sabin 3 strains had a nucleotide change of C to U at nt 2493. Poliovirus vaccine strains could be isolated from environmental sewage with a high rate of gene recombination and back mutation of neuvirulence-associated sites. None of wild-type poliovirus or vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected.

  7. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  8. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  9. Behaviour of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers obtained from sewage sludge and chicken feathers. Effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    We studied the behaviour of oxyfluorfen herbicide at a rate of 4 l ha(-1) on biological properties of a Calcaric Regosol amended with two edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (SS, derived from sewage sludge; and CF, derived from chicken feathers). Oxyfluorfen was surface broadcast on 11 March 2013. Two days after application of oxyfluorfen to soil, both biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) were also applied to the soil. An unamended soil without oxyfluorfen was used as control. For 2, 4, 7, 9, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, the soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were measured. For 2, 7, 30 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, soil microbial community was determined. The application of both BS to soil without the herbicide increased the enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity, mainly at 7 days of beginning the experiment. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with SS than for CF. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly, the low-molecular-weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms is responsible for less inhibition of these soil biological properties.

  10. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen

    2017-12-01

    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  11. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  12. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    The report addresses radioactive discharges to sewers originating from hospitals, mainly in the form of the excretion of patients treated with radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Assessments of doses to the public, including sewage workers, arising from such discharges are performed. Doses are compared against the exemption level of 10 {mu}Sv/a and the dose constraint of 100 {mu}Sv/a. As a basis for the dose assessments, information on the use of radionuclides in Swedish hospitals during the period 1999-2004 is presented and estimates of discharges to the sewage systems are derived. Current sewage treatment practices in Sweden are summarised focusing particularly on the fate of sewage sludge, both in the sewage plant and outside. Radiological impact assessments are performed in two steps. The assessments in the first stage are performed using a simple screening model, not intending to predict exposures realistically but only to identify exposure pathways and radionuclides that are potentially relevant and require further consideration in the more detailed assessments. Results show that only a few of those radionuclides used in the period 1999-2004 in Swedish hospitals for radiotherapy and radiodiagnostics could lead to potentially significant doses (P-32, Y-90, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, I-131 and Tl-201). Relevant exposure pathways are the external exposure of sewage workers (for Tc- 99m, I-123, I-131, In-111 and Tl-201) and the exposure of the public via ingestion of water (I-131) and fish (P-32, Y-90 and In-111 and I-131). The objective of the second stage is to perform realistic assessments of the doses to sewage workers and to the public through the use of contaminated agricultural sludge and through the contamination of drinking water. For this purpose, the LUCIA model was developed. This model dynamically addresses the behaviour of radionuclides in the different process steps of a sewage plant. The model can address continuous releases as well

  13. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymer-hidrolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Carolina M.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms are found as normal inhabitants of continental and submarine volcanic areas, geothermally heated sea-sediments and hydrothermal vents and thus are considered extremophiles. Several present or potential applications of extremophilic enzymes are reviewed, especially polymer-hydrolysing enzymes, such as amylolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The purpose of this review is to present the range of morphological and metabolic features among those microorganisms growing from 70oC to 100°C and to indicate potential opportunities for useful applications derived from these features.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Performance and Microbial Characteristics Between High-Solid and Low-Solid Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge Under Mesophilic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Yi, Jing; Yang, Dianhai

    2016-01-01

    High-solid anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge achieves highly efficient volatile solid reduction, and production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) and methane compared with conventional low-solid anaerobic digestion. In this study, the potential mechanisms of the better performance in high-solid anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated by using 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and real-time PCR to analyze the microbial characteristics in sewage sludge fermentation reactors. The results obtained by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that the phyla Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were the dominant functional microorganisms in high-solid and low-solid anaerobic systems. Meanwhile, the real-time PCR assays showed that high-solid anaerobic digestion significantly increased the number of total bacteria, which enhanced the hydrolysis and acidification of sewage sludge. Further study indicated that the number of total archaea (dominated by Methanosarcina) in a high-solid anaerobic fermentation reactor was also higher than that in a low-solid reactor, resulting in higher VFA consumption and methane production. Hence, the increased key bacteria and methanogenic archaea involved in sewage sludge hydrolysis, acidification, and methanogenesis resulted in the better performance of high-solid anaerobic sewage sludge fermentation.

  15. Microorganisms .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and heat/pH-shift treatments. This technique resulted in 47% enzyme yield with a purification fac- tor of 12. Technique II which involved two extraction steps by' aqueous two - phase system. (APS) coupled with UF resulted in 62 % enzyme ...

  16. Multiple lines of evidence to identify sewage as the cause of water quality impairment in an urbanized tropical watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirs, Marek; Kisand, Veljo; Wong, Mayee; Caffaro-Filho, Roberto A; Moravcik, Philip; Harwood, Valerie J; Yoneyama, Bunnie; Fujioka, Roger S

    2017-06-01

    Indicator bacteria, which are conventionally used to evaluate recreational water quality, can originate from various non-human enteric and extra-enteric sources, hence they may not be indicative of human health risk nor do they provide information on the sources of contamination. In this study we utilized traditional (enterococci and Escherichia coli) and alternative (Clostridium perfringens) indicator bacteria, F + -specific coliphage, molecular markers for microorganisms associated with human sewage (human-associated Bacteroides and polyomaviruses), and microbial community analysis tools (16S rRNA gene fragment amplicon sequencing), to identify and evaluate human sewage-related impact in the Manoa watershed in Honolulu, Hawaii. Elevated concentrations of enterococci (geometric mean ranging from 1604 to 2575 CFU 100 mL -1 ) and C. perfringens (45-77 CFU 100 mL -1 ) indicated impairment of the urbanized section of the stream, while indicator bacteria concentrations decreased downstream in the tidally influenced Ala Wai Canal. The threshold values triggering water quality violation notifications in Hawaii were exceeded in 33.3-75.0% of samples collected at sites in the urbanized section of Manoa Stream, but were not exceeded in any of the samples collected at an upstream site located in a forested area. Correlation between indicator bacteria concentrations and rainfall amounts was weak to moderate but significant (E. coli R = 0.251, P = 0.009; enterococci R = 0.369, P sewage was confirmed by detection of human-associated Bacteroides and human polyomavirus in the urbanized section of Manoa Stream (83.3-100% and 41.7-66.7% positive samples respectively). It was further confirmed by microbial community analyses which suggested that an average 2.4-3.4% of the total bacterial population in this section was associated with sewage. Microbial community profiles were significantly influenced by rainfall (R 2  = 0.4390, P < 0.001), pH (R 2  = 0.3077, P

  17. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  18. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  19. Preparation of sewage treatment material PVFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling YANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal operating condition of the sewage treatment material PVFM(polyvinyl formal, the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method are adopted. Single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments are conducted to study the factors including the amount of raw materials, reaction time and reaction temperature influencing the preparation of the material PVFM. The material is characterized by SEM. The properties of the material are explored through the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment. The results show that when PVA mass concentration is 9% (50 mL, cellulose content is 0.4 g, sulfuric acid content is 6 mL, formaldehyde content is 6 mL, SDS content is 0.4 g, carbonate calcium content is 0.8 g, reaction temperature is 30 ℃, the dripping time of sulfuric acid is 9 minutes, the dripping time of formaldehyde is 4 minutes, and the curing time is 8 hours, the material has good physical and chemical property, and the results of the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment show that PVFM has good removal effects on both COD and NH4+-N in simulated sewage. The sewage treatment material PVFM with good properties can be obtained by the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method.

  20. Recycling of phosphorus in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Tore; Sogn, Trine A.; Asdal, Aasmund; Saeboe, Arne

    2003-07-01

    In order to examine the fertilizing effect of P in different sewage sludge a pot experiment with rye grass growing in a moraine and a clay soil with application of different kinds of sewage sludge was carried out. Data on pH, water extractable P and ammonium acetate lactate extractable P in soil, and yield P content showed that Sewage sludge application significantly influenced the soil pH and may thereby indirectly influence the plants' general access to essential nutrients in the soil. Beside of the purification history of the sewage sludge, both the soil content of available P and the P adsorption capability of the soil must be considered when advising sludge application to crop production. Biological purification without chemical additives and Ca treatment of the sludge gave the highest amount of plant available P and also the best utilization of the P applied as sludge. Although low concentrations of water extractable P after addition of sewage sludge the considerable accumulation of total P in the surface soil (50-95% increase) must be considered a potential environmental risk due to possible surface P runoff by erosion. (author)

  1. Utilization of urban sewage sludge: Chinese perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Yan, S-H; Ye, Z-L; Meng, H-J; Zhu, Y-G

    2012-06-01

    Urbanization and industrialization in China has resulted in a dramatic increase in the volume of wastewater and sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants. Problems associated with sewage sludge have attracted increasing attention from the public and urban planners. How to manage sludge in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner is one of the critical issues that modern societies are facing. Sludge treatment systems consist of thickening, dewatering, and several different alternative main treatments (anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, drying, composting, and incineration). Agricultural application, landfill, and incineration are the principal disposal methods for sewage sludge in China. However, sewage sludge disposal in the future should focus on resource recovery, reducing environmental impacts and saving economic costs. The reuse of biosolids in all scenarios can be environmentally beneficial and cost-effective. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is the preferable options due to low economic and energy costs and material reuse. It is necessary to formulate a standard suitable for the utilization of sewage sludge in China.

  2. Microorganisms as sources of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenieau France

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of microorganism belonging to the genera of yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae have ability to accumulate substantial amounts of oil, sometimes up to an even in excess of 70% of their biomass weight under specific cultivation conditions. For nearly 100 years, the commercial opportunities of using microorganisms as sources of oils have been continuously examined. Although it was evident that microbial oils could never compete commercially with the major commodity plant oils, there were commercially opportunities for the production of some of the higher valued oils. Today, with the great progress of metabolic and genetic engineering, the developments are focus on the high value oils containing important polyunsaturated or specific fatty acids. Such oils have the potential to be used in different applications area as food, feed and oleochemistry. This review is covering the related researches about different oleaginous microorganisms for lipids production and microbial oils biosynthesis process. In add, the lipid metabolism, metabolic engineering strategies to increase lipid production and the economics of microbial oils production are introduced.

  3. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  4. Studying marine microorganisms from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, C; Simó, R

    2002-12-01

    Microorganisms are but a few micrometers in diameter and are not visible to the naked eye. Yet, the large numbers of microorganisms present in the oceans and the global impact of their activities make it possible to observe them from space. Here a few examples of how microorganisms can be studied from satellites are presented. The first case is the best known: the main pigment used in photosynthesis (chlorophyll a) can be determined from satellites. These kinds of studies have contributed a tremendous amount of understanding about the distribution and dynamics of primary production in the oceans. Two other examples will concern analysis of heterotrophic prokaryotic production and estimates of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and flux to the atmosphere. These three processes are of fundamental importance for the functioning of the biosphere. Marine microbes carry out about half of the total primary production in the planet. A substantial fraction of the respiration in the oceans is due to the activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes. Finally, the flux of DMS to the atmosphere is believed to constitute one of the mechanisms by which the biota can regulate climate. The global implications of microbial processes in the oceans can only be addressed with the help of satellites.

  5. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  6. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Concentration and emission fluxes of halogenated flame retardants in sewage from sewage outlet in Dongjiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    Fourteen sewage samples from sewage outlets in Dongjiang River were collected. Halogented flame retardants were extracted and purified using dichloromethane and alumina/silica-gel column, respectively. The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants were measured utilizing GC/MS, and the emission fluxes were estimated. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant halogenated pollutant (accounting for 64%) in sewage with the concentration ranging from 9.1 ng/L to 990 ng/L. The concentrations of polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDEs), dominated by BDE209, in the sewage ranged from 6.9 ng/L to 470 ng/L, accounting for 30% of total halogenated flame retardants. The concentrations of other flame retardants, such as dechlorane plus (DP), 1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were ranged within 0.17-23.6, nd-26.3, nd-1.45 and nd-0.45 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in sewage of Dongjiang River were comparable to those in influent wastewater of sewage treatment plants of Guangzhou, suggesting that the wastewater was discharged directly into Dongjiang River without any treatment. The emission flux of halogenated flame retardants from sewage was 191 kg. Emission from industrial wastewater, contributed to 48%-91% of total emission, was the main source of halogenated flame retardants.

  8. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  9. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Dhall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids, and TSS (total suspended solids was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

  10. Microsphere fluoroimmunoassay for microorganisms: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bronk, B.V. [Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Microspheres are used as labels in a fluorescence immunoassay for individual microorganisms. The diameter of a sphere that has reacted with microorganisms is determined from measurements of the optical resonance frequencies. The spheres have been coated with antibodies so that each microsphere diameter corresponds to a different species of microorganism. Further experiments on specificity and on optical resonance measurements are presented.

  11. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only to...

  12. Continuous COD measurement in sewage receipts at sewage treatment plants; Kontinuierliche CSB-Messung im Klaeranlagenzulauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik/Wasserwirtschaft (ATD TD ISA 6), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Neural networks are a new instrument in process automation. Contrary to conventional methods, they can dispense with theoretical models. This independence from mathematical models is one of their most important advantages. The article describes how typical sewage parameters can be measured on-line by means of neural networks. On-line measurement of parameters of pollution, for instance COD in sewage, permits new automatic control strategies for the operation of a sewage treatment plant, aiming at the reduction of pollutant freights with simultaneous minimization of operating cost. (orig./SR)

  13. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is designed when tested in accordance...

  14. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sewage and to increase the water quality of the wastewater by decreasing BOD and COD. So, the irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation or in industry sector for cooling purpose or in both the sectors. Key words: Disinfection, electron beam accelerator, organic matter, sewage water ...

  15. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  16. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises of heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB (electron beam) ...

  17. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  18. Enantioselective degradation of Bromocyclene in sewage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bester, K. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). FG Siedlungswasser- und Abfallwirtschaft/Inst. fuer Umweltanalytik

    2004-09-15

    Bromocyclene has been utilised as insecticide against ectoparasites, however the production in Germany was stopped around 1995. Until that time it was used in pet care as well as in sheep farming. Due to its high bioaccumulation it was detected not only in sewage systems and sewage treatment plants, but also in fresh water fish. Enatioselective determination at that time was used to obtain results on the biodegradation of Bromocyclene in fish. Considering the long time period since the phase out of Bromocyclene it was surprising it was easily identified in sludge samples from 2002.

  19. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  20. Current Status of Marker Genes of Bacteroides and Related Taxa for Identifying Sewage Pollution in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warish Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial source tracking (MST endeavors to determine sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters by capitalizing on the association of certain microorganisms with the gastrointestinal tract and feces of specific animal groups. Several decades of research have shown that bacteria belonging to the gut-associated order Bacteroidales, and particularly the genus Bacteroides, tend to co-evolve with the host, and are, therefore, particularly suitable candidates for MST applications. This review summarizes the current research on MST methods that employ genes belonging to Bacteroidales/Bacteroides as tracers or “markers” of sewage pollution, including known advantages and deficiencies of the many polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods that have been published since 2000. Host specificity is a paramount criterion for confidence that detection of a marker is a true indicator of the target host. Host sensitivity, or the prevalence of the marker in feces/waste from the target host, is necessary for confidence that absence of the marker is indicative of the absence of the pollution source. Each of these parameters can vary widely depending on the type of waste assessed and the geographic location. Differential decay characteristics of bacterial targets and their associated DNA contribute to challenges in interpreting MST results in the context of human health risks. The HF183 marker, derived from the 16S rRNA gene of Bacteroides dorei and closely related taxa, has been used for almost two decades in MST studies, and is well characterized regarding host sensitivity and specificity, and in prevalence and concentration in sewage in many countries. Other markers such as HumM2 and HumM3 show promise, but require further performance testing to demonstrate their widespread utility. An important limitation of the one-marker-one-assay approach commonly used for MST is that given the complexities of microbial persistence in environmental waters, and

  1. Genetic analysis of poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryk, Ł; Wieczorek, M; Diedrich, S; Böttcher, S; Witek, A; Litwińska, B

    2014-07-01

    The study describes genetic characterization of poliovirus (PV) strains isolated from sewage samples in Poland. The analyses were performed for the detection of any putative polio revertants and recombinants in three genomic regions by sequencing analysis. Thirty-six strains were analyzed. The analyzed strains were identified by neutralization assay as 7 strains of serotype P1, 10 strains of serotype P2, and 19 strains of serotype P3. Sewage isolates were sequenced in 5'UTR, VP1, and 3D genomic regions. All detected PVs were classified as vaccine strains on the basis of VP1 sequence. Mutational differences in the VP1 sequences of isolated viruses ranged from 0.0% to 0.4%, indicating a limited replication period. The genetic analysis of the 3D region showed that some strains have recombinant genomes. Nine strains were found as dipartite recombinants (seven strains--S3/S2, one strain--S2/S1, one strain--S3/S1), while one strain was found as tripartite recombinant (S3/S2/S1). No recombinants with non-PV enteroviruses were identified. None of wild-type PVs or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were detected. This study showed the absence of wild or VDPV circulation in the country and demonstrated the usefulness of environmental surveillance in addition to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in support of polio eradication initiatives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Metal fractionation in sludge from sewage UASB treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A F M; Zaiat, M; Silva, G H R; Fermoso, F G

    2017-05-15

    This study evaluates the trace metal composition and fractionation in sludge samples from anaerobic sewage treatment plants from six cities in Brazil. Ten metals were evaluated: Ni, Mn, Se, Co, Fe, Zn, K, Cu, Pb and Cr. Specific methanogenic activity of the sludge was also evaluated using acetic acid as the substrate. Among the essential trace metals for anaerobic digestion, Se, Zn, Ni and Fe were found at a high percentage in the organic matter/sulfide fraction in all sludge samples analyzed. These metals are less available for microorganisms than other metals, i.e., Co and K, which were present in significant amounts in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. Cu is not typically reported as an essential metal but as a possible inhibitor. One of the samples showed a total Cu concentration close to the maximal amount allowed for reuse as fertilizer. Among the non-essential trace metals, Pb was present in all sludge samples at similar low concentrations and was primarily present in the residual fraction, demonstrating very low availability. Cr was found at low concentrations in all sludge samples, except for the sludge from STP5; interestingly, this sludge presented the lowest specific methanogenic activity, indicating possible Cr toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Application of Active Sewage Sludge on the Vermicomposting of Agricultural Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh maryam kharrazi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, active sewage sludge was inoculated in organic waste. The objective was to study its effect on nutrient dynamics during vermicomposting. Active sewage sludge, as a source of nitrogen fixing and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, was added in four combinations to the vermicomposting substrate. Prior to inoculation with active sludge, the treatments were precomposted for 30 days and finally vermicomposted for 40 days. Results showed that inoculation of microorganisms in the substrate accompanied by earthworms’ activity enhances the organic waste biodegradation rate. Increasing sludge concentration from 0 to 6000 mg/l led to reduced Total Organic Carbon from 32.76 to 29.91%, Total Volatile Solids from 49.85 to 48/02%, and C/N ratio from 19.59 to 16.06 but increased Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen from 1.68 to 1.87%, nitrate from 1476.75 to 1699.60 mg/kg, Total Phosphorous from 1.66 to 1.77 g/kg, and Electrical Conductivity from 3.10 to 3.48 mS/cm. By increasing the concentration of sewage sludge, heavy metals content also increased significantly due to the enhanced organic matter biodegradation. Finally, the results showed that, among the treatments, the one with an active sewage sludge concentration of 6000 mg/l had more desirable effects on the final vermicompost quality. Based on the reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final products, this experimental procedure may be proposed for studies requiring a mass reduction in the initial composted waste mixtures.

