WorldWideScience

Sample records for severity index measurements

  1. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  2. The extremity function index (EFI), a disability severity measure for neuromuscular diseases : psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Isaac; Wynia, Klaske; Drost, Gea; Almansa, Josué; Kuks, Joannes

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To adapt and to combine the self-report Upper Extremity Functional Index and Lower Extremity Function Scale, for the assessment of disability severity in patients with a neuromuscular disease and to examine its psychometric properties in order to make it suitable for indicating disease

  3. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Restoration of body composition indicates successful management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Bioimpedance (BI) index (height(2)/resistance) is used to predict total body water (TBW) but its performance in SAM, especially with oedema, requires further investigation....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference ...Hzs. Pre- and post-deuterium dose saliva samples were analysed using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. TBW was regressed on H(2)/Z. Xc and R were height (H)-indexed, and Xc/H plotted against R/H. RESULTS: Thirty five children (16 non-oedematous and 19 oedematous) with median (interquartile range) age of 42...

  4. Validation of the insomnia severity index as a web-based measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Frances P; Ritterband, Lee M; Saylor, Drew K; Magee, Joshua C; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A; Morin, Charles M

    2011-01-01

    Although the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is already administered online, this frequently used instrument has not been validated for Web delivery. This study compares online and paper-and-pencil ISI versions completed by participants in a randomized controlled trial testing an Internet-delivered intervention for insomnia. Forty-three adults with insomnia completed both ISI versions during pre- (Assessment 1) and post-intervention (Assessment 2). Correlations between total scores of both versions were significant (rs ≥ .98, ps < .001). For both ISI versions, internal consistency was acceptable (Assessment 1, α = .61; Assessment 2, α ≥ .88). Among participants not receiving the parent study intervention, correlations between 1 format at Assessment 1 and the alternative format at Assessment 2 were generally significant (rs = .26-.82). Together, findings suggest the ISI can be delivered online.

  5. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  6. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  7. Facial Angiofibroma Severity Index (FASI): reliability assessment of a new tool developed to measure severity and responsiveness to therapy in tuberous sclerosis-associated facial angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido-Vallejo, R; Ruano, J; Garnacho-Saucedo, G; Godoy-Gijón, E; Llorca, D; Gómez-Fernández, C; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the development of multisystem hamartomatous tumours. Topical sirolimus has recently been suggested as a potential treatment for TSC-associated facial angiofibroma (FA). To validate a reproducible scale created for the assessment of clinical severity and treatment response in these patients. We developed a new tool, the Facial Angiofibroma Severity Index (FASI) to evaluate the grade of erythema and the size and extent of FAs. In total, 30 different photographs of patients with TSC were shown to 56 dermatologists at each evaluation. Three evaluations using the same photographs but in a different random order were performed 1 week apart. Test and retest reliability and interobserver reproducibility were determined. There was good agreement between the investigators. Inter-rater reliability showed strong correlations (> 0.98; range 0.97-0.99) with inter-rater correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the FASI. The global estimated kappa coefficient for the degree of intra-rater agreement (test-retest) was 0.94 (range 0.91-0.97). The FASI is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the clinical severity of TSC-associated FAs, which can be applied in clinical practice to evaluate the response to treatment in these patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Evaluation of the patient generated index as a measure of quality-of-life in people with severe traumatic brain injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Quality-of-life (QoL) measures may be useful in quantifying the personal impact of an acquired brain injury and as an indicator of the effectiveness of service provision. This study investigated the validity of the patient generated index (PGI) as a measure of QoL with a sample of adults who had sustained a severe traumatic brain injury.

  9. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  10. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukazu Ogai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J. One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA. Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA. Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  11. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  12. Are the Insomnia Severity Index and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index valid outcome measures for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia? Inquiry from the perspective of response shifts and longitudinal measurement invariance in their Chinese versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Jan, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chien-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) are valid outcome measures for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I). Specifically, we tested whether the factorial parameters of the ISI and the PSQI could remain invariant against CBT-I, which is a prerequisite to using their change scores as an unbiased measure of the treatment outcome of CBT-I. A clinical data set including scores on the Chinese versions of the ISI and the PSQI obtained from 114 insomnia patients prior to and after a 6-week CBT-I program in Taiwan was analyzed. A series of measurement invariance (MI) tests were conducted to compare the factorial parameters of the ISI and the PSQI before and after the CBT-I treatment program. Most factorial parameters of the ISI remained invariant after CBT-I. However, the factorial model of the PSQI changed after CBT-I treatment. An extra loading with three residual correlations was added into the factorial model after treatment. The partial strong invariance of the ISI supports that it is a valid outcome measure for CBT-I. In contrast, various changes in the factor model of the PSQI indicate that it may not be an appropriate outcome measure for CBT-I. Some possible causes for the changes of the constructs of the PSQI following CBT-I are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  14. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  15. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  16. A discussion on disease severity index values: using the disease severity index for null hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A disease severity index (DSI) is a single number for summarizing a large amount of information on disease severity. It has been used to indicate the performance of a cultivar in regard to disease resistance at a particular location, to relate disease severity to yield loss, to determine the effecti...

  17. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  18. The Localized Scleroderma Skin Severity Index and Physician Global Assessment of Disease Activity: A Work in Progress Toward Development of Localized Scleroderma Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARKACHAISRI, THASCHAWEE; VILAIYUK, SOAMARAT; LI, SUZANNE; O’NEIL, KATHLEEN M.; POPE, ELENA; HIGGINS, GLORIA C.; PUNARO, MARILYNN; RABINOVICH, EGLA C.; ROSENKRANZ, MARGALIT; KIETZ, DANIEL A.; ROSEN, PAUL; SPALDING, STEVEN J.; HENNON, TERESA R.; TOROK, KATHRYN S.; CASSIDY, ELAINE; MEDSGER, THOMAS A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Severity Index (LoSSI) and global assessments’ clinimetric property and effect on quality of life (QOL). Methods A 3-phase study was conducted. The first phase involved 15 patients with LS and 14 examiners who assessed LoSSI [surface area (SA), erythema (ER), skin thickness (ST), and new lesion/extension (N/E)] twice for inter/intrarater reliability. Patient global assessment of disease severity (PtGA-S) and Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were collected for intrarater reliability evaluation. The second phase was aimed to develop clinical determinants for physician global assessment of disease activity (PhysGA-A) and to assess its content validity. The third phase involved 2 examiners assessing LoSSI and PhysGA-A on 27 patients. Effect of training on improving reliability/validity and sensitivity to change of the LoSSI and PhysGA-A was determined. Results Interrater reliability was excellent for ER [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.71], ST (ICC 0.70), LoSSI (ICC 0.80), and PhysGA-A (ICC 0.90) but poor for SA (ICC 0.35); thus, LoSSI was modified to mLoSSI. Examiners’ experience did not affect the scores, but training/practice improved reliability. Intrarater reliability was excellent for ER, ST, and LoSSI (Spearman’s rho = 0.71–0.89) and moderate for SA. PtGA-S and CDLQI showed good intrarater agreement (ICC 0.63 and 0.80). mLoSSI correlated moderately with PhysGA-A and PtGA-S. Both mLoSSI and PhysGA-A were sensitive to change following therapy. Conclusion mLoSSI and PhysGA-A are reliable and valid tools for assessing LS disease severity and show high sensitivity to detect change over time. These tools are feasible for use in routine clinical practice. They should be considered for inclusion in a core set of LS outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:19833758

  19. The role of severity of obstructive sleep apnea measured by apnea-hypopnea index in predicting compliance with pressure therapy, a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madbouly, Essam M; Nadeem, Rashid; Nida, Mahwish; Molnar, Janos; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Loomba, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and premature death. Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the mainstay of therapy. Despite its effective treatment with PAP therapy, noncompliance remains high. Many factors determine compliance. The role of severity of OSA measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) remains controversial. Meta-analysis of studies examining this role of AHI was performed. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane library by utilizing different combinations of key words: sleep apnea, AHI, compliance, and nonadherence. Inclusion criteria were English articles; Studies with adult population; with 2 groups of patients (compliant and noncompliant); Studies utilizing objective definition of compliance (PAP usage of >4 hours per night for 70% of days or usage >5 d/wk and for >4 hours per night). Studies were analyzed by standard methods of meta-analysis. The studies were heterogeneous for AHI; therefore, the random effect model was used. Six hundred forty-one manuscripts were found. Of these, 230 were found to be appropriate for full text evaluation. Thirty-one met inclusion criteria. Twelve of these studies used objective criteria for PAP compliance and were hence included in meta-analysis. All the subjects had OSA determined by polysomnography, for whom PAP was employed. Compliance to PAP therapy was evaluated after a period of time ranging from 4 weeks to 8 years. There were 1438 subjects included in the meta-analysis; 886 subjects were PAP compliant, whereas 552 subjects were noncompliant. A greater AHI was found in PAP compliant patients. The mean difference between compliant and noncompliant groups was 5.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.19-11.67, P compliance.

  20. Patients with tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and suffer from itch: Dermatology Life Quality Index and Itch Severity Score measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Serup, J

    2015-02-01

    Tattoos are a trend with increasing side-effects. The burden of local reaction with swelling, itching and discomfort may impel sufferers to consult medical assistance. To assess tattoo reactions and their influence on quality of life and itching by utilizing the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scoring system and Itch Severity Scale (ISS). Patients attending the 'Tattoo Clinic' at Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark with tattoo problems spanning more than 3 months were invited. Forty patients participated during September-November 2012. Patients attending their routine consultations completed the ISS and DLQI questionnaires. Patients with tattoo reactions experienced reduced quality of life, DLQI score 7.4 and were burdened by itch, ISS score 7.2. Both DLQI and ISS results attained the level of discomfort of known skin diseases such as psoriasis, pruritus and eczema albeit the typical tattooed affected areas are smaller. Sufferers of tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and are often burdened by itching attaining the level of other cumbersome afflictions recognized as dermatological diseases associated with itch. Tattoo reactions warrant diagnosis and treatment with same professional intent shared with other skin diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kampanart; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Takahara, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  2. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Relationship between the stuttering severity index and speech rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The speech rate is one of the parameters considered when investigating speech fluency and is an important variable in the assessment of individuals with communication complaints. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the stuttering severity index with one of the indices used for assessing fluency/speech rate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Fluency and Fluency Disorders Investigation Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy adults with stuttering diagnosis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A speech sample from each participant containing at least 200 fluent syllables was videotaped and analyzed according to a stuttering severity index test and speech rate parameters. RESULTS: The results obtained in this study indicate that the stuttering severity and the speech rate present significant variation, i.e., the more severe the stuttering is, the lower the speech rate in words and syllables per minute. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that speech rate is an important indicator of fluency levels and should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering. This study represents a first attempt to identify the possible subtypes of developmental stuttering. DEFINITION: Objective tests that quantify diseases are important in their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  4. Validation and simplification of Fournier's gangrene severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yen; Ou, Chien-Hui; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Tong, Yat-Ching; Chang, Chien-Chen; Cheng, Hong-Lin; Yang, Wen-Horng; Lin, Yung-Ming

    2014-07-01

    To validate the predictive value of Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index in patients with Fournier gangrene and to facilitate patient mortality risk-stratification by simplifying the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index. From January 1989 to December 2011, 85 male patients with clinically-documented Fournier's gangrene undergoing intensive treatment and with complete medical records were recruited. The demographic information and nine parameters of Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The parameters that showed a significant difference between the two groups were selected to generate a simplified scoring index. Of the 85 patients recruited, 16 patients died of the disease with mortality rate of 18.8%. The Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score at initial diagnosis was significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Of the nine parameters of Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index, the scores of serum creatinine level, hematocrit level and serum potassium level were significantly different between the two groups. However, the mean body temperatures, heart rate, respiration rate, white blood cell count, serum sodium and bicarbonate levels were non-significantly different. Of the 12 patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease, 10 died of severe sepsis. A simplified scoring index including parameters of creatinine, hematocrit and potassium was generated, which provided sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 77% in predicting patient mortality, respectively. The predictive values of this simplified Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index were shown to be non-inferior to Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index in our patients. The simplified Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index is easy to use at initial diagnosis, and offers a way to compare outcomes in different clinical populations. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Therapeutic whole-body hypothermia reduces mortality in severe traumatic brain injury if the cooling index is sufficiently high: meta-analyses of the effect of single cooling parameters and their integrated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Emoke; Poto, Laszlo; Hegyi, Peter; Szabo, Imre; Hartmann, Petra; Solymar, Margit; Petervari, Erika; Balasko, Marta; Habon, Tamas; Rumbus, Zoltan; Tenk, Judit; Rostas, Ildiko; Weinberg, Jordan; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Garami, Andras

    2018-04-21

    Therapeutic hypothermia was investigated repeatedly as a tool to improve the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but previous clinical trials and meta-analyses found contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic whole-body hypothermia on the mortality of adult patients with severe TBI by using a novel approach of meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to February 2017. The identified human studies were evaluated regarding statistical, clinical, and methodological designs to ensure inter-study homogeneity. We extracted data on TBI severity, body temperature, mortality, and cooling parameters; then we calculated the cooling index, an integrated measure of therapeutic hypothermia. Forest plot of all identified studies showed no difference in the outcome of TBI between cooled and not cooled patients, but inter-study heterogeneity was high. On the contrary, by meta-analysis of RCTs which were homogenous with regards to statistical, clinical designs and precisely reported the cooling protocol, we showed decreased odds ratio for mortality in therapeutic hypothermia compared to no cooling. As independent factors, milder and longer cooling, and rewarming at < 0.25°C/h were associated with better outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia was beneficial only if the cooling index (measure of combination of cooling parameters) was sufficiently high. We conclude that high methodological and statistical inter-study heterogeneity could underlie the contradictory results obtained in previous studies. By analyzing methodologically homogenous studies, we show that cooling improves the outcome of severe TBI and this beneficial effect depends on certain cooling parameters and on their integrated measure, the cooling index.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) and ... pedestrians avoiding the use of pedestrian bridges/aid even when they are available. ..... not minding an unforeseen obstruction, miscalculations and wrong break.

  7. Oxygen saturation index and severity of hypoxic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Munmun; Chandrasekharan, Praveen K; Williams, Ashley; Gugino, Sylvia; Koenigsknecht, Carmon; Swartz, Daniel; Ma, Chang Xing; Mathew, Bobby; Nair, Jayasree; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    The oxygenation index (OI = mean airway pressure, MAP × FiO2 × 100 : PaO2) is used to assess the severity of hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). An indwelling arterial line or arterial punctures are necessary to obtain PaO2 for the calculation of OI. Oxygenation can be continuously and noninvasively assessed using pulse oximetry. The use of the oxygen saturation index (OSI = MAP × FiO2 × 100 : SpO2) can be an alternate method of assessing the severity of HRF. To evaluate the correlation between OSI and OI in the following: (1) neonates with HRF and (2) a lamb model of meconium aspiration syndrome. Human neonates: a retrospective chart review of 74 ventilated late preterm/term neonates with indwelling arterial access and SpO2 values in the first 24 h of life was conducted. OSI and OI were calculated and correlated. Lamb model: arterial blood gases were drawn and preductal SpO2 was documented in 40 term newborn lambs with asphyxia and meconium aspiration. OI and OSI were calculated and correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Mean values of OSI and OI showed a correlation coefficient of 0.952 in neonates (mean value of 308 observations in 74 neonates) and 0.948 in lambs (mean value of 743 observations in 40 lambs). In lambs, with increasing PVR, there was a decrease in OI and OSI. OSI correlates significantly with OI in infants with HRF. This noninvasive measure may be used to assess the severity of HRF and PPHN in neonates without arterial access. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. A Risk Severity Index for industrial plants and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas, E.; Arnaldos, J.; Silvetti, B.; Vallee, Agnes; Casal, J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk index (Risk Severity Index, S) has been devised to allow the assessment of the risk level originated by a given installation or site over the affected zone. A set of threshold levels for thermal radiation, toxic concentration and overpressure, together with the probabilities and frequencies associated to critical events and their effects have been the basis for calculating the values of S. A computer tool has been designed to perform a quick calculation of the diverse Risk Severity Indexes (for a critical event, for a dangerous phenomenon, for a type of effect and for the whole installation) and to plot a map of the risk severity levels around the site. The methodology has been applied to diverse test cases and it has proved to be useful for risk assessment, for comparative studies and for land use planning

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the ostomy complication severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joyce; Bakas, Tamilyn; Ellett, Marsha; Sloan, Rebecca; Rawl, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument to measure incidence and severity of ostomy complications early in the postoperative period. 71 participants were enrolled, most were men (52%), white (96%), and married or partnered (55%). The mean age of participants was 57 ± 15.09 years (mean ± SD). Fifty-two participants (84%) experienced at least 1 ostomy complication in the 60-day postoperative period. The research setting was 3 acute care settings within a large healthcare system in the Midwestern United States. We developed an evidence-based conceptual model to guide development and evaluation of a new instrument, the Pittman Ostomy Complication Severity Index (OCSI). The OCSI format includes Likert-like scale with 9 individual items scored 0 to 3 and a total score computed by summing the individual items. Higher scores indicate more severe ostomy complications. This study consisted of 2 phases: (1) an expert review, conducted to establish content validity; and (2) a prospective, longitudinal study design, to examine psychometric properties of the instrument. A convenience sample of 71 adult patients who underwent surgery to create a new fecal ostomy was recruited from 3 hospitals. Descriptive analyses, content validity indices, interrater reliability testing, and construct validity testing were employed. Common complications included leakage (60%), peristomal moisture-associated dermatitis (50%), stomal pain (42%), retraction (39%), and bleeding (32%). The OCSI demonstrated acceptable evidence of content validity index (CVI = 0.9) and interrater reliability for individual items (k = 0.71-1.0), as well as almost perfect agreement for total scores among raters (ICC = 0.991, P ≤ .001). Construct validity of the OCSI was supported by significant correlations among variables in the conceptual model (complications, risk factors, stoma care self-efficacy, and ostomy adjustment). OCSI demonstrated acceptable validity and

  10. Insomnia Severity Index: psychometric properties with Chinese community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Despite the high prevalence of insomnia in older people and its detrimental impact on well-being and healthcare costs, this problem is almost always undetected and consequently under-treated. The Insomnia Severity Index is psychometrically sound in measuring perceived insomnia severity. However, it has had very limited application in non-White populations. An instrument validation study was carried out between October 2008 and April 2009. The Insomnia Severity Index was translated into Chinese using Brislin's model and administered to a convenience sample of 585 older Chinese people recruited from three community centres for elders. Other instruments were also administered, including the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Cronbach's alpha of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index was 0.81, with item-to-total correlations in the range of 0.34-0.67. Construct validity was supported by its moderate relationship with the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep efficiency. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index also indicated more severe level of insomnia in older people who reported depressed mood on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Discriminant validity was supported as the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index could discriminate poorer sleepers from normal sleepers. Exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor structure for the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index in measuring the severity and impacts of insomnia on the Chinese older people. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a culturally-relevant and psychometrically-sound instrument for assessing severity and impact of insomnia in Chinese community-dwelling older people. Nurses can use this tool to assess older people's perceptions of insomnia. © 2010 The

  11. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.

    2018-02-01

    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  12. Derivation and validation of a composite index of severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the DOSE Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rupert C; Donaldson, Gavin C; Chavannes, Niels H; Kida, Kozui; Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Harding, Samantha; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Price, David; Hyland, Michael E

    2009-12-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly recognized as a multicomponent disease with systemic consequences and effects on quality of life. Single measures such as lung function provide a limited reflection of how the disease affects patients. Composite measures have the potential to account for many of the facets of COPD. To derive and validate a multicomponent assessment tool of COPD severity that is applicable to all patients and health care settings. The index was derived using data from 375 patients with COPD in primary care. Regression analysis led to a model explaining 48% of the variance in health status as measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire with four components: dyspnea (D), airflow obstruction (O), smoking status (S), and exacerbation frequency (E). The DOSE Index was validated in cross-sectional and longitudinal samples in various health care settings in Holland, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The DOSE Index correlated with health status in all data sets. A high DOSE Index score (> or = 4) was associated with a greater risk of hospital admission (odds ratio, 8.3 [4.1-17]) or respiratory failure (odds ratio, 7.8 [3.4-18.3]). The index predicted exacerbations in the subsequent year (P Index is a simple, valid tool for assessing the severity of COPD. The index is related to a range of clinically important outcomes such as health care consumption and predicts future events.

  13. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the pump–probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is ...

  14. Geographic analysis of road accident severity index in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, Ayodeji E

    2018-05-28

    Before 2030, deaths from road traffic accidents (RTAs) will surpass cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is little knowledge on the geographic distribution of RTA severity in Nigeria. Accident Severity Index is the proportion of deaths that result from a road accident. This study analysed the geographic pattern of RTA severity based on the data retrieved from Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The study predicted a two-year data from a historic road accident data using exponential smoothing technique. To determine spatial autocorrelation, global and local indicators of spatial association were implemented in a geographic information system. Results show significant clusters of high RTA severity among states in the northeast and the northwest of Nigeria. Hence, the findings are discussed from two perspectives: Road traffic law compliance and poor emergency response. Conclusion, the severity of RTA is high in the northern states of Nigeria, hence, RTA remains a public health concern.

  15. The development of a flash flood severity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Amanda J.; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hardy, Jill; Henderson, Jen J.; Parhi, Pradipta; Rahmani, Vahid; Reed, Kimberly A.; Schumacher, Russ S.; Smith, Brianne K.; Taraldsen, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flooding is a high impact weather event that requires clear communication regarding severity and potential hazards among forecasters, researchers, emergency managers, and the general public. Current standards used to communicate these characteristics include return periods and the United States (U.S.) National Weather Service (NWS) 4-tiered river flooding severity scale. Return periods are largely misunderstood, and the NWS scale is limited to flooding on gauged streams and rivers, often leaving out heavily populated urban corridors. To address these shortcomings, a student-led group of interdisciplinary researchers came together in a collaborative effort to develop an impact-based Flash Flood Severity Index (FFSI). The index was proposed as a damage-based, post-event assessment tool, and preliminary work toward the creation of this index has been completed and presented here. Numerous case studies were analyzed to develop the preliminary outline for the FFSI, and three examples of such cases are included in this paper. The scale includes five impact-based categories ranging from Category 1 very minor flooding to Category 5 catastrophic flooding. Along with the numerous case studies used to develop the initial outline of the scale, empirical data in the form of semi-structured interviews were conducted with multiple NWS forecasters across the country and their responses were analyzed to gain more perspective on the complicated nature of flash flood definitions and which tools were found to be most useful. The feedback from these interviews suggests the potential for acceptance of such an index if it can account for specific challenges.