  4. Endotoxin exposure in sewage treatment workers: investigation of exposure variability and comparison of analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Suzanne; Smit, Lidwien A M; Eduard, Wijnand; Larsson, Lennart; Arts, Huib J J M; Wouters, Inge M; Heederik, Dick J J

    2008-01-01

    Objectives were to give an overview of endotoxin exposure and its determinants in sewage treatment workers, and to study exposure to culturable and non-culturable microorganisms and the applicability of the LAL assay in this work environment. In 43 Dutch sewage treatment plants 470 full-shift, 123 task-based personal and 54 stationary inhalable dust samples were collected. Endotoxin concentration was determined with the LAL-assay. Mixed effects models were used to investigate possible determinants of exposure. Simultaneous parallel filter samples, impinger samples and viable total bacteria and Gram-negative bacterial samples were taken to compare analytical techniques. Filter and impinger samples were analyzed with the LAL-assay, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and fluorescence microscopy. Endotoxin exposure levels were moderate to low (geometric mean personal exposure 27 EU/m(3), stationary 33 EU/m(3), task-based 64 EU/m(3)), yet differences between jobs and sources and some determinants of exposure were identified. Exposure varied more from day to day than between workers. Concentrations in filter samples were higher and more consistent than in impinger samples. Fungi and Gram-positive bacteria were found in higher levels than Gram-negative bacteria. The LAL assay and GC-MS showed comparable endotoxin levels. Endotoxin exposure in Dutch sewage treatment workers was relatively low. Comparison of sampling and analytical techniques suggests that the LAL-assay did not result in much exposure misclassification. It thus seems justified to perform filter measurements in combination with the LAL-assay to measure endotoxin exposure in sewage treatment plants.

  5. Using microorganisms to recover metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Biological processes have been used for thousands of years to make cheese, wine, and beer. During the past few hundred years these processes have been employed to process sewage. Increasingly, microbes are being used to clean up a wide variety of toxic chemical wastes that have been dumped into the environment. Scientists are currently examining the possible use of microbes to detoxify naturally occurring toxic selenium-bearing water at the Kesterson Wildlife Refuge. The mining and minerals industries also use biological processes to remove impurities from ores, cut processing costs, and treat some metallic ores that previously were too difficult or too expensive to process by traditional methods. In this article, the term 'mining industry' applies to the extraction of ore whereas the term 'minerals industry' applies to processing the ore. Applications of biotechnology in the mining and minerals industries are expected to increase. The paper discusses the use of microbial leaching in the copper, uranium, gold, and manganese mining industries; treatments of mine wastes; the treatment of cyanide solution, and research into bioleaching, biosorption, and genetic engineering

  6. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  7. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Disposal of sewage sludge is the major challenge facing wastewater treatment facilities. Several reports claimed that land application is the best option to manage sludge disposal. However, there is perception that sludge contains heavy metals that are potentially harmful to the living organisms. Thus, the study assessed ...

  8. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  9. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  10. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic...

  11. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  12. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETRIK, M

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary.Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds.More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

  13. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8  min -2  K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Molly A; Baker, David M; Mmochi, Aviti J

    2012-07-01

    In Stone Town, Zanzibar, sewage treatment is minimal, with a biological oxygen demand reduction to 60% and no removal of bacteria or nutrients. Here, Stone Town's sewage pollution was studied by measuring Enterococci and NH(4)(+) concentrations in seawater and δ(15)N of benthic organisms; samples were collected along the Stone Town shoreline and from offshore coral reefs. Public perceptions of sewage pollution were investigated via interviews. Enterococci from the Stone Town shoreline exceeded USEPA guidelines for recreational use. Benthic organisms from two of the four reefs were relatively enriched (δ(15)N>10 ‰), indicative of sewage derived N. δ(15)N values of organisms from Stone Town exceeded 16 ‰. A strong correlation was found between Enterococci and δ(15)N across sites, while step-wise regression indicated rainfall and tidal stage as important predictors for bacterial concentrations. These data provide an important impact assessment from which the efficacy of future policy and management change can be assessed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Harri M. [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)], E-mail: harri.salo@ktl.fi; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada); Cejka, Patrick [Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant, 12 001 Maurice-Duplessis, Montreal, Que. H1C 1V3 (Canada); Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)

    2007-10-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout.

  17. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Harri M.; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire; Cejka, Patrick; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout

  18. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE SEWAGE INCOMING TO AND DISCHARGED FROM THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN KOLBUSZOWA DOLNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Chmielowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.

  19. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  20. Polydatin and its derivatives inhibit fatty acid desaturases in microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada; Kolouchová, I.; Nedbalová, L.; Doležalová, J.; Palyzová, Andrea; Sigler, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 1600369. ISSN 1438-7697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Algae * Inhibitors * Polydatin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2016

  1. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellagnezze, Bruna Martins; Vasconcelos de Sousa, Gabriel; Lopes Martins, Laercio; Ferreira Domingos, Daniela; Limache, Elmer E.G.; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Feitosa da Cruz, Georgiana; Oliveira, Valéria Maia de

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metagenomic clones could degrade saturated hydrocarbons up to 47% in petroleum. • Metagenomic clones consumed more than 90% of some aromatic portion after 21 days. • Isolated strains could degrade n-alkanes with rates up to 99% after 21 days. • Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones showed high petroleum degradation potential. - Abstract: Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC–FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications

  2. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellagnezze, Bruna Martins; de Sousa, Gabriel Vasconcelos; Martins, Laercio Lopes; Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; Limache, Elmer E G; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; da Cruz, Georgiana Feitosa; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-12-15

    Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the...

  5. A Demonstration Study on Decomposition of Anntibiotics and Endocrine Disrupters Contained in Sewage Effluent by Mobile Electron Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jung, In Ha

    2012-01-01

    This report described a work plan on advanced sewage treatments focusing on reduction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors and sterilization by radiation in Korea. It included a demonstration study on decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in sewage effluent by MEB(Mobile Electron Beam accelerator). According to the KAERI’s national research plan, basic radiation application working on sterilization, decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in effluent by using radiation were conducted in KAERI’s laboratory for three years. In 2011, a field study on advanced sewage treatment with a MEB was conducted and the results obtained from study played an important role in the acquiring a certification on advanced treatment of sewage effluent by radiation, NET(New Environmental Technology), which is issued by Korea ministry of environment. The field study was carried out over four seasons in order to observe the effect of seasonal temperature changes on decomposition of chemicals contained in effluent of sewage. The major antibiotics and endocrine disruptors with initial concentration of 0.5 mg/l were decomposed completely by the irradiation dose less than 1.5 kGy, and coli form and microorganisms were also sterilized under the same irradiation dose. Toxicity arising by antibiotics on algae was reduced according to irradiation dose. In a future, achievements from the field demonstration study will be transferred to industry. Research on by-products from irradiated antibiotics and toxicity before and after irradiation of antibiotics will be continued in the field with MEB. This information will be useful for the project by radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse, particularly focused on the wastewater containing organic pollutants. (author)

  6. Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Hanna; Freier, Korbinian P; Gierig, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg(-1) dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg(-1) dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a(-1) in 2008 to 1.5 t a(-1) in 2013. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of the source of microorganisms on adaptation of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poszytek, Krzysztof; Pyzik, Adam; Sobczak, Adam; Lipinski, Leszek; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities. The results of selection of the consortia showed that every subsequent passage of each consortium leads to their adaptation to degradation of maize silage, which was manifested by the increased hydrolytic activity of the adapted consortia. Biodiversity analysis (based on the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing) confirmed the changes microbial community of each consortium, and showed that after the last (10th) passage all microbial communities were dominated by the representatives of Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae. The results of the functional analyses showed that the adapted consortia improved the efficiency of maize silage degradation, as indicated by the increase in the concentration of glucose and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), as well as the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Moreover, bioaugmentation of anaerobic digestion communities by the adapted hydrolytic consortia increased biogas yield by 10-29%, depending on the origin of the community. The obtained results also indicate that substrate input (not community origin) was the driving force responsible for the changes in the community structure of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  10. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Kolat; Zdeněk Kadlec

    2013-01-01

    The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energ...

  11. Sewage Pollution in Water Supply in Indore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Alifiya; Visaria, Aayush

    2017-01-01

    More than 20% of sewage waste is dumped untreated into Indore's water supply, while 80% of it's sewers are under-utilized or blocked. Such conditions may increase exposure to microbial pathogens and compromise water potability. This article reports an environmental risk assessment of Indore's Khan River based on existing literature, including hazard identification, dose-response and exposure assessment, identification of susceptible populations, risk characterization, and potential community-oriented management and communication approaches.

  12. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  13. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  14. Improving sewage wastewater characteristics using radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Sabry, A.; El-Ammari, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Raw and treated sewage wastewater, collected from El-Gabal El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), irradiated and non-irradiated, were tested in order to determine the lethal radiation dose for total coliform and the effect of radiation on biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Various gamma radiation and electron beam doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 KGy) were used in this study. A negative relationship between the radiation dose and the total coliform population was recorded. The increase in the radiation dose was accompanied by a decrease in total coliform count. The lethal doses of gamma radiation for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 1.5 and 1.0 KGy, respectively, whereas the lethal doses of the electron beam for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 3.0 and 2.0 KGy, respectively. Gamma radiation resulted in a reduction of BOD and COD by about 70% whereas the electron beam resulted in 55% reduction in BOD and COD at a dose of 4 KGy. The different sources of radiation (gamma and electron beam) used in this study caused variations in the magnitude of total coliform elimination. At any radiation dose received, gamma radiation proved to be more efficient than electron beam in total coliform elimination

  15. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  16. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  17. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  18. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  19. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2003-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 13}C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

  20. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Karyne M.

    2003-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (δ 15 N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (δ 13 C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months

  1. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Bacillus Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans Microbacterium lacticum Jupiter Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus cereus Bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis...TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS THESIS Christopher J. Leonard, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/OOM-12 Approved for...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher J

  2. Biodiversity of the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant rhizosphere microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble soil organic and inorganic phosphates into a soluble form and make the phosphorus (P) available to the plant. With the objective of evaluating the phosphate solubilizing microorganism populations under the rice ...

  3. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  4. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  5. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  6. Locomotion of a microorganism in weakly viscoelastic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corato, M.; Greco, F.; Maffettone, P. L.

    2015-11-01

    In the present work we study the motion of microorganisms swimming by an axisymmetric distribution of surface tangential velocity in a weakly viscoelastic fluid. The second-order fluid constitutive equation is used to model the suspending fluid, while the well-known "squirmer model" [M. J. Lighthill, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 5, 109 (1952), 10.1002/cpa.3160050201; J. R. Blake, J. Fluid Mech. 46, 199 (1971), 10.1017/S002211207100048X] is employed to describe the organism propulsion mechanism. A regular perturbation expansion up to first order in the Deborah number is performed, and the generalized reciprocity theorem from Stokes flow theory is then used, to derive analytical formulas for the squirmer velocity. Results show that "neutral" squirmers are unaffected by viscoelasticity, whereas "pullers" and "pushers" are slowed down and hastened, respectively. The power dissipated by the swimming microorganism and the "swimming efficiency" are also analytically quantified.

  7. Extremozymes--biocatalysts with unique properties from extremophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Schröder, Carola; Sahm, Kerstin; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-10-01

    Extremozymes are enzymes derived from extremophilic microorganisms that are able to withstand harsh conditions in industrial processes that were long thought to be destructive to proteins. Heat-stable and solvent-tolerant biocatalysts are valuable tools for processes in which for example hardly decomposable polymers need to be liquefied and degraded, while cold-active enzymes are of relevance for food and detergent industries. Extremophilic microorganisms are a rich source of naturally tailored enzymes, which are more superior over their mesophilic counterparts for applications at extreme conditions. Especially lignocellulolytic, amylolytic, and other biomass processing extremozymes with unique properties are widely distributed in thermophilic prokaryotes and are of high potential for versatile industrial processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microorganism mediated synthesis of reduced graphene oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizawa, Y; Suda, Y; Takikawa, H; Okada, H; Sandhu, A; Okamoto, Y; Tsuzuki, K; Nagao, Y; Iwasa, S; Hiraishi, A; Yoshida, N; Tero, R; Numano, R; Ishikawa, R

    2012-01-01

    The wide-ranging industrial application of graphene and related compounds has led researchers to devise methods for the synthesis of high quality graphene. We recently reported on the chemical synthesis, patterning, and doping of graphene films by the chemical exfoliation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) with subsequent chemical reduction into graphene films. Here, we describe a hybrid approach for the synthesis of reduced graphene sheets, where chemically derived GO was reduced by microorganisms extracted from a riverside near the University. Our procedure enabled the production of ∼100 μm sized reduced graphene sheets, which showed excellent Raman spectra associated with high quality reduced graphene. We give a detailed account of the relationship between the type of microorganisms and the properties of the resulting reduced graphene.

  9. A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calace, N.; Maggi, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Petronio, B. M.; Pietroletti, M.

    1998-01-01

    A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metal has been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing heavy metal mobility. Sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by zinc and lead can modify their speciation, immobilizing a portion of metal present in mobile forms. In this way environmental hazards due to heavy metal presence can be reduced, because these derive essentially from the amount of metal present in mobile chemical forms. The results obtained show that sludge addition increases the fraction of metal sorbed from the soil; the characterization of the sludge before and after the treatment with the soil point out that this behaviour can be ascribed both to organic substances present in the sludge with the creation of new adsorbing sites, and to an increase of the ph value of the soil, due to the organic and inorganic compounds in the sludge [it

  10. Survey in organic contaminants content in sewage sludge from the Emilia Romagna region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovi, P.; Sassi, D.; Piccinini, S.; Rossi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Data was collected on the organic pollutants cited in the Working document on sludge, 3. draft (AOX, LAS, DEHP, NPE, PAH, PCB, PCDD/F), for sewage sludge deriving from 12 municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants and 7 agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), taking samples in spring, summer and winter. The limit values given in the Working document were sporadically exceeded. The most frequent contamination was associated with LAS, in particular in the winter period. Results confirmed lower organic contaminant contents in sludge of agro-industrial origin, compared to sludge from municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants, with generally not detectable values for the majority of organic pollutants. Comparison of the results collected in this survey with values recorded in other European countries shows that the organic contaminant content of sewage sludge obtained in plants in the Emilia-Romagna region, excepting LAS, is reasonable [it

  11. Influence of the application of sewage sludge on the degradation of pesticides in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M E; Estrada, I B; Martínez, O; Martín-Villacorta, J; Aller, A; Morán, A

    2004-11-01

    A study was made of the influence of the application of sewage sludge on the degradation of pesticides in the soil. Two kinds of sludge were used, with different characteristics, one from an urban treatment plant and one from a food processing plant. Three organophosphorus insecticides, fenitrothion, diazinon and dimethoate, were studied. The relative importance was determined of the chemical and biological degradation processes, which involved experiments on soil and sterile soil samples. A comparative study was also made of the degradation of pesticide residues and the evolution of the microbial population. The application of sludge seems to have a complex effect on the degradation of pesticides, determined by the bioavailability and biodegradability of their active ingredient. The biodegradation of pesticide residues brings about alterations in the microorganism population of the soil. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sewage Sludge and the Final Disposal of Sewage Sludge from the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant Kranj

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenec, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to examine physical and chemical characteristics of sewage sludge from the central wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP) in Kranj and examine the final sewage sludge disposal. Heavy metals are one of the main pollutantsthat are present in the sewage sludge. Their concentration is very important for the final sewage sludge disposal. In the first part,the study presents the Slovenian legislation of sewage sludge.It outlines the possibilities of the final sludg...

  14. [Gradient elevation of temperature startup experiment of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Er-Ming; Wang, Wei; Long, Neng; Li, Huai

    2009-04-15

    Startup experiment was conducted for thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge using the strategy of the step-wise temperature increment: 35 degrees C-->40 degrees C-->47 degrees C-->53 degrees C. The results showed that the first step-increase (from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C) and final step-increase (from 47 degrees C to 53 degrees C) had only a slight effect on the digestion process. The second step-increase (from 40 degrees C to 47 degrees C) resulted in a severe disturbance: the biogas production, methane content, CODeffluent and microorganism all have strong disturbance. At the steady stage of thermophilic ASBR treating thermal-hydrolyzed sewage sludge, the average daily gas production, methane content, specific methane production (CH4/CODinfluent), TCOD removal rate and SCOD removal rate were 2.038 L/d, 72.0%, 188.8 mL/g, 63.8%, 83.3% respectively. The results of SEM and DGGE indicated that the dominant species are obviously different at early stage and steady stage.