  16. Assessment of a correlation between Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and selected biophysical skin measures (skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity) in dogs with naturally occurring atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marcin; Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Łukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Gołyński, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic skin disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of a correlation between biophysical skin variables: skin hydration (SH), skin pH, and erythema intensity measured in 10 different body regions and both total Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and CADESI measured in a given region (CADESI L). The study was conducted using 33 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The assessment of the biophysical variables was done in 10 body regions: the lumbar region, right axillary fossa, right inguinal region, ventral abdominal region, right lateral thorax region, internal surface of the auricle, interdigital region of right forelimb, cheek, bridge of nose, and lateral site of antebrachum. Positive correlations were found between SH and CADESI L for the following regions: the inguinal region (r = 0.73) and the interdigital region (r = 0.82), as well as between total CADESI and SH on digital region (r = 0.52). Also, positive correlations were reported for skin pH and CADESI L in the lumbar region (r = 0.57), the right lateral thorax region (r = 0.40), and the lateral antebrachum (r = 0.35). Positive correlations were found in the interdigital region between erythema intensity and the total CADESI-03 (r = 0.60) as well as the CADESI L (r = 0.7). The results obtained suggest that it may be possible to use skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity to assess the severity of skin lesion but positive correlation was only found in < 13.3% of possible correlations and usage of these measures in dogs is limited.

  17. Gender Inequality Index Appropriateness for Measuring Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Elham; Sabermahani, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequality means unequal distribution of wealth, power, and benefits among women and men. The gender inequality index (GII) measures the lost human development in three important dimensions: reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic status. The first purpose of this study was to calculate the index for provinces of Iran, and the second purpose was to survey the appropriateness of that, for comparing different regions, through regression estimations. In this study, GII has been calculated for Iran between the years 2006-2011 and provinces have been ranked based on it. Then, a panel composed of 30 sections was estimated for five years to determine the most important factor affecting level of index. Some changes have been made to analyze values of the index and the ranking of provinces. Based on panel model, share of parliamentary seats was the most effective factor for determination of the index. After applying adjustments, some differences were seen in the ranking of provinces and general level of index. Weighing of dimensions of the index and considering an overall variable, such as life expectancy in the field of health, will give a more accurate comparison of the GII among different regions though concurrent attention to non-discriminatory cultural dimensions of political participation of women; therefore, making more analyses possible for a more correct comparison of the extensive geographical regions, such as countries.

  18. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  19. Ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein, and central augmentation index to identify individuals with severe atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Sillesen, Henrik; Prescott, Eva

    2006-01-01

    We examined the ability of ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein and central augmentation index to identify individuals in the general population with severe atherosclerosis, diagnosed as those with ischaemic cardiovascular disease.......We examined the ability of ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein and central augmentation index to identify individuals in the general population with severe atherosclerosis, diagnosed as those with ischaemic cardiovascular disease....

  20. Etiology, clinical profile, severity and outcome of acute pancreatitis in relation to bed side index for severity of acute pancreatitis bisap and CT severity index [CTSI] scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezwada Srinivasa Rao, Matta SreeVani, V.Sarat Chandra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreas with involvement of regional tissues or remote organ systems and with potentially devastating consequences. Early prediction of outcome of acute pancreatitis within 24 hrs by clinically based bed Side Index of Severity of Acute Pancreatitis [BISAP] Score and radiological based CT Severity Index [CTSI] later on being useful in initiation of early treatment, assessing severity, to prevent morbidity and mortality. In those who survive, it can progress to chronic pancreatitis resulting in malabsorption and permanent diabetes. Aim: The aim was to study aetiology, clinical profile, severity, outcome of acute pancreatitis in relation to BISAP Score and CTSI. Materials and Methods: This was an observational and prospective study. The present study enrolled 55 patients who were diagnosed as acute pancreatitis and patients with chronic pancreatitis were excluded from the study. Vital data like pulse rate, blood Pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, conscious level using Glasgow coma scale, serum amylase, lipase, Chest x-ray, US abdomen and CT abdomen [both CECT & NCCT] were done. BISAP Score was obtained at the time of presentation or within 24 hours of presentation and radiological based CT Severity Index [CTSI] was calculated using the Balthazar grading system and Necrosis Scoring system to assess the severity, morbidity and mortality. The results: In this study, the most common aetiology being alcohol intake followed by gall stones. BISAP Score 3 had organ dysfunction and Score 4 had 100% mortality. The relation between CTSI score and Organ dysfunction showed increased organic dysfunction and higher mortality with higher CTSI Scores. p value < 0.0001 was calculated using Pearson Chi-square test and found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Both BISAP and CTSI scores had positive correlation with morbidity and mortality.

  1. Photographic Documentation and Hand Eczema Severity Index for Severity Assessment of Hand Eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabludovska, Kristine; Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2017-01-01

    .003), respectively, and major worsening, r = 0.41 (P = 0.021). With respect to minor changes, no statistically significant correlations were found (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild HE, photographic assessment was found useful for major and moderate changes only. Further studies would need......BACKGROUND: Hand eczema (HE) is a fluctuating disease, and an objective assessment of HE severity is coveted. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the association between Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) score and panel scores of photographs taken by dermatologists. METHODS: A total...... were engaged in blinded evaluation of photographs. RESULTS: The highest correlation coefficients between delta HECSI scores and delta panel scores of photographs in the first and second evaluation rounds were found for moderate improvement and moderate worsening, rs = -0.46 (P = 0.009) and 0.52 (P = 0...

  2. Reliability of the Emergency Severity Index: Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirhaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although triage systems based on the Emergency Severity Index (ESI have many advantages in terms of simplicity and clarity, previous research has questioned their reliability in practice. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the reliability of ESI triage scales. Methods: This metaanalysis was performed in March 2014. Electronic research databases were searched and articles conforming to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were selected. Two researchers independently examined selected abstracts. Data were extracted in the following categories: version of scale (latest/older, participants (adult/paediatric, raters (nurse, physician or expert, method of reliability (intra/inter-rater, reliability statistics (weighted/unweighted kappa and the origin and publication year of the study. The effect size was obtained by the Z-transformation of reliability coefficients. Data were pooled with random-effects models and a meta-regression was performed based on the method of moments estimator. Results: A total of 19 studies from six countries were included in the analysis. The pooled coefficient for the ESI triage scales was substantial at 0.791 (95% confidence interval: 0.787‒0.795. Agreement was higher with the latest and adult versions of the scale and among expert raters, compared to agreement with older and paediatric versions of the scales and with other groups of raters, respectively. Conclusion: ESI triage scales showed an acceptable level of overall reliability. However, ESI scales require more development in order to see full agreement from all rater groups. Further studies concentrating on other aspects of reliability assessment are needed.

  3. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffraction tomography for plasma refractive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Nazikian, R.; Sharp, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of the properties of probing beams of coherent electromagnetic radiation yields essential information about the line of sight integrated plasma refractive index. Presented is a scalar diffraction treatment of forward angle scattering plasma diagnostics based on the diffraction projection theorem first presented by E. Wolf in 1969. New results are obtained for near field scattering from probing Gaussian beams and it is demonstrated that the effects of diffraction need to be addressed for tomographic inversion of near field scattering and interferometry data. 33 refs., 10 figs

  5. Assessing insomnia in adolescents: comparison of Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale and Sleep Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Kan, Katherine Ka-Ki; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2011-05-01

    To compare the psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and Sleep Quality Index (SQI) for assessment and screening of insomnia in adolescents. This is a school-based survey of 1516 adolescents aged 12-19 years. Sleep-wake habit questionnaire, ISI, AIS, SQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were administered. Insomnia Interview Schedule was used to assess the severity of insomnia symptoms and DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of insomnia. The Cronbach's alpha of ISI, AIS and SQI were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.65, respectively, and the 2-week test-retest reliability were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.72. All three scales had a 2-factor structure, and their scores were significantly correlated with sleep-wake variables, ESS and GHQ-12 scores, smoking and drinking habits, and academic performance. The areas under curve of ISI, AIS and SQI for detecting clinical insomnia were 0.85, 0.80 and 0.85, respectively. The optimal cut-offs for ISI, AIS and SQI were a total score of nine (sensitivity/specificity: 0.87/0.75), seven (sensitivity/specificity: 0.78/0.74) and five (sensitivity/specificity: 0.83/0.79), respectively. The Chinese versions of ISI, AIS and SQI are reliable and valid instruments. The ISI and AIS appear to have better psychometric properties than the SQI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  7. Development and validation of the Dyspnea Index (DI): a severity index for upper airway-related dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie L; Shembel, Adrianna C; Zullo, Thomas G; Rosen, Clark A

    2014-11-01

    To (1) develop and validate the Dyspnea Index (DI); (2) quantify severity of symptoms in upper airway dyspnea; and (3) validate the DI as an outcome measure. Survey development and validation. Three hundred sixty-nine participants were recruited for different phases of the study. Two hundred participants with chief complaints of dyspnea were given a 41-item questionnaire addressing common symptoms of dyspnea related to the upper airway. The questions were then reduced based on principal component analysis (PCA) and internal consistency resulting in a 10-item questionnaire. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Test-retest reliability and discriminant validity were measured from 51 participants. The DI was further validated by administering the index to 57 healthy controls (HC). Validation of the DI as a treatment outcome tool occurred with 46 participants' pre- and post-treatment scores. PCA revealed that only a single factor was being measured in both the original 41- and 10-item questionnaires. Additional cognitive interviewing suggested that no modification was needed to the DI. Test-retest reliability was r = 0.83. Discriminant validity was r = 0.62. The Mann-Whitney test demonstrated significant differences between healthy/symptomatic participants. Scores from the HC cohort resulted in a mean of 3.12 (SEM = 0.484; SD = 3.65) for the normative values. The DI is an effective and efficient instrument to quantify patients' symptoms of upper airway dyspnea. It is a statistically robust index, with significant reliability and validity, and can be dependably used as a treatment outcome measure. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. University building safety index measurement using risk and implementation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Arumsari, F.; Maryani, A.

    2018-04-01

    Many high rise building constructed in several universities in Indonesia. The high-rise building management must provide the safety planning and proper safety equipment in each part of the building. Unfortunately, most of the university in Indonesia have not been applying safety policy yet and less awareness on treating safety facilities. Several fire accidents in university showed that some significant risk should be managed by the building management. This research developed a framework for measuring the high rise building safety index in university The framework is not only assessed the risk magnitude but also designed modular building safety checklist for measuring the safety implementation level. The safety checklist has been developed for 8 types of the university rooms, i.e.: office, classroom, 4 type of laboratories, canteen, and library. University building safety index determined using risk-implementation matrix by measuring the risk magnitude and assessing the safety implementation level. Building Safety Index measurement has been applied in 4 high rise buildings in ITS Campus. The building assessment showed that the rectorate building in secure condition and chemical department building in beware condition. While the library and administration center building was in less secure condition.

  9. Correlation Between Dermatology Life Quality Index and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in Patients with Psoriasis Treated with Ustekinumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Egeberg, Alexander; Loft, Nikolai Dyrberg

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of biological treatment efficacy for psoriasis is based on clinical evaluation and patient's quality of life. However, long-term correlation between Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in real life has not been studied in patients treated...

  10. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  11. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  12. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  13. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, V., E-mail: bhardwajphyism@gmail.com; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K. [Department of Applied Physics Indian School of Mines Dhanbad, Jharkhand (India)

    2016-05-06

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  14. Measuring environmental quality. An index of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops an index of pollution based on the epidemiological dose-response function associated with each pollutant, and the welfare losses due to exposure to pollution. The probability of damage is translated into welfare losses, which provides the common metric required for aggregation. Isopollution surfaces may then be used to compare environmental quality over time and space. An Air Pollution Index (API) is computed using 1997 data for the criteria pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The results are compared with the EPA's Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). Two significant differences emerge: unlike the PSI, the API facilitates a detailed ranking of regions by air quality and API values may contradict PSI results. Some regions with PSI values of 100-200 are considered less polluted under the proposed methodology than those with PSI values between 50 and 100. The key reason for the difference is that PSI values are determined entirely by the gas with the highest relative concentration whereas the API value is based on the ambient concentrations of all pollutants. 14 refs

  15. Using Portable Transducers to Measure Tremor Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Elble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Portable motion transducers, suitable for measuring tremor, are now available at a reasonable cost. The use of these transducers requires knowledge of their limitations and data analysis. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical overview and example software for using portable motion transducers in the quantification of tremor. Methods: Medline was searched via PubMed.gov in December 2015 using the Boolean expression “tremor AND (accelerometer OR accelerometry OR gyroscope OR inertial measurement unit OR digitizing tablet OR transducer.” Abstracts of 419 papers dating back to 1964 were reviewed for relevant portable transducers and methods of tremor analysis, and 105 papers written in English were reviewed in detail. Results: Accelerometers, gyroscopes, and digitizing tablets are used most commonly, but few are sold for the purpose of measuring tremor. Consequently, most software for tremor analysis is developed by the user. Wearable transducers are capable of recording tremor continuously, in the absence of a clinician. Tremor amplitude, frequency, and occurrence (percentage of time with tremor can be computed. Tremor amplitude and occurrence correlate strongly with clinical ratings of tremor severity. Discussion: Transducers provide measurements of tremor amplitude that are objective, precise, and valid, but the precision and accuracy of transducers are mitigated by natural variability in tremor amplitude. This variability is so great that the minimum detectable change in amplitude, exceeding random variability, is comparable for scales and transducers. Research is needed to determine the feasibility of detecting smaller change using averaged data from continuous long-term recordings with wearable transducers.

  16. Validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index and the Peer Assessment Rating Index for comprehensive evaluation of malocclusion severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Oh, H; Chambers, D W; Baumrind, S; Xu, T

    2017-08-01

    To assess the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (ABO-DI) and Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index in evaluating malocclusion severity in Chinese orthodontic patients. A stratified random sample of 120 orthodontic patients based on Angle classification was collected from six university orthodontic centres. Sixty-nine orthodontists rated malocclusion severity on a five-point scale by assessing a full set of pre-treatment records for each case and listed reasons for their decision. Their judgement was then compared with ABO-DI and PAR scores determined by three calibrated examiners. Excellent interexaminer reliability of clinician judgement, ABO-DI and PAR index was demonstrated by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (rho= 0.995, 0.990 and 0.964, respectively). Both the ABO-DI and US-PAR index showed good correlation with clinician judgement (r=.700 and r=.707, respectively). There was variability among the different Angle classifications: the ABO-DI showed the highest correlation with clinician judgement in Class II patients (r=.780), whereas the US-PAR index showed the highest correlation with clinician judgement in Class III patients (r=.710). Both indices demonstrated the lowest correlations with clinician judgement in Class I patients. With strong interexaminer agreement, the panel consensus was used for validating the ABO-DI and US-PAR index for malocclusion severity. Overall, the ABO-DI and US-PAR index were reliable for measuring malocclusion severity with significantly variable weightings for different Angle classifications. Further modification of the indices for different Angle classification may be indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  18. PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in the evaluation of the clinical manifestations of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory skin diseases. The severity of its clinical manifestations can vary greatly. Objective assessment of psoriasis severity is required to select an adequate therapy. One of the simplest and most consistent methods used to determine psoriasis severity is to calculate the PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. This index is based on the doctor’s determination of the sum of indices showing the intensity of the main symptoms of psoriasis: erythema, infiltration and peeling in view of the affected skin area. The PASI can also be used to assess the efficacy of treatment for psoriasis patients.

  19. Measurement of Refractive Index Using a Michelson Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendley, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a novel and simple method of measuring the refractive index of transparent plates using a Michelson interferometer. Since it is necessary to use a computer program when determining the refractive index, undergraduates could be given the opportunity of writing their own programs. (Author/JN)

  20. Miniature interferometer for refractive index measurement in microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghui; Geiser, Martial; Truffer, Frederic; Song, Chengli

    2012-12-01

    The design and development of the miniaturized interferometer for measurement of the refractive index or concentration of sub-microliter volume aqueous solution in microfludic chip is presented. It is manifested by a successful measurement of the refractive index of sugar-water solution, by utilizing a laser diode for light source and the small robust instrumentation for practical implementation. Theoretically, the measurement principle and the feasibility of the system are analyzed. Experimental device is constructed with a diode laser, lens, two optical plate and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Through measuring the positional changes of the interference fringes, the refractive index change are retrieved. A refractive index change of 10-4 is inferred from the measured image data. The entire system is approximately the size of half and a deck of cards and can operate on battery power for long time.

  1. Improve Gear Fault Diagnosis and Severity Indexes Determinations via Time Synchronous Average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Morsy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce operation and maintenance costs, prognostics and health management (PHM of the geared system is needed to improve effective gearbox fault detection tools.  PHM system allows less costly maintenance because it can inform operators of needed repairs before a fault causes collateral damage happens to the gearbox. In this article, time synchronous average (TSA technique and complex continuous wavelet analysis enhancement are used as gear fault detection approach. In the first step, extract the periodic waveform from the noisy measured signal is considered as The main value of Time synchronous averaging (TSA for gearbox signals analyses, where it allows the vibration signature of the gear under analysis to be separated from other gears and noise sources in the gearbox that are not synchronous with faulty gear. In the second step, the complex wavelet analysis is used in case of multi-faults in same gear. The signal phased-locked with the angular position of a shaft within the system is done. The main aims for this research is to improve the gear fault diagnosis and severity index determinations based on TSA  of measured signal for investigated passenger vehicle gearbox under different operation conditions. In addition to, correct the variations in shaft speed such that the spreading of spectral energy into an adjacent gear mesh bin helps in detecting the gear fault position (faulted tooth or teeth and improve the Root Mean Square (RMS, Kurtosis, and Peak Pulse as the sensitivity of severity indexes for maintenance, prognostics and health management (PHM purposes. The open loop test stand is equipped with two dynamometers and investigated vehicle gearbox of mid-size passenger car; the total power is taken-off from one side only. Reference Number: www.asrongo.org/doi:4.2016.1.1.6

  2. A Computer Adaptive Testing Version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F.; Black, Ryan A.; McCaffrey, Stacey A.; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV®), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in four steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large non-clinical (n =4419) and substance abuse treatment sample (n =845). Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent/discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT’s time of administration was found to be significantly less than the average time of administration for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an IRT-based Addiction Severity CAT, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. PMID:28230387

  3. A computer adaptive testing version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan A; McCaffrey, Stacey A; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in 4 steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large nonclinical (n = 4,419) and substance abuse treatment (n = 845) sample. Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted, and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent and discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT's time of completion was found to be significantly less than the average time of completion for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an Addiction Severity CAT based on item response theory, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Measurement and comparison of remotely derived leaf area index predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ryan Russell

    Environmental change occurs in response to both natural and anthropogenic causes. As the world's human population continues to increase, anthropogenic change will also increase. These changes affect the health and vigor of forests throughout the world, including those in north central Florida. Leaf Area Index (LAI), the amount of leaf area per unit ground area, is an important biophysical variable that is directly related to rates of atmospheric gas exchange, biomass partitioning, and productivity. While global and local models that map biophysical parameters are prevalent in the literature, landscape to regional scale models are less common. Therefore, the ability to map and monitor LAI over landscape to regional scale areas is essential for understanding medium scale biophysical properties and how these properties affect biogeochemical cycling, biomass accumulation, and primary productivity. This study develops and verifies several new models to estimate LAI using in situ field measurements throughout north central Florida, Landsat Thematic Mapper remotely sensed imagery, remotely derived vegetation indices, simple and multiple regression, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). This study concludes that while multiple band regression and regression with individual vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Simple Ratio, and Greenness Vegetation Index) can estimate LAI, the most accurate way to estimate regional scale LAI is to train an ANN using in situ LAI data and remote sensing brightness values measured from six different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The new ANN method of estimating LAI is then applied to two forest ecology studies. The first study analyzes LAI in longleaf pine/turkey oak sandhills as a function of time since last burn. It concludes that in the absence of fire, sandhill LAI increases, and this may be useful for identifying where prescribed burns need to be done. The second study

  5. Factor structure of the autonomy preference index in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Adams, Erin L; Mueser, Kim T; Wright-Berryman, Jennifer L; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-08-30

    People vary in the amount of control they want to exercise over decisions about their healthcare. Given the importance of patient-centered care, accurate measurement of these autonomy preferences is critical. This study aimed to assess the factor structure of the Autonomy Preference Index (API), used widely in general healthcare, in individuals with severe mental illness. Data came from two studies of people with severe mental illness (N=293) who were receiving mental health and/or primary care/integrated care services. Autonomy preferences were assessed with the API regarding both psychiatric and primary care services. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate fit of the hypothesized two-factor structure of the API (decision-making autonomy and information-seeking autonomy). Results indicated the hypothesized structure for the API did not adequately fit the data for either psychiatric or primary care services. Three problematic items were dropped, resulting in adequate fit for both types of treatment. These results suggest that with relatively minor modifications the API has an acceptable factor structure when asking people with severe mental illness about their preferences to be involved in decision-making. The modified API has clinical and research utility for this population in the burgeoning field of autonomy in patient-centered healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selected Geomagnetic Measurements From Several Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — More than 17 million selected magnetic observations from several orbiting low-altitude satellites are contained in this digital collection. Except for MAGSAT, all...

  7. Hemodynamic comparison of mild and severe preeclampsia: concept of stroke systemic vascular resistance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardo, J; Kiser, R; Dillon, A; Brost, B; Newman, R

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare baseline hemodynamic parameters of mild and severe preeclampsia. Patients admitted to the Medical University Labor and Delivery Unit with the diagnosis of preeclampsia who had not received prior antihypertensive or magnesium sulfate therapy were recruited for noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with thoracic electrical bioimpedance. After stabilization in the lateral recumbent position, hemodynamic monitoring was begun. Baseline hemodynamic parameters, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), and stroke index (SI) were recorded. Stroke systemic vascular resistance index (SSVRI), the resistance imposed by vasculature on each beat of the heart, was calculated for each patient by multiplying SVRI by HR. For statistical analysis, unpaired Student's t-tests (two-tailed) were utilized (P preclampsia appears to be a more intensely vasoconstricted state than mild preeclampsia. Although CI is inversely proportional to SVRI, increased HR in severe preeclampsia prevents this expected decrease in cardiac output.

  8. Interval Changes in Myocardial Performance Index Predict Outcome in Severe Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, Junaid; Mahmood, Feroze; Tung, Avery; Mueller, Ariel; Brown, Samuel M; Shaefi, Shahzad; O'Connor, Michael; Talmor, Daniel; Shahul, Sajid

    2017-06-01

    Septic cardiomyopathy is a well-described consequence of septic shock and is associated with increased sepsis-related mortality. The myocardial performance index (MPI), a parameter derived from echocardiographic tissue Doppler measurements, allows for a more sensitive assessment of global cardiac function than do traditional metrics for cardiac function. The authors hypothesized that changes in left ventricular MPI in patients with severe sepsis would be associated with a higher 90-day mortality. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care units of a tertiary medical center. The study comprised 47 patients admitted with new diagnoses of severe sepsis or septic shock. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiograms with assessment of MPI at enrollment and 24 hours later. Hemodynamic data and information on sepsis-related mortality were collected. In the primary analysis, the association between change in MPI from enrollment to 24 hours and sepsis-related 90-day mortality was assessed. Of the 47 patients enrolled, 30 demonstrated an improvement in MPI from 0 to 24 hours ("improved" group), and MPI worsened in the remaining 17 patients ("worsened" group). Despite no significant differences in ejection fraction or severity of illness, the median MPI at enrollment in the "improved" group was higher than baseline values in the "worsened" group (p = 0.005). A worsening MPI over the 24-hour study interval was associated with increased mortality at 90 days (p = 0.04), which remained significant (hazard ratio 3.72; 95% confidence interval 1.12-12.41; p = 0.03) after adjusting for severity of illness (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score), intravenous fluids, and vasopressor use. In patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock, a worsening MPI during the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission was associated with higher 90-day mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  10. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  11. Measurement methods for several properties of scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fengqun; Ji Changsong

    1998-01-01

    The current paper describes the experimental measurement methods for the relative light output, the relative energy conversion efficiency, the intrinsic amplitude resolution and the detection efficiency of the scintillators and their temperature effects

  12. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  13. Nonlinear Refractive Index Measurement in Semiconductor-Doped Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. t. Tavassoli

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available   There are several techniques in use for non-linear refractive index measurement, namely, interferometric techniques, in which conventional inter-ferometers are used, degenerate for wave mixing (DFWM, and z-scan, Each of these techniques suffers from some shortcmings. For example conventional interferometers like Fabry-Perot and Twyman-Green need high quality optical components, unwanted reflections on these components produce noise, and the device limits the probe-pump anglc, or in z-scan technique one needs very sensitive detectors and since the intensity is monitored by the nonlinear absorption, which is usually present, reduces the measurement accuracy.   In the techniqucs introduced here, in principle, only a plate of the sample is required, and even parallelism of the plate surfaces is not curcial. Experiments can be carried out successfully if the angle between the plate surface is less than few minutes. In the first technique, the probe beam strikes the surface at an arbitray angle of incidence. The reflected beam from the two surfaces of the sample interfere on a photo-sensitive screen like CCD, and more or less linear interference fringes are produced. When the pump beam is switched on, the interference pattern deforms. The amount and the direction of the deformation give the value and the sign of the non-linear refractive index. In this technique the probe-pump angle can be varied from 00 to 1900.  In the second technique, interference between the reflected probe beam from the sample and the diffracted pump beam from the grating induced by the interference of the probe and the pump beams, leads to a series of circular fringes. When the non-linear sample is replaced by a linear material like fuse silica glass, the above mentioned circular fringes are formed, but the number of fringes in a specified angular interval remains fixed as the pump beam intensity increases. But, in the case of a non-linear sample the number changes due to

  14. The Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease: international validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; de Pedro, Jesús

    2009-01-30

    This study sought to provide further information about the psychometric properties of the Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease (CISI-PD), in a large, international, cross-culturally diverse sample. Six hundred and fourteen patients with PD participated in the study. Apart from the CISI-PD, assessments were based on Hoehn & Yahr (HY) staging, the Scales for Outcomes in PD-Motor (SCOPA-M), -Cognition (SCOPA-COG) and -Psychosocial (SCOPA-PS), the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The total CISI-PD score displayed no floor or ceiling effects. Internal consistency was 0.81, the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.84, and item homogeneity was 0.52. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.07) confirmed CISI-PD's unifactorial structure. The CISI-PD showed adequate convergent validity with SCOPA-COG and SCOPA-M (r(S) = 0.46-0.85, respectively) and discriminative validity for HY stages and disease duration (P validation study, thus showing that the CISI-PD is a valid instrument to measure clinical impression of severity in PD. Its simplicity and easy application make it an attractive and useful tool for clinical practice and research.

  15. "The Consumer Price Index As a Measure of Inflation"

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitri B. Papadimitriou; L. Randall Wray

    1996-01-01

    As inflation approaches zero, it becomes increasingly important to examine the price indices on which monetary policy is based. The most popularly used aggregate price statistic in the U.S. is the Consumer Price Index (CPI), a statistic that appears to be a focal point in monetary policy deliberations. A problem associated with using the CPI, a fixed weight index of the cost-of-living, is that there are likely to be biases in the index as a measure of inflation. In this paper we use a simple ...

  16. Proposing melasma severity index: A new, more practical, office-based scoring system for assessing the severity of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI, for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p 2 l + 0.4 (a × p 2 r + 0.2 (a × p 2 n where "a" stands for area, "p" for pigmentation, "l" for left face, "r" for right face, and "n" for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6 th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955 as compared to MASI (0.816. Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman′s correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma.

  17. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  18. Validation of the Spanish Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version (S-ASI-MV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Redondo, José Pedro; Fernandez, Kathrine C; Villapiano, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a Spanish adaptation of the ASI-MV, a computer administered version of the Addiction Severity Index, called the S-ASI-MV. Participants were 185 native Spanish-speaking adult clients from substance abuse treatment facilities serving Spanish-speaking clients in Florida, New Mexico, California, and Puerto Rico. Participants were administered the S-ASI-MV as well as Spanish versions of the general health subscale of the SF-36, the work and family unit subscales of the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, the alcohol and drug subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90. Three-to-five-day test-retest reliability was examined along with criterion validity, convergent/discriminant validity, and factorial validity. Measurement invariance between the English and Spanish versions of the ASI-MV was also examined. The S-ASI-MV demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICCs for composite scores between .59 and .93), criterion validity (rs for composite scores between .66 and .87), and convergent/discriminant validity. Factorial validity and measurement invariance were demonstrated. These results compared favorably with those reported for the original interviewer version of the ASI and the English version of the ASI-MV.

  19. Psychometric Characteristics of the Teen Addiction Severity Index-Two (T-ASI-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, Benjamin B.; McMullin, Darcy; Kaminer, Yifrah; Winters, Ken C.; Mosshart, Edward; Rosen, Craig S.; Brodey, Inger S.

    2008-01-01

    The Teen Addiction Severity Index-Two (T-ASI-2) was developed as an extension of the T-ASI to assess the severity of substance abuse and related problems among adolescents (N = 371) 12-19 years of age. The T-ASI-2 consists of 18 domains that assess current use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs, as well as mental health service…

  20. The Addiction Severity Index: Reliability and validity in a Dutch alcoholic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejong, C.A.J.; Willems, J.C.E.W.; Schippers, G.M.; Hendriks, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was evaluated for its psychometric qualities in a Dutch alcoholic population admitted to an addiction treatment center in the Netherlands. Its factorial structure in this population was found to be consistent with the established six factor structure of the ASI.

  1. Observer agreement of the Manchester Triage System and the Emergency Severity Index: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, M. N.; Ubbink, D. T.; Chin a Choi, V.; Luitse, J. S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To compare inter and intra-observer agreement of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) and the Emergency Severity Index (ESI). Methods: 50 representative emergency department (ED) scenarios derived from actual cases were presented to 18 ED nurses from three different hospitals. Eight of

  2. The relationship between the Nasality Severity Index 2.0 and perceptual judgments of hypernasality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bettens; Anke Luyten; F. Wuyts; M. de Bodt; K. van Lierde; Y. Maryn

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Nasality Severity Index 2.0 (NSI 2.0) forms a new, multiparametric approach in the identification of hypernasality. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between the NSI 2.0 scores and the perceptual assessment of hypernasality. METHOD: Speech samples of 35 patients,

  3. Sensitivity of the Addiction Severity Index physical and sexual assault items: preliminary findings on gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeland, W.; van den Brink, W.; Draijer, N.; Hartgers, C.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as a screen for identifying sexual and physical assault histories. The sensitivity and specificity of the ASI assault items were examined in 146 alcoholic patients with the assault questions of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview

  4. Hyperemic stenosis resistance index for evaluation of functional coronary lesion severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, Martijn; Siebes, Maria; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Koch, Karel T.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Piek, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Background-Both coronary blood flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) are used to evaluate the hemodynamic severity of coronary lesions. However, discordant results between CFVR and FFR have been observed in 25%, to 30% of intermediate coronary lesions. An index of

  5. A combined sustainability index for electricity efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldrath, T.; Ayalon, O.; Shechter, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most substantial tools that serve decision makers in their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions includes energy efficiency measures that in most cases benefit from governmental assistance for achieving electricity consumption reduction goals. This paper examines five energy efficiency measures, defining a combined sustainability index. A multi-criteria analysis of five predefined indices was developed (economic, environmental, technology, social and political), providing a combined index for each measure and a tool for identifying the preferred measure within a specific situation, based on its total sustainability score. In this research, a case study was conducted and the preferred measure was found to be municipal street lighting systems, based on its high political and social scores, and its relatively high installation potential. The second choice would be replacement of chillers in the industrial sector, and the least favorable measure is the replacement of water pumps in the water sector. The methodology described brings into account the technological specifications of the measure implemented, and the specific national conditions under which it is implemented. - Highlights: • A MCDA of five indices was developed to define a combined sustainability index. • Criteria defined were environment, technology, economy, social and political. • Five energy efficiency measures were rated, based on their total sustainability score. • Measures were in five main electricity consumption sectors. • The preferred measure found in the case study was municipal street lighting systems.

  6. MEASURING INFLATION THROUGH STOCHASTIC APPROACH TO INDEX NUMBERS FOR PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Asghar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate the rate of inflation in Pakistan through stochastic approach to index numbers which provides not only point estimate but also confidence interval for the rate of inflation. There are two types of approaches to index number theory namely: the functional economic approaches and the stochastic approach. The attraction of stochastic approach is that it estimates the rate of inflation in which uncertainty and statistical ideas play a major roll of screening index numbers. We have used extended stochastic approach to index numbers for measuring inflation by allowing for the systematic changes in the relative prices. We use CPI data covering the period July 2001--March 2008 for Pakistan.

  7. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jose C.N. de; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Costa, Cesar A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example. (orig.)

  8. Measures of School Integration: Comparing Coleman's Index to Measures of Species Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercil, Steven Bray; Williams, John Delane

    This study used species diversity indices developed in ecology as a measure of socioethnic diversity, and compared them to Coleman's Index of Segregation. The twelve indices were Simpson's Concentration Index ("ell"), Simpson's Index of Diversity, Hurlbert's Probability of Interspecific Encounter (PIE), Simpson's Probability of…

  9. Construction of prediction intervals for Palmer Drought Severity Index using bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaztas, Ufuk; Bickici Arikan, Bugrayhan; Beyaztas, Beste Hamiye; Kahya, Ercan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we propose an approach based on the residual-based bootstrap method to obtain valid prediction intervals using monthly, short-term (three-months) and mid-term (six-months) drought observations. The effects of North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation indexes on the constructed prediction intervals are also examined. Performance of the proposed approach is evaluated for the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) obtained from Konya closed basin located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The finite sample properties of the proposed method are further illustrated by an extensive simulation study. Our results revealed that the proposed approach is capable of producing valid prediction intervals for future PDSI values.

  10. Effect of geographical and ethnic variation on Dysphonia Severity Index: a study of Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, T; Savithri, S R

    2012-01-01

    Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a widely used multiparametric approach to objectively quantify the voice quality. Few research groups have investigated the test-retest, interobserver variability, and influence of age and gender. They have also verified the application of DSI in various voice rehabilitation conditions. However, all these studies have been conducted on European population. There is a possibility of variation in the basic parameters of DSI across geographical and ethnic groups. Hence, the present study evaluated DSI in Indian population. One hundred twenty voluntary participants (60 males, 60 females) who had G(0) on the Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Aesthenia, Strain (GRBAS) scale participated in the study (age range of 18-25 years, M=21.8, standard deviation=2.7). Maximum phonation time (MPT), frequency intensity, and jitter measurements were made using CSL 4500 (Kay Elemetrics, Pine Brook, NJ). Results showed noticeable difference between Indian and European population on MPT, Highest frequency (F(0)-High), and DSI values. Significant gender difference was also observed on MPT and F(0)-High. Test-retest reliability showed >95% for all the parameters. The MPT decrement lead to a reduction in the overall DSI value in both the genders. These results of the study caution voice professionals to reinvestigate and establish their own norms for their geographical and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of body mass index with symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Luedtke, Connie A; Vincent, Ann; Thompson, Jeffrey M; Oh, Terry H

    2012-02-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. We assessed BMI status and its association with symptom severity and QOL in 888 patients with fibromyalgia who were seen in a fibromyalgia treatment program and who completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey. The BMI distribution of nonobese (BMI fibromyalgia-related symptoms with worse FIQ total scores (P fibromyalgia, severe obesity (BMI ≥35.0 kg/m(2)) is associated with higher levels of fibromyalgia symptoms and lower levels of QOL. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Measurement of the refraction Index of air using Interference refractometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, P.H.J.; Wilkening, G.; Reinboth, F.; Downs, M.J.; Birch, K.P.; Spronck, J.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons have been carried out between interference refractometers built in different countries. Individual measurements of the refractive index of air have been made using air from the same sample volume. Direct comparison of refractometers was realized by coupling the instruments to the same

  13. Evidence for increasingly variable Palmer Drought Severity Index in the United States since 1895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-02-15

    Annual and summertime trends towards increasingly variable values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) over a sub-decadal period (five years) were investigated within the contiguous United States between 1895 and the present. For the contiguous United States as a whole, there is a significant increasing trend in the five-year running minimum-maximum ranges for the annual PDSI (aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range)). During this time frame, the average aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) has increased by about one full unit, indicating a substantial increase in drought variability over short time scales across the United States. The end members of the running aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) highlight even more rapid changes in the drought index variability within the past 120 years. This increasing variability in the aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) is driven primarily by changes taking place in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean coastal climate regions, climate regions which collectively comprise one-third the area of the contiguous United States. Similar trends were found for the annual and summertime Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), the Palmer Modified Drought Index (PMDI), and the Palmer Z Index (PZI). Overall, interannual drought patterns in the contiguous United States are becoming more extreme and difficult to predict, posing a challenge to agricultural and other water-resource related planning efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Body Mass Index with Asthma Severity and Pulmonary Function among Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuol Nasiri Kalmarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in respiratory system and obesity is another inflammatory disease which incidence rate is increasing. Although, many studies have been conducted on severity of asthma and its relationship with obesity, but different results have been obtained. This study aimed to determine a relationship between asthma severity, Body Mass Index (BMI and pulmonary function in Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 asthmatic patients referred to referral hospital in Kurdistan, North West of Iran, were selected by simple random method. BMI was calculated by dividing weight by height.Pulmonary Function Test (PFT and bronchial-stimulation-test were used for confirmation and investigation of asthma severity. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 and Chi-square and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results: Relationship between BMI and severity of asthma (mild, medium and severe was evaluated, there was a relationship and positive relationship between them (P

  15. The Addiction Severity Index: Reliability and validity in a Dutch alcoholic population

    OpenAIRE

    Dejong, C.A.J.; Willems, J.C.E.W.; Schippers, G.M.; Hendriks, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was evaluated for its psychometric qualities in a Dutch alcoholic population admitted to an addiction treatment center in the Netherlands. Its factorial structure in this population was found to be consistent with the established six factor structure of the ASI. Reliability analysis revealed that the homogeneity of the subscales was acceptable with the exception of the Alcohol Scale. The six subscales were not highly intercorrelated. The results of this stud...

  16. Distribution of Severity of Injury/Illness Index according to ICD-10 groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael; Rostgaard-Knudsen, Martin

    OBJECTIVE: In our area patients seen by the Prehospital Emergency Physician (PEP) are all classified according to the Severity of Injury/Illness Index (SIII) groups 0 to 7. This classification enables the evaluation of the optimal use of the PEP and focus on education. The PEP should only......, dispatches a PEP for major injury and severe medical conditions. For 72 months we extracted data regarding six main groups of diagnosis according to the ICD-10-system: Metabolic diseases, Diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS), Diseases of the circulatory system, Diseases of the respiratory system...

  17. Drought severity in intensive agricultural areas by means of the EDI index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházková, Petra; Chuchma, Filip; Středa, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of drought severity development in the Czech Republic for the period 1971-2015 by the means of the Effective Drought Index (EDI). Annual values of the EDI index were determined using the method of effective precipitation for 14 localities spread throughout the Czech Republic (Central Europe). The seven categories were created according to obtained index values for the drought conditions determination for years during the period 1971-2015 through the percentile method. The annual index values were compared with acquired 2nd, 15th, 45th, 55th, 85th and 98th percentiles. Both the years with precipitation unfavourable conditions: 1972, 1973, 1984, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 and 2015 and the years with precipitation favourable conditions: 1977, 1987, 1995, 2001, 2002 and 2010 were determined. Precipitation conditions in the growing season from 61st to 180th day of the year were also analysed. This evaluation was conducted during the period 1971-2015 through the ten-day index values which were compared with acquired 2nd, 15th, 45th, 55th, 85th and 98th percentiles. Dry growing seasons occurred in 1973, 1974, 1976 and 1993. Wet growing seasons occurred in 1987, 2006 and 2010. Trend analysis of annual index values was performed through the Mann-Kendall test. Highly statistically significant increasing linear trends (P < 0.01) were found for four localities (Uherský Ostroh, Vysoká, Znojmo-Oblekovice and Žatec); statistically significant increasing trends (P < 0.05) were found for three localities (Brno-Chrlice, Lednice and Lípa). Based on the extrapolation of the trend, a slightly higher effective precipitation can be expected during the year in a substantial part of the country. However, these findings do not necessarily mean an optimal supply of agricultural land with water. Precipitation exhibits considerable unevenness of distribution through time. Given the increasing evapotranspiration demands of the environment their

  18. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  19. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  20. Psoriasis area severity index (pasi) and the dermatology life quality index (dlqi): the correlation between disease severity and quality of life in patients of psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Shaikh, Z.I.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the correlation between Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients of psoriasis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Both outdoor and indoor patients of Dermatology Department, Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi for duration of 6 months i.e. from 6th Oct 2014 to 5th Apr 2014 were selected. Material and Methods: A total of 155 patients of chronic plaque psoriasis diagnosed clinically, ranging from 20 to 80 years of age and of either gender were included in the study. A careful history and clinical examination was done and for each case PASI and DLQI were calculated and registered in the designed proforma. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version-17.0. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for quantitative variables like age, PASI and DLQI. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables like gender. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) (+1,-1) was calculated between mean PASI and mean DLQI. A p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Stratification was done for age and gender and post stratification correlation was calculated. Results: Out of 155 patients studied, 110 (70.97%) were males and 45 (29.03%) were females. Ages of the patients ranged from 20-80 years (mean age 49.5 +- 15.6 years). Mean PASI score was 27.92 +- 5.83 and DLQ1 was 11.46 +- 4.22. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.1324 which showed weak correlation between PASI and DLQ1 with p-value of 0.100. Weak correlation (r=-0.3394) in age 51-80 years while very weak correlation (r=-0.0651) in age 20-50 years was noted. PASI and DLQ1 showed weak correlation in males (r=0.132) and in females (r=0.461). Conclusion: This study concluded that there is a weak correlation between PASI and DLQI.

  1. Noninvasive measurement of an index of renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.A.; Rees, R.S.; Bowen, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the noninvasive measurement of an index of renal blood flow is described. The method utilizes ultrasound determined renal volume and radionuclide assessment of the mean transit time of a pertechnetate bolus through the kidneys. From this information a value for flow is calculated according to compartmental analysis principles. There is good correlation between renal blood flow estimated by this technique and that determined by microsphere injection

  2. International Roughness Index (IRI) measurement using Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Wang, Ming L.

    2018-03-01

    International Roughness Index (IRI) is an important metric to measure condition of roadways. This index is usually used to justify the maintenance priority and scheduling for roadways. Various inspection methods and algorithms are used to assess this index through the use of road profiles. This study proposes to calculate IRI values using Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) algorithm. In particular, road profile data is provided using surface radar attached to a vehicle driving at highway speed. Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is used in this study because of its superior properties for nonstationary and nonlinear data. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) processes the raw data into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), representing various dominating frequencies. These various frequencies represent noises from the body of the vehicle, sensor location, and the excitation induced by nature frequency of the vehicle, etc. IRI calculation can be achieved by eliminating noises that are not associated with the road profile including vehicle inertia effect. The resulting IRI values are compared favorably to the field IRI values, where the filtered IMFs captures the most characteristics of road profile while eliminating noises from the vehicle and the vehicle inertia effect. Therefore, HHT is an effect method for road profile analysis and for IRI measurement. Furthermore, the application of HHT method has the potential to eliminate the use of accelerometers attached to the vehicle as part of the displacement measurement used to offset the inertia effect.