  15. Methanogenic degradation of toilet-paper cellulose upon sewage treatment in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Nie, Yulun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jiang; Utashiro, Tetsuya; Lu, Jianbo; Yue, Shangchao; Jiang, Hongyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yu-You

    2017-03-01

    Toilet-paper cellulose with rich but refractory carbon sources, are the main insoluble COD fractions in sewage. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was configured for sewage treatment at room temperature and its performance on methanogenic degradation of toilet paper was highlighted. The results showed, high organic removal (95%), high methane conversion (90%) and low sludge yield (0.08gVSS/gCOD) were achieved in the AnMBR. Toilet-paper cellulose was fully biodegraded without accumulation in the mixed liquor and membrane cake layer. Bioconversion efficiency of toilet paper approached 100% under a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.02gCOD/L/d and it could provide around 26% of total methane generation at most of OLRs. Long sludge retention time and co-digestion of insoluble/soluble COD fractions achieving mutualism of functional microorganisms, contributed to biodegradation of toilet-paper cellulose. Therefore the AnMBR successfully implemented simultaneously methanogenic bioconversion of toilet-paper cellulose and soluble COD in sewage at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  17. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of Egyption domestic sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwally, T.A.; Al-Sarawey, A.; El-Sherbiny, M.F.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined in batch experiments. The results showed that the biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The higher biodegradability of the

  18. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  19. Assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni Kijichi) and non-sewage impacted (Rasi Dege) mangrove forest sites along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Most Probable Number method was used for estimating the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal ...

  20. Sand Intermittent Filtration Technology for safer Domestic Sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'fotal alkalinity of domestic sewage was recorded 423.33 mg/l. Maximum reduction of Total alkalinity i.e. 37.9% was found at 2 feet depth in 3:l ratio while ... 3 by generating unfavorable temperature resulted lowered uptake of oxygen and due to their retention in the bed. Chemical oxygen demand. (COD) of domestic sewage ...

  1. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  2. Limit values in special agreements between factories and sewage works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Yrjoe

    1987-01-01

    The operation of sewage works is controlled in Finland by the water and health authorities. These authorities set special quality demands for the effluent from sewage treatment plants into the recipient. Also other wastes from treatment plants, mainly sludges, have special regulations and operational target values. Sewage works have to achieve the aim goals and limit values set. In order to fulfill the regulations, sewage works impose such limit values on factory wastewaters that there will be no problems at the treatment plants. Sewage works can act in two ways: - require the factory to operate in such a way that the limit values are not exceeded, - the factory pays a certain sum of money to the sewage works, which takes care of the whole problem. It can be said in general, that it is not possible to get rid of harmful substances by payment to the sewage works if the substances cause treatment problems or problems in sludge disposal. If the factory produces wastewater that contains a higher organic load, more suspended solids or a higher nutrient load than normal sanitary wastewater, the problem is most often solved by paying an extra fee to the sewage works

  3. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    (UNEP 1998, Mohammed 2002). In. Zanzibar, sewage effluents are poured directly in the mangrove stands at Bwawani hotel and Gulioni area, which receive direct raw sewage from Funguni outfall (UNEP. 1998). There is much evidence to suggest that mangroves filter discharged wastewater and prevent coastal pollution, ...

  4. The existing state of sewage sludge containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Makoto; Hisaoka, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive substances were discharged over a wide range from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a result, in sewer system, especially in the combined sewer system that jointly collects rainwater and sewage, radioactive substances accumulated on the surface of urban areas were transferred together with rainwater to sewage plants and accumulated there. In the process of further treatment, radioactive substances were transferred to and concentrated in sewage sludge, and a high concentration of radioactive substances were detected in incineration ash. For this reason, some sewage plants still continuously store dewatered sludge, incinerator ash, etc. This paper introduces the current state of waste treatment from the published data from each local government in Tohoku and Kanto districts. As for the sewer, which is essential as a lifeline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, together with the Japan Sewage Works Association, established 'Investigative Commission on Radioactive Substance Countermeasures in Sewerage System.' This group grasped the damage situation due to radioactive substances, and summarized the measures to be taken by sewage managers, such as the storage method for sewage sludge containing radioactive substances as well as the method for the volume reduction of sewage sludge. (O.A.)

  5. Fast increases in urban sewage inputs to rivers of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, D.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present estimates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sewage inputs to 19 Indonesian rivers for 1970–2050. Future trends are based on the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Our results indicate a rapid increase in N and P pollution from sewage over time. In 1970, N and P

  6. Formation of methylamine by rumen microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Hisao; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    An unknown ninhydrin positive peak on the chromatograms of amino acid analyzer of alkalified rumen fluid distillate of goats was isolated as DNP-derivative and identified as methylamine. Under normal feeding condition, its concentration in the rumen ranged 0.1-3.9 mgN/100 ml of rumen fluid and the proportion of methylamine in total volatile base, or apparent ammonia, ranged 0.5-13% during post-feeding. When ammonium salt was administered into the rumen with hay-concentrate ration, these values were increased up to 8.1 mgN/100 ml and 25.8% respectively. Concentrations of ammonia and methylamine when aspartic acid or alanine was administered into the rumen in place of concentrate mixture (control) were not markedly different from the control. In the case of arginine, glutamic acid or glycine administration, these concentrations were depressed as compared to the control. There were no distinct differences in the concentration of methylamine between the faunated and unfaunated goats. 14 C from 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, U- 14 C-alanine, 2- 14 C-glycine or 14 C-sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into methylamine in invitro incubation with rumen micro-organisms. When the washed suspensions of rumen bacteria or protozoa were incubated with 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, the radioactivity in methylamine appeared only in the case of bacteria suspensions. After the addition of 15 N-ammonium citrate into the rumen, the incorporation of 15 N into methylamine was observed during 1-9 hr. (auth.)

  7. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  8. Growth and extracellular enzyme production by microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugba', an indigenous Nigerian fermented food condiment. The isolated microorganisms were screened for amylase, protease and lipase production, the activity and specific activity of the enzymes were also determined. The effect of pH and ...

  9. Evaluation of microorganisms transmissible through handshake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms transmissible through handshake were experimentally isolated from samples collected from primary and secondary school students as well as undergraduates and staff of the Federal University of Technology, Akure. Bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, S. epididimis, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  10. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  11. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    % of the microorganisms in an environmental sample can be cultured in the laboratory with standard techniques, which is also the case for the ikaite columns. Thus, there is an enormous potential in the uncultured microorganisms, which cannot be accessed through cultivation based methods. This PhD thesis presents studies......, and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1...... on the diversity of microorganisms from the ikaite columns as well as bioprospecting for enzyme activities using both culture dependent and independent methods. Two cold-active β-galactosidases and one extremely cold-active α-amylase, all related to Clostridia, were characterized in more details....

  12. growth and extracellular enzyme production by microorganisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okorie

    2013-06-26

    Ugba', an indigenous. Nigerian fermented food condiment. The isolated microorganisms were screened for amylase, protease and lipase production, the activity and specific activity of the enzymes were also determined.

  13. Sedimentary records of sewage pollution using faecal markers in contrasting peri-urban shallow lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H., E-mail: chv@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Kim, A.W. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); McGowan, S. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Leng, M.J.; Heaton, T.H.E.; Kendrick, C.P. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Coombs, P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Yang, H. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, WC1 6BT (United Kingdom); Swann, G.E.A. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Sewage contamination in shallow lake sediments is of concern because the pathogens, organic matter and nutrients contribute to the deterioration of the water-bodies' health and ecology. Sediment cores from three shallow lakes (Coneries, Church and Clifton Ponds) within Attenborough nature reserve located downstream of sewage treatment works were analysed for TOC, C/N, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, bacterial coliforms and faecal sterols. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs activities were used to date the sediments. Elemental analysis suggests that the source of organic matter was algal and down profile changes in {delta}{sup 13}C indicate a possible decrease in productivity with time which could be due to improvements in sewage treatment. {delta}{sup 15}N for Coneries Pond are slightly higher than those observed in Church or Clifton and are consistent with a sewage-derived nitrate source which has been diluted by non-sewage sources of N. The similarity in {delta}{sup 15}N values (+ 12 per mille to + 10 per mille ) indicates that the three ponds were not entirely hydrologically isolated. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) reveals that Coneries Pond had sterol concentrations in the range 20 to 30 {mu}g/g (dry wt.), whereas, those from Clifton and Church Ponds were lower. The highest concentrations of the human-sourced sewage marker 5{beta}-coprostanol were observed in the top 40 cm of Coneries Pond with values up to 2.2 {mu}g/g. In contrast, Church and Clifton Pond sediments contain only trace amounts throughout. Down-profile comparison of 5{beta}-coprostanol/cholesterol, 5{beta}-coprostanol/(5{beta}-coprostanol + 5{alpha}-cholestanol) and 5{beta}-epicoprostanol/coprostanol as well as 5{alpha}-cholestanol/cholesterol suggests that Coneries Pond has received appreciable amounts of faecal contamination. Examination of 5{beta}-stigmastanol (marker for herbivorous/ruminant animals) down core concentrations suggests a recent decrease in manure

  14. Effectiveness of Vegetated Drainage Ditches for Domestic Sewage Effluent Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwimba, Mathieu Nsenga; Zhu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Plant species have an important role in eco-ditches; however, the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters of nutrient uptake, growth rate and purification efficiency of ditch plants and their influences on domestic sewage treatment efficiency are still unclear. Growth rates of all nine species, but especially Lemna gibba, Cladophora and Myriophyllum verticillatum were best in undiluted domestic sewage as opposed to a mixture of domestic sewage. Performance of species to accumulate nutrients was not only species-specific, but was also affected by both sewage treatments. Removal efficiency of nutrients was dependent on both plant species and treatment. Uptake kinetic parameters were significantly affected by both nutrient form and plant species. The maximum uptake rate (Vmax) of NH 4 -N was higher than NO 3 -N. Similarly, Km values for NH 4 -N were greater than NO 3 -N. These results could be used to identify plants for sewage treatment efficiency and enhance water quality in eco-ditch treatment systems.

  15. The effect of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  18. Research of small house hold sewage treatment plant working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Valeikaitė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Lithuania centralized municipal wastewater treatment technologies are applied quite effectively, but there is little evidence of the functioning of individual small wastewater treatment plants. The paper presents the small device AT-6, in the city of Vilnius, and the treated sewage results (BDS7, nitrate, ammonium, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphate concentrations. Studies have shown that treated sewage indicators based on ammonium and nitrate ion concentrations are good. These substances are 2–10 times less than it can be in drinking water according to HN 24: 2003. Concentration of phosphates in the treated sewage ranged from 3.57 to 9.33 mg/L and exceeded the indicators, which were compared. The phosphorus environmental aspect is not dangerous, because treated sewage is not discharged into surface water bodies. Dealing from the pattern of biological indicators and enzymatic activity, the quality of activated sludge is good. Treated sewage does not impair the natural state.

  19. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  20. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  1. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  2. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  3. Study of sequential disinfection for the inactivation of protozoa and indicator microorganisms in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Corrêa Medeiros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage disinfection has the primary objective of inactivating pathogenic organisms to prevent the dissemination of waterborne diseases. This study analyzed individual disinfection, with chlorine and ultraviolet radiation, and sequential disinfection (chlorine-UV radiation. The tests were conducted with anaerobic effluent in batch, in laboratory scale, with two dosages of chlorine (10 and 20 mg L-1 and UV (2.5 and 6.1 Wh m-3. In addition, to guarantee the presence of cysts in the tests, 104 cysts per liter of Giardia spp. were inoculated. The resistance order was as follows: E. coli = Total Coliforms < Clostridium perfringens < Giardia spp.. Furthermore, synergistic effects reached 0.06 to 1.42 log of inactivation in sequential disinfection for both the most resistant microorganisms.

  4. Production of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-heating reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Hsien, Kuo-Jung; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the application of induction-heating, the pyrolytic experiments have been carried out for three sewage sludges from the food processing factories in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The thermochemical characteristics of sludge samples were first analyzed. The results indicated that the calorific value had about 15 MJ/kg on an average, suggesting that it had a potential for biomass energy source. However, its nitrogen concentration was relatively high. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves, it showed that the pyrolysis reaction can be almost finished in the temperature range of 450-750 degrees C. The yields of resulting liquid and char products from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge were discussed for examining the effects of pyrolysis temperature (500-800 degrees C), heating rate (200-500 degrees C/min), and holding time (1-8 min). Overall, the variation of yield was not so significant in the experimental conditions for three sewage sludges. All results of the resulting liquid products analyzed by elemental analyzer, pH meter, Karl-Fischer moisture titrator and bomb calorimeter were in consistence with those analyses by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the pyrolysis liquid products contained large amounts of water (>73% by weight) mostly derived from the bound water in the biosludge feedstocks and the condensation reactions during the pyrolysis reaction, and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl and nitrogen-containing groups, resulting in low pH and low calorific values.

  5. Efficiency of sewage sludge biochar in improving urban soil properties and promoting grass growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yan; Cui, Liu; Lin, Qimei; Li, Guitong; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    It is meaningful to quickly improve poor urban soil fertility in order to establish the green land vegetation. In this study, a series rates (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 50%, in mass ratio) of biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge was applied into an urban soil and then turf grass was grown in pots. The results showed that biochar amendment induced significant increases in soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, black carbon, and available phosphorus and potassium by more than 1.5, 1.9, 4.5, 5.6 and 0.4 times, respectively. Turf grass dry matter increased proportionally with increasing amount of added biochar (by an average of 74%), due to the improvement in plant mineral nutrition. Biochar amendment largely increased the total amounts of soil heavy metals. However, 43-97% of the heavy metals in the amended soil were concentrated in the residual fraction with low bioavailability. So the accumulation of heavy metals in turf grass aboveground biomass was highly reduced by the addition of biochar. These results indicated that sewage sludge biochar could be recommended in the poor urban raw soil as a soil conditioner at a rate of 50%. However, the environmental risk of heavy metal accumulation in soil amended with sewage sludge biochar should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and dewatered residues from enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kucner, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp residues (SBPR) from hydrolysis and dewatering of beet pulp were co-digested with municipal sewage sludge (MSS). The highest biogas yields of nearly 512 dm(3)/kg VSfed (volatile solids fed) were achieved for SBPR, treated both as the monosubstrate and as a mixture with MSS (1 : 1 by weight). Simultaneously, the highest methane production of 348 dm(3) CH4/kg VSfed was determined when the sewage sludge was co-digested with 35% SBPR. The analysis of digestate showed that neither ammonia nor volatile fatty acids destabilized the biogas production. Processing of sugar beet pulp into bioethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation has become increasingly attractive. However, in this process, only the liquid fraction derived from hydrolysis is subjected into alcoholic fermentation, whereas the remaining solid fraction needs to be utilized. This study demonstrated that sugar beet pulp residues after bioethanol production can successfully be co-digested with sewage sludge to increase biogas productivity of anaerobic digesters located at wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Performance of wetland systems in the treatment of sewage generated at an educational institution, after a recession period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Education institutions are potential generators of large volumes of domestic sewage. Studies of natural systems for effluent treatment have shown good efficiency and low cost compared to traditional systems. This makes them suitable for various segments of society, including educational institutions. A characteristic shared by most educational institutions is that they have the same academic calendars that include a long period of recess when, in many cases, the flow of sewage systems drops to almost zero, causing damage to both macrophytes in sewage bed and their associated microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a wetland system in an educational institution, after the recess period. It was observed for 45 days if there were signs of natural recovery, without any intervention. After this period, 15 seedlings of Thypha sp. were planted in the sewage bed, and analyses were performed for 45 additional days. The system efficiency in reducing turbidity, NH3, NO3- and phosphorus was, respectively, 63.0%, 21.7%, 31.1% and 20.3%, and for BOD, COD and thermotolerant coliforms, the average efficiency was 46.0%, 29.7% and 44.0%, respectively. If considered only the period after planting the results improved, with the following results: turbidity = 78.2%, 38.0% = NH3, NO3- = 53.2% = 25.6% phosphorus, BOD = 66, 2% = 36.5% COD and thermotolerant coliform = 60.7%. The results demonstrated the importance of vegetation bed for the efficiency of such treatment system.