  3. An updated h-index measures both the primary and total scientific output of a researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Almasan, Alex; Zubarev, Roman; Friedman, Mark; Nicolson, Garth L; Sumazin, Pavel; Leabu, Mircea; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Avram, Dorina; Kunej, Tanja; Calin, George A; Godwin, Andrew K; Adami, Hans-Olov; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G; Richardson, Des R; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Westerblad, Håkan; Keniry, Megan; Grau, Georges E R; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Stan, Radu V; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Takhar, Kasumov; Baron, Beverly W; Galardy, Paul J; Yang, Feng; Data, Dipak; Fadare, Oluwole; Yeo, Kt Jerry; Gabreanu, Georgiana R; Andrei, Stefan; Soare, Georgiana R; Nelson, Mark A; Liehn, Elisa A

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.

  4. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  5. Rapid Measurement of Neutron Dose Rate for Transport Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    A newly available neutron dose equivalent remmeter with improved sensitivity and energy response has been put into service at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This instrument is being used to expedite measurement of the Transport Index and as an ALARA tool to identify locations where slightly elevated neutron dose equivalent rates exist. The meter is capable of measuring dose rates as low as 0.2 μSv per hour (20 μrem per hour). Tests of the angular response and energy response of the instrument are reported. Calculations of the theoretical instrument response made using MCNPtrademark are reported for materials typical of those being shipped

  6. The spiritual experience index: A measure of spiritual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genia, V

    1991-12-01

    The Spiritual Experience Index was developed to measure spiritual maturity in persons of diverse religious and spiritual beliefs. The scale was constructed from a developmental rather than a multidimensional conceptualization of faith. Initial findings from a religiously heterogeneous college sample indicated good reliability for the SEI and supported its use as a unidimensional measure. Higher scores on the SEI were significantly related to lower dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The SEI was also moderately related to higher religious participation and positively correlated with intrinsicness and quest. However, compared with the intrinsic and quest scales, the SEI emerged as the strongest indicator of adaptive spiritual functioning. Directions for future research are suggested.

  7. Toward the Development of an Objective Index of Dysphonia Severity: A Four-Factor Acoustic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    During assessment and management of individuals with voice disorders, clinicians routinely attempt to describe or quantify the severity of a patient's dysphonia. This investigation used acoustic measures derived from sustained vowel samples to predict dysphonia severity (as determined by auditory-perceptual ratings), for a diverse set of voice…

  8. THE IMPACT OF TAXES MEASURED BY GINI INDEX IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The past decades the problem of income inequality and welfare segregation has presented itself as one of the biggest faults for modern economic systems. Republic of Macedonia as a country in development is presented with a serious challenge into decreasing the income inequality witch has risen for average 4% annually over the past 15 years, according to the GINI index. The problem of income inequality for Republic of Macedonia starches further as the country presents itself as one the highest ranking of income inequality in comparison the South-East European countries. The impact of different types of taxes on the income inequality in Republic of Macedonia measured through the GINI index, the econometric model of regression and correlation was conducted towards determination the type of tax that has the most impact on the income inequality in Republic of Macedonia for the observational period, the Personal income tax have the utmost impact on the income inequality measured through the GINI index.

  9. Application of New MODIS-Based Aerosol Index for Air Pollution Severity Assessment and Mapping in Upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chat Phayungwiwatthanakoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports capability of a newly-proposed index called the aerosol prediction index (API in the determination and mapping of near-ground PM10 concentrations (at spatial resolution of 500 x 500 m during the 2009 and 2010 burning seasons in upper northern Thailand. API is a normalized index defined based on the difference in the observed reflectance data at two spectral bands of the MODIS instrument aboard NASA�s Terra satellite; Band 3 (blue and Band 7 (mid-infrared. Initial analysis suggested that API had strong correlation with the corresponding MODIS-AOD and AERONET-AOD with coefficient of determination (R2 about 0.62 in both cases, and also with the reference PM10 data with R2 of 0.66. In terms of predictive performance, it exhibited low bias at low PM10 condition and achieved impressive prediction accuracy with relative error of 10.78 %. The near-ground PM10 concentration map yielded from the proposed index was proved very useful in the comprehensive assessment of aerosol pollution situation over entire area at fine spatial detail. This task could not be fulfilled from sole use of the ground-based measured data or standard MODIS-AOD product. These findings indicate that API should be a promising tool for the regular monitoring of air pollution severity over the concerned area.

  10. Increased body mass index predicts severity of asthma symptoms but not objective asthma traits in a large sample of asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildstrup, Line; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and different indicators of asthma severity in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. METHODS: A total of 1186 subjects, 14-44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms and furthermore height and weight, skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured...

  11. The Addiction Severity Index: reliability and validity in a Dutch alcoholic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, C A; Willems, J C; Schippers, G M; Hendriks, V M

    1995-04-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was evaluated for its psychometric qualities in a Dutch alcoholic population admitted to an addiction treatment center in The Netherlands. Its factorial structure in this population was found to be consistent with the established six factor structure of the ASI. Reliability analysis revealed that the homogeneity of the subscales was acceptable with the exception of the Alcohol Scale. The six subscales were not highly intercorrelated. The results of this study indicate that the ASI is a useful instrument for the assessment of several problems associated with alcoholism. However, the Alcohol Scale appears to be limited as a diagnostic and research instrument in the field of inpatient treatment of alcohol dependence in The Netherlands.

  12. Correlation of endoscopic severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd) with body mass index (bmi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haq, I.U.; Butt, A.R.; Shafiq, F.; Huda, G.; Mirza, G.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the correlation of endoscopic severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Body Mass Index (BMI). This study was conducted on 203 patients, who presented with upper GI symptoms. Patients who fulfilled the symptom criteria were referred for endoscopy. Classification of GERD was done according to LA Grading classification system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as Body Weight (BW) in kilograms (kg) divided by the square of the body height (BH) in meter (m2). Patient data was analyzed using SPSS 12 software. Statistical evaluation was done using non-parametric Wilcoxon's-sign Rank test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Distribution of GERD was as follows: GERD-A subjects 65 (32%), GERD B subjects 72 (35.4%), GERD-C subjects 23 (11.3%), GERD-D subjects 10 (4.92%), while Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) was present in 33 subjects (16.2%). Mean BMI was 27+5.02SD (range of 18.2-38.3). BMI of patients having NERD was in normal range but patients who were having advanced disease i.e. Grade C-D were in obese range of BMI, while those who were having LA grade A-B were in overweight BMI range. When regrouped as mild GERD (grade A-B) and NERD versus severe GERD (grade C-D), there was a strong significant correlation between severity of GERD and BMI, as detected by Wilcoxon's signed Rank test (p=0.001). Higher BMI seems to be associated with higher degree of endoscopic GERD severity. (author)

  13. Assessing Agricultural Drought in the Anthropocene: A Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current human-influenced era, drought is initiated by natural and human drivers, and human activities are as integral to drought as meteorological factors. In large irrigated agricultural regions with high levels of human intervention, where the natural farmland soil moisture has usually been changed significantly by high-frequency irrigation, the actual severity of agricultural drought is distorted in traditional drought indices. In this work, an agricultural drought index that considering irrigation processes based on the Palmer drought severity index (IrrPDSI was developed to interpret the real agricultural drought conditions in irrigated regions, with a case study in the Haihe River Basin in northeast China. The water balance model in the original PDSI was revised by an auto-irrigation threshold method combined with a local irrigation schedule. The auto-irrigation setting of the index was used by taking irrigation quotas during specific growth stages of specific crops (wheat–corn into consideration. A series of weekly comparative analyses are as follows: (1 The soil moisture analyses showed that soil moisture values calculated by the modified water balance model were close to the real values; (2 The statistical analyses indicated that most of the stations in the study area based on IrrPDSI had nearly normal distributed values; (3 The time series and spatial analyses showed that the results of the IrrPDSI-reported dry-wet evaluation were more consistent with documented real conditions. All the results revealed that IrrPDSI performed well when used to assess agricultural drought. This work has direct significance for agricultural drought management in large irrigated areas heavily disturbed by human activity.

  14. Phase sensitive diffraction sensor for high sensitivity refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Varma, Manoj; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    In this study a diffraction based sensor has been developed for bio molecular sensing applications and performing assays in real time. A diffraction grating fabricated on a glass substrate produced diffraction patterns both in transmission and reflection when illuminated by a laser diode. We used zeroth order I(0,0) as reference and first order I(0,1) as signal channel and conducted ratiometric measurements that reduced noise by more than 50 times. The ratiometric approach resulted in a very simple instrumentation with very high sensitivity. In the past, we have shown refractive index measurements both for bulk and surface adsorption using the diffractive self-referencing approach. In the current work we extend the same concept to higher diffraction orders. We have considered order I(0,1) and I(1,1) and performed ratiometric measurements I(0,1)/I(1,1) to eliminate the common mode fluctuations. Since orders I(0,1) and I(1,1) behaved opposite to each other, the resulting ratio signal amplitude increased more than twice compared to our previous results. As a proof of concept we used different salt concentrations in DI water. Increased signal amplitude and improved fluid injection system resulted in more than 4 times improvement in detection limit, giving limit of detection 1.3×10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) compared to our previous results. The improved refractive index sensitivity will help significantly for high sensitivity label free bio sensing application in a very cost-effective and simple experimental set-up.

  15. Impact of Hospital Variables on Case Mix Index as a Marker of Disease Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Carmen M.; Harrington, Darrell W.; Christenson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. (Population Health Management 2014;17:28–34) PMID:23965045

  16. An Index of Trauma Severity Based on Multiattribute Utility: An Illustration of Complex Utility Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    measure for Central Nervus System is the Glasgow Cons Score (GCS), a scale of brain and spinal cord injury (Langfitt [1978]), and is itself an additive...concerns directly relating to the injury itself were identified. These were: 1. Ventilation Severity 2 Circulation Severity 3. Central Nervous System ...interacting system within which these concerns represent interacting parts. Most trauma involves only one of these systems , but more than one may be

  17. Nonintrusive measurement of the liquid refractive index by using properties of the cuvette wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Ren, Junpeng; Miao, Runcai; Zhang, Zongquan

    2016-10-01

    We present a method of nonintrusive measurement of the refractive index of a liquid in a glass cuvette, which uses some optical properties of the cuvette wall and the principle of total internal reflection. By coating a transmission-scattering paint layer on the outer surface of the cuvette, we transform an incident laser beam into a transmitted scattered light. When the transmitted scattered light reaches the interface between the container wall and the liquid inside, the light beams satisfying the condition of total internal reflection are reflected to the coating layer, automatically forming a circular dark pattern that is related to the refractive index of the liquid. Based on an analytic relation between the diameter of the circular dark pattern and the refractive index of the liquid, we devised a method of in situ nonintrusive refractive index measurement. We tested the effect of several parameters on the measuring accuracy and found that the optimal thickness of the transmission-scattering layer is in the range of 50-70 μm, and the aperture of the diaphragm should be in the range of 0.7-1.0 mm. We measured the refractive indices of ethanol, Coca Cola, and red wine, and achieved an accuracy of ±3×10-4  RIU (refractive index unit).

  18. Influence of hypothermia combined with erythropoietin on serum neurological function indexes in newborns with severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of hypothermia combined with erythropoietin (EPO on serum neurological function indexes in newborns with severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Methods: A total of 48 cases of newborns with severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in our hospital were enrolled and divided into control group and observation group according to random number table, 24 cases in each group. On the basis of conventional treatment, patients in control group were treated with mild hypothermia, and those in observation group were treated with mild hypothermia combined with EPO. Serum nerve injury indexes, neurological function indexes and nerve apoptosis indexes were compared between two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, differences in the levels of nerve injury indexes, neurological function indexes and nerve apoptosis indexes were not statistically significant between two groups. After treatment, serum nerve injury indexes NSE and S-100B levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, neurolocial function indexes BDNF, NGF, IGF-1 and GH levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, and nerve apoptosis indexes sFas and sFasL levels of observation group were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Mild hypothermia combined with EPO can reduce the neurological damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in children with severe HIE.

  19. The relationship between the Nasality Severity Index 2.0 and perceptual judgments of hypernasality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettens, Kim; De Bodt, Marc; Maryn, Youri; Luyten, Anke; Wuyts, Floris L; Van Lierde, Kristiane M

    2016-01-01

    The Nasality Severity Index 2.0 (NSI 2.0) forms a new, multiparametric approach in the identification of hypernasality. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between the NSI 2.0 scores and the perceptual assessment of hypernasality. Speech samples of 35 patients, representing a range of nasality from normal to severely hypernasal, were rated by four expert speech-language pathologists using visual analogue scaling (VAS) judging the degree of hypernasality, audible nasal airflow (ANA) and speech intelligibility. Inter- and intra-listener reliability was verified using intraclass correlation coefficients. Correlations between NSI 2.0 scores and its parameters (i.e. nasalance score of an oral text and vowel /u/, voice low tone to high tone ratio of the vowel /i/) and the degree of hypernasality were determined using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the possible influence of ANA and speech intelligibility on the NSI 2.0 scores. Overall good to excellent inter- and intra-listener reliability was found for the perceptual ratings. A moderate, but significant negative correlation between NSI 2.0 scores and perceived hypernasality (r=-0.64) was found, in which a more negative NSI 2.0 score indicates the presence of more severe hypernasality. No significant influence of ANA or intelligibility on the NSI 2.0 was observed based on the regression analysis. Because the NSI 2.0 correlates significantly with perceived hypernasality, it provides an easy-to-interpret severity score of hypernasality which will facilitate the evaluation of therapy outcomes, communication to the patient and other clinicians, and decisions for treatment planning, based on a multiparametric approach. However, research is still necessary to further explore the instrumental correlates of perceived hypernasality. The reader will be able to (1) describe and discuss current issues and influencing variables regarding perceptual

  20. [Validation of the Pneumonia Severity Index for hospitalizing patients with community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol-Ribelles, José M; Tenías, José M; Querol-Borrás, José M; González-Granda, Damiana; Hernández, Manuel; Ferreruela, Rosa; Martínez, Isidoro

    2004-04-10

    Our main objective was to assess the utility of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) to decide the site of care home or hospital of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). All CAP patients who came to the emergency department from 1 January to 31 December, 2000, were prospectively assessed with a protocol based on the PSI and additional admission criteria applied to classes I, II and III. Mortality within 30 days and poor outcome were used as endpoints. We tested the diagnostic efficacy of the PSI scale in predicting mortality or unfavourable events by calculating the area below the ROC curve. Of the 243 CAP patients included, 124 (51%) belonged to classes I, II and III, and 119 (49%) belonged to classes IV and V. One hundred and fifty six (64%) patients were admitted. Fifteen (6.2%) patients died, all of them belonging to classes IV and V. Forty four (18%) patients showed a poor outcome. Only one patient who was initially sent home had a poor outcome. The prognostic value of the PSI scale to predict mortality (ROC = 0.92; CI 95%, 0.88-0.95) was high. Our results confirm that the PSI scale is a good prognostic index in clinical practice for predicting mortality due to CAP. In order to use the PSI to decide the site of care of patients with CAP, not only the score obtained but also additional factors should be taken into account.

  1. Visceral adiposity index as a predictor of clinical severity and therapeutic outcome of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sai-Hua; Li, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine-metabolic disease which often accompany with abnormal fat distribution. Visceral adiposity has association with abnormal lipid metabolic, pro-inflammatory activity, insulin resistance (IR) and hyperandrogenism. Increased visceral adiposity raises the risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular (CV) events, and aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism in PCOS women. Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a simple surrogate maker of visceral adipose dysfunction and visceral adiposity, is a predictor of IR, and link hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. This review aims to discuss the visceral adiposity situation in PCOS women, and suggests that VAI may be a useful predictor of clinical severity and therapeutic outcome of PCOS.

  2. Several cases of electronics and the measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardiyono, Bb.; Kamadi, J.; Suparmono, M.; Indarto.

    1980-01-01

    Several cases of electronics and the measuring methods, covering electric conductivity and electric potential of analog systems, electric current, electric conductivity and electric potential of semiconductor diodes, and characteristics of transistors are described. (SMN)

  3. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  4. The COPD Helplessness Index: a new tool to measure factors affecting patient self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omachi, Theodore A; Katz, Patricia P; Yelin, Edward H; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J; Blanc, Paul D; Eisner, Mark D

    2010-04-01

    Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes.

  5. Body mass index, initial neurological severity and long-term mortality in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Beom Joon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is believed to increase the risks of ischemic stroke or coronary heart disease; however, regarding outcome after established vascular diseases, recent unexpected evidence has suggested that an increased body mass index (BMI) might have beneficial effects (obesity paradox). The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke. A total of 1,592 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively included through our stroke cohort. In this study, the levels of BMI were classified based on guidelines for the Asian-Pacific population. Initial neurological severity was estimated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Information on mortality was collected until the end of 2009, and the median follow-up period was 4 years. To examine the association between BMI and long-term mortality, we used Cox's proportional regression analysis. During follow-up, 23% of patients died. Linear regression analysis showed that the level of BMI was inversely related to initial neurological severity (p = 0.002). In the model of adjustment of age and gender using Cox's proportional regression analysis, this inverse trend was also significant (reference, normal weight; hazard ratio of underweight, 2.45; overweight, 0.77; obesity, 0.60). However, after adjustment of all covariates, including initial neurological severity, only the harmful effect of underweight remained significant (2.79; 95% CI, 1.92-4.05); however, beneficial effects of overweight and obesity did not. Our study showed that an independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke was found only in underweight patients. The obesity paradox phenomenon seems to be limited, and might not be interpreted as a direct causal relationship due to a strong association with initial neurological severity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Validation of exhaled volatile organic compounds analysis using electronic nose as index of COPD severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finamore P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Panaiotis Finamore,1 Claudio Pedone,1 Simone Scarlata,1 Alessandra Di Paolo,1 Simone Grasso,2 Marco Santonico,2 Giorgio Pennazza,2 Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi1 1Unit of Geriatrics, Campus Bio-Medico di Roma University, Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Electronics for Sensor Systems, Campus Bio-Medico di Roma University, Rome, Italy Aim: Six-minute walking test distance (6MWD and body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise (BODE index are measures of functional status in COPD patients, but require space, time and patient’s compliance. Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs analysis via electronic nose is a quick and easy method that has already been used to discriminate COPD phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether VOCs analysis can predict functional status and its variation over time in COPD patients.Methods: A monocentric prospective study with 1 year of follow-up was carried out. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests, arterial gas analysis, bioimpedance analysis, 6-minute walking test, and VOCs collection. Exhaled breath was collected with Pneumopipe® and analyzed using BIONOTE electronic nose. Outcomes prediction was performed by k-fold cross-validated partial least square discriminant analysis: accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as well as Cohen’s kappa for agreement were calculated.Results: We enrolled 63 patients, 60.3% men, with a mean age of 71 (SD: 8 years, median BODE index of 1 (interquartile range: 0–3 and mean 6MWD normalized by squared height (n6MWD of 133.5 (SD: 42 m/m2. The BIONOTE predicted baseline BODE score (dichotomized as BODE score <3 or ≥3 with an accuracy of 86% and quartiles of n6MWD with an accuracy of 79%. n6MWD decline more than the median value after 1 year was predicted with an accuracy of 86% by BIONOTE, 52% by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD class and 78% by combined BIONOTE and GOLD class.Conclusion: Exhaled VOCs analysis identifies classes of BODE

  7. Escala de violencia e índice de severidad: una propuesta metodológica para medir la violencia de pareja en mujeres mexicanas Violence scale and severity index: a methodological proposal for measuring violence by the partner in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Valdez-Santiago

    2006-01-01

    correspondientes a violencia económica, quedando un total de 19 reactivos a los que se les aplicaron los pesos obtenidos en el jueceo. El puntaje mínimo fue 0 y el máximo fue de 354. A través de la clasificación propuesta, se calcularon las siguientes prevalencias: 21% sufrió, en los últimos 12 meses, algún tipo de violencia por parte de su pareja actual. La violencia por tipos se distribuyó de la siguiente manera: psicológica 18.5%; física 10.1%; física severa 6.7%; y sexual 7%. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala de violencia desarrollada demostró ser un instrumento útil y confiable para medir la violencia masculina ejercida en las relaciones de pareja. Así entonces, se sugiere ampliar su uso en otras mediciones nacionales y locales para permitir la comparación posterior de los resultados.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a scale to assess violence by the male partner against women. An index of severity of the emotional and physical damage was also designed to assess the intensity of the violent actions against women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of a total of 26 042 women who participated as respondents in the National Survey on Violence against Women (ENVIM per its abbreviation in Spanish conducted in Mexico during 2003. Respondents were all users of health services provided by the Mexican government. The questionnaire was organized into 17 sections, one of which was a 27-item scale to assess partner violence. The purpose of this scale was to measure the type (physical, emotional, sexual and financial and degree of violence based on severity. A severity index was constructed based on two procedures: 1 the validity, reliability, and factor analyses of the scale and 2 the assessment of severity by expert judges who assigned a value to each item of the scale. RESULTS: The validity and reliability results indicated this scale has adequate internal validity (Cronbach's Alpha=0.99. The factor analysis with Varimax rotation yielded a four-factor solution. The

  8. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  9. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Hayley; Williams, Sheila; Brown, Rachel; Venn, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI of meals, obtained by using the formula and by using both measured food GI and published values, with directly measured meal GIs. The GIs of 7 foods were tested in 30 healthy people. The foods were combined into 3 meals, each of which provided 50 g available carbohydrate, including a staple (potato, rice, or spaghetti), vegetables, sauce, and pan-fried chicken. The mean (95% CI) meal GIs determined from individual food GI values and by direct measurement were as follows: potato meal [predicted, 63 (56, 70); measured, 53 (46, 62)], rice meal [predicted, 51 (45, 56); measured, 38 (33, 45)], and spaghetti meal [predicted, 54 (49, 60); measured, 38 (33, 44)]. The predicted meal GIs were all higher than the measured GIs (P < 0.001). The extent of the overestimation depended on the particular food, ie, 12, 15, and 19 GI units (or 22%, 40%, and 50%) for the potato, rice, and spaghetti meals, respectively. The formula overestimated the GI of the meals by between 22% and 50%. The use of published food values also overestimated the measured meal GIs. Investigators using the formula to calculate a meal or diet GI should be aware of limitations in the method. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000210976.

  10. Constructing Indicators for Measuring Provincial Sustainable Development Index in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van Canh; Lisowski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable development is zeitgeist of our age. It is one kind of development that in this trajectory humanity can create a stable and developed socio-economic foundations, conserve environment and therefore able to continue for a long time. Using indicators is one of the best ways to monitor and measure the progress toward sustainable development. In this paper we have proposed the way to create indicators for measuring provincial sustainable development index in Vietnam. We firstly made a framework of elements for economic, social and environmental component and compiled a list of indicators of 20 national and international agencies in the world. We then applied the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related) to choose indicators which will be relevant for Vietnam and put them back to the elements. We then have 39 relevant indicators with 12 indicators for economy, 17 indicators for social and 10 indicators for environmental component. Finally, we have established the way to determine the worst and best value for each indicator from available data for countries in the world.

  11. [Experience, prevalence, severity, treatment needs for dental caries and care index in Mexican adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, José Obed; Mejia-Cruz, Jorge Adrián; Medina-Cerda, Eduardo; Orozco-De la Torre, Guillermo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Carlo; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Islas-Granillo, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    To determine the experience, prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as to establish the treatment needs and restorative care in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study included 638 subjects 16-25 years old candidates to enter to state public university of San Luis Potosí, México. For caries detection was used the DMFT index (sum of decayed teeth + missing teeth + filled teeth in the permanent dentition). With DMFT index data were calculated the experience, the prevalence and the severity of caries. Also are reported the significant caries index (SiC), the treatment needs index (TNI) and the care index (CI). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests. The mean DMFT index was 4.24 ± 3.85, prevalence 76.5% and severity of 52.3% for DMFT > 3 and 26.2% for DMFT > 6. The SiC index was 8.7. The TNI was 43.0% and 52.8% CI. No variation was observed (p > 0.05) on the experience, prevalence and severity of caries by age. The component "filled teeth" showed differences by age (p caries experience and severity than men (p dental caries in this sample of adolescents and young adults. We found almost 40% of untreated caries lesions. We found some differences by sex.

  12. Actometry in measuring the symptom severity of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, K; Holi, M M; Wahlbeck, K; Ahlgren, A J; Lauerma, H

    2005-05-01

    In a previous, controlled study we demonstrated that the general lower limb activity measured by three-channel actometry is a promising objective measure of restless legs syndrome (RLS) severity. In the present study we have further evaluated the method in measuring RLS symptom severity in an open, single-day pramipexole intervention with 15 RLS patients. Both our standardized actometric parameters (nocturnal lower limb activity and controlled rest activity) decreased significantly during the intervention in parallel with the subjectively reported relief of RLS symptoms.

  13. Research on uncertainty evaluation measure and method of voltage sag severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. N.; Wei, J.; Ye, S. Y.; Chen, B.; Long, C.

    2018-01-01

    Voltage sag is an inevitable serious problem of power quality in power system. This paper focuses on a general summarization and reviews on the concepts, indices and evaluation methods about voltage sag severity. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of influencing factors, damage degree, the characteristics and requirements of voltage sag severity in the power source-network-load sides, the measure concepts and their existing conditions, evaluation indices and methods of voltage sag severity have been analyzed. Current evaluation techniques, such as stochastic theory, fuzzy logic, as well as their fusion, are reviewed in detail. An index system about voltage sag severity is provided for comprehensive study. The main aim of this paper is to propose thought and method of severity research based on advanced uncertainty theory and uncertainty measure. This study may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested in the domain of voltage sag severity.

  14. Measuring the glycemic index of foods: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Abernethy, John; Astrup, Arne; Atkinson, Fiona; Axelsen, Mette; Björck, Inger; Brighenti, Furio; Brown, Rachel; Brynes, Audrey; Casiraghi, M Cristina; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Dahlqvist, Linda; Delport, Elizabeth; Denyer, Gareth S; Erba, Daniela; Frost, Gary; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Hampton, Shelagh; Hart, Valerie A; Hätönen, Katja A; Henry, C Jeya; Hertzler, Steve; Hull, Sarah; Jerling, Johann; Johnston, Kelly L; Lightowler, Helen; Mann, Neil; Morgan, Linda; Panlasigui, Leonora N; Pelkman, Christine; Perry, Tracy; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pieters, Marlien; Ramdath, D Dan; Ramsingh, Rayna T; Robert, S Daniel; Robinson, Carol; Sarkkinen, Essi; Scazzina, Francesca; Sison, Dave Clark D; Sloth, Birgitte; Staniforth, Jane; Tapola, Niina; Valsta, Liisa M; Verkooijen, Inge; Weickert, Martin O; Weseler, Antje R; Wilkie, Paul; Zhang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Many laboratories offer glycemic index (GI) services. We assessed the performance of the method used to measure GI. The GI of cheese-puffs and fruit-leather (centrally provided) was measured in 28 laboratories (n=311 subjects) by using the FAO/WHO method. The laboratories reported the results of their calculations and sent the raw data for recalculation centrally. Values for the incremental area under the curve (AUC) reported by 54% of the laboratories differed from central calculations. Because of this and other differences in data analysis, 19% of reported food GI values differed by >5 units from those calculated centrally. GI values in individual subjects were unrelated to age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, or AUC but were negatively related to within-individual variation (P=0.033) expressed as the CV of the AUC for repeated reference food tests (refCV). The between-laboratory GI values (mean+/-SD) for cheese-puffs and fruit-leather were 74.3+/-10.5 and 33.2+/-7.2, respectively. The mean laboratory GI was related to refCV (P=0.003) and the type of restrictions on alcohol consumption before the test (P=0.006, r2=0.509 for model). The within-laboratory SD of GI was related to refCV (P<0.001), the glucose analysis method (P=0.010), whether glucose measures were duplicated (P=0.008), and restrictions on dinner the night before (P=0.013, r2=0.810 for model). The between-laboratory SD of the GI values is approximately 9. Standardized data analysis and low within-subject variation (refCV<30%) are required for accuracy. The results suggest that common misconceptions exist about which factors do and do not need to be controlled to improve precision. Controlled studies and cost-benefit analyses are needed to optimize GI methodology. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00260858.

  15. Is a mobile emergency severity index (ESI) triage better than the paper ESI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatmongkorngul, Sorravit; Yuksen, Chaiyaporn; Suwattanasilp, Chanakarn; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the mobile emergency severity index (ESI) tool in terms of validity compared with the original ESI triage. The original ESI and mobile ESI were used with patients at the Department of Emergency Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Eligible patients were evaluated by sixth-year medical students/emergency physicians using either the original or mobile ESI. The ESI results for each patient were compared with the standard ESI. Concordance and kappa statistics were calculated for pairs of the evaluators. There were 486 patients enrolled in the study; 235 patients (48.4%) were assessed using the mobile ESI, and 251 patients (51.6%) were in the original ESI group. The baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were mostly comparable except for the ED visit time. The percentages of concordance and kappa statistics in the original ESI group were lower than in the mobile group in all three comparisons (medical students vs gold standard, emergency physicians vs gold standard, and medical students vs emergency physicians). The highest kappa in the original ESI group is 0.69, comparing emergency physicians vs gold standard, while the lowest kappa in the application group is 0.84 comparing the medical students vs gold standard. Both medical students and emergency physicians are more confident with the mobile ESI application triage. In conclusion, the mobile ESI has better inter-rater reliability, and is more user-friendly than the original paper form.

  16. Consciousness Indexing and Outcome Prediction with Resting-State EEG in Severe Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Sabina; Schorr, Barbara; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Shock, Jonathan P; Rosenfelder, Martin; Heck, Suzette; Bender, Andreas

    2018-04-17

    We applied the following methods to resting-state EEG data from patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) for consciousness indexing and outcome prediction: microstates, entropy (i.e. approximate, permutation), power in alpha and delta frequency bands, and connectivity (i.e. weighted symbolic mutual information, symbolic transfer entropy, complex network analysis). Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) were classified into these two categories by fitting and testing a generalised linear model. We aimed subsequently to develop an automated system for outcome prediction in severe DOC by selecting an optimal subset of features using sequential floating forward selection (SFFS). The two outcome categories were defined as UWS or dead, and MCS or emerged from MCS. Percentage of time spent in microstate D in the alpha frequency band performed best at distinguishing MCS from UWS patients. The average clustering coefficient obtained from thresholding beta coherence performed best at predicting outcome. The optimal subset of features selected with SFFS consisted of the frequency of microstate A in the 2-20 Hz frequency band, path length obtained from thresholding alpha coherence, and average path length obtained from thresholding alpha coherence. Combining these features seemed to afford high prediction power. Python and MATLAB toolboxes for the above calculations are freely available under the GNU public license for non-commercial use ( https://qeeg.wordpress.com ).

  17. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  18. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  19. Measuring Disease Severity in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda F. Davis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical investigations use a wide variety of outcome indicators that are often not comparable. It can be challenging to integrate results across multiple studies that do not share a common metric. Some conditions such as Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy have a predictable course of disease progression. Severity can be inferred from a patient's medical history. This paper describes the development of a disease severity measure using common markers of disease progression. Rasch modeling was used to estimate severity using dichotomous events that indicate disease progression. Caregivers of 34 young men with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy completed structured interviews about their care and medical history. Interview questions included surgeries (tendon release, scoliosis, tracheostomy, respiratory equipment (assisted ventilation, cough assist devices, and the use of other medical equipment (e.g., braces, walkers, wheelchairs, transfer boards, hospital beds. The resulting measure had a reliability of .83. The correlation between the severity measure and the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS was .68. Preliminary results and item calibrations are provided for the severity measure that can be estimated from caregiver reports or administrative data. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.76

  20. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    ICRP introduced the concept of Effective Dose Equivalent H(sub)E and fixed the basic limits of radiation exposure in terms of H(sub)I. As H(sub)E cannot be measured, ICRP stated that with external exposure to penetrating radiation the limitation of the Dose Equivalent Index H(sub)I would afford at least as good a level of protection. However, difficulties arise in measuring H(sub)I and in calibrating instruments in terms of H(sub)I, since the height and location of the dose equivalent maximum in the sphere which is the phantom used in the definition of H(sub)I, depend on the energy and the angular distribution of the incident radiation. That is, H(sub)I is not an additive quantity relative to the partial H(sub)I(sub)i-values of the different energy and angular components. Hence, 1) the distribution of dose equivalent in the sphere must be measured in full for a determination of H(sub)I, and 2) it is not possible to calibrate an instrument which does not exhibit the scattering and absorption properties of the sphere, consistently for arbitrary radiation fields in terms of H(sub)I. Thus the calibration in an unidirectional beam would infer an uncertainty which may amount to a factor of up to 4. This would hardly be tolerable as a base for radiation protection provisions. An alternative is to introduce operational quantities which are additive, e.g. 1) the sum of maxima of the dose equivalent distributions in the sphere produced by different radiation components, and 2) the mean dose equivalent in the sphere. Their relation to H(sub)E for different types of radiation and consequences on secondary limits are discussed. (H.K.)

  1. Breath Alkane as an index of severity for oral submucous fibrosis: A new perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Boraks, George; Aljabab, Abdulsalam S; Patil, Shekar Gowda; Merkx, M A W; Brennan, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a devastating disease commonly seen in the Asian subcontinent that results in significant functional morbidity for patients and has a high potential for malignant transformation. Over the last three decades, different diagnostic methods have been described to quantify and grade OSMF severity. Some methods have been used with perceived favorable outcomes although recurrence and malignant transformation remains a problem in many cases, and OSMF presents a major therapeutic challenge. We present a simple, noninvasive and less time-consuming diagnostic method which measures the severity of OSMF, helping to predict its malignant transformation and monitoring the effect of medical therapy on this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endometriosis fertility index predicts live births following surgical resection of moderate and severe endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux-Lacroix, S; Nesbitt-Hawes, E; Deans, R; Won, H; Budden, A; Adamson, D; Abbott, J A

    2017-11-01

    Can live birth be accurately predicted following surgical resection of moderate-severe (Stage III-IV) endometriosis? Live births can accurately be predicted with the endometriosis fertility index (EFI), with adnexal function being the most important factor to predict non-assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) fertility or the requirement for ART (www.endometriosisefi.com). Fertility prognosis is important to many women with severe endometriosis. Controversy persists regarding optimal post-operative management to achieve pregnancy and the counselling of patients regarding duration of conventional treatments before undergoing ART. The EFI is reported to correlate with expectant management pregnancy rate, although external validation has been performed without specifically addressing fertility in women with moderate and severe endometriosis. Retrospective cohort study of 279 women from September 2001 to June 2016. We included women undergoing laparoscopic resection of Stage III-IV endometriosis who attempted pregnancy post-operatively. The EFI was calculated based on detailed operative reports and surgical images. Fertility outcomes were obtained by direct patient contact. Kaplan-Meier model, log rank test and Cox regression were used for analyses. The follow-up rate was 84% with a mean duration of 4.1 years. A total of 147 women (63%) had a live birth following surgery, 94 of them (64%) without ART. The EFI was highly associated with live births (P years was 0% and steadily increased up to 91% with an EFI of 9-10, while the proportion of women who attempted ART and had a live birth, steadily increased from 38 to 71% among the same EFI strata (P = 0.1). A low least function score was the most significant predictor of failure (P = 0.003), followed by having had a previous resection (P = 0.019) or incomplete resection (P = 0.028), being older than 40 compared to years of age (P = 0.027), and having leiomyomas (P = 0.037). The main limitation of this study is its

  3. Quantitative Ultrasound for Measuring Obstructive Severity in Children with Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J; Peters, Craig A; Martin, Aaron D; Myers, Emmarie; Safdar, Nabile; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-04-01

    We define sonographic biomarkers for hydronephrotic renal units that can predict the necessity of diuretic nuclear renography. We selected a cohort of 50 consecutive patients with hydronephrosis of varying severity in whom 2-dimensional sonography and diuretic mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography had been performed. A total of 131 morphological parameters were computed using quantitative image analysis algorithms. Machine learning techniques were then applied to identify ultrasound based safety thresholds that agreed with the t½ for washout. A best fit model was then derived for each threshold level of t½ that would be clinically relevant at 20, 30 and 40 minutes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were determined. Improvement obtained by the quantitative imaging method compared to the Society for Fetal Urology grading system and the hydronephrosis index was statistically verified. For the 3 thresholds considered and at 100% sensitivity the specificities of the quantitative imaging method were 94%, 70% and 74%, respectively. Corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.98, 0.94 and 0.94, respectively. Improvement obtained by the quantitative imaging method over the Society for Fetal Urology grade and hydronephrosis index was statistically significant (p hydronephrosis can identify thresholds of clinically significant washout times with 100% sensitivity to decrease the number of diuretic renograms in up to 62% of children. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward validation of the cepstral spectral index of dysphonia (CSID) as an objective treatment outcomes measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Elizabeth A; Roy, Nelson; Awan, Shaheen N; Merrill, Ray M; Banks, Russell; Tanner, Kristine

    2013-07-01

    To examine the validity of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) as an objective treatment outcomes measure of dysphonia severity. Pre- and posttreatment samples of sustained vowel and connected speech productions were elicited from 112 patients across six diagnostic categories: unilateral vocal fold paralysis, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, primary muscle tension dysphonia, benign vocal fold lesions, presbylaryngis, and mutational falsetto. Listener ratings of severity in connected speech were compared with a three-factor CSID model consisting of the cepstral peak prominence (CPP), the low-to-high spectral energy ratio, and its standard deviation. Two additional variables, the CPP standard deviation and gender, were included in the five-factor CSID model to estimate severity of vowels. CSID-estimated severity for sustained vowels and connected speech was strongly associated with listener ratings pretreatment, posttreatment, and change observed pre- to posttreatment. Spectrum effects were examined, and severity of dysphonia did not influence the relationship between listener perceived severity and CSID-estimated severity. The results confirm a robust relationship between listener perceived and CSID-derived dysphonia severity estimates in sustained vowels and connected speech across diverse diagnoses and severity levels and support the clinical utility of the CSID as an objective treatment outcomes measure. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragstrem, Kristina; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Grubb, John E; Kusnoto, Budi

    2015-07-01

    A digital analysis that is shown to be accurate will ease the demonstration of initial case complexity. To date, no literature exists on the accuracy of the digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI) calculations when applied to pretreatment digital models. Plaster models were obtained from 45 previous patients with varying degrees of malocclusion. Total DI scores and the target disorders were computed manually with a periodontal probe on the original plaster casts (gold standard) and digitally using Ortho Insight 3D (Motion View Software, Hixson, Tenn) and OrthoCAD (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed for 15 subjects using the Spearman rho correlation test. Accuracies of the DI scores and target disorders were assessed for all 45 subjects using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for total DI scores and most target disorders (r > 0.8). No significant difference was found between total DI score when measured with OrthoCAD compared with manual calculations. The total DI scores calculated by Ortho Insight 3D were found to be significantly greater than those by manual calculation by 2.71 points. The findings indicate that a DI calculated by Ortho Insight 3D may lead the clinician to overestimate case complexity. OrthoCAD's DI module was demonstrated to be a clinically acceptable alternative to manual calculation of the total scores. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  7. Measuring relatives’ perspectives on the quality of palliative care: the Consumer Quality Index Palliative Care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.J.; Francke, A.L.; Sixma, H.J.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: A Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index) is a questionnaire assessing the actual care experiences and how important the recipient finds certain care aspects, as well as the priorities for improving quality. A CQ-index Palliative Care (CQ-index PC) for bereaved relatives was developed to measure

  8. Concurrent chart review provides more accurate documentation and increased calculated case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Richard C; Matejicka, Anthony V; Abernathy, Stephen W; Davis, Matthew; Isbell, Travis S; Regner, Justin L; Smith, Randall W; Jupiter, Daniel C; Papaconstantinou, Harry T

    2015-04-01

    Case mix index (CMI) is calculated to determine the relative value assigned to a Diagnosis-Related Group. Accurate documentation of patient complications and comorbidities and major complications and comorbidities changes CMI and can affect hospital reimbursement and future pay for performance metrics. Starting in 2010, a physician panel concurrently reviewed the documentation of the trauma/acute care surgeons. Clarifications of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services term-specific documentation were made by the panel, and the surgeon could incorporate or decline the clinical queries. A retrospective review of trauma/acute care inpatients was performed. The mean severity of illness, risk of mortality, and CMI from 2009 were compared with the 3 subsequent years. Mean length of stay and mean Injury Severity Score by year were listed as measures of patient acuity. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and t-test, with p reimbursement and more accurately stratify outcomes measures for care providers. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency Severity Index version 4: a valid and reliable tool in pediatric emergency department triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole A; Durani, Yamini; Brecher, Deena; DePiero, Andrew; Loiselle, John; Attia, Magdy

    2012-08-01

    The Emergency Severity Index version 4 (ESI v.4) is the most recently implemented 5-level triage system. The validity and reliability of this triage tool in the pediatric population have not been extensively established. The goals of this study were to assess the validity of ESI v.4 in predicting hospital admission, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and number of resources utilized, as well as its reliability in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. The first arm of the study was a retrospective chart review of 780 pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED to determine the validity of ESI v.4. Abstracted data included acuity level assigned by the triage nurse using ESI v.4 algorithm, disposition (admission vs discharge), LOS, and number of resources utilized in the ED. To analyze the validity of ESI v.4, patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison: higher-acuity patients (ESI levels 1, 2, and 3) and lower-acuity patients (ESI levels 4 and 5). Pearson χ analysis was performed for categorical variables. For continuous variables, we conducted a comparison of means based on parametric distribution of variables. The second arm was a prospective cohort study to determine the interrater reliability of ESI v.4 among and between pediatric triage (PT) nurses and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians. Three raters (2 PT nurses and 1 PEM physician) independently assigned triage scores to 100 patients; k and interclass correlation coefficient were calculated among PT nurses and between the primary PT nurses and physicians. In the validity arm, the distribution of ESI score levels among the 780 cases are as follows: ESI 1: 2 (0.25%); ESI 2: 73 (9.4%); ESI 3: 289 (37%); ESI 4: 251 (32%); and ESI 5: 165 (21%). Hospital admission rates by ESI level were 1: 100%, 2: 42%, 3: 14.9%, 4: 1.2%, and 5: 0.6%. The admission rate of the higher-acuity group (76/364, 21%) was significantly greater than the lower-acuity group (4/415, 0.96%), P group was

  10. The oxygen reactivity index and its relation to sensor technology in patients with severe brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Julius; Frenzel, Christin; Vajkoczy, Peter; Horn, Peter; Wolf, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The oxygen reactivity index (ORx) has been introduced to assess the status of cerebral autoregulation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Currently, there is some controversy about whether the ORx depends on the type of PbrO2-sensor technology used for its calculation. To examine if the probe technology does matter, we compared the ORx and the resulting optimal cerebral perfusion pressures (CPPopt) of simultaneously implanted Licox (CC1.SB, Integra Neuroscience, France) and Neurovent-PTO (Raumedic, Germany) probes in patients after aneurysmal SAH or severe TBI. Licox and Raumedic probes were implanted side by side in 11 patients after TBI or SAH. ORx and CPPopt were recorded continuously. The equivalence of both probes was examined using Bland-Altman analyses. The mean difference in ORx was 0.1, with Licox producing higher values. The limits of agreement regarding ORx ranged from -0.6 to +0.7. When both probes' ORx values were compared in each patient, no specific pattern in their relationship was seen. The mean difference in CPPopt was 0 mmHg with limits of agreement between -16.5 and +16.4 mmHg. Owing to the rather limited number of patients, we view the results of this study as preliminary. The main result is that Licox and Raumedic showed consistent differences in ORx and CPPopt. Therefore, ORx values of both probes cannot be interchanged and should not be viewed as equivalent. This should be taken into consideration when discussing ORx data generated by different PbrO2 probe types.