  8. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska, Ewa; Harnisz, Monika

    2013-10-15

    The spread of Gram-negative bacteria with plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a worldwide problem. Their prevalence is increasing, both in hospitals and in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the ambient air and the river receiving effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the group of 455 isolated strains, up to 19.8% (90 isolates) were phenotypic ESBL-producers. They were detected in the 63 (100%) of sewage samples analyzed, 7 (33.3%) of river water and in 10 (23.8%) of air samples collected at the WWTP area. The plasmid-mediated genes encoding beta-lactams resistance were detected in almost 10% out of bacteria of the WWTP's final effluents and in above 32% out of bacteria of air at the WWTP area. It confirms that those genes are released into the environment, which might facilitate further dissemination among environmental bacteria. Moreover, genes encoding antibiotic resistance were shown to be transferrable to an Escherichia coli recipient strain, which indicates a high possibility of horizontal gene transfer among strains of different genera within the sewage and environmental samples. This study demonstrated that despite the treatment, the municipal sewage may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes. This may pose a public health risk, which requires future evaluation and control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Archaeal population in the granular sludge of an UASB reactor treating sewage at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomec, Cigdem Y; Letsiou, Ioanna; Ozturk, Izzet; Eroglu, Veysel; Wilderer, Peter A

    2008-11-01

    Effect of low temperature on up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor performance treating raw sewage was investigated in terms of the variations in methanogenic diversity using the 16S rRNA based Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique. The diversity of microorganisms present in the anaerobic granular sludge and the structure of the granules operated at 13 degrees C have been investigated using FISH combined with CSLM (Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy). According to FISH results, archaeal cells representing methanogens were found intensively dominant in the bottom sampling port of the UASB reactor and acetoclastic Methanosaeta was the abundant methanogen. Other methanogens such as Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium like species were also observed. The abundance of originally mesophilic Methanosaeta-related Archaea under low temperature at all sampling days revealed the microbial adaptation to psychrophilic conditions. This might be attributed to the enzymatic alterations in Methanosaeta cells originating from seed sludge, which were exposed to sub-mesophilic temperatures at start-up and then to psychrophilic conditions during gradual decreases of temperature. According to CSLM observation, even though the sludge retained in the reactor kept its granular form as a whole, the majority of the granules had a tendency to be partly broken and they lost their rigidity when raw sewage was fed following synthetic sewage. Besides, Methanosaeta related species prevailing in seed sludge have noticeably lost their long filamentous forms and deteriorated during raw sewage feeding. Members of the order Methanobacteriales constituted the major hydrogenothrophic methanogens present in the psychrophilic UASB reactor, whereas the other hydrogenothrophic methanogens--members of the order Methanococcales and Methanogenium relatives--were absent.

  10. 33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Pollution and Sewage § 151.79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10 persons must not discharge untreated sewage into the sea within 12 nautical...

  11. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wizigmann, I.

    1976-01-01

    Reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge in a pilot plant ( 60 Co gamma-radiation 300 krad, 300 min.). The reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 23 sludge batches from digestor II, 21 were free of Salmonella after irradiation. Of 7 sludge batches from digestor I with a higher level of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonellae, 5 batches still contained Salmonella after treatment. By making some alterations in the pipe system and reloading further cobalt 60-sources, the duration of irradiation could be reduced to 65 min. while maintaining the dose level of 300 krad. Employing this altered procedure, 16 batches from digestor II and 4 from digestor I were irradiated to date. Only in one of 60 samples were Salmonellae detectable. The hygienic effects of the irradiation plant were confirmed by means of model experiment with pure bacterial cultures. Microorganisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their radiosensitivity. Parasitological experiments were conducted with Ascaris suum ova. No embryonation was noted after radiation treatment at a dose of 300 krad. (orig./HK) [de

  12. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  13. Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon in sewage-treatment-plant effluent and domestic sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Fumiko Watanabe; Imai, Akio; Matsushige, Kazuo; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to better characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in several specific sources to Lake Kasumigaura, such as sewage-treatment-plant effluent (STPE), domestic sewage (DS) and forest stream (FS), we analyzed radiocarbon ( 14 C) and stable carbon isotopic compositions ( 13 C) of the DOCs. The measurements of 14 C for DOC were performed by an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA) in Japan. The Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values of the DOCs in several sources to Lake Kasumigaura, have low carbon isotopic values, ranging from -470 per mille to -79 per mille and from -27.9 per mille to -24.2 per mille , respectively. These carbon isotopic values are substantially different from those of Lake Kasumigaura. These results imply different origins for the DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. The 14 C and 13 C analyses of DOC led to a useful classification for DOCs in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

  14. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-09-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  16. Ordinary stoichiometry of extraordinary microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Anbar, A D; Elser, J J

    2016-01-01

    All life on Earth seems to be made of the same chemical elements in relatively conserved proportions (stoichiometry). Whether this stoichiometry is conserved in settings that differ radically in physicochemical conditions (extreme environments) from those commonly encountered elsewhere on the planet provides insight into possible stoichiometries for putative life beyond Earth. Here, we report measurements of elemental stoichiometry for extremophile microbes from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Phototrophic and chemotrophic microbes were collected in locations spanning large ranges of temperature (24 °C to boiling), pH (1.6-9.6), redox (0.1-7.2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen), and nutrient concentrations (0.01-0.25 mg L(-1) NO2-, 0.7-12.9 mg L(-1) NO3-, 0.01-42 mg L(-1) NH4 (+), 0.003-1.1 mg L(-1) P mostly as phosphate). Despite these extreme conditions, the microbial cells sampled had a major and trace element stoichiometry within the ranges commonly encountered for microbes living in the more moderate environments of lakes and surface oceans. The cells did have somewhat high C:P and N:P ratios that are consistent with phosphorus (P) limitation. Furthermore, chemotrophs and phototrophs had similar compositions with the exception of Mo content, which was enriched in cells derived from chemotrophic sites. Thus, despite the extraordinary physicochemical and biological diversity of YNP environments, life in these settings, in a stoichiometric sense, remains much the same as we know it elsewhere. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Environmental surveillance of poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus in urban sewage in Dakar, Senegal (2007-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Abdou Kader; Diop, Pape Amadou Mbathio; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne

    2014-01-01

    Global poliomyelitis eradication initiative relies on (i) laboratory based surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) to monitor the circulation of wild poliovirus in a population, and (ii) vaccination to prevent its diffusion. However, as poliovirus can survive in the environment namely in sewage, environmental surveillance (ES) is of growing importance as the eradication target is close. This study aimed to assess polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses circulation in sewage drains covering a significant population of Dakar. From April 2007 to May 2013, 271 specimens of raw sewage were collected using the grab method in 6 neighborhoods of Dakar. Samples were processed to extract and concentrate viruses using polyethylene glycol and Dextran (two-phase separation method). Isolation of enteroviruses was attempted in RD, L20B and Hep2 cell lines. Polioviruses were identified by RT-PCR and Elisa. Non Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) were identified by RT-PCR and microneutralisation tests. Polioviruses and NPEVs were respectively detected in 34,3% and 42,8% sewage samples. No wild poliovirus neither circulating vaccine-derived Poliovirus (cVDPV) was detected. Neutralization assays have identified 49 non polio enteroviruses that were subsequently classified in 13 serotypes belonging to HEV-A (22, 4%), HEV-B (12, 24%), HEV-C (26, 53%) and HEV-D (6, 12%) species. This study is the first documentation of enteroviruses environmental detection in Senegal. It shows the usefulness of environmental surveillance for indirect monitoring of the circulation and distribution of enteroviruses in the community.

  18. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal...... by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included...

  19. Distributed architecture and distributed processing mode in urban sewage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Decentralized rural sewage treatment facility over the broad area, a larger operation and management difficult, based on the analysis of rural sewage treatment model based on the response to these challenges, we describe the principle, structure and function in networking technology and network communications technology as the core of distributed remote monitoring system, through the application of case analysis to explore remote monitoring system features in a decentralized rural sewage treatment facilities in the daily operation and management. Practice shows that the remote monitoring system to provide technical support for the long-term operation and effective supervision of the facilities, and reduced operating, maintenance and supervision costs for development.

  20. Pysical Properties of Soil with Addition of Sewage Dried with Heated Edible Oil

    OpenAIRE

    大坪, 政美; 中司, 敬; 中園, 修三; 中園, 英司; 徳留, 斉将

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigates the water holding capacity, density, permeability, and swelling properties of the soil samples mixed with the sewage that was dried with heated edible oil. For comparison similar experiments were conducted for the soil samples mixed with sun-dried sewage and sewage compost. The water holding capacity was higher for the soil samples with oil-dried and sun-dried sewage addition than for those with sewage-compost addition. For statically compacted soil samples, wit...

  1. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  2. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  3. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  4. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    Many industrial and biotechnological processes make use of cold-active enzymes or could benefit from the use, as the reduced temperature can be beneficial in multiple ways. Such processes may save energy and production costs, improve hygiene, maintain taste and other organoleptic properties......, and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1......% of the microorganisms in an environmental sample can be cultured in the laboratory with standard techniques, which is also the case for the ikaite columns. Thus, there is an enormous potential in the uncultured microorganisms, which cannot be accessed through cultivation based methods. This PhD thesis presents studies...

  5. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m 3 at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  7. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, April; Chua, Patricia; Perez, Kristine; Rey, April; Rivor Kristel; San Pablo, Czarina; Santos, Ernestine

    2001-01-01

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the 60 Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 10 3 CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 10 3 CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  8. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  9. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  10. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox ® ), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of C free PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of C free PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, C free PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  12. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  13. Aspects of land application of sewage solids and gamma-irradiated dried sewage solids on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth

  14. The impact of major earthquakes and subsequent sewage discharges on the microbial quality of water and sediments in an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Moriarty, Elaine M; Wood, David; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2014-07-01

    A series of large earthquakes struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand in 2010-2011. Major damage sustained by the sewerage infrastructure required direct discharge of up to 38,000 m(3)/day of raw sewage into the Avon River of Christchurch for approximately six months. This allowed evaluation of the relationship between concentrations of indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and F-RNA phage) and pathogens (Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in recreational water and sediment both during and post-cessation of sewage discharges. Giardia was the pathogen found most frequently in river water and sediment, although Campylobacter was found at higher levels in water samples. E. coli levels in water above 550 CFU/100 mL were associated with increased likelihood of detection of Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, supporting the use of E. coli as a reliable indicator for public health risk. The strength of the correlation of microbial indicators with pathogen detection in water decreased in the following order: E. coli>F-RNA phage>C. perfringens. All the microorganisms assayed in this study could be recovered from sediments. C. perfringens was observed to accumulate in sediments, which may have confounded its usefulness as an indicator of fresh sewage discharge. F-RNA phage, however, did not appear to accumulate in sediment and in conjunction with E. coli, may have potential as an indicator of recent human sewage discharge in freshwater. There is evidence to support the low-level persistence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, but not Campylobacter, in river sediments after cessation of sewage discharges. In the event of disturbances of the sediment, it is highly probable that there could be re-mobilisation of microorganisms beyond the sediment-water exchange processes occurring under base flow conditions. Re-suspension events do, therefore, increase the potential risk to human health for those who participate in recreational

  15. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  16. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60 Co or 177 Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  17. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives

  18. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  19. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  20. phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    plant-associated microbes and plants-induced changes in the contaminated environment, transport of contaminants into the plant system is highly dominated by ... plant carbon compounds. (exudates, mucilage, dead cells). Activation, Detoxification,. Mineralization. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE IN SOILS ...

  1. Effect of treated sewage on growth of marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Eight algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta were used to assess the effect of different concentrations of secondary treated sewage on their growth. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta members. Ulva fasciata and Gracilaria...

  2. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  3. Odor assessment for sewage sludge samples 300A01002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, D.B.; Molton, P.M.

    1976-12-01

    The use of radiation as a means of detoxifying sewage sludge as an alternate to the more conventional biological digestion treatment method was studied. A combination of gamma irradiation and heat (thermoradiation) treatment is being considered. In support of this effort, Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) were requested to assess the odor change of the sewage sludge, if any, that occurs with time after the samples were subjected to the treatment conditions. The test methods and results are presented

  4. Biogas from Co-digestion of Sewage Sludge and Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Olsson, Jesper; Schwede, Sebastian; Nehrenheim, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae cultivated in waste water could contribute to increased biomass production at municipal waste watertreatment plants. The biomass could be utilized for biogas production when co-digested with sewage sludge. In thispaper previous published results on co-digestion of sewage sludge and microalgae are summarized and remainingknowledge gaps are identified. The available batch tests in literature mostly concern digestion at mesophilicconditions. Some of those tests indicate a synergetic e...

  5. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end....

  6. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  7. Odor assessment for sewage sludge samples 300A01002. [Thermoradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cash, D.B.; Molton, P.M.

    1976-12-01

    The use of radiation as a means of detoxifying sewage sludge as an alternate to the more conventional biological digestion treatment method was studied. A combination of gamma irradiation and heat (thermoradiation) treatment is being considered. In support of this effort, Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) were requested to assess the odor change of the sewage sludge, if any, that occurs with time after the samples were subjected to the treatment conditions. The test methods and results are presented. (TFD)

  8. Toxicity of chlortetracycline and its metal complexes to model microorganisms in wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulicharla, Rama; Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Drogui, Patrick; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valero, Jose R

    2015-11-01

    Complexation of antibiotics with metals is a well-known phenomenon. Wastewater treatment plants contain metals and antibiotics, thus it is essential to know the effect of these complexes on toxicity towards microorganisms, typically present in secondary treatment processes. In this study, stability constants and toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC) and metal (Ca, Mg, Cu and Cr) complexes were investigated. The calculated stability constants of CTC-metal complexes followed the order: Mg-CTC>Ca-CTC>Cu-CTC>Cr-CTC. Gram positive Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Gram negative Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea) bacteria were used as model microorganisms to evaluate the toxicity of CTC and its metal complexes. CTC-metal complexes were more toxic than the CTC itself for Bt whereas for Ea, CTC and its metal complexes showed similar toxicity. In contrast, CTC spiked wastewater sludge (WWS) did not show any toxic effect compared to synthetic sewage. This study provides evidence that CTC and its metal complexes are toxic to bacteria when they are biologically available. As for WWS, CTC was adsorbed to solid part and was not biologically available to show measurable toxic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecology and metagenomics of soil microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Head, I. M.; Prosser, J. I.; Schloter, M.; Smalla, K.; Tebbe, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microorganism * bioremediation * biogenesis of soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  10. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Several microorganism strains of genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Aspergillus and. Lactobacillus were screened for their ability to perform the reduction of γ-chloro-β-ketobutyric acid ethyl ester to γ-chloro-β-hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester. The optimal conditions for both stages of the.

  11. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2)

  12. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  13. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  14. Novel genome alteration system for microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.G.; Geertman, J.M.; Bolat, I.

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a set of targeting constructs, comprising a first construct comprising a recognition site for an endonuclease, a first region of homology with a target gene of a microorganism, and a first part of a selection marker, and a second construct comprising a second part of the

  15. Atmospheric Sampling of Microorganisms with UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, D. G., III

    2017-12-01

    Many microorganisms relevant to crops, domestic animals, and humans are transported over long distances through the atmosphere. Some of these atmospheric microbes catalyze the freezing of water at higher temperatures and facilitate the onset of precipitation. A few have crossed continents. New technologies are needed to study the movement of microorganisms in the atmosphere. We have used unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to study the transport of microorganisms tens to hundreds of meters above the ground. These UAS are equipped with unique devices for collecting microbes in the atmosphere during flight. Autonomous systems enable teams of UAS to perform complex atmospheric sampling tasks, and coordinate flight missions with one another. Data collected with UAS can be used to validate and improve disease forecasting models along highways in the sky, connecting transport scales across farms, states, and continents. Though terrestrial environments are often considered a major contributor to atmospheric microbial aerosols, little is known about aquatic sources of microbial aerosols. Droplets containing microorganisms can aerosolize from the water surface, liberating them into the atmosphere. We are using teams of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) and UAS to study the aerosolization of microbes from aquatic environments. Controlled flume studies using highspeed video have allowed us to observe unique aerosolization phenomena that can launch microbes out of the water and into the air. Unmanned systems may be used to excite the next generation of biologists and engineers, and raise important ethical considerations about the future of human-robot interactions.

  16. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    Include Security Clasification ) (U) Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bjornson, A. B., Bjornson...the course of bacterial and viral infec- tions. Infect. Immun. 30:824-831. 25. Zimmerli, W., B. Seligmann, and J. I. Gallin. 1986. Exudation primes

  17. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences...

  18. Genetic fingerprint of microorganisms associated with the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adapting molecular techniques to identify microorganisms. Molecular ... The under- standing achieved from molecular identification of the mi- .... cillium brevicompactum associated with the different species of Bacillus. It is been reported that the death and lyses of such bacteria would promote the growth of fungi (Garg et al.

  19. False identification of other microorganisms as Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 507 microorganisms which have been previously identified as S. aureus in 8 States in Southern Nigeria through characteristic morphology on blood agar, Gram staining, growth and fermentation on Mannitol Salt Agar and coagulase formation were collected. All the isolates were identified in this study through ...

  20. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  1. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Dong Hwa Shin; Soo Wan eChae; Su-Jin eJung

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some...

  2. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms isolated from smoked and frozen fishes sold in Benin and Warri metropolis were investigated. Adopting microbiological standard techniques, the results of the bacterial counts and fungal counts ranged from 5.4 x 106 (Ekpan market) to 25.1 x 106 (Ekpan market) and 1.1 x 105 ...

  3. Ecophysiology of microorganisms in microbial elctrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for improvement of the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been the reduction of the cost of the cathode catalyst. As catalyst at the cathode, microorganisms offer great possibilities. Previous research has shown the principle possibilities for the biocathode for H2

  4. Tapping uncultured microorganisms through metagenomics for drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products have been an important historical source of therapeutic agents. Microorganisms are major source of bioactive natural products, and several microbial products including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, immunosuppressants and others are currently used as therapeutic agents for human and ...

  5. Microorganisms may play role in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    ORNL researchers are studying microorganisms that remove metals from water for possible use in managing radioactive and hazardous wastes in Oak Ridge and elsewhere. These organisms including bacteria, fungi and algae, selectively absorb metals from water. Thus, in high concentrations, they could be used to treat wastewater containing radioactive or toxic metals

  6. Microorganisms in the aetiology of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morré, S. A.; Stooker, W.; Lagrand, W. K.; van den Brule, A. J.; Niessen, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent publications have suggested that infective pathogens might play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This review focuses on these microorganisms in the process of atherosclerosis. The results of in vitro studies, animal studies, tissue studies, and serological studies

  7. Artifical Microorganism Infection in Aviation Kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vallo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel used in the aviation engineering has to be clean and dry, it may not contain mechanical impurities and water. Water inaviation kerosene may occur in soluble and insoluble form. The danger inheres in the insoluble form, which may drop out in the crystallineform and cause various failures, such as those caused by mechanical impurities. The water assists in the biological matter formation createdby various species of microorganisms (bacteria, mould fungi and yeast. The microorganisms, present in water phase occurring on thebottom of tanks or on the interface water phase – kerosene, grow and reproduce and subsequently may pollute (impair the fuel by thebiomass or by the products of their metabolism. There is a possibility to infect the fuel artificially by a selected reference microorganismstrain, which usually occur in contaminated fuel, or by microorganisms which cause a biological contamination of aviation kerosene.Out of the selected reference strains used in the experiments, the reference strains of Proteus vulgaris, Sacharamyces cerevisiae andClostridium perfringens were not cultivated in the sterile aviation kerosene and the propagating nutrient medium. The aviation kerosene actsas a biocide medium for the presented reference microorganism strains.