  11. Hemolysis is associated with low reticulocyte production index and predicts blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Fendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA, a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU (interquartile range (IR: 2.2-9.6 vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3-3.9, p<0.01. Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1, CD55 (decay acceleration factor and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, alpha-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin, which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI: 8.9-427. Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  12. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  13. The Gait Deviation Index Is Associated with Hip Muscle Strength and Patient-Reported Outcome in Patients with Severe Hip Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    ) and with severe primary hip osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Mean Gait Deviation Index, pain after walking and maximal isometric hip muscle strength (flexor, extensor, and abductor) were recorded. All patients completed the 'Physical Function Short-form of the Hip disability...... was to investigate associations between Gait Deviation Index as a measure of gait 'quality' and hip muscle strength and between Gait Deviation Index and patient-reported outcomes in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. METHOD: Forty-seven patients (34 males), aged 61.1 ± 6.7 years, with BMI 27.3 ± 3.4 (kg/m2...... and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS-Physical Function) and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales for pain (HOOS-Pain) and quality-of-life (HOOS-QOL). RESULTS: Mean Gait Deviation Index was positively associated with hip abduction strength (pstrength (p = 0...

  14. How to Measure Globalisation? A New Globalisation Index (NGI)

    OpenAIRE

    Vujakovic, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a new composite globalisation index will be presented. With its 21 variables, it accounts for the multidimensionality of this phenomenon instead of relying purely on economic indicators. As compared to other existing globalisation indices, three major innovations are introduced in this New Globalisation Index (NGI). Firstly, five variables that have until now not been used in globalisation indices enter the calculations. Secondly, geographical distances between countries are ...

  15. Online and official price indexes: Measuring Argentina's inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Alberto F.

    2013-01-01

    Prices collected from online retailers can be used to construct daily price indexes that complement official statistics. This paper studies their ability to match official inflation estimates in five Latin American countries, with a focus on Argentina, where official statistics have been heavily criticized in recent years. The data were collected between October 2007 and March 2011 from the largest supermarket in each country. In Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela, online price indexes ap...

  16. Analytical measurements of fission products during a severe nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doizi, D.; Reymond la Ruinaz, S.; Haykal, I.; Manceron, L.; Perrin, A.; Boudon, V.; Vander Auwera, J.; tchana, F. Kwabia; Faye, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Fukushima accident emphasized the fact that ways to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident remain to be developed. No fission products were monitored during twelve days; only dose rates were measured, which is not sufficient to carry out an online diagnosis of the event. The first measurements were announced with little reliability for low volatile fission products. In order to improve the safety of nuclear plants and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of a severe accident, it is necessary to develop new reliable measurement systems, operating at the earliest and closest to the emission source of fission products. Through the French program ANR « Projet d'Investissement d'Avenir », the aim of the DECA-PF project (diagnosis of core degradation from fission products measurements) is to monitor in real time the release of the major fission products (krypton, xenon, gaseous forms of iodine and ruthenium) outside the nuclear reactor containment. These products are released at different times during a nuclear accident and at different states of the nuclear core degradation. Thus, monitoring these fission products gives information on the situation inside the containment and helps to apply the Severe Accident Management procedures. Analytical techniques have been proposed and evaluated. The results are discussed here.

  17. Analytical measurements of fission products during a severe nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doizi D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima accident emphasized the fact that ways to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident remain to be developed. No fission products were monitored during twelve days; only dose rates were measured, which is not sufficient to carry out an online diagnosis of the event. The first measurements were announced with little reliability for low volatile fission products. In order to improve the safety of nuclear plants and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of a severe accident, it is necessary to develop new reliable measurement systems, operating at the earliest and closest to the emission source of fission products. Through the French program ANR « Projet d’Investissement d’Avenir », the aim of the DECA-PF project (diagnosis of core degradation from fission products measurements is to monitor in real time the release of the major fission products (krypton, xenon, gaseous forms of iodine and ruthenium outside the nuclear reactor containment. These products are released at different times during a nuclear accident and at different states of the nuclear core degradation. Thus, monitoring these fission products gives information on the situation inside the containment and helps to apply the Severe Accident Management procedures. Analytical techniques have been proposed and evaluated. The results are discussed here.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Sleep Condition Indicator and Insomnia Severity Index in the evaluation of insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Espie, Colin A; Luik, Annemarie I; Kyle, Simon D; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying

    2017-05-01

    The Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) are commonly used instruments to assess insomnia. We evaluated their psychometric properties, particularly their discriminant validity against structured clinical interview (according to DSM-5 and ICSD-3), and their concurrent validity with measures of sleep and daytime functioning. A total of 158 young adults, 16% of whom were diagnosed with DSM-5 insomnia disorder and 13% with ICSD-3 Chronic Insomnia by structured interview, completed the ISI and SCI twice in 7-14 days, in addition to measures of sleep and daytime function. The Chinese version of the SCI was validated with good psychometric properties (ICC = 0.882). A cutoff of ≥8 on the ISI, ≤5 on the SCI short form, and ≤21 on the SCI achieved high discriminant validity (AUC > 0.85) in identifying individuals with insomnia based on both DSM-5 and ICSD-3 criteria. The SCI and ISI had comparable associations with subjective (0.18 sleep (0.31 disorder. Moreover, they showed good concordance with measures of daytime dysfunction, as well as subjective and objective sleep. The SCI and ISI are recommended for use in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of renal index on X-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Morphological measurements of the kidney were made using X-CT images. Anteroposterior (AP) width of the kidney as well as the renal sinus on both right and left sides and the transverse width of the first lumbar vertebral body were measured from CT images. Changes according to age in AP width of the kidney and the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body were investigated. As to the ratio of the AP width of the kidney (both right and left) to the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body, and the ratio of the AP width of the kidney to the AP width of the renal sinus, the changes due to aging and the differences between male and female were studied. The average AP width of the right kidney was 47 mm, while that of the left kidney was 49 mm. The left kidney was slightly larger than the right kidney with statistical significance. In subjects up to 19 years of age, both the AP width of the kidney and the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body showed correlation with age, while after the age of 20, there was no age-related correlation. The average ratio of the AP width of the kidney to the transverse width of the lumbar vertebral body was 1.13 for the right kidney and 1.19 for the left kidney. The difference between those two items was statistically significant and the changes due to aging were slight. During the age between 4 and 64 years, they were constant and no significant change was noticed. No difference between male and female was found. From the age of 65 years, a decreasing tendency was noticed. The ratios of AP width of the kidney to the AP width of renal sinus for both kidneys in males and females were found to be inversely correlated with age. They were similar to the changes due to aging in renal functions of the cortex system. On CT images, the ratio of AP width could be the index of both the size of the kidney and the thickness of the renal parenchyma respectively. (author)

  20. Water permeability is a measure of severity in acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Nicola; Pfeifle, Viktoria A; Kym, Urs; Keck, Simone; Galati, Virginie; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Gros, Stephanie J

    2017-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common indication for pediatric abdominal emergency surgery. Determination of the severity of appendicitis on clinical grounds is challenging. Complicated appendicitis presenting with perforation, abscess or diffuse peritonitis is not uncommon. The question remains why and when acute appendicitis progresses to perforation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of water permeability on the severity of appendicitis. We show that AQP1 expression and water permeability in appendicitis correlate with the stage of inflammation and systemic infection parameters, leading eventually to perforation of the appendix. AQP1 is also expressed within the ganglia of the enteric nervous system and ganglia count increases with inflammation. Severity of appendicitis can be correlated with water permeability measured by AQP1 protein expression and increase of ganglia count in a progressive manner. This introduces the question if regulation of water permeability can present novel curative or ameliorating therapeutic options.

  1. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  2. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  3. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiao-Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI and simple PESI (sPESI are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15, PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17 and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41, with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14, 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26 and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51, respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16, 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21, and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38, respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916, 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415, and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978, 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388, and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0

  4. A Bayesian ensemble of sensitivity measures for severe accident modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Department of Basic Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Di Maio, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaio@polimi.it [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Vagnoli, Matteo [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Chair on System Science and Energetic Challenge, Fondation EDF – Electricite de France Ecole Centrale, Paris, and Supelec, Paris (France); Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We propose a sensitivity analysis (SA) method based on a Bayesian updating scheme. • The Bayesian updating schemes adjourns an ensemble of sensitivity measures. • Bootstrap replicates of a severe accident code output are fed to the Bayesian scheme. • The MELCOR code simulates the fission products release of LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment. • Results are compared with those of traditional SA methods. - Abstract: In this work, a sensitivity analysis framework is presented to identify the relevant input variables of a severe accident code, based on an incremental Bayesian ensemble updating method. The proposed methodology entails: (i) the propagation of the uncertainty in the input variables through the severe accident code; (ii) the collection of bootstrap replicates of the input and output of limited number of simulations for building a set of finite mixture models (FMMs) for approximating the probability density function (pdf) of the severe accident code output of the replicates; (iii) for each FMM, the calculation of an ensemble of sensitivity measures (i.e., input saliency, Hellinger distance and Kullback–Leibler divergence) and the updating when a new piece of evidence arrives, by a Bayesian scheme, based on the Bradley–Terry model for ranking the most relevant input model variables. An application is given with respect to a limited number of simulations of a MELCOR severe accident model describing the fission products release in the LP-FP-2 experiment of the loss of fluid test (LOFT) facility, which is a scaled-down facility of a pressurized water reactor (PWR).

  5. An index formula for measuring development in second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grade 12 compositions were analysed and the statistical procedures used in the analysis (correlation, stepwise regression and discriminant analysis) are described. The proposed index formula is Length x EFT/T. This formula can be used in future to determine developmental progress in second language acquisition, and ...

  6. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)

  7. Measurement of gradient index profiles by Babinet fringe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, T P; Saxena, A K

    1979-03-01

    A theory for determining one-dimensional ray deflections with the help of distorted Babinet fringes has been developed. An approach for investigating two-dimensional ray deflections has been presented. Applications of the techniques for the study of gradient index glass have been described.

  8. Nest building is a novel method for indexing severity of alcohol withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, G D; Huang, L C; Spence, S E; Schlumbohm, J P; Metten, P; Ozburn, A R; Crabbe, J C

    2016-04-01

    Withdrawal after chronic ethanol (EtOH) affects body temperature, goal-directed behavior and motor function in mice and increases general central nervous system excitability. Nest-building tests have been used to assay these states but to this point have not been employed as measures of EtOH withdrawal severity. We first refined nest-scoring methods using a genetically heterogeneous stock of mice (HS/Npt). Mice were then made physically dependent following three days of chronic EtOH vapor inhalation to produce average blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 1.89 mg/mL. EtOH withdrawal affected the progression of nest building over time when mice were tested 2-4 days after removal from three days of chronic exposure to EtOH. In a separate group of mice, chronic EtOH vapor inhalation (BECs 1.84 mg/mL) suppressed nest building over days 1-2 but not days 2-3 of withdrawal. In a following experiment, EtOH withdrawal dose-dependently slowed recovery of nest building for up to 32 h. Finally, we determined that long-lasting nest-building deficits extend to mice undergoing withdrawal from a high dose (4 g/kg) of acute EtOH. Sex differences for nest building were absent following EtOH exposure. In mice naïve to EtOH treatments, male mice had lower pre-test body temperatures and increased nest scores across a two-day testing period compared to females. These results suggest that nest building can be used to assess chronic and acute EtOH withdrawal severity in mice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of muscle injury severity on localized bioimpedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nescolarde, L; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Yanguas, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rodas, G

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injuries in the lower limb are common among professional football players. Classification is made according to severity and is diagnosed with radiological assessment as: grade I (minor strain or minor injury), grade II (partial rupture, moderate injury) and grade III (complete rupture, severe injury). Tetrapolar localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) at 50 kHz made with a phase-sensitive analyzer was used to assess damage to the integrity of muscle structures and the fluid accumulation 24 h after injury in 21 injuries in the quadriceps, hamstring and calf, and was diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of change in BIA variables as indicators of fluid [resistance (R)] and cell structure integrity [reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)] according to the severity of the MRI-defined injury. The % difference compared to the non-injured contralateral muscle also measured 24-h after injury of R, Xc and PA were respectively: grade I (n = 11; −10.4, −17.5 and −9.0%), grade II (n = 8; −18.4, −32.9 and −16.6%) and grade III (n = 2; −14.1, −52.9 and −43.1%), showing a greater significant decrease in Xc (p < 0.001). The greatest relative changes were in grade III injuries. However, decreases in R, that indicate fluid distribution, were not proportional to the severity of the injury. Disruption of the muscle structure, demonstrated by the localized determination of Xc, increased with the severity of muscle injury. The most significant changes 24 h after injury was the sizeable decrease in Xc that indicates a pattern of disrupted soft tissue structure, proportional to the severity of the injury. (paper)

  10. Exploring energy efficiency in several European countries. An attribution analysis of the Divisia structural change index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new attribution analysis approach to study structural change index. • Based on LMDI method, we decompose changes in AEI in the EU in 1995–2010. • Mild AEI drop as a result of structural change, particularly in Eastern economies. • Transport, hotels and restaurants: positive contributors, specifically in Western EU. • Strategies should be focused on Industry: the most influential sector in reducing AEI. - Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the influence that the changes in sectoral composition in most EU economies have had on aggregate energy intensity. We rely on the so-called Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, implemented within a multiplicative energy intensity approach. Then, based on the Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), we present, develop and apply a new methodology that enables the exploration of the contribution of each sector to the percent change in the structural factors index. Our findings show: (a) a greater importance of the intensity factor over the structural one, (b) a positive influence of structural change in some ex-communist countries, and (c) a strong, negative contribution of the industrial sector (including construction) to changes in aggregate energy intensity in most European economies, particularly in the Western ones. In short, adaptation to more efficient techniques, innovation, R and D, and substitution for higher quality energies, seem to be the action lines to follow, although in former communist countries these strategies should be accompanied by other policies aiming at accelerating the transition processes

  11. Measurement of heat transfers in cryogenic tank with several configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemis, O.; Bessaieh, R.; Ait Ali, M.; Francois, M.X.

    2004-01-01

    The work presented here concerns the measurement of heat transfer in a cryogenic tank with several configurations. The experimental test incorporates the conductive heat in the neck, the convection heat transfers between the inner wall of the neck and the ascending vapor resulting from boiling, and the radiation heat transfers between the external envelope and the tank through a vacuum of 10 -8 mm Hg. An experimental prototype was produced in collaboration with the nuclear center of Orsay in France according to a didactic design, which takes into account the Wexler effect and the importance of the radiation compared to the conduction-convection heat transfer. The addition of a screen radiative ventilated with variable position on the neck (which can effectively replace several tens of floating screens), in order to find the optimal position, which minimizes the radiation flux, is presented in this paper

  12. Development of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC score among young children with respiratory infections in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Reed

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children worldwide. A simple clinical score predicting the probability of death in a young child with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI could aid clinicians in case management and provide a standardized severity measure during epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 4,148 LRTI hospitalizations in children <24 months enrolled in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in South Africa from 1998-2001, to develop the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC. Using clinical data at admission, a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality was developed and statistically evaluated using bootstrap resampling techniques. Points were assigned to risk factors based on their coefficients in the multivariable model. A child's RISC score is the sum of points for each risk factor present. Separate models were developed for HIV-infected and non-infected children. RESULTS: Significant risk factors for HIV-infected and non-infected children included low oxygen saturation, chest indrawing, wheezing, and refusal to feed. The models also included age and HIV clinical classification (for HIV-infected children or weight-for-age (for non-infected children. RISC scores ranged up to 7 points for HIV-infected or 6 points for non-infected children and correlated with probability of death (0-47%, HIV-infected; 0-14%, non-infected. Final models showed good discrimination (area under the ROC curve and calibration (goodness-of-fit. CONCLUSION: The RISC score incorporates a simple set of risk factors that accurately discriminate between young children based on their risk of death from LRTI, and may provide an objective means to quantify severity based on the risk of mortality.

  13. Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Diagnostic Accuracy of Hand and Body Anthropometric Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Mauro; Farioli, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano; Aretini, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Federica; Greco, Giuseppe; Curti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic properties of hand/wrist and body measures according to validated clinical and electrophysiological carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) severity scales. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study. For each case, two controls were enrolled. Two five-stage clinical and electrophysiological scales were used to evaluate CTS severity. Anthropometric measurements were collected and obesity indicators and hand/wrist ratios were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated separately by gender. Results We consecutively enrolled 370 cases and 747 controls. The wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio showed the highest proportion of cases with abnormal values in the severe stages of CTS for clinical and electrophysiological severity scales in both genders. Accuracy tended to increase with CTS severity for females and males. In severe stage, most of the indexes presented moderate accuracy in both genders. Among subjects with severe CTS, the wrist-palm ratio presented the highest AUC for hand measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.83 and 0.76, respectively) and males (AUC 0.91 and 0.82, respectively). Among subjects with severe CTS, the waist-stature ratio showed the highest AUC for body measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.78 and 0.77, respectively) and males (AUC 0.84 and 0.76, respectively). The results of waist-hip-height ratio AUC were similar. Conclusions Wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio could contribute to support the diagnostic hypothesis of severe CTS that however has to be confirmed by nerve conduction study. PMID:27768728

  14. Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Diagnostic Accuracy of Hand and Body Anthropometric Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mondelli

    Full Text Available To study the diagnostic properties of hand/wrist and body measures according to validated clinical and electrophysiological carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS severity scales.We performed a prospective case-control study. For each case, two controls were enrolled. Two five-stage clinical and electrophysiological scales were used to evaluate CTS severity. Anthropometric measurements were collected and obesity indicators and hand/wrist ratios were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated separately by gender.We consecutively enrolled 370 cases and 747 controls. The wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio showed the highest proportion of cases with abnormal values in the severe stages of CTS for clinical and electrophysiological severity scales in both genders. Accuracy tended to increase with CTS severity for females and males. In severe stage, most of the indexes presented moderate accuracy in both genders. Among subjects with severe CTS, the wrist-palm ratio presented the highest AUC for hand measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.83 and 0.76, respectively and males (AUC 0.91 and 0.82, respectively. Among subjects with severe CTS, the waist-stature ratio showed the highest AUC for body measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.78 and 0.77, respectively and males (AUC 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. The results of waist-hip-height ratio AUC were similar.Wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio could contribute to support the diagnostic hypothesis of severe CTS that however has to be confirmed by nerve conduction study.

  15. Measurement of the Microwave Refractive Index of Materials Based on Parallel Plate Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Pei, J.; Kan, J. S.; Zhao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    An electrical field scanning apparatus based on a parallel plate waveguide method is constructed, which collects the amplitude and phase matrices as a function of the relative position. On the basis of such data, a method for calculating the refractive index of the measured wedge samples is proposed in this paper. The measurement and calculation results of different PTFE samples reveal that the refractive index measured by the apparatus is substantially consistent with the refractive index inferred with the permittivity of the sample. The proposed refractive index calculation method proposed in this paper is a competitive method for the characterization of the refractive index of materials with positive refractive index. Since the apparatus and method can be used to measure and calculate arbitrary direction of the microwave propagation, it is believed that both of them can be applied to the negative refractive index materials, such as metamaterials or “left-handed” materials.

  16. Implementation of severe accident management measures - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: 1) to exchange information on activities in the area of SAM implementation and on the rationale for such actions, 2) to monitor progress made, 3) to identify cases of agreement or disagreement, 4) to discuss future orientations of work, 5) to make recommendations to the CSNI. Session summaries prepared by the Chairpersons and discussed by the whole writing group are given in Annex. During the first session, 'SAM Programmes Implementation', papers from one regulator and several utilities and national research institutes were presented to outline the status of implementation of SAM programmes in countries like Switzerland, Russia, Spain, Finland, Belgium and Korea. Also, the contribution of SAM to the safety of Japanese plants (in terms of core damage frequency) was quantified in a paper. One paper gave an overview on the situation regarding SAM implementation in Europe. The second session, 'SAM Approach', provided background and bases for Severe Accident Management in countries like Sweden, Japan, Germany and Switzerland, as well as for hardware features in advanced light water reactor designs, such as the European Pressurised Reactor (EPR), regarding Severe Accident Management. The third session, 'SAM Mitigation Measures', was about hardware measures, in particular those oriented towards hydrogen mitigation where fundamentally different approaches have been taken in Scandinavian countries, France, Germany and Korea. Three papers addressed specific contributions from research to provide a broader basis for the assumptions made in certain computer codes used for the assessment of plant risk arising from beyond-design accident sequences. The fourth session, 'Implementation of SAM Measures on VVER-1000 Reactors', was about the status of work on Severe Accident Management implementation in VVER reactors of existing design and in a new plant currently under construction. The overall picture is that Severe Accident Management has been

  17. Risk indices of an ecological catastrophe because of a severe accident, its insurance, and their measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampuro, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The critical analysis of the existing measurement units of the risk of an ecological catastrophe because of severe accidents is performed. The mistake of using the measurement unit 'reactor/year' for estimation of ecological catastrophe's consequences is shown. The complex for risk assessment by costs to ensure the ecological safety is introduced. The index of virtual accident insurance is suggested

  18. Cuvette and method for measuring refractive index in a spectrophotometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a cuvette (100) for use in determining a refractive index of a sample matter in a spectrophotometer (600), the cuvette comprising a container (102) for holding the sample matter, the container (102) having an entry window (121) that allows input...... or integrally formed in the container and arranged in the radiation path, the photonic crystal having a grating part (111) causing a reflectance spectrum of the photonic crystal to exhibit a resonance. A spectrophotometer is also provided....

  19. Measuring the Multinational Business Value – An indexing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MONGAY HURTADO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project aims to present a comparative analysis of countries related to the value of their MNCs in the global arena. The study works in secondary data analysis using as a platform the Forbes Global 2000 list, which is maybe the best source explaining the presence of MNCs by country. This research goes beyond the information provided by the original list, offering an index and information about the number of corporations per country as well as their value (number of corpora-tions per country, their position in the ranking and the weight obtained by each company expressed in numerical value. Also the index obtained has been adjusted to the population of each country to determine which one should be the expected value per country from a more realistic perspective. An analysis of cultural clus-ters and trading zones has been applied as well. Finally, a calculation of the dif-ferent sectors where MNCs operate give the index the possibility to estimate the % of penetration or importance of the services and financial sector in each country and in the world.

  20. Development of the Eating Choices Index (ECI): a four-item index to measure healthiness of diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Richards, M.; Prynne, C.J.; Stephen, AM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current indices of diet quality generally include intakes of specific foods or nutrients. We sought to develop an index that discriminates healthy and unhealthy eating choices for use in large surveys as a short questionnaire and as a measure in existing studies with adequate dietary data.

  1. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drought is a recurring extreme climate event characterized by a temporary deficit of precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow, or any combination of the three taking place at the same time. The immediate consequences of short-term (i.e. a few weeks duration) droughts are, for example, a fall in crop production, poor pasture growth and a decline in fodder supplies from crop residues, whereas prolonged water shortages (e.g. of several months or years duration) may, amongst others, lead to a reduction in hydro-electrical power production and an increase of forest fires. As a result, comprehensive drought risk management is nowadays critical for many regions in the world. Examples are many African and South-and Central American countries that strongly depend on rain-fed agriculture for economic development with hydroelectricity and biomass as main sources of energy. Drought risk is the probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses resulting from interactions between drought hazard, i.e. the physical nature of droughts, and the degree to which a population or activity is vulnerable to its effects. As vulnerability to drought is increasing globally and certain tasks, such as distributive policies (e.g. relief aid, regulatory exemptions, or preparedness investments), require information on drought severity that is comparable across different climatic regions, greater attention has recently been directed to the development of methods for a standardized quantification of drought hazard. In this study we, therefore, concentrate on a methodology for assessing the severity of historical droughts and on mapping the frequency of their occurrence. To achieve these goals, we use a new Meteorological Drought Severity Index (MDSI). The motivation is twofold: 1) the observation that primitive indices of drought severity directly measure local precipitation shortages and cannot be compared geographically; and that 2) standardized indices of drought do not take into account

  2. Homodyne chiral polarimetry for measuring thermo-optic refractive index variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Ruey-Ching; Wang, Jhao-Sheng

    2015-10-10

    Novel reflection-type homodyne chiral polarimetry is proposed for measuring the refractive index variations of a transparent plate under thermal impact. The experimental results show it is a simple and useful method for providing accurate measurements of refractive index variations. The measurement can reach a resolution of 7×10-5.

  3. Counter-Propagating Optical Trapping System for Size and Refractive Index Measurement of Microparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Richard A; Shao, Bing; Chachisvilis, Mirianas; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Esener, Sadik C

    2005-01-01

    .... Different from the current best technique for microparticles refractive index measurement, refractometry, a bulk technique requiring changing the fluid composition of the sample, our optical trap...

  4. A data science based standardized Gini index as a Lorenz dominance preserving measure of the inequality of distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    The Gini index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution that can be derived from Lorenz curves. While commonly used in, e.g., economic research, it suffers from ambiguity via lack of Lorenz dominance preservation. Here, investigation of large sets of empirical distributions of incomes of the World's countries over several years indicated firstly, that the Gini indices are centered on a value of 33.33% corresponding to the Gini index of the uniform distribution and secondly, that the Lorenz curves of these distributions are consistent with Lorenz curves of log-normal distributions. This can be employed to provide a Lorenz dominance preserving equivalent of the Gini index. Therefore, a modified measure based on log-normal approximation and standardization of Lorenz curves is proposed. The so-called UGini index provides a meaningful and intuitive standardization on the uniform distribution as this characterizes societies that provide equal chances. The novel UGini index preserves Lorenz dominance. Analysis of the probability density distributions of the UGini index of the World's counties income data indicated multimodality in two independent data sets. Applying Bayesian statistics provided a data-based classification of the World's countries' income distributions. The UGini index can be re-transferred into the classical index to preserve comparability with previous research.

  5. A data science based standardized Gini index as a Lorenz dominance preserving measure of the inequality of distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ultsch

    Full Text Available The Gini index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution that can be derived from Lorenz curves. While commonly used in, e.g., economic research, it suffers from ambiguity via lack of Lorenz dominance preservation. Here, investigation of large sets of empirical distributions of incomes of the World's countries over several years indicated firstly, that the Gini indices are centered on a value of 33.33% corresponding to the Gini index of the uniform distribution and secondly, that the Lorenz curves of these distributions are consistent with Lorenz curves of log-normal distributions. This can be employed to provide a Lorenz dominance preserving equivalent of the Gini index. Therefore, a modified measure based on log-normal approximation and standardization of Lorenz curves is proposed. The so-called UGini index provides a meaningful and intuitive standardization on the uniform distribution as this characterizes societies that provide equal chances. The novel UGini index preserves Lorenz dominance. Analysis of the probability density distributions of the UGini index of the World's counties income data indicated multimodality in two independent data sets. Applying Bayesian statistics provided a data-based classification of the World's countries' income distributions. The UGini index can be re-transferred into the classical index to preserve comparability with previous research.

  6. PWR severe accident mitigation measures, the french point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1990-01-01

    French studies have early considered the fact that, despite all the precautions taken, the possibility of severe accidents cannot be absolutely excluded; these accidents include core meltdown and a more or less significant loss, at an early or later stage, of the confinement of the radioactive substances in the containment. For a given scenario, one can almost always imagine a more severe scenario by postulating additional failures, but it is obvious that, as the severity of the imagined scenario increases, the probability of its occurrence tends towards zero. However, it does not appear reasonable to attempt to set a probability threshold below which the scenarios should be excluded. First of all, the higher the improbability of the scenarios, the greater the uncertainty in the calculation of their probability, with the result that the calculation is not very meaningful. Secondly, and more importantly, this approach ignores the essential problem of accident situation management. From the outset, French studies have been focused on controlling the development of these situations and mitigating their consequences by means of a series of appropriate actions involving, on the one hand, optimum use of the resources available in the installation during the course of the accident and, on the other hand, the taking of protective measures for the population. To attempt to prevent an initial event to degenerate into a severe accident leading to core meltdown if the proper actions are not taken, Electricite de France has proposed a new operating procedure based on the characterization of every possible cooling state of the core

  7. A comparison principle for an American option on several assets: Index and spread options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Laurence

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of symmetrization, we compare the price of the American option on an index or spread to that of the solution of a parabolic variational inequality in one spatial variable. This comparison principle is established for a broad class of diffusion operators with time and state dependent coefficients. The purpose is to take a first step towards deriving symmmetrized problems whose solutions bound solutions of multidimensional American option problems with variable coefficients when the computation of the latter lies beyond the scope of the most powerful numerical methods.

  8. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  9. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  10. Proposal of a service delivery integration index of home care for older persons: application in several European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Henrard

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To propose an integration index of home care delivery to older persons, to study its validity and to apply it to home care services of European cities. Theory: Home care delivery integration was based on two dimensions referring to process-centred integration and organisational structure approach. Method: Items considered as part of both dimensions according to an expert consensus (face validity were extracted from a standardised questionnaire used in “Aged in Home care” (AdHoc study to capture basic characteristics of home care services. Their summation leads to a services' delivery integration index. This index was applied to AdHoc services. A factor analysis was computed in order to empirically test the validity of the theoretical constructs. The plot of the settings was performed. Results: Application of the index ranks home care services in four groups according to their score. Factor analysis identifies a first factor which opposes working arrangement within service to organisational structure bringing together provisions for social care. A second factor corresponds to basic nursing care and therapies. Internal consistency for those three domains ranges from 0.78 to 0.93. When plotting the different settings different models of service delivery appear. Conclusion: The proposed index shows that behind a total score several models of care delivery are hidden. Comparison of service delivery integration should take into account this heterogeneity.

  11. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  12. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  13. Measurement of Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Using Interferometric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, James A.; Green, William E.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Schmidt, Greg R.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2017-01-01

    A system combining an interferometer with an environmental chamber for measuring both coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and temperature-dependent refractive index (dn/dT) simultaneously is presented. The operation and measurement results of this instrument are discussed.

  14. Index profile measurement of asymmetrical elliptical preforms or fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitterswijk, van W.; Smit, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    An extension of the beam-deflection method to the case of elliptical preforms with eccentric core (asymmetrical elliptical preforms) is presented, which can be easily implemented on automatic measurement equipment

  15. Discussion on calculation of disease severity index values from scales with unequal intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    When estimating severity of disease, a disease interval (or category) scale comprises a number of categories of known numeric values – with plant disease this is generally the percent area with symptoms (e.g., the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale). Studies in plant pathology and plant breeding often use...

  16. Z factor: a new index for measuring academic research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With rapid progress in scientific research activities and growing competition for funding resources, it becomes critical to effectively evaluate an individual researcher's annual academic performance, or their cumulative performance within the last 3–5 years. It is particularly important for young independent investigators, and is also useful for funding agencies when determining the productivity and quality of grant awardees. As the funding becomes increasingly limited, having an unbiased method of measuring recent performance of an individual scientist is clearly needed. Here I propose the Z factor, a new and useful way to measure recent academic performance.

  17. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  18. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-01-01

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  19. Measuring highway efficiency : A DEA approach and the Malquist index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmento, Joaquim Miranda; Renneboog, Luc; Verga-Matos, Pedro

    A growing concern exists regarding the efficiency of public resources spent in transport infrastructures. In this paper, we measure the efficiency of seven highway projects in Portugal over the past decade by means of a data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist productivity and efficiency indices.

  20. Plasmonic nanoshell functionalized etched fiber Bragg gratings for highly sensitive refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Jörg; Feizpour, Amin; Schade, Wolfgang; Reinhard, Björn M

    2015-02-15

    A novel fiber optical refractive index sensor based on gold nanoshells immobilized on the surface of an etched single-mode fiber including a Bragg grating is demonstrated. The nanoparticle coating induces refractive index dependent waveguide losses, because of the variation of the evanescently guided part of the light. Hence the amplitude of the Bragg reflection is highly sensitive to refractive index changes of the surrounding medium. The nanoshell functionalized fiber optical refractive index sensor works in reflectance mode, is suitable for chemical and biochemical sensing, and shows an intensity dependency of 4400% per refractive index unit in the refractive index range between 1.333 and 1.346. Furthermore, the physical length of the sensor is smaller than 3 mm with a diameter of 6 μm, and therefore offers the possibility of a localized refractive index measurement.

  1. Building and verifying a severity prediction model of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on BISAP, MEWS and routine test indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Yu-Xin; Ju, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    To discuss the value of the Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), serum Ca2+, similarly hereinafter, and red cell distribution width (RDW) for predicting the severity grade of acute pancreatitis and to develop and verify a more accurate scoring system to predict the severity of AP. In 302 patients with AP, we calculated BISAP and MEWS scores and conducted regression analyses on the relationships of BISAP scoring, RDW, MEWS, and serum Ca2+ with the severity of AP using single-factor logistics. The variables with statistical significance in the single-factor logistic regression were used in a multi-factor logistic regression model; forward stepwise regression was used to screen variables and build a multi-factor prediction model. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was constructed, and the significance of multi- and single-factor prediction models in predicting the severity of AP using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was evaluated. The internal validity of the model was verified through bootstrapping. Among 302 patients with AP, 209 had mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and 93 had severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). According to single-factor logistic regression analysis, we found that BISAP, MEWS and serum Ca2+ are prediction indexes of the severity of AP (P-value0.05). The multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that BISAP and serum Ca2+ are independent prediction indexes of AP severity (P-value0.05); BISAP is negatively related to serum Ca2+ (r=-0.330, P-valuemodel is as follows: ln()=7.306+1.151*BISAP-4.516*serum Ca2+. The predictive ability of each model for SAP follows the order of the combined BISAP and serum Ca2+ prediction model>Ca2+>BISAP. There is no statistical significance for the predictive ability of BISAP and serum Ca2+ (P-value>0.05); however, there is remarkable statistical significance for the predictive ability using the newly built prediction model as well as BISAP

  2. Refractive Index Measurement of Fibers Through Fizeau Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Ottawa, Canada) Infinity3-1 Strip heaters McMaster -Carr (Chicago, IL) 35475K722 Temperature controller Glas-Col, LLC (Terre-Haute, IN) DigiTrol II...optic coefficient was also measured for representative samples of both the PP monofilament and nylon ribbon fibers. The undrawn PP monofilament...nylon, the coefficient of thermal expansion of polymers can often be used to estimate their respective dn/dT (13). Using this method, the expected

  3. Is Barthel index a relevant measure for measuring prevalence of urinary incontinence in stroke patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2012-01-01

    ‐PSS‐1 questionnaire contains more specific UI information compared to the Barthel Index. Fewer stroke patients reported UI by the Barthel Index compared to the DAN‐PSS‐1 questionnaire and moreover the DAN‐PSS‐1 questionnaire enables identification of different UI‐types. The Barthel Index...

  4. The reliability of three psoriasis assessment tools: Psoriasis area and severity index, body surface area and physician global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Agnieszka; Reich, Adam

    2017-08-01

    A wide variety of psoriasis assessment tools have been proposed to evaluate the severity of psoriasis in clinical trials and daily practice. The most frequently used clinical instrument is the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI); however, none of the currently published severity scores used for psoriasis meets all the validation criteria required for an ideal score. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the reliability of 3 commonly used assessment instruments for psoriasis severity: the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and physician global assessment (PGA). On the scoring day, 10 trained dermatologists evaluated 9 adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis using the PASI, BSA and PGA. All the subjects were assessed twice by each physician. Correlations between the assessments were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to analyze intra-rater reliability, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess inter-rater variability. Significant correlations were observed among the 3 scales in both assessments. In all 3 scales the ICCs were > 0.75, indicating high intra-rater reliability. The highest ICC was for the BSA (0.96) and the lowest one for the PGA (0.87). The CV for the PGA and PASI were 29.3 and 36.9, respectively, indicating moderate inter-rater variability. The CV for the BSA was 57.1, indicating high inter-rater variability. Comparing the PASI, PGA and BSA, it was shown that the PGA had the highest inter-rater reliability, whereas the BSA had the highest intra-rater reliability. The PASI showed intermediate values in terms of interand intra-rater reliability. None of the 3 assessment instruments showed a significant advantage over the other. A reliable assessment of psoriasis severity requires the use of several independent evaluations simultaneously.

  5. Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Based on Microstructured Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on microstructured optical fiber sensors developed in recent years for liquid RI sensing. The review is divided into three parts: the first section introduces a general view of the most relevant refractometric sensors that have been reported over the last thirty years. Section 2 discusses several microstructured optical fiber designs, namely, suspended-core fiber, photonic crystal fiber, large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber, and others. This part is also divided into two main groups: the interferometric-based and resonance-based configurations. The sensing methods rely either on full/selective filling of the microstructured fiber air holes with a liquid analyte or by simply immersing the sensing fiber into the liquid analyte. The sensitivities and resolutions are tabled at the end of this section followed by a brief discussion of the obtained results. The last section concludes with some remarks about the microstructured fiber-based configurations developed for RI sensing and their potential for future applications.

  6. Development of a Chinese medicine pattern severity index for understanding eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah; Harris, David; Zaslawski, Chris; McAinch, Andrew J; Stojanovska, Lily

    2012-06-01

    Eating disorders commonly affect young girls and women. Four eating disorders are analyzed in this study: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and binge eating disorder (BED). Eating disorders are a modern concept and as such there is no critically appraised research on how Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) conceptualizes of or treats eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the TCM patterns relevant to eating disorders based on a systematic evaluation of the results of a self-reported questionnaire. One hundred and ninety-six (196) female participants (142 with a self-reported eating disorder and 54 with no eating disorder) completed an online survey, designed to collect data on their current general health and, where relevant, their eating disorder. The Berle methodology was used to identify TCM patterns involved in eating disorders to tabulate and score the number of signs and symptoms experienced by the participants. For many of the TCM patterns, statistically significant differences were found between presentation severity across the four eating disorders. For the first time, there is evidence-based research to classify the TCM patterns involved in AN, BN, EDNOS, and BED. Evidence is given to support the anecdotal theories of TCM patterns involved in eating disorder presentation. These results have relevance on how eating disorders are treated and viewed by TCM practitioners.

  7. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy, we measured the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600 nm, 1.572, 1.552 and 1.541,

  8. Refractive Index of a Transparent Liquid Measured with a Concave Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amitabh; Serna, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the refractive index "n" of a substance or medium is part of every introductory physics course. Various approaches to determine this index have been developed over the years based on the different ways light reflects and transmits in the medium. In this paper, the authors would like to present a simple geometrical derivation of the…

  9. A New Way of Measuring Openness: The Open Governance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Laffan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Open source software is now "business as usual" in the mobile industry. While much attention is given to the importance of open source licenses, we argue in this article that the governance model can be as necessary to a project’s success and that projects vary widely in the governance models – whether open or closed – that they employ. Open source governance models describe the control points that are used to influence open source projects with regard to access to the source code, how the source code is developed, how derivatives are created, and the community structure of the project. Governance determines who has control over the project beyond what is deemed legally necessary via the open source licenses for that project. The purpose of our research is to define and measure the governance of open source projects, in other words, the extent to which decision-making in an open source project is "open" or "closed". We analyzed eight open source projects using 13 specific governance criteria across four areas of governance: access, development, derivatives and community. Our findings suggest that the most open platforms will be most successful in the long term, however we acknowledge exceptions to this rule. We also identify best practices that are common across these open source projects with regard to source code access, development of source code, management of derivatives, and community structure. These best practices increase the likelihood of developer use of and involvement in open source projects.

  10. Role of bedside index for severity of acute pancreatitis (bisap score in predicting outcome in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnawaz Bashir Bhat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of Bedside index for severity of acute pancreatitis (BISAP score in predicting the outcome of acute pancreatitis. Methods: This single hospital based prospective study included fifty patients of acute pancreatitis admitted within 48 hours of onset of symptoms, who were divided into two groups according to admission BISAP score. BISAP score 3 (severe acute pancreatitis. The ability of BISAP score to predict mortality, morbidity and hospital stay in acute pancreatitis patients was analyzed. Results: A BISAP score of >3 was associated with increased risk of development of transient organ failure, persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis (Statistically significant. Mortality in group with BISAP and #8805;3 was 23.5% (4 patients which was statistically higher than group with BISAP score and #706;3 (0 patients (p=0.019.The mean duration of hospital stay of patients in group with BISAP score < 3 was 7.58 +/- 4.04 days and in group with BISAP score and #8805;3 was 15.35 +/- 1.66.(p=0.02. Conclusion: Bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP score, at admission is an excellent score in predicting the mortality, morbidity and hospital stay and hence management protocol in patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 215-220

  11. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plant. Part 1. Proposal of resilience index for assessment of safety of nuclear power plant under severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demachi, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Itoi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In this research, a new index 'The Resilience Index' was proposed to evaluate the capability of nuclear power plant to recover from the situation of safety function lost. Three elements assumed to evaluate the resilience index are the achievement rate, necessary time, and probability of success of each accident management activity. The resilience index is expected to visualize the improvement of safety of each nuclear power plant against severe accidents. (author)

  12. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  13. Measurements of gain and index dynamics in quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds....

  14. Counter-Propagating Optical Trapping System for Size and Refractive Index Measurement of Microparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Richard A; Shao, Bing; Chachisvilis, Mirianas; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Esener, Sadik C

    2005-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to measure the size and refractive index of microparticles based on two beam optical trapping, where forward scattered light is detected to give information about the particle...

  15. Correlation of cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo de Tarso M; Filho, Edson Santos Ferreira; Araujo, Telma Maria Evangelista de; Neto, Jose Machado Moita; Borges, Nubia Evangelista de Sa; Neto, Baltasar Melo; Campelo, Viriato; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato; Li, Li M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) often have associated changes in craniofacial morphology and distribution of body fat, either alone or in combination. Aim: To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with OSAHS severity by using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Method: A retrospective cephalometry study of 93 patients with OSAHS was conducted from July 2010 to July 2012. The following measurements were evaluated: body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the angles formed by the cranial base and the maxilla (SNA) and the mandible (SNB), the difference between SNA and SNB (ANB), the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid bone (MP-H), the space between the base of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall (PAS), and the distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the uvula (PNS-P). Means, standard deviations, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and analyzed. Results: AHI correlated significantly with BMI (r = 0.207, p = 0.047), NC (r = 0.365, p = 0.000), WC (r = 0.337, p = 0.001), PNS-P (r = 0.282, p = 0.006), and MP-H (r = 0.235, p = 0.023). Conclusion: Anthropometric measurements (BMI, NC, and WC) and cephalometric measurements (MP-H and PNS-P) can be used as predictors of OSAHS severity. PMID:25992029

  16. Gain and index measurements in GaAlAs quantum well lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.P.; Harder, C. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Lab., 8803 Ruschlikon (CH))

    1990-07-01

    Measurements of the modal gain and group index in GaAlAs single quantum well (SQW) lasers are presented. The elimination of substrate emission has allowed accurate results to be obtained even in the near bandgap and below spectral regions. Substantial lifetime broadening is observed, and the gain smoothly goes to zero as the bandgap is approached. The group velocity index measurements indicate a dispersion of {minus} 3.44 {mu}m{sup {minus}}.

  17. Validation of the German version of the insomnia severity index in adolescents, young adults and adult workers: results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Lang, Christin; Lemola, Sakari; Colledge, Flora; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-31

    A variety of objective and subjective methods exist to assess insomnia. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was developed to provide a brief self-report instrument useful to assess people's perception of sleep complaints. The ISI was developed in English, and has been translated into several languages including German. Surprisingly, the psychometric properties of the German version have not been evaluated, although the ISI is often used with German-speaking populations. The psychometric properties of the ISI are tested in three independent samples: 1475 adolescents, 862 university students, and 533 police and emergency response service officers. In all three studies, participants provide information about insomnia (ISI), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and psychological functioning (diverse instruments). Descriptive statistics, gender differences, homogeneity and internal consistency, convergent validity, and factorial validity (including measurement invariance across genders) are examined in each sample. The findings show that the German version of the ISI has generally acceptable psychometric properties and sufficient concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analyses show that a 1-factor solution achieves good model fit. Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender is supported in all three samples. While the ISI has been widely used in German-speaking countries, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence that the German version of this instrument has good psychometric properties and satisfactory convergent and factorial validity across various age groups and both men and women. Thus, the German version of the ISI can be recommended as a brief screening measure in German-speaking populations.