  8. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  9. The influence of selected nanomaterials on microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandeburová, P.; Birošová, L.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Gál, M.; Tichý, J.; Híveš, J.; Mackul´ak, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 525-530 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanomaterials * nanotechnologies * microorganisms * toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  10. Thermal decomposition of sewage sludge under N2, CO2and air: Gas characterization and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ana Belén; Okonta, Felix; Freeman, Ntuli

    2017-07-01

    Thermochemical valorisation processes that allow energy to be recovered from sewage sludge, such as pyrolysis and gasification, have demonstrated great potential as convenient alternatives to conventional sewage sludge disposal technologies. Moreover, these processes may benefit from CO 2 recycling. Today, the scaling up of these technologies requires an advanced knowledge of the reactivity of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the products, specific to the thermochemical process. In this study the behaviour of sewage sludge during thermochemical conversion, under different atmospheres (N 2 , CO 2 and air), was studied, using TGA-FTIR, in order to understand the effects of different atmospheric gases on the kinetics of degradation and on the gaseous products. The different steps observed during the solid degradation were related with the production of different gaseous compounds. A higher oxidative degree of the atmosphere surrounding the sample resulted in higher reaction rates and a shift of the degradation mechanisms to lower temperatures, especially for the mechanisms taking place at temperatures above 400 °C. Finally, a multiple first-order reaction model was proposed to compare the kinetic parameters obtained under different atmospheres. Overall, the highest activation energies were obtained for combustion. This work proves that CO 2 , an intermediate oxidative atmosphere between N 2 and air, results in an intermediate behaviour (intermediate peaks in the derivative thermogravimetric curves and intermediate activation energies) during the thermochemical decomposition of sewage sludge. Overall, it can be concluded that the kinetics of these different processes require a different approach for their scaling up and specific consideration of their characteristic reaction temperatures and rates should be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, F.; Tuleushev, A.; Lisitsyn, V.; Kim, S.; Tuleushev, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the P entium . Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  12. Treatment of sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization as part of a sustainable recycling management; Hydrothermale Karbonisierung zur weitergehenden Klaerschlammaufbereitung als Baustein einer nachhaltigen Kreislaufwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, Rainer; Loewen, Achim; Hoebel, Wanja [HAWK Hochschule fuer angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, Fachhochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen (DE). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2010-07-15

    An analysis of up-to-date research on hydrothermal carbonization HTC shows that extensive basic investigation has been conducted and the process has proven to be of relevance. First results published indicate a wide range of applications for HTC and open up the path for large scale utilization. The application of HTC in technical scale is most promising for liquid media such as sewage sludge or fermentation residues deriving from waste and waste water treatment or from bioenergy processes. Especially municipal sewage sludge offers great potential. Due to the current amendment of the regulation on sewage sludge, an increasing demand for alternative treatment processes has developed. The mass flow distribution is of special importance with respect to preventive soil protection. Also, a sustainable handling of nutrient rich biomass is require d for reasons of climate and resource protection. In this regard, HTC can offer a relevant contribution. However, there is still significant demand for further research. (orig.)

  13. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Smith,; Dan Jaffe,; Michele Birmele,; Griffin, Dale W.; Andrew Schuerger,; Hee, J.; Michael Roberts,

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J; Jaffe, Daniel A; Birmele, Michele N; Griffin, Dale W; Schuerger, Andrew C; Hee, Jonathan; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Sequences Detected in Sewage from Treatment Plants of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Li, Wei; She, Ruiping; Yu, Liang; Wu, Qiaoxing; Yang, Jingling; Hu, Fengjiao; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan; Hao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Yue; Mao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in sewage samples in Shen Zhen, China. Sewage samples were collected from 152 sewage plants including livestock sewage, domestic sewage and treated sewage from May to July of 2015. Two of 152 samples were HEV positive (1.32%) from the livestock sewage plants. Partial ORF2 fragments of HEV were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA5.1. Blast and phylogenetic analyses showed that both of these two sequences belonged to HEV Genotype 4. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the molecular characterization of HEV in wastewater in China and the first time to detect Genotype 4 in the sewage. Results from this study indicate that the possibilities of sporadic infections of HEV should be emphasized because virus still has the possibility to be circulating in the sewage in China.

  16. Detection of Escherichia coli with fluorescent labeled phages that have a broad host range to E. coli in sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namura, Mariko; Hijikata, Tomonori; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is used as an indicator microorganism in public health. The conventional way to detect E. coli requires several days to produce a result, because it requires incubation of cells. Therefore a rapid and sensitive detection method is needed. T4e-/GFP phage, characterized by suppression of lysozyme and fusion of GFP (green fluorescent protein) to its SOC (small outer capsid) protein, was constructed, and it was shown to be able to detect E. coli K12 sensitively within several hours. However, because the host range of T4 phage to E. coli present in sewage water and sea water is narrow, this phage cannot be used to detect E. coli in environmental water. Two phages named IP008 and IP052, which have a broad host range to E. coli present in sewage influent, were screened from sewage influent. Mixture of these two phages produced clear plaques on 50% of E. coli screened from sewage influent. To use these phages as a tool for detection of E. coli, gfp was inserted into gene e, which encodes a lytic enzyme, and thus lytic-activity-suppressed phages were constructed (IP008e-/GFP and IP052e-/GFP). However, the fluorescent intensity of E. coli cells infected with IP008e-/GFP and IP052e-/GFP was not enough for visualization of the cell. Therefore, in addition to the insertion of gfp into gene e, fusion of GFP to SOC of IP008e-/GFP and IP052e-/GFP was conducted to produce IP008e-/2xGFP and IP052e-/2xGFP. E. coli cells infected with IP008e-/2xGFP and IP052e-/2xGFP showed much stronger fluorescence intensity than E. coli cells infected by IP008e-/GFP and IP052e-/GFP. It is anticipated that, using these GFP-labeled phages, a broad range of E. coli present in sewage influent water can be detected rapidly.

  17. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  18. Method for the production of l-serine using genetically engineered microorganisms deficient in serine degradation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the microbiological industry, and specifically to the production of L-serine using genetically modified bacteria. The present invention provides genetically modified microorganisms, such as bacteria, wherein the expression of genes encoding for enzymes...... concentrations of serine. The present invention also provides methods for the production of L-serine or L-serine derivative using such genetically modified microorganisms....

  19. Occurrence of antibiotics in eight sewage treatment plants in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Niu, Hongyun; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-02-01

    The occurrence, removal efficiency and seasonal variation of 22 antibiotics, including eight fluoroquinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, were investigated in eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Beijing, China. A total of 14 antibiotics were detected in wastewater samples, with the maximum concentration being 3.1 μg L(-1) in the influent samples and 1.2 μg L(-1) in the effluent samples. The most frequently detected antibiotics were ofloxacin, norfloxacin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and roxithromycin; of these, the concentration of ofloxacin was the highest in most of the influent and effluent samples. Eighteen antibiotics were detected in the sludge samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.0×10(-1) to 2.1×10(4) μg kg(-1). The dominant antibiotics found in the sludge samples were the fluoroquinolones, with ofloxacin having the highest concentration in all the sludge samples. The antibiotics could not be removed completely by the STPs, and the mean removal efficiency ranged from -34 to 72%. Of all the antibiotics, the fluoroquinolones were removed comparatively more efficiently, probably due to their adsorption to sludge. Seasonal variation of the antibiotics in the sludge samples was also studied. The concentrations of antibiotics in winter were higher than in spring and autumn. Since the total levels of the fluoroquinolones detected in the influent samples were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 8.0 μg L(-1), the residues of these antibiotics would be unlikely to have adverse effects on microorganisms involved in sewage treatment processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary investigation of single chamber single electrode microbial fuel cell using sewage sludge as a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Chaithanya, M.; Thakur, Somil; Sonu, Kumar; Das, Bhaskar

    2017-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) consists of a cathode and anode; micro-organisms transfer electrons acquired from the degradation of organic matter in the substrate to anode; and thereby to cathode; by using an external circuit to generate electricity. In the present study, a single chamber single electrode microbial fuel cell has been fabricated to generate electricity from the sludge of the sewage treatment plant at two different ambient temperature range of 25 ± 4°C and 32 ± 4°C under aerobic condition. No work has been done yet by using the single electrode in any MFC system; it is hypothesized that single electrode submerged partially in substrate and rest to atmosphere can function as both cathode and anode. The maximum voltage obtained was about 2890 mV after 80 (hrs) at temperature range of 25 ± 4°C, with surface power density of 1108.29 mW/m2. When the ambient temperature was 32 ± 4°C, maximum voltage obtained was 1652 mV after 40 (hrs.) surface power density reduced to 865.57 mW/m2. When amount of substrate was decreased for certain area of electrode at 25 ± 4°C range, electricity generation decreased and it also shortened the time to reach peak voltage. On the other hand, when the ambient temperature was increased to 32 ± 4°C, the maximum potential energy generated was less than that of previous experiment at 25 ± 4°C for the same substrate Also the time to reach peak voltage decreased to 40 hrs. When comparing with other single chamber single electrode MFC, the present model is generating more electricity that any MFC using sewage sludge as substrate except platinum electrode, which is much costlier that electrode used in the present study.

  1. Potential of biohydrogen production from effluents of citrus processing industry using anaerobic bacteria from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Lilian D M; Pachiega, Renan; Crespi, Marisa S; Nespeca, Maurílio Gustavo; de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Maintinguer, Sandra I

    2017-01-01

    Citrus crops are among the most abundant crops in the world, which processing is mainly based on juice extraction, generating large amounts of effluents with properties that turn them into potential pollution sources if they are improperly discarded. This study evaluated the potential for bioconversion of effluents from citrus-processing industry (wastewater and vinasse) into hydrogen through the dark fermentation process, by applying anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum. The inoculum was previously heat treated to eliminate H 2 -consumers microorganisms and improve its activity. Anaerobic batch reactors were operated in triplicate with increasing proportions (50, 80 and 100%) of each effluent as substrate at 37°C, pH 5.5. Citrus effluents had different effects on inoculum growth and H 2 yields, demonstrated by profiles of acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and ethanol, the main by-products generated. It was verified that there was an increase in the production of biogas with the additions of either wastewater (7.3, 33.4 and 85.3mmolL -1 ) or vinasse (8.8, 12.7 and 13.4mmolL -1 ) in substrate. These effluents demonstrated remarkable energetic reuse perspectives: 24.0MJm -3 and 4.0MJm -3 , respectively. Besides promoting the integrated management and mitigation of anaerobic sludge and effluents from citrus industry, the biohydrogen production may be an alternative for the local energy supply, reducing the operational costs in their own facilities, while enabling a better utilization of the biological potential contained in sewage sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microorganism and Agricultural Based Biosorbents Towards Removal of Cadmium from Waste-Water: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Souvik; Mukherjee, Subhankar; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2017-01-01

    Non-degradable and persistent nature of Cadmium (Cd) poses high toxicity to human, plants and animals. Several industrial processes generated wastes are the main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd enters into the environment. Although, World Health Organization (WHO) has set the limit of Cd in drinking water is 0.005 mg L-1, the industrial activities release much higher concentrations of metal ions to the water stream than the prescribed limits, which leads to the increasing health hazards and environmental pollution. To address this issue, one of the major applicable solutions is the treatment or purification of contaminated water and effluents. The implantation of wastewater treatment systems aims to minimize environmental impacts, but ultimately generates waste materials, such as sewage sludge, which must be properly recycled. In this review, we focus on the research efforts being made towards the removal of Cd (II) from waste waters using biological means with a special emphasis on the microorganism and agricultural based biosorbents. Mechanistic pathway towards removal of Cd (II) ions from the wastewater, efficiency of the adsorbents and the factors affecting the process have been studied with specific examples. Also the recent patents related to this area have been taken into considerations to understand applicability of microorganism and agricultural based biosorbents. This overview presents various scientific reports towards low-cost microorganism and agricultural based biosorbents for efficient removal of Cd (II) by producing less toxic waste and the future perspective of the process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Degradation of Parathion by Microorganisms from Cranberry Bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorder, G.W.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Oxygen concentration and different carbon sources drastically altered parathion degradation in culture media inoculated with microorganisms from Wisconsin cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) growing soils. These microorganisms also grew in basal salts media utilizing parathion as a sole carbon source. 14 CO 2 was produced only from phenyl-labelled parathion while 14 C-(ethyl)-parathion derived radiocarbon remained in the stale media of the soil-free cultures. Addition of 0.05% glucose to basal salts medium inhibited 14 C-(phenyl)-parathion degradation while the addition of 0.05% yeast extract to basal salts medium also inhibited microbiological degradation of the insecticide to 14 CO 2 , but to a lesser extent. Aminoparathion and aminoparaoxon were formed only in basal salts medium with 0.05% yeast extract. Aerobic cultures produced more 14 CO 2 from 14 C-(phenyl)-parathion and less aminoparathion than anaerobic cultures. Aminoparathion was more abundant in cultures with inocula obtained from the 18- to 23-cm layer than with culture inocula obtained from the 0- to 5-cm soil layer under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (author)

  4. Microorganisms in stormwater; a summary of recent investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Gail E.

    1980-01-01

    All storm runoff contains a variety of bacteria, including total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci, which are derived from the land over which the water flows. Most total coliform are native soil organisms, whereas the fecal coliform and fecal streptococci originate from the feces of wild and domestic animals. Urban runoff has been reported to contain pathogenic organisms, but this probably presents little direct threat to human health because the runoff is not ingested. Runoff water can, however, have other negative effects such as contamination of surface water, which may result in beach closures, or contamination of shellfish. This type of contamination is generally of short duration because indicator bacteria and pathogens die out rapidly in the aquatic environment. Similarly, bacteria and viruses deposited on soil by stormwater are inactivated by drying, competition from soil microflora, and a variety of other processes. Every storm producing runoff is unique in the number and type of microorganisms because these vary from site to site, from storm to storm, and during the course of the storm. Stormwater to be examined for microorganisms must be collected in sterile containers and processed immediately. (USGS)

  5. Photodynamic Action against Wastewater Microorganisms and Chemical Pollutants: An Effective Approach with Low Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bartolomeu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater (WW from urban and industrial activities is often contaminated with microorganisms and chemical pollutants. To reduce the concentration of microorganisms in WW to levels comparable to those found in natural waters, the sewage effluent is usually subjected to disinfection with chlorine, ozone, or ultraviolet light, which may lead to the formation of toxic products and contribute to the selection of resistant genes. Moreover, the changing patterns of infectious diseases and the emerging of multidrug resistant microbial strains entail the development of new technologies for WW decontamination. Microbial photodynamic inactivation (PDI with photosensitizers, oxygen, and visible light has demonstrated to be effective in the inactivation of microorganisms via photogeneration of reactive oxygen species able to induce microbial damage at the external structures level. The promising results of PDI suggest that this principle can be applied to WW treatment to inactivate microorganisms but also to photodegrade chemical pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of PDI for the microbial and chemical decontamination of secondarily treated WW. To evaluate the efficiency of bacterial inactivation in WW, experiments were done in both phosphate buffer saline (PBS and filtered WW with the bioluminescent Escherichia coli, using small and large volumes of WW. The potential of PDI to inactivate the native bacteria (E. coli and Enterococcus present in WW was tested and assays without the adding of bacteria to the WW were performed. It was also tested if the same PDI protocol was able to induce phototransformation of phenol. The cationic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-ylporphyrin tetra-iodide (Tetra-Py+-Me was shown to be effective against both bacterial groups representing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria used as microbiological parameters to instigate water quality and even showing the power to

  6. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Mark R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  7. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  8. On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of rheological behavior of sewage sludges sampled at different stages of waste water treatment. The main attention was focused on dynamic viscosity dependence on temperature, and shear rate. The sludge samples were examined under temperature ranging from 1 °C to 25 °C and under shear rate ranging from 0.34 s−1 to 68 s−1. Rotary digital viscometer (concentric cylinders geometry was used to perform the reological measurements. The solids content of the sludge samples ranged from 0.43 % to 21.45 % (A and C samples, respectively and ash free dry mass from 56.21 % to 67.80 % (A and B samples, respectively. The tested materials were found to be of non–Newtoninan nature and temperature dependent. Measured data were successfully cha­ra­cte­ri­zed by several mathematical models (Arrhenius, Bingham Plastic, Casson Law, Exponential, Gaussian, and IPC Paste in MATLAB® software with satisfying correlations between experimental and computed results. The best match (R2 = 0.999 was received with use of Gaussian model, in both cases, shear rate and temperature dependence. The results are quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design.

  9. Soil microbial population and nitrogen fixation in peanut under fly ash and sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-06-01

    such as C, N, S, and P in the biosphere (Wong and Wong, 1986). Addition of such wastes to agricultural lands is likely to alter the nutrient cycling processes particularly for leguminous crops, where nodulation, N 2 fixation and N uptake is mainly governed by a group of microorganisms (McGrath et al., 1988). It is therefore imperative to study the effect of different doses and combination of wastes on changes in microbial population and its impact on overall performance of a crop. The objective of this study is thus, to investigate the implications of industrial wastes (Fly Ash) and urban sewage sludge (treated City Waste) application at different rates and frequencies of application on the total soil microbial population, Rhizobium population, nodulation, N-uptake, N-accumulation and yield of peanut crop in lateritic sandy loam soil of eastern India

  10. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  11. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

  12. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  13. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  14. How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry.

  15. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganisms...... with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The “2002 IDF inventory” has become a de facto reference for food...... cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  16. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  17. Microorganism lipid droplets and biofuel development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingmei; Zhang, Congyan; Shen, Xipeng; Zhang, Xuelin; Cichello, Simon; Guan, Hongbin; Liu, Pingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids as a source of energy and carbon. However, recent research has emerged that the organelle is involved in lipid synthesis, transportation, and metabolism, as well as mediating cellular protein storage and degradation. With the exception of multi-cellular organisms, some unicellular microorganisms have been observed to contain LDs. The organelle has been isolated and characterized from numerous organisms. Triacylglycerol (TAG...

  18. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    candidemia or evidence of systemic candidosis were to be correlated with changes in the numbers of Candida isolated from the serial quantitative cultures...compared for their sensitivity and specificity for the detection of Candida antigenemia prior to and during candidemia and systemic candidosis. The...sera contained inhibitory activity had pneumonia, candidemia , and multiple episodes of bacteremia caused by more than one microorganism, and 2 had a

  19. Chemosensing in microorganisms to practical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Kundu, Tapanendu; Sain, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms like bacteria can sense concentration of chemo-attractants in its medium very accurately. They achieve this through interaction between the receptors on their cell surface and the chemo-attractant molecules (like sugar). But the physical processes like diffusion set some limits on the accuracy of detection which was discussed by Berg and Purcell in the late seventies. We have a re-look at their work in order to assess what insight it may offer towards making efficient, practica...

  20. Molecular Breeding of Advanced Microorganisms for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakuragi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of fossil fuels are consumed every day in spite of increasing environmental problems. To preserve the environment and construct a sustainable society, the use of biofuels derived from different kinds of biomass is being practiced worldwide. Although bioethanol has been largely produced, it commonly requires food crops such as corn and sugar cane as substrates. To develop a sustainable energy supply, cellulosic biomass should be used for bioethanol production instead of grain biomass. For this purpose, cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this method has many limitations such as low productivity and low solvent tolerance of microorganisms. Despite these problems, biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biodiesel are potential energy sources that can help establish a sustainable society.

  1. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  2. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Speth, Daan R; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S M; Lücker, Sebastian

    2015-12-24

    Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Already described by Winogradsky in 1890, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible, and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth rates but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle.

  4. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  5. [Succession of chitinolytic microorganisms in chernozem soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharova, N A; Belova, E V; Vorob'ev, A V; Polianskaia, L M; Stepanov, A L

    2005-01-01

    The chitinolytic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial complex of chernozem soil has been investigated in the course of a succession initiated by the introduction of chitin and humidification. The dynamics of the cell numbers of chitinolytic microorganisms and of their biomass was assessed by fluorescent microscopy and by inoculation of selective media. Emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, as well as dinitrogen fixation, was assessed by gas chromatography. It was found that, when the succession was initiated by the introduction of both chitin and humidification, it resulted in greater cell numbers and biomass of chitinolytic microorganisms and higher levels of CO2 and N2O emission and of nitrogen fixation than when the succession was initiated by humidification alone. As compared to the control samples, a significant (twofold) increase in the prokaryote cell number and biomass was found on the fourth day of the succession initiated by humidification and introduction of chitin. One week after the initiation of succession, the fungal biomass and length of mycelium were twice as high as those in the control samples. These results led to the conclusion that chitin utilization in chernozem soil starts during the initial stages of succession and is performed by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  6. [Biorhythms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Perunova, N B; Fadeev, S B; Timokhina, T Kh; Iavnova, S V

    2008-01-01

    To study of circadian dynamics of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Circadian dynamics of antibiotic susceptibility was studied on clinical strains of enterobacteria, non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, and staphylococci which were isolated and identified by common methods. During a day, with 3-hours intervals, studied strains were tested on susceptibility to ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftriaxone, meropenem, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin using method of serial dilutions in agar. Circadian biorhythms of resistance to antibiotics in studied microorganisms were revealed. Along with common patterns, differences in temporal changes of microrganisms' susceptibility to antibacterial drugs were noted. Chronobiologic approach allowed to reveal significant amplitude of changes of minimal inhibitoryconcentration (MIC) of antibiotics versus resistant Gram-positive cocci reflecting presence of susceptibility periods, whereas in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria peaks of resistance were observed. Circadian dynamics of MIC of majority of antibiotics versus resistant Gram-negative bacteria and susceptible Gram-positive cocci was characterized by lower amplitude of changes without shifts from antibiotic resistance to susceptibility and vice versa. Obtained data open perspective of using biorhythmological approach in study of susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics during the elucidation of mechanisms of pathogens adaptation to environmental conditions and creation of new strategies of control for antibiotic resistance strains.

  7. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  8. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  9. Magnetotaxy in microorganisms of Rio de Janeiro region: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.G. de P.L. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics of several magnetotactic microorganisms found in sediments collected in Rio de Janeiro region are presented. The study of magnetic characteristics of these microorganisms indicate some general properties of the magnetotaxy phenomenons. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Gamma irradiation for sewage treatment at US army facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.J.; Hollis, H.D.; Musselman, H.D.; Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has been sponsoring research for many years on the use of gamma irradiation for disinfection and sterilization of sewage plant effluents. Initial research was directed to laboratory experiments using sterile solutions to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on E. coli, M-pyogenes and M-smegmatis organisms, and on the chemical constituents of sewage such as phenols, surfactants and pesticides. The results of the initial research warranted further study using municipal sewage secondary effluent as test samples. Current research is directed towards investigating the effects of radiation on the constituents of sewage sludge and on the cyst stage of the amoebic protozoa. Consideration has been given by the Corps to the management of waste-waters by disposal on land. Legal and medical reasons dictate that the plant effluents be sterilized before being used as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Gamma radiation from isotopic sources appears to be the best source of sterilizing energy for Army waste-water disposal. The Corps of Engineers is considering the construction of an experimental gamma irradiation pilot facility to validate laboratory experimental work and to establish design criteria for operating plants. The data obtained will provide a basis for performing detailed cost effectiveness studies on gamma irradiation as a method to treat secondary plant effluent. In addition, optimization work will be conducted to determine where in the sewage treatment cycle the use of gamma irradiation will produce the best results in meeting current and anticipated standards. (author)

  11. ZEOLITIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH WITH A FUSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Latosińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the results of zeolitization of municipal sewage sludge ash with the indirect fusion method followed by a hydrothermal method. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash was conducted at the melting temperature of 550°C and the melting time of 60 minutes, crystallization temperatures of 60°C and 90°C, crystallization time of 6 hours and the SSA:NaOH ratio of 1:1.8; 1:1.4. The research of modified sewage sludge ashes included the observation of changes of ash particles surface and the identification of crystalized phases. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.4 did not cause the formation of zeolite phases. On the other hand, the zeolitization at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.8 resulted in the formation of desired zeolite phases such as zeolite Y (faujasite and hydroxysodalite. The presented method of sewage sludge ash zeolitization allows to obtain highly usable material. Synthesized zeolites may be used as adsorbents and ion exchangers. They can be potentially used to remove heavy metals as well as ammonia from water and wastewater.

  12. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based onβ-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Si; Liu, Guangmin; Wu, Shuyan; Wan, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β -cyclodextrins ( β -CD) pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β -CD addition (0.2 g/g TS) performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β -CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18-3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences.

  14. Interactions between sewage sludge-amended soil and earthworms--comparison between Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei composting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Suleiman, Hanine; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Płytycz, Barbara; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2016-02-01

    Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly technology, where earthworms are introduced in the waste, inter alia sewage sludge, to cooperate with microorganisms and enhance decomposition of organic matter. The main aims of the present study was to determine the influence of two different earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, on the changes of selected metallic trace elements content in substratum during vermicomposting process using three different sewage sludge mainly differentiated by their metal contents. Final vermicompost has shown a slight reduction in Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, while the Zn concentration tends to increase. Accumulation of particular heavy metals in earthworms' bodies was assessed. Both species revealed high tendency to accumulate Cd and Zn, but not Cu, Ni, and Pb, but E. andrei has higher capabilities to accumulate some metals. Riboflavin content, which content varies depending on metal pollution in several earthworms species, was measured supravitaly in extruded coelomocytes. Riboflavin content decreased slightly during the first 6 weeks of exposure and subsequently restored till the end of the 9-week experiment. Selected agronomic parameters have also been measured in the final product (vermicompost) to assess the influence of earthworms on substratum.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Arctic microorganisms decomposing bioplastics

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanek, Aneta K.; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Strzelecki, Mateusz C.; Kociuba, Waldemar; Franczak, ?ukasz; Miro?czuk, Aleksandra M.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amount of plastic waste causes significant environmental pollution. In this study, screening of Arctic microorganisms which are able to degrade bioplastics was performed. In total, 313 microorganisms were isolated from 52 soil samples from the Arctic region (Spitsbergen). Among the isolated microorganisms, 121 (38.66%) showed biodegradation activity. The ability of clear zone formation on emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) was observed for 116 microorganisms ...

  16. Sewage epidemiology and illicit drug research: the development of ethical research guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prichard, J; Hall, W.; de Voogt, P.; Zuccato, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To discuss the need to develop ethical guidelines for researchers using sewage epidemiology to monitor drug use in the general population and specific precincts, including prisons, schools and workplaces. Method Describe current applications of sewage epidemiology, identify potential ethical

  17. Modelling of pharmaceutical residues in Australian sewage by quantities of use and fugacity calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Ongerth, Jerry E

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented for determining which currently prescribed pharmaceutical compounds are most likely to be found in sewage, and for estimating their concentrations, both in raw sewage and after successive stages of secondary sewage treatment. A ranking of the "top-50" pharmaceutical compounds (by total mass dispensed) in Australia over the 1998 calendar year was prepared. Information on the excretion ratios and some metabolites of the pharmaceuticals enabled prediction of the overall rates of excretion into Australian sewage. Mass-balance and fugacity modelling, applied to sewage generation and to a sewage treatment plant, allowed calculation of predicted concentrations of the compounds in raw, primary and secondary treated sewage effluents. Twenty nine of the modelled pharmaceutical residuals were predicted to be present in raw sewage influent at concentrations of 1 microgl(-1) or greater. Twenty of the compounds were predicted to remain in secondary effluent at concentrations of 1 microgl(-1) or greater.

  18. Joint NRC/EPA Sewage Sludge Radiological Survey: Survey Design & Test Site Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains the results of a radiological survey of nine publicly POTWs around the country, which was commissioned by the Sewage Sludge Subcommittee, to determine whether and to what extent radionuclides concentrate in sewage treatment wastes.

  19. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-solid Anaerobic Co-digestion of Sewage Sludge and Cattle Manure: The Effects of Volatile Solid Ratio and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Dong; Yi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    High-solid anaerobic digestion is an attractive solution to the problem of sewage sludge disposal. One method that can be used to enhance the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the generation of methane from anaerobic digestion involves combining an alkaline pretreatment step with the synergistic effects of sewage sludge and cattle manure co-digestion, which improves the activity of key enzymes and microorganisms in the anaerobic co-digestion system to promote the digestion of organic waste. In this study, we describe an efficient strategy that involves adjusting the volatile solid (VS) ratio (sewage sludge/cattle manure: 3/7) and initial pH (9.0) to improve VFA production and methane generation from the co-digestion of sludge and manure. The experimental results indicate that the maximum VFA production was 98.33 g/kg-TS (total solid) at the optimal conditions. Furthermore, methane generation in a long-term semi-continuously operated reactor (at a VS ratio of 3/7 and pH of 9.0) was greater than 120.0 L/kg-TS. PMID:27725704

  1. Compacted Sewage Sludge as a Barrier for Tailings: The Heavy Metal Speciation and Total Organic Carbon Content in the Compacted Sludge Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huyuan; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jinfang

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW), and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA) seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC) content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ∞ under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment. PMID:24979755

  2. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.

    1997-12-31

    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  3. Urban Sewage Sludge, Sustainability, and Transition for Eco-City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Chan, Felix T. S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of urban sewage sludge is of vital importance for mitigating the risks of environmental contaminations, and the negative effects on human health. However, there are usually various different technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge; thus, it is difficult for decision......-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology among multiple alternatives. This study aims at developing a generic multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainability assessment of the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. A generic criteria system including both hard and soft criteria...... in economic, environmental, social and technological aspects was developed for sustainability assessment. The improved analytic hierarchy process method, namely Best-Worst method, was employed to determine the weights of the criteria and the relative priorities of the technologies with respect to the soft...

  4. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....... chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1±0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g...

  5. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Results on the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, Th.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil. In bean and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that the treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions, that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated sludge, while the heat-treated sewage sludge indicates always a decrease, especially with the increase of applied amounts (respiration, protease and nitrification). In the field experiments there were almost no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge, whereas there was always a smaller microbial activity after application of heat-treated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna (especially on Collemboles and Oribatidae) in the field trials indicate the influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there was a decrease in the number of Collemboles and mites (in comparison with a normal fertilized plot) on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There was a remarkably large decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Depending on the soil type, physical and chemical studies indicated an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, and sometimes the best effects occurred with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed (6-2, 6-5 mm diameter) in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (author)

  6. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of sewage sludge incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  7. Hydraulic conductivity and soil-sewage sludge interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero de Melo Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems faced by humanity is pollution caused by residues resulting from the production and use of goods, e.g, sewage sludge. Among the various alternatives for its disposal, the agricultural use seems promising. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity and interaction of soil with sandy-silty texture, classified as Spodosols, from the Experimental Station Itapirema - IPA, in Goiana, state of Pernambuco, in mixtures with sewage sludge from the Mangueira Sewage Treatment Station, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco at rates of 25, 50 and 75 Mg ha-1. Tests were conducted to let water percolate the natural saturated soil and soil-sludge mixtures to characterize their physical, chemical, and microstructural properties as well as hydraulic conductivity. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of sewage sludge in soils leads to an increase of the < 0.005 mm fraction, reduction in real specific weight and variation in optimum moisture content from 11.60 to 12.90 % and apparent specific dry weight from 17.10 and 17.50 kN m-3. In the sludge-soil mixture, the quartz grains were covered by sludge and filling of the empty soil macropores between grains. There were changes in the chemical characteristics of soil and effluent due to sewage sludge addition and a small decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate the possibility that soil acidity influenced the concentrations of the elements found in the leachate, showing higher levels at higher sludge doses. It can be concluded that the leaching degree of potentially toxic elements from the sewage sludge treatments does not harm the environment.

  8. How Many Microorganisms Are Present? Techniques for Enumerating Microorganisms in Oilfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Larsen, Jan

    The different techniques that exist for enumerating microorganisms will often yield very different results when applied to oilfield samples. For example, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation may fail to find any microorganisms in samples for which molecular microbiological methods (MMM) indicate levels of thousands or even millions per millilitre or gram. Therefore, it is important to realise the limitations and advantages of the different techniques available to the industry and to take them into account when interpreting data. In oil systems, the most widely used techniques for quantification are based either on culturing, epifluorescence microscopy, or quantitative PCR. In complex samples in which live, inactive, and dead cells are present together with cell material in various states of decomposition, each of these three methodologies enumerates a different subset of microorganisms (Fig. 10.1).

  9. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering into agreements with private or public parties to treat sewage or...

  10. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel into the...

  11. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... purposes of inspection; (i) Spill-proof features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating...

  12. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. 78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... to control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The Indiana Department of... unit,'' in part, as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing the volume of...

  14. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L; Temmink, H; Witkamp, G.J.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  15. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  16. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 142(a). (b) Definitions—(1) Sewage facility defined. A sewage facility is property— (i) Except as... wastewater before the influent enters the facility with the intention of reducing the BOD level). (iii... the definition of sewage facilities described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (3) Other...

  17. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  18. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface transport of phosphorus introduced by the disposal of treated sewage effluent to ground-infiltration disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod was simulated with a three-dimensional reactive-transport model. The simulations were used to estimate the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during operation of the sewage-treatment plant?from 1936 to 1995?and for 60 years following cessation of sewage disposal. The model accounted for spatial and temporal changes in water discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, ground-water flow, transport of associated chemical constituents, and a set of chemical reactions, including phosphorus sorption on aquifer materials, dissolution and precipitation of iron- and manganese-oxyhydroxide and iron phosphate minerals, organic carbon sorption and decomposition, cation sorption, and irreversible denitrification. The flow and transport in the aquifer were simulated by using parameters consistent with those used in previous flow models of this area of Cape Cod, except that numerical dispersion was much larger than the physical dispersion estimated in previous studies. Sorption parameters were fit to data derived from phosphorus sorption and desorption laboratory column experiments. Rates of organic carbon decomposition were adjusted to match the location of iron concentrations in an anoxic iron zone within the sewage plume. The sensitivity of the simulated load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond was calculated for a variety of processes and input parameters. Model limitations included large uncertainties associated with the loading of the sewage beds, the flow system, and the chemistry and sorption characteristics in the aquifer. The results of current model simulations indicate a small load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during 1965?85, but this small load was particularly sensitive to model parameters that specify flow conditions and the chemical process by

  19. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  20. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  1. Microorganisms and methods for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-26

    Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.

  2. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang

    1998-01-01

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60 Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60 Co, 137 Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  3. Upgrading Army Sewage Treatment Plant Trickling Filters with Synthetic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    for separate disposal. Grit chamber overflow will normally pass through two sewage shredders or will be bypassed through two 3- ft, manually raked bar...rakes. Hydraulic capacity per construction spes sewage shredders 2 x 7.0 m&d - 14.0 mad at peak -14 mid Grit chamber Hydraulic capacity based on I fps at...7 1/2 hp each) for the lagoon system, and one sludge drainage system for the lagoon. The total cost was $440,000 in 1975. However, no breakdown of the

  4. Effect of sewage irrigation on groundwater and vegetable crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    2009-01-01

    Lahore produces wastewater at a rate of 18.52 m3/sec. In Lahore, three percent of the untreated sewage is being used for the harvesting of all seasonal crops, including sugarcane cauliflower, cabbage, potato, carrots and radish. The untreated wastewater being used contained on an average BOD of 187mg/l, along with a wide array of pathogens. Groundwater contamination by bacteria depends upon the rate of removal of pathogens by the soil. There has been deterioration in the groundwater quality with continuous sewage irrigation. Such water showed higher contamination parameters. (author)

  5. Reasonable management plan of sludge in sewage disposal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Kyu Jin; Koo, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The compost method, which is widely used as a sewage disposal recycling in Korea, is now basically impossible to recycle sludge to compost by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announcement. Therefore, the disposal of sludge will be much harder with reducing the amount of sludge used as compost. The amount of sludge other than using as compost is very small, so the development of various sludge recycling and use will be needed with regulations. This study was implemented to help the establishment of sewage sludge recycling policy in Korea. 30 refs., 17 figs., 58 tabs.

  6. Resistance of soil microorganisms to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Alexander, M.

    1972-01-01

    Most groups of soil microorganisms died when exposed to prolonged starvation in a carbon-free solution, but the relative abundance of Bacillus and actinomycetes increased with time. Certain nonspore-forming bacteria also persisted. The ability of individual soil isolates to endure starvation in solution was not correlated with their glycogen content or rate of endogenous respiration. However, cells of the resistant populations were rich in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, whereas the starvation-susceptible bacteria generally contained little of this substance. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was used rapidly in cells deprived of exogenous sources of carbon.

  7. Biocatalysis and biotransformation of resveratrol in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan-Zhen; Liu, Ruo-Xue; Wang, Dong-Peng; Wang, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a major stilbene phytoalexin, is a valuable polyphenol that has been recognized for its benefits to human health. Resveratrol has antioxidant and antitumor effects and promotes longevity. It is used in medicine, health care products, cosmetics, and other industries. Therefore, a sustainable source for resveratrol production is required. This review describes the metabolic engineering of microorganisms, the biotransformation and biosynthesis of endophytes and the oxidation or degradation of resveratrol. We compare various available methods for resveratrol production, and summarize the practical challenges facing the microbial production of resveratrol. The future research direction for resveratrol is also discussed.

  8. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products.

  9. Application of cationic hemicelluloses produced from corn husk as polyelectrolytes in sewage treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Soares Landim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicelluloses were extracted from corn husk and converted into cationic hemicelluloses using 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. The degree of substitution was determined as 0.43 from results of elemental analysis. The cationic derivative was also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Carbon-13 magnetic nuclear ressonance. The produced polymer was employed as coagulant aid in a sewage treatment station (STS of the municipal department of water and sewer (Departamento Municipal de Água e Esgoto - DMAE in Uberlândia-Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Jar test experiments. Its performance was compared to ACRIPOL C10, a commercial cationic polyacrylamide regularly used as a coagulant at the STS. The best result of the jar-test essays was obtained when using cationic hemicelluloses (10 mg L- 1 as coagulant aid and ferric chloride as coagulante (200 mg L- 1. The resultsof color and turbidity reduction, 37 and 39%, respectively, were better than when using only ferric chloride. These results were also higher than those of commercial polyacrylamide, on the order of 32.4 and 38.7%, respectively. The results showed that the cationic hemicelluloses presented similar or even superior performance when compared to ACRIPOL C10, demonstrating that the polyelectrolytes produced from recycled corn husks can replace commercial polymers in sewage treatment stations.

  10. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M; Ingall, Ellery D; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematical modelling of disintegration-limited co-digestion of OFMSW and sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, G; Frunzo, L; Panico, A; d'Antonio, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model able to simulate under dynamic conditions the physical, chemical and biological processes prevailing in a OFMSW and sewage sludge anaerobic digestion system. The model proposed is based on differential mass balance equations for substrates, products and bacterial groups involved in the co-digestion process and includes the biochemical reactions of the substrate conversion and the kinetics of microbial growth and decay. The main peculiarity of the model is the surface based kinetic description of the OFMSW disintegration process, whereas the pH determination is based on a nine-order polynomial equation derived by acid-base equilibria. The model can be applied to simulate the co-digestion process for several purposes, such as the evaluation of the optimal process conditions in terms of OFMSW/sewage sludge ratio, temperature, OFMSW particle size, solid mixture retention time, reactor stirring rate, etc. Biogas production and composition can also be evaluated to estimate the potential energy production under different process conditions. In particular, model simulations reported in this paper show the model capability to predict the OFMSW amount which can be treated in the digester of an existing MWWTP and to assess the OFMSW particle size diminution pre-treatment required to increase the rate of the disintegration process, which otherwise can highly limit the co-digestion system. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  13. A greenhouse gas source of surprising significance: anthropogenic CO2emissions from use of methanol in sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John L; Al-Omari, Ahmed; Bastian, Robert; Brower, Bill; DeBarbadillo, Christine; Murthy, Sudhir; Peot, Christopher; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-05-01

    The impact of methanol (CH 3 OH) as a source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in denitrification at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has never been quantified. CH 3 OH is the most commonly purchased carbon source for sewage denitrification. Until recently, greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting protocols consistently ignored the liberation of anthropogenic CO 2 attributable to CH 3 OH. This oversight can likely be attributed to a simplifying notion that CO 2 produced through activated-sludge-process respiration is biogenic because most raw-sewage carbon is un-sequestered prior to entering a WWTP. Instead, a biogenic categorization cannot apply to fossil-fuel-derived carbon sources like CH 3 OH. This paper provides a summary of how CH 3 OH use at DC Water's Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (AWTP; Washington, DC, USA) amounts to 60 to 85% of the AWTP's Scope-1 emissions. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and Water Environment Federation databases suggest that CH 3 OH CO 2 likely represents one quarter of all Scope-1 GHG emissions attributable to sewage treatment in the USA. Finally, many alternatives to CH 3 OH use exist and are discussed.

  14. Chemical Oxygen Demand abatement in sewage using Micro-Aeration Enhanced Ecological Floating Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongle; Zhou, Gaofeng; Liu, Yiqing; Tan, Jiancong; Fu, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The traditional ecological floating bed combined with micro-aeration system and artificial medium was developed for the removal of contaminants and remediation of surface water. This micro-aeration enhanced ecological floating bed (MAEEFB) consisted of aeration unit, microbial processing unit and aquatic plant unit. Batch experiments were conducted in different operating conditions on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the sewage using MAEEFB. The removal rate of COD by MAEEFB, enhanced ecological floating bed (EEFB) and traditional ecological floating bed (TEFB) in the same reaction conditions was 59.2%, 56.9% and 30.6%, respectively, indicating that the combination of micro-aeration system and artificial medium could enhance the removal efficiency of COD in TEFB. In MAEEFB, the aeration intensity should be designed reasonablely considering both treatment efficiency and operation cost. Only increasing the specific surface area of the packing cannot effectively improve the purification efficiency of water. Factors like packing material, ability of intercepting organics and complicated extent of microorganisms attaching on the packing should also be considered.

  15. Effect of sewage sludge hydrochar on soil properties and Cd immobilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wang, Fenghua; Zhai, Yunbo; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    To investigate hydrochar as a soil amendment for the immobilization of Cd, the characteristics of hydrochars (HCs) under three temperatures and residence times, were studied, with a particular interest in soil properties, as well as the speciation, availability and plant uptake of Cd. HCs were obtained by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reaction of sewage sludge (SS). Based on the study of HC properties, we found that HCs present weak acidity with relatively high ash content and low electrical conductivity (EC) values. The addition of HCs to soil decreased soil pH and EC values but increased the abundance of soil microorganism. HCs also promoted the transformation of Cd from unstable to stable speciation and can decrease the content of phyto-available Cd (optimum condition and efficiency: A13, 2 15.38%), which restrained cabbage from assimilating Cd from soil both the aboveground (optimum condition and efficiency: A35, 52.29%) and underground (optimum condition and efficiency: C15, 57.53%) parts of it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Capability of microalgae for local saline sewage treatment towards biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.-C.; Yau, Y.-H.; Ho, K.-C.

    2017-08-01

    Seawater flushing was introduced in Hong Kong since 1950’s. High salinity has an inhibitory effect on nitrification and biological phosphorus uptake of microorganisms. Therefore, saline sewage has impact on traditional biological wastewater treatment. Saline conditions of domestic wastewater then pose opportunity to use algal technology in wastewater treatment. During the treatment (phycoremediation), biodiesel can be produced. This study aims to give an in-depth investigation and development on application of local microalgal strains on biodiesel production. Dunaliella tertiolecta was selected the appropriate algal species with high potential for phycoremediation then biodiesel production. D.tertiolecta was further investigated by optimizing its growth in different process condition in preliminary effluent as based medium. The optimized process condition were acclimated culture with medium initial cell number (5.0 ×105 cells mL-1), under 5% CO2 aerations in preliminary effluent adjust to 15 psu (denoting practical salinity unit). Results showed that lipid content increased from 30.2% to 42%, and biomass productivity reached 463.3 mg L-1day-1 by Fatty acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profile was found for biodiesel production in optimized stage. The treatment period of preliminary effluent was shortened from 15d in original design (unacclimated culture, low initial cell number (5.0 ×105 cells mL-1), without CO2 aeration) to 4d.

  17. Biogas Production Experimental Research by Using Sewage Sludge Loading with Biochar Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij Kolodynskij

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas – ecological fuel, which is assigned to alternative energy sources. It should be noted, that biogas – renewable energy source, which does not require any specific climatic conditions or geographical position of a country. This power source is available and can be successfully produced and used in all countries of the world. The main components of biogas – methane CH4 and carbon monoxide CO2. This gas is formed under anaerobic conditions, when microorganisms decompose biodegradable biomass. In biological sciences biomass means a living matter content, expressed in grams per unit area. Meanwhile, in the energy sector, the definition of biomass is limited and biomass is characterized as fuel source, produced from plant materials and organic waste (food waste, wood, sludge, manure, vegetables, etc.. Currently, to produce biogas from biomass, bioreactors are used worldwide. However, in order to increase the quality and yield of biogas, in the world practice various bioload additives are used: vegetable waste, clay minerals, and a large amount of the protein-containing waste. The goal – to evaluate the impact of biochar on biogas quality and yield using sewage sludge load. It was found, that 10% biochar additive increased average CH4 concentration of 7.9%, reduced the CO2 concentration of 3–4% and totally removed H2S from biogas.

  18. Survival of faecal coliforms and hygiene risks in soils treated with municipal sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y H; Luo, Y M; Wu, L H; Li, Z G; Song, J; Christie, P

    2006-01-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to monitor effect of sewage sludge application on changes in numbers of faecal coliforms in soils over time after sludge application and evaluate the hygiene risks. Soil faecal coliform counts were made after 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of incubation. The faecal coliform counts in the sludge-treated soils decreased substantially with time and were similar to those in the untreated controls after incubation for 56 days. Land application of air-dried sludges increased the hygiene risks due to the re-growth of faecal coliforms, and the counts of faecal coliforms in soil treated with air dried sludge from Suzhou (91% DM) were 50 times higher than in soils with fresh dewatered sludge from Suzhou (15% DM) after 7 days of incubation. The main factors affecting the changes in faecal coliform counts were sludge type and incubation time. Sludge type determined the faecal coliform counts and the ability of the faecal coliforms to re-establish, and indigenous microorganisms competed with the faecal coliforms for nutrients during the incubation process.

  19. GIS-based optimization for the locations of sewage treatment plants and sewage outfalls - A case study of Nansha District in Guangzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Qin, Y.; Chen, B.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y.; Yin, X. A.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on GIS technology, eco-suitability evaluation method integrating economic, social and ecological factors is employed to optimize the locations of the sewage treatment plants and outfalls in this paper. The ecological indices considering eco-sensitivity areas as key elements of the integrated evaluation system are allotted to the water subsystem, riparian zone subsystem, and land subsystem. A novel integrated eco-suitability evaluation index system encompassing ten criteria and fifteen indices is established to generate the distributed eco-suitability map of the concerned areas and determine the possible locations of sewage treatment plants and sewage outfalls according to the eco-suitability levels. With the case study of Nansha District in Guangzhou City, China, 212 km2 areas of land are found to be suitable for locating the sewage treatment plants, 87 km2 areas of water suitable for sewage release, and 6 km2 area of riparian zone unsuitable for sewage outfalls.

  20. Identification of periodontopathogen microorganisms by PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. The onset and progression of periodontal disease is attributed to the presence of elevated levels of a consortium of pathogenic bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, mainly strict anaerobes, play the major role. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to assess the presence of the main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia in different samples collected from the oral cavity of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontitis. METHOD Bacterial DNA detection was performed in diverse biological materials, namely in dental plaque, gingival tissue and saliva, by means of multiplex PCR, a technique that allows simultaneous identification of two different bacterial genomes. RESULTS In the dental plaque of the periodontitis patients, Treponema denticola dominated. In the gingival tissue, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were the microbiota most frequently detected, whilst in saliva Treponema denticola and Eikenella corrodens were found with the highest percentage. CONCLUSION The identification of microorganisms by multiplex PCR is specific and sensitive. Rapid and precise assessment of different types of periodontopathogens is extremely important for early detection of the infection and consequently for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In everyday clinical practice, for routine bacterial evaluation in patients with periodontal disease, the dental plaque is the most suitable biological material, because it is the richest in periodontal bacteria.

  1. Degradation of arylarsenic compounds by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamiya, Kunichika; Nakayama, Takashi; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Microorganisms were not directly accumulated when soil contaminated to about 0.5 mM with diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was used as the sole source of carbon. However, using toluene as the carbon source yielded several isolates, which were then used in cultivation with DPAA as the sole source of carbon. By these methods, Kytococcus sedentarius strain NK0508, which can grow in up to 0.038 mM DPAA, was isolated. The toxicity of DPAA retarded the growth of K. sedentarius and the direct accumulation of DPAA-utilizing microorganisms from environmental samples. This strain can utilize about 80% of DPAA and phenylarsonic acid as the sole source of carbon for 3 days. Degradation products of DPAA were determined to be cis, cis, muconate and arsenic acid. When K. sedentarius was cultivated with methylphenylarsinic acid and diphenylmethylarsine, about 90% and 10% degradation of the two compounds, respectively, were observed. Diphenylmethylarsine oxide, possibly synthesized by methylation of DPAA, was detected as one of the transformation products. These results suggest that degradation is initiated by splitting of the phenyl groups from the arylarsenic compounds with subsequent hydroxylation of the phenyl groups and ring opening to yield cis, cis, muconate.

  2. Industrial and environmental applications of halophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2010-01-01

    In comparison with the thermophilic and the alkaliphilic extremophiles, halophilic microorganisms have as yet found relatively few biotechnological applications. Halophiles are involved in centuries-old processes such as the manufacturing of solar salt from seawater and the production of traditional fermented foods. Two biotechnological processes involving halophiles are highly successful: the production of beta-carotene by the green alga Dunaliella and the production of ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid), used as a stabilizer for enzymes and now also applied in cosmetic products, from moderately halophilic bacteria. The potential use of bacteriorhodopsin, the retinal protein proton pump of Halobacterium, in optoelectronic devices and photochemical processes is being explored, and may well lead to commercial applications in the near future. Demand for salt-tolerant enzymes in current manufacturing or related processes is limited. Other possible uses of halophilic microorganisms such as treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewaters, and the production of exopolysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate bioplastics and biofuel are being investigated, but no large-scale applications have yet been reported.

  3. Microorganisms as bioindicators of pollutants in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the predominant portion of the soil's biological phase and they are indicators of soil health and quality. Soil microorganisms a take part in degradation of organic and inorganic compounds, b their activity, number and diversity may serve as bioindicators of toxic effects on soil biological activity, c some microbial species may be used for soil bioremediation and d some sensitive microbes are used in eco-toxicity tests. The primary microbial population starts to decompose herbicides several days after their arrival into the soil. The secondary population produces induced enzymes and decomposes herbicides after a period of adaptation. Certain microbial groups are indifferent to the applied herbicides. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity depends on the element, their concentration, microbial species, as well as physical and chemical soil properties. Toxic level of individual pollutants depends on their origin and composition. However, combined application of chemicals makes room for the occurrence of synergistic toxic effects detrimental for the ecosystem and human health. .

  4. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  5. Fractionation of wastewater characteristics for modelling of Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    Varying conditions are required for different species of microorganisms for the complex biological processes taking place within the activated sludge treatment system. It is against the requirement to manage this complex dynamic system that computer simulators were developed to aid in optimising activated sludge treatment processes. These computer simulators require calibration with quality data input that include wastewater fractionation among others. Thus, this research fractionated raw sewage, at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW), for calibration of the BioWin simulation model. Firle STW is a 3-stage activated sludge system. Wastewater characteristics of importance for activated sludge process design can be grouped into carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds. Division of the substrates and compounds into their constituent fractions is called fractionation and is a valuable tool for process assessment. Fractionation can be carried out using bioassay methods or much simpler physico-chemical methods. The bioassay methods require considerable experience with experimental activated sludge systems and associated measurement techniques while the physico-chemical methods are straight forward. Plant raw wastewater fractionation was carried out through two 14-day campaign periods, the first being from 3 to 16 July 2013 and the second was from 1 to 14 October 2013. According to the Zimbabwean Environmental Management Act, and based on the sensitivity of its catchment, Firle STW effluent discharge regulatory standards in mg/L are COD (in mg/L during the period of study were COD (90 ± 35), TN (9.0 ± 3.0), ammonia (0.2 ± 0.4) and TP (3.0 ± 1.0). The raw sewage parameter concentrations measured during the study in mg/L and fractions for raw sewage respectively were as follows total COD (680 ± 37), slowly biodegradable COD (456 ± 23), (0.7), readily biodegradable COD (131 ± 11), (0.2), soluble unbiodegradable COD (40 ± 3), (0.06), particulate

  6. The long-term and the short-term at a cropping municipal sewage sludge disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welby, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The City of Raleigh, NC, chose land application of municipal sewage sludge as a means of reducing pollution to the Neuse River. The Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) is located in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina. The soils at the facility are derived largely from the Rolesville Granite. Sewage sludge is applied to over 640 acres of cropland, owned in fee or leased. In making the policy decision for use of the sludge land application method 20 or so years ago, the City had to evaluate the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soils and plants as well as the potential for ground-water contamination from the nitrate-nitrogen. The city also had to make a policy decision about limiting the discharge of heavy metals to the sewer system. Study of data from monitoring wells demonstrate that well position is a key in determining whether or not nitrate-nitrogen contamination is detected. Data from a three-year study suggest that nitrate-nitrogen moves fairly rapidly t the water table, although significant buildup in nitrogen-nitrogen may take a number of years. Evidence exists suggesting that the time between application of sewage sludge and an increase of nitrate-nitrogen at the water table may be on the order of nine months to a year. It is apparent that in the case of municipal sewage sludge application one can anticipate some nitrate-nitrogen buildup and that the public policy on drinking water standards must recognize this fact

  7. Thermophilic subseafloor microorganisms from the 1996 North Gorda Ridge eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summit, Melanie; Baross, John A.

    1998-12-01

    High-temperature microbes were present in two hydrothermal event plumes (EP96A and B) resulting from the February-March 1996 eruptions along the North Gorda Ridge. Anaerobic thermophiles were cultured from 17 of 22 plume samples at levels exceeding 200 organisms per liter; no thermophiles were cultured from any of 12 samples of background seawater. As these microorganisms grow at temperatures of 50-90°C, they could not have grown in the event plume and instead most probably derived from a subseafloor environment tapped by the event plume source fluids. Event plumes are thought to derive from a pre-existing subseafloor fluid reservoir, which implies that these thermophiles are members of a native subseafloor community that was present before the eruptive event. Thermophiles also were cultured from continuous chronic-style hydrothermal plumes in April 1996; these plumes may have formed from cooling lava piles. To better understand the nutritional, chemical, and physical constraints of pre-eruptive crustal environments, seven coccoidal isolates from the two event plumes were partially characterized. Results from nutritional and phylogenetic studies indicate that these thermophiles are heterotrophic archaea that represent new species, and probably a new genus, within the Thermococcales.

  8. Communal sewage sludge treatement against the background of the new European Sewage Sludge Treatment Regulations; Kommunale Klaerschlammbehandlung vor dem Hintergrund der neuen Europaeischen Klaerschlammrichtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The following issues were discussed at the Darmstadt conference: The European Sewage Sludge Treatment Regulation, hygienisation of sewage sludge, waste water purification without excess sludge production, stabilisation of sewage sludge, dewatering and disposal by combustion or utilisation as an agricultural fertilizer. [German] Themen des Darmstaedter Seminars Abwassertechnik waren: Europaeische Klaerschlammrichtlinie, Klaerschlammhygienisierung, Abwasserreinigung ohne Anfall von Ueberschussschlamm, Klaerschlammstabilisierung, Entwaesserung und Entsorgung durch Verbrennung oder in der Landwirtschaft. (UKE)

  9. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  11. CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

    2013-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sewage, Septage and Faecal Sludge Management in Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in Tamale Municipality have been studied in relation to the different handling facilities used and the technologies adopted for their treatment and disposal. The human excreta facilities available include pan latrines, public latrines, and water closet systems.

  13. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban cities in many developing nations face the challenge of relieving the pressure exerted on overloaded sewage treatment works. Apart from limited financial capacity, complementary treatment methods like phyto-extraction of pollutants from the effluent have not been fully exploited, particularly in southern Africa. A study ...

  14. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  15. Sewage, Septage and faecal sludge management profile in Ho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the sewage, septage and faecal sludge management profile in the Ho District of Ghana. The excreta handling facilities available in Ho District are water closet systems, KVIP, pan/bucket latrines and public latrines. About 71 per cent of the population, especially people in the densely populated and low ...

  16. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water quality: An advance technique. Y. Avasn Maruthi1*, N. Lakshmana Das1, Kaizar Hossain1, K. S. S. Sarma2, K. P. Rawat2 and. S. Sabharwal2. 1GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530045, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2Radiation ...

  17. Arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Sewage pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The arthropod faunal study was gotten through sample collections of shoreline zone with the use of insect net and scoop net, the mid benthic zone with the use of Eckman grab. The arthropods found were of the class insecta and class arachnida. The sewage pond had a high accumulation of organic waste with mean ...

  18. Potential for sustainable energy with biogas from sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J.; Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, K.

    2005-04-01

    Insight is given into the possibility to produce biogas from sewage purification plants in the Netherlands. Attention is paid to the estimated potential of sustainable energy from biogas, the economic effectiveness of several scenarios, the critical success factors and bottlenecks [nl

  19. The Absorption of Nitrate and Phosphate from Urban Sewage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applications of blue green algae for the treatment of urban and industrial sewage have received more attention during the recent years because they have the capacity to use nitrogenous compounds, ammonia and phosphates. In this study aimed to evaluate the ability of Spirolina platensis for absorption of nitrate and ...

  20. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main source of heavy metals in most soils is sewage sludge. Naturally, the heavy metals in soils are transported to vegetations and cultivated crops. These pollutants need to be either reduced or eliminated in the soil to remediate the effects to man, animals, plants, soils, and groundwater. Hence, Jatropha curcas ...

  1. Effects of Sewage Discharge on Polychaete Communities in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed to the discharge of sewage and two control assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and. Ecology 189: 103-122. Chareonpanich C, Montani S, Tsutsumi H,. Matsuoka S (1993) Modification of chemical characteristics of organically enriched sediment by Capitella sp. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 375- ...

  2. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  3. Effect of sewage oxidation pond effluent on macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence on aquatic macroinvertebrates of sewage oxidation pond effluent discharge was investigated in a tropical forest stream in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A total of 858 individual macroinvertebrates were collected. They belong to 8 taxa which represent 5 orders. The number of taxa was low when compared to the findings in ...

  4. Impact of Effluent from Gudu District Sewage Treatment Plant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Gudu stream, the major stream providing water for Durumi 1, Durumi 2 and Durumi 3 settlements of Gudu District in Abuja, ... effect on the temperature of the stream at all points sampled (27oC). Bacteriological analysis ..... sewage management and the promotion of polluter-pay- principle and the education of ...

  5. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  6. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN INGREDIENT IN FERTILIZERS AND SOIL SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  7. Birds of the sewage stabilization ponds at Obafemi Awolowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study of aquatic macroinvertebrates and birds associated with sewage stabilization ponds was carried out on the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Thirteen macroinvertebrate species were recorded out of which Ephemeroptera, Chironomus larvae, mosquito larvae and pupae and ...

  8. Assessment of the Concentration of Metals in a Sewage Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal concentration of the water in the sewage treatment pond of the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, was studied between April and September 2007 using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) Analysis. The mean concentrations of ten (10) heavy metals observed during the study were as follows: ...

  9. Analysis of a sewage treatment facility using hybrid Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasemieh, Hamed; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Waste water treatment facilities clean sewage water from households and industry in several cleaning steps. Such facilities are dimensioned to accommodate a maximum intake. However, in the case of very bad weather conditions or failures of system components the system might not suffice to

  10. Modelling total sewage water discharge to a regional treatment plant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.; Stricker, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the Netherlands, sewage water is often treated on a regional basis. In case of combined systems that are spread within a large region of several hundreds of square kilometers, reduction of the hydraulic capacity of the regional treatment plant seems possible, because of space-time variations in

  11. Effects of sewage sludge application on selected soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), total N, exchangeable Na and Ca, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and maize performance were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced in the sewage treated soil compared to the ...

  12. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  13. Co-composting of sewage sludge and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yaoundé-Cameroon) in order to assess the effect of three sewage sludge: Macrophyte ratios on the co-composting process and compost quality. The ratios were T1: 25 kg of plant material (Echinochloa pyramidalis) and 75 kg sludge; T2: 50 kg ...

  14. Evaluation of selected sewage sludge gasification technological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałko, Grzegorz; Król, Danuta

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of selected sewage sludge gasification technological parameters was shown in this paper. Degree of carbon conducted in combustible substance and syngas efficiency (technological readiness coefficient) in accordance with equations were calculated. Enthalpy of individual compounds formation and energy balance were calculated in accordance with rule of Hess.

  15. Investigation of sewage sludge treatment using air plasma assisted gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striūgas, Nerijus; Valinčius, Vitas; Pedišius, Nerijus; Poškas, Robertas; Zakarauskas, Kęstutis

    2017-06-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor. The research revealed the distribution of selected metals and chlorine in the process products and examined a possible formation of hexachlorobenzene. It determined that the plasma assisted processing of gaseous products changes the composition of the tars and the producer gas, mostly by destruction of hydrocarbon species, such as methane, acetylene, ethane or propane. Plasma processing of the producer gas reduces their calorific value but increases the gas yield and the total produced energy amount. The presented technology demonstrated capability both for applying to reduce the accumulation of the sewage sludge and production of substitute gas for drying of sewage sludge and electrical power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  17. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazare; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB...

  18. Co-pelletization of sewage sludge and agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ersel; Wzorek, Małgorzata; Akçay, Selin

    2017-09-21

    This paper concerns the process of production and properties of pellets based on biomass wastes. Co-pelletization was performed for sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant and other biomass material such as animal and olive wastes. The aim of the present study was to identify the key factors affecting on the sewage sludge and agricultural residues co-pelletization processes conditions. The impact of raw material type, pellet length, moisture content and particle size on the physical properties was investigated. The technic and technological aspects of co-pelletization were discussed in detail. The physical parameters of pellets, i.e.: drop strength, absorbability and water resistance were determined. Among others, also energy parameters: low and high heat value, content of ash and volatiles were presented. Results showed the range of raw materials moisture, which is necessary to obtain good quality biofuels and also ratio of sewage sludge in pelletizing materials. The analysis of the energetic properties has indicated that the pellet generated on the basis of the sewage sludge and another biomass materials can be applied in the processes of co-combustion with coal. Those biofuels are characterised with properties making them suitable for use in thermal processes and enabling their transport and storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.

  20. Utilisation of Electrodialytically Treated Sewage Sludge Ash in Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Pares Viader, Raimon; Kowalski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorous is a scarce resource and there is a need to develop methods for recovery of this irreplaceable nutrient from secondary resources, e.g. from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Today SSA is most often disposed of and the resource is lost. In the present study, about 90% phosphorous was recovered ...

  1. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  2. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  3. Biodegradation of Lignocelluloses in Sewage Sludge Composting and Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Alidadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Alidadi H, Najafpour AA, Vafaee A, Parvaresh A, Peiravi R. Biodegradation of lignocelluloses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:1-5.   Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of lignin degradation and biodegradation of organic matter and change of biomass under compost and vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Materials & Methods: Sawdust was added to sewage sludge at 1:3 weight bases to Carbon to Nitrogen ratio of 25:1 for composting or vermicomposting. Lignin and volatile solids were determined at different periods, of 0, 10, 30, 40 and 60 days of composting or vermicomposting period to determine the biodegradation of lignocellulose to lignin. Results were expressed as mean of two replicates and the comparisons among means were made using the least significant difference test calculated (p <0.05. Results: After 60 days of experiment period, the initial lignin increased from 3.46% to 4.48% for compost and 3.46% to 5.27% for vermicompost. Biodegradation of lignocellulose was very slow in compost and vermicompost processes. Vermicomposting is a much faster process than compost to convert lignocellulose to lignin (p <0.05. Conclusions: The organic matter losses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting are due to the degradation of the lignin fractions. By increasing compost age, the amount of volatile solids will decrease.

  4. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  5. Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community of Jos South LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: Despite the commendable findings in this community, the community is still at risk due to the poor practices of a few that were persisting in the community. Both government and community efforts are ...

  6. Extraction of certain heavy metals from sewage sludge using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Introduction. Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants contains organic compounds, ... treatment is a feasible option, especially when it is applied as a pre-treatment aiming at heavy metals removal. .... As regarded cationic macroelments, calcium is the most abundant, followed by magnesium, potassium.

  7. Quantitative Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila from Nsukka Sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. hydrophila had a recovery rate of 35.3%, 44.4%, 10.7% and 9.6% on starchampicillin agar, sheep blood-ampicillin agar, trypticase soy agar and thiosulphate citrate bile-sucrose agar respectively. Seasonal variations in temperature affected the rate of isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from the sewage with higher ...

  8. Production of anthocyanins in metabolically engineered microorganisms: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zha; Mattheos A.G. Koffas

    2017-01-01

    Microbial production of plant-derived natural products by engineered microorganisms has achieved great success thanks to large extend to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Anthocyanins, the water-soluble colored pigments found in terrestrial plants that are responsible for the red, blue and purple coloration of many flowers and fruits, are extensively used in food and cosmetics industry; however, their current supply heavily relies on complex extraction from plant-based materials. A...

  9. EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST AMENDMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND Zea mays L. PLANTS (HEAVY METALS, QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío VACA

    2011-01-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture can improve the soil's productive capacity, and physical and chemical characteristics. This study evaluated the effects of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost and inorganic fertilizer applications on nickel, copper and zinc contents in soil and corn grains (Zea mays L); maize productivity, and grain nutritional quality. Sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost at 18 Mg ha¿1 and a mineral fertilizer (N-P-K) with a formulation of 150-75-30 were applied. ...

  10. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, T.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application, it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge to plants and soil. In bean- and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated one. In the field experiments there were nearly no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna in the performed field trials indicate influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there is a decrease of the number of Collemboles and Mites on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There is a remarkable high decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Physical and chemical studies indicated, depending on the soil type, an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, while there were sometimes the best effects with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Influence of activated sewage sludge amendment on PAH removal efficiency from a naturally contaminated soil: application of the landfarming treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Borislava; Huguenot, David; Panico, Antonio; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a naturally co-contaminated soil by PAHs and heavy metals with an initial concentration of 620 mg of total PAHs kg -1 dry soil was investigated. The efficiency of landfarming in removing phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs was evaluated. The process was biostimulated by adding centrifuged activated sewage sludge (SS) as an organic amendment. The tested ratios of contaminated soil to SS were 1:2, 1:1, 1:0.5 and 1:0 as wet weight basis. The process performance was monitored through chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses during 105 days of incubation. The results of analyses demonstrated that the treatment without centrifuged SS achieved a significantly higher total 16 US EPA PAH removal efficiency (i.e. 32%) compared to treatments with amendment. In the same treatment, the removal efficiency of the PAH bioavailable fraction was 100% for phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs, whereas 76% for pyrene. Ecotoxicity test performed with bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri confirmed the effectiveness of landfarming. Finally, the results showed that indigenous microorganisms under certain and controlled operating conditions have greater potential for PAH biodegradation compared to allochthonous microorganisms.

  12. Yield and nutrition of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge stabilized by different processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altina Lacerda Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of sewage sludge stabilization modify their physical chemical and biological properties, altering its efficiency when applied in agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient levels in soil and the yield of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge stabilized by different processes. The experiment was conducted in Cambisol, with the treatments: control (without fertilization, fertilization with sewage sludge solarized, composted, vermicomposted, limed and chemical fertilizer recommended for sunflower crop. The experimental design a randomized block with four replications. The different methods of sewage sludge treatment did not affect the yield; however, the application of sewage sludge, regardless the stabilization process adopted, was more effective than chemical fertilizer and the control treatment. Overall, fertilization with limed sewage sludge provided higher soil nutrients concentrations, while treatments with composted and vermicomposted sewage sludge showed higher levels of nutrients in the plant.

  13. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  14. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  15. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  16. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond

  17. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N 2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H 2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiosensitization of microorganisms by radical anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.; Stegeman, H.; Groneman, A.

    1981-01-01

    The inactivation of Streptococcus faecalis by radiolytically generated selective inorganic radical anions was investigated. The Br 2 - radical, but not (CNS) 2 - , had a pronounced radiosensitizing action. In gamma-irradiated solutions at pH7.0, the radiosensitization of a variety of scavenging systems was studied. Among these the D 10 for N 2 /Br - was 0.082 kGy while N 2 O/CNS - = 0.35 kGy, N 2 O = 0.25 kGy, N 2 = 0.47, and O 2 = 0.16 kGy. As shown previously, inactivation in N 2 O/Br - systems is due mainly to Br 2 and HOBr. From the variation of the inactivation with pH by Br 2 - and (CNS) 2 - it was deduced that tyrosine is crucial for the survival of S. faecalis via inactivation of enzymes with essential tyrosine residues such as aldolase and lipoyl dehydrogenase which are presumably needed to make energy available for DNA repair. Studies with a variety of scavengers also revealed that the t-butanol radical produced some radiosensitization of S. faecalis while the damaging effect of e - sub(aq) was much less than OH as shown by the D 10 at pH 7.0; N 2 /t-butanol = 0.32 and N 2 /ethanol = 0.71. The radiosensitizing action of Br 2 - in a natural environment containing sewage sludge was also determined, using the faecal streptococcal group as test organisms. (author)

  19. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  20. Responsive Polydiacetylene Vesicles for Biosensing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Lebègue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polydiacetylene (PDA inserted in films or in vesicles has received increasing attention due to its property to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition along with a change from non-fluorescent to fluorescent upon application of various stimuli. In this review paper, the principle for the detection of various microorganisms (bacteria, directly detected or detected through the emitted toxins or through their DNA, and viruses and of antibacterial and antiviral peptides based on these responsive PDA vesicles are detailed. The analytical performances obtained, when vesicles are in suspension or immobilized, are given and compared to those of the responsive vesicles mainly based on the vesicle encapsulation method. Many future challenges are then discussed.