  18. The effect of computer-mediated administration on self-disclosure of problems on the addiction severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Villapiano, Albert; Malinow, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    People tend to disclose more personal information when communication is mediated through the use of a computer. This study was conducted to examine the impact of this phenomenon on the way respondents answer questions during computer-mediated, self-administration of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) called the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version((R)) (ASI-MV((R))). A sample of 142 clients in substance abuse treatment was administered the ASI via an interviewer and the computerized ASI-MV((R)), three to five days apart in a counterbalanced order. Seven composite scores were compared between the two test administrations using paired t-tests. Post hoc analyses examined interviewer effects. Comparisons of composite scores for each of the domains between the face-to-face administered and computer-mediated, self-administered ASI revealed that significantly greater problem severity was reported by clients in five of the seven domains during administration of the computer-mediated, self-administered version compared to the trained interviewer version. Item analyses identified certain items as responsible for significant differences, especially those asking clients to rate need for treatment. All items that were significantly different between the two modes of administration revealed greater problem severity reported on the ASI-MV((R)) as compared to the interview administered assessment. Post hoc analyses yielded significant interviewer effects on four of the five domains where differences were observed. These data support a growing literature documenting a tendency for respondents to be more self-disclosing in a computer-mediated format over a face-to-face interview. Differences in interviewer skill in establishing rapport may account for these observations.

  19. Measuring Academic Performance for Healthcare Researchers with the H Index: Which Search Tool Should Be Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vanash M.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Almoudaris, Alex; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare H index scores for healthcare researchers returned by Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus databases, and to assess whether a researcher's age, country of institutional affiliation and physician status influences calculations. Subjects and Methods One hundred and ninety-five Nobel laureates in Physiology and Medicine from 1901 to 2009 were considered. Year of first and last publications, total publications and citation counts, and the H index for each laureate were calculated from each database. Cronbach's alpha statistics was used to measure the reliability of H index scores between the databases. Laureate characteristic influence on the H index was analysed using linear regression. Results There was no concordance between the databases when considering the number of publications and citations count per laureate. The H index was the most reliably calculated bibliometric across the three databases (Cronbach's alpha = 0.900). All databases returned significantly higher H index scores for younger laureates (p < 0.0001). Google Scholar and Web of Science returned significantly higher H index for physician laureates (p = 0.025 and p = 0.029, respectively). Country of institutional affiliation did not influence the H index in any database. Conclusion The H index appeared to be the most consistently calculated bibliometric between the databases for Nobel laureates in Physiology and Medicine. Researcher-specific characteristics constituted an important component of objective research assessment. The findings of this study call to question the choice of current and future academic performance databases. PMID:22964880

  20. A comparison of stroke severity proxy measures for claims data research: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Li, Chung-Yi; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Hu, Ya-Han

    2016-04-01

    Confounding by disease severity has been viewed as an intractable problem in claims-based studies. A novel 7-variable stroke severity index (SSI) was designed for estimating stroke severity by using claims data. This study compared the performance of mortality models with various proxy measures of stroke severity, including the SSI, in patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were analyzed. Three proxy measures of stroke severity were evaluated: Measure 1, the SSI; Measure 2, intensive care unit admission and length of stay; and Measure 3, surgical operation, mechanical ventilation, hemiplegia or hemiparesis, and residual neurological deficits. We performed logistic regression by including age, sex, vascular risk factors, Charlson comorbidity index, and one of the proxy measures as covariates to predict 30-day and 1-year mortality after AIS. Model discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). We identified 7551 adult patients with AIS. Models using the SSI (Measure 1) outperformed models using the other proxy measures in predicting 30-day mortality (AUC 0.892 vs 0.851, p < 0.001 for Measure 2; 0.892 vs 0.853, p < 0.001 for Measure 3) and 1-year mortality (AUC 0.816 vs 0.784, p < 0.001 for Measure 2; 0.816 vs 0.782, p < 0.001 for Measure 3). Using the SSI facilitated risk adjustment for stroke severity in mortality models for patients with AIS. The SSI is a viable methodological tool for stroke outcome studies using the NHIRD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Hypoxaemia as a measure of disease severity in young hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the emergency room were not routinely measured, and thera peutic ... Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Ilorin and ..... a reliable guide to planning the rationing of ... facilities with the capacity and wherewithal for.

  2. Equity in water and sanitation: developing an index to measure progressive realization of the human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Baum, Rachel; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-11-01

    We developed an index to measure progressive realization for the human right to water and sanitation. While in this study we demonstrate its application to the non-discrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the human right. The index was composed of one structural, one process, and two outcome indicators and is bound between -1 and 1, where negative values indicate regression and positive values indicate progressive realization. For individual structural and process indicators, only discrete values such as -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 1 were allowed. For the outcome indicators, any value between -1 and 1 was possible, and a State's progress was evaluated using rates of change. To create an index that would allow for fair comparisons between States and across time, these rates of change were compared to benchmarked rates, which reflect the maximum rates a State can achieve. Using this approach, we calculated the index score for 56 States in 2010 for which adequate data were available and demonstrated that these index scores were not dependent on factors such as achieved level of coverage or gross national income. The proposed index differs from existing measures of inequality as it measures rate of change and not level of achievement, and thus addresses the principle of progressive realization that is fundamental to human rights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of narcolepsy symptoms: The Narcolepsy Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Beziat, Severine; Pesenti, Carole; Lopez, Regis; Barateau, Lucie; Carlander, Bertrand; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Morin, Charles M; Billiard, Michel; Jaussent, Isabelle

    2017-04-04

    To validate the Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS), a brief clinical instrument to evaluate the severity and consequences of symptoms in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). A 15-item scale to assess the frequency and severity of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disrupted nighttime sleep was developed and validated by sleep experts with patients' feedback. Seventy untreated and 146 treated adult patients with NT1 were evaluated and completed the NSS in a single reference sleep center. The NSS psychometric properties, score changes with treatment, and convergent validity with other clinical parameters were assessed. The NSS showed good psychometric properties with significant item-total score correlations. The factor analysis indicated a 3-factor solution with good reliability, expressed by satisfactory Cronbach α values. The NSS total score temporal stability was good. Significant NSS score differences were observed between untreated and treated patients (dependent sample, 41 patients before and after sleep therapy; independent sample, 29 drug-free and 105 treated patients). Scores were lower in the treated populations (10-point difference between groups), without ceiling effect. Significant correlations were found among NSS total score and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mean Sleep Latency Test), depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. The NSS can be considered a reliable and valid clinical tool for the quantification of narcolepsy symptoms to monitor and optimize narcolepsy management. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Status report on severe accident material property measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; McUmber, L.; Spencer, B.W.; Aeschlimann, R.W.

    1997-06-01

    Measurements of selected material properties of molten reactor core material (corium) were made. The corium used was a mixture of UO 2 , ZrO 2 and Zr, with oxygen content being a parameter to reflect different stages of zirconium oxidation. The mixtures used were representative of typical in-vessel melt sequences. For most measurements, the UO 2 /ZrO 2 mass ratio was 1.51, representative of VVER/440 melt compositions and melt compositions of most US BWRs. Measurements were made of the solidus/liquidus temperatures of corium compositions using a Differential Thermal Analysis technique. Observation of the solubility of unoxidized Zr in the oxide phase was made by metallographic analysis of solidus/liquidus melt samples. The results of laminar flow corium spreading tests in one dimension were used to estimate the viscosity of corium compositions. Measured solidus and liquidus temperatures for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% were compared with those obtained form a phase diagram provided by Kurchatov Institute. It was found that experimental measurements agreed well with the phase diagram values at 70% oxidation, but the measured solidus temperatures were higher than those on the phase diagram and the measured liquidus temperatures were lower than those on the phase diagram at 30 and 50% oxidation. From a microstructure examination it was determined that there was no global segregation into distinct metal and oxide phases during the cooldown of a sample in which there was initially 70% Zr oxidation. Therefore it is concluded that Zr metal is soluble in the oxide phase under molten conditions. Viscosity estimates were made for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% by fitting the results of spreading tests to Huppert's equation. It was found that, at a temperature of 2500 C, the viscosity varied by three orders of magnitude over this range of compositions. 10 refs., 39 figs., 16 tabs

  5. The effects of increasing body mass index on heartburn severity, frequency and response to treatment with dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, D A; Pilmer, B; Hunt, B; Mody, R; Perez, M C

    2013-04-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a recognised risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Data regarding the impact of BMI on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are conflicting. To assess the impact of BMI on baseline heartburn symptom severity and frequency and response to PPI therapy in patients with non-erosive GERD (NERD) or erosive oesophagitis (EO). In post hoc analyses of phase 3 trial data, 621 NERD and 2692 EO patients were stratified by BMI (heartburn severity increased with increasing BMI. The impact of PPI therapy on the reduction in heartburn symptom frequency and severity in both NERD and EO patients was similar across BMI categories. EO healing rates in patients treated with dexlansoprazole but not lansoprazole were higher in obese patients compared with those with a BMI heartburn regardless of baseline BMI. In addition, because patients with higher BMI have more severe symptoms at baseline, they may experience greater therapeutic gain with dexlansoprazole (NERD and erosive oesophagitis) and possibly lansoprazole (erosive oesophagitis) treatment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults (18-25 years) with severe obesity compared with population controls of different body mass index levels: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreber, H; Reynisdottir, S; Angelin, B; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F; Hemmingsson, E

    2017-02-01

    Young adults (18-25) with severe obesity constitute a challenging patient group, and there is limited evidence about their mental health status compared to population controls. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults with severe obesity (n = 121, mean body mass index [BMI] = 39.8 kg m -2 ) was compared with matched (1:3 for age, gender and socioeconomic status) population controls of normal weight (n = 363, mean BMI = 22.4 kg m -2 ), as well as unmatched population controls with class I obesity (n = 105, mean BMI = 32.1 kg m -2 ) or severe obesity (n = 41, mean BMI = 39.7 kg m -2 ). Mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and we quantified physician-diagnosed depression, present anxiety and suicide attempts. Poisson regression and linear regression analysis were used for analysing differences in mental distress between groups. Treatment seekers experienced more mental distress than normal weight controls as measured by continuous (adjusted mean: 3.9 vs. 2.2 points, P obesity (adjusted mean: 2.3 points) or severe obesity (adjusted mean: 2.1; both, P Young adult treatment seekers with severe obesity constitute a risk group for mental distress compared to population controls of different BMI levels. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Quantitative analysis of Miller mobility index for the diagnosis of moderate to severe periodontitis - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ping Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: We assessed the mobility of single-root teeth by using Miller's mobility index (MMI and to analyze the validity of MMI for the diagnosis of periodontitis. Materials and methods: A total of 30 patients were included and the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between MMI, clinical attachment level (CAL, and probing depth (PD. The validity of MMI for the diagnosis of the severity of periodontitis was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, area under curve (AUC value, positive predictive value (PPV. Results: Strong correlations were observed between MMI and CAL (r = 0.92 and between MMI and PD (r = 0.76. When the CAL = 3–4 mm and CAL ≥5 mm groups were pooled together, the AUC value was 0.81. The AUC was 0.86 for diagnosis with MMI in the CAL ≥5 mm group. A PPV of 100% was achieved for all grades when MMI >1. When the teeth with PD ≥ 5 to <7 mm and PD ≥ 7 mm groups were pooled together, the AUC value for MMI was 0.80. The PPV was 98.8%, 99%, and 100% for MMI Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3, respectively. When PD ≥ 7 mm was defined as severe periodontitis, the AUC value for MMI was 0.72. Conclusion: MMI may provide valuable information for the diagnosis of moderate and severe periodontitis when CAL is not obtainable during routine practice. Keywords: Miller's mobility index, Negative predictive value, Nonsurgical periodontal therapy, Positive predictive value, Receiver operating characteristic curve, Tooth mobility

  8. Usefulness of CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index for influenza A H1N1v pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estella, A

    2012-01-01

    Usefulness of CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index for influenza A H1N1v pneumonia. A. Estella. Different prognostic scales have been documented to assess the severity and indications for hospitalization and ICU admissions of community acquired pneumonia. During the past two years Influenza A H1N1v infections have been commonly attended to in emergency departments. The aim of the study was to analyse the usefulness of the application of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and CURB-65 prognostic scales in patients with primary viral pneumonia caused by influenza A H1N1v. A retrospective study was performed at a community hospital with a 17 bed-intensive care unit. Patients admitted in hospital with influenza A H1N1v pneumonia over a two year period were analysed. CURB 65 and PSI scales were applied in the emergency department and outcome and destination of admission were analysed. 24 patients were registered, 19 required ICU admission and 5 patients were admitted in medical wards. Most of the patients admitted to the intensive care unit (78.9%) required mechanical ventilation. Mortality was 21.1%. Most patients admitted to the ICU had CURB 65 scale of 1 (60%), 13.3% obtained 0 and 26.7% 2. PSI scale resulted class I in a 20%, class II 40%, 26.7% class IV and 13.3% class V. The scales CURB 65 and PSI showed no differences in scores according to the destination of admission and mortality. Use of CURB-65 and PSI in the emergency department may underestimate the risk of patients with Influenza A H1N1v pneumonia. Based in our results, the ability of these scales to predict ICU admissions for Influenza A H1N1v pneumonia is questioned.

  9. A climate index derived from satellite measured spectral infrared radiation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, M. D.; Fox, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical infrared radiative emitting structure (VIRES) climate index, based on radiative transfer theory and derived from the spectral radiances typically used to retrieve temperature profiles, is introduced. It is assumed that clouds and climate are closely related and a change in one will result in a change in the other. The index is a function of the cloud, temperature, and moisture distributions. It is more accurately retrieved from satellite data than is cloudiness per se. The VIRES index is based upon the shape and relative magnitude of the broadband weighting function of the infrared radiative transfer equation. The broadband weighting curves are retrieved from simulated satellite infrared sounder data (spectral radiances). The retrieval procedure is described and the error error sensitivities of the method investigated. Index measuring options and possible applications of the VIRES index are proposed.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of strain, temperature and refractive index based on multimode interference, fiber tapering and fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Osório, Jonas H; Aristilde, Stenio; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; Bilro, Lúcia; Nogueira, Rogerio N

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of an optical fiber sensor capable of simultaneously measuring strain, temperature and refractive index. The sensor is based on the combination of two fiber Bragg gratings written in a standard single-mode fiber, one in an untapered region and another in a tapered region, spliced to a no-core fiber. The possibility of simultaneously measuring three parameters relies on the different sensitivity responses of each part of the sensor. The results have shown the possibility of measuring three parameters simultaneously with a resolution of 3.77 με , 1.36 °C and 5  ×  10 −4 , respectively for strain, temperature and refractive index. On top of the multiparameter ability, the simple production and combination of all the parts involved on this optical-fiber-based sensor is an attractive feature for several sensing applications. (paper)

  11. Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; Tessler, R. C.; Gamache, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    The consequences of psychiatric disorders for family members, usually called family or caregiver burden, have been studied during the last 4 decades. During this period a variety of instruments have been developed to measure the impact of mental illness on family members, but not all instruments

  12. Determination of temperature dependant viscosity values of lubricants via simultaneous measurements of refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaltkaya, S.

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity is one of the most important parameter in rheological and tribological properties of fluids. The objective of this study is to obtain the viscosity values from the simultaneous refractive-index measurements of lubricants, simply by dipping the fiber-optic probe into the oil to be measured. Due to the fact that these parameters are temperature dependent, within the interval under consideration, oil heated up steadily while measuring the viscosity and refractive index at the same time. The refractive index sensor, the digital viscometer and the thermometer were connected to a PC via an analog to digital converter and the values were acquired at the same time. The fiber optic refractive index sensor has been designed in our laboratory. By utilising Fresnel's fundamental reflection law, the intensity of reflected light from boundary surface (optic fiber core-motor oil) was measured at 660 nm wavelength and then refractive index of the oil was calculated. The derived refractive index values were converted viscosity values that acquired by using the calibration equation. The viscometer, used during the study, was the rotational Brookfield type

  13. Measuring Scholastic Production by Dermatopathologists Using the H-Index: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Garth R

    2018-06-01

    Academic advancement in dermatopathology requires evidence of scientific production. The H-index is a useful bibliometric for measuring scientific production because it weights both volume and impact of an individual's scholastic production. The H-index distribution among academic dermatopathologists is unknown. In this cross-sectional study of 299 dermatopathologists with academic appointments in North America, H-index, publication counts, and citation counts were retrieved from Thomas Reuters Web of Science. Analytic statistics were performed to identify best predictors of academic rank and cutoff points between academic ranks. The H-index was a superior predictor of overall academic rank than publication or citation counts. The median H-index for assistant, associate, and full professors was 4, 6, and 11, respectively. H-index cutoff scores of 8 and 10 favored associate and full professor rank, respectively. These data provide benchmarks for dermatopathologists to gauge their scientific productivity against that of their peers. Although advancement decisions will depend on a careful examination of the scope and impact of a candidate's work, assistant professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >7 and associate professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >9 may wish to consider application for promotion.

  14. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppä, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlén equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

  16. Lysosomal enlargement and lysosomal membrane destabilisation in mussel digestive cells measured by an integrative index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izagirre, Urtzi; Marigomez, Ionan

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomal responses (enlargement and membrane destabilisation) in mussel digestive cells are well-known environmental stress biomarkers in pollution effects monitoring in marine ecosystems. Presently, in laboratory and field studies, both responses were measured separately (in terms of lysosomal volume density - Vv - and labilisation period -LP) and combined (lysosomal response index - LRI) in order to contribute to their understanding and to develop an index useful for decisions makers. LRI integrates Vv and LP, which are not necessarily dependent lysosomal responses. It is unbiased and more sensitive than Vv and LP alone and diminishes background due to confounding factors. LRI provides a simple numerical index (consensus reference = 0; critical threshold = 1) directly related to the pollution impact degree. Moreover, LRI can be represented in a way that allows the interpretation of lysosomal responses, which is useful for environmental scientists. - Lysosomal responses to pollutants measured by an integrative index.

  17. Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A double‐beam interferometer has been designed for detecting changes of refractive index in transparent liquids associated with the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, due to short electron beam pulses from an accelerator. The response time of the interferometer is less than 0.2 μsec......, and refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3  °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...

  18. A new productivity index to measure economic sustainability of the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Xose A

    2010-01-01

    This document aims to introduce a total productivity index to measure the economic sustainability of the mining industry. This index will take into account any technical developments, means of use of productive factors (i.e. inefficiencies and scale effects) and the effects on the growth of the geological properties in the resources to be exploited (particularly the effects of resource reduction or reserves depletion). This new index will then be applied to the example of the Spanish mining industry, with some interesting findings regarding the configuration of sustainable mining policies.

  19. Relationship between PC index and magnetospheric field-aligned currents measured by Swarm satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troshichev, О.; Sormakov, D.; Behlke, R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between the magnetospheric field-aligned currents (FAC) monitored by the Swarm satellites and the magnetic activity PC index (which is a proxy of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere) is examined. It is shown that current intensities measured in the R1...... between the PC index and the intensity of field-aligned currents in the R1 dawn and dusk layers: increase of FAC intensity in the course of substorm development is accompanied by increasing the PC index values. Correlation between PC and FAC intensities in the R2 dawn and dusk layers is also observed...

  20. Research on alternative measures in the F1000 system with Google Scholar citation index

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Ebrahimy; Fatemeh Setareh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altmetrics measures of F1000 website and citation Indexes of Google scholar. Applied research and survey methods, citation analysis, and webometrics with descriptive analytical approach are used. The study population comprised 218 biomedical research papers have been indexed in F1000 system in the period 2012-2014. A sample of 100 research articles were purposely selected from F1000 system based on the purpose of the research. V...

  1. Women who abuse prescription opioids: findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version Connect prescription opioid database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-07-01

    Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, phistory of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted.

  2. Errata: Measuring Disease Severity in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda F. Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Reports an error in Davis et al. (2010.  The functional motor scale used in Davis et al. (2010 was the EK (Egen Klassifikation Scale, rather than the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (Steffensen et al., 2002; Cedarbaum & Stambler, 1997.  Both scales are 10-item, disease-specific measures that assess mobility and respiratory function in individuals with progressive muscle weakness.  This error does not change the conclusions. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i2.12366

  3. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  4. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  5. Interferometric measurement of refractive index modification in a single mode microfiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Ahsani, Vahid; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient and cost effective measurement of the refractive index profile in an optical fiber is a significant technical job to design and manufacture in-fiber photonic devices and communication systems. For instance, to design fiber gratings, it is required to estimate the refractive index modulation to be inscribed by the fabrication apparatus such as ultraviolet or infrared lasers. Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based quantification of refractive index change written in single mode microfiber by femtosecond laser radiation is presented in this study. The MZI is constructed by splicing a microfiber (core diameter: 3.75 μm, cladding diameter: 40 μm) between standard single mode fibers. To measure the RI inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser, 200 μm length of the core within the MZI was scanned with laser radiation. As the higher index was written within 200 μm length of the core, the transmission spectrum of the interferometer displayed a corresponding red shift. The observed spectral shift was used to calculate the amount of refractive index change inscribed by the femtosecond irradiation. For the MZI length of 3.25 mm, and spectral shift of 0.8 nm, the calculated refractive index was found to be 0.00022. The reported results display excellent agreement between theory and experimental findings. Demonstrated method provides simple yet very effective on-site measurement of index change in optical fibers. Since the MZI can be constructed in diverse fiber types, this technique offers flexibility to quantify index change in various optical fibers.

  6. Investigation into the applicability of Bond Work Index (BWI) and Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) tests for several biomasses compared to Colombian La Loma coal

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Orla; Eastwick, Carol; Kingman, Sam; Giddings, Donald; Lormor, Stephen; Lester, Edward

    2015-01-01

    With increasing quantities of biomass being combusted in coal fired power stations, there is an urgent need to be able to predict the grindability of biomass in existing coal mills, but currently no standard biomass grindability test exists. In this study, the applicability of the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) and Bond Work Index (BWI) as standard grindability tests for biomass were investigated for commercially sourced wood pellets, steam exploded pellets, torrefied pellets, sunflower p...

  7. The Q* Index: A Useful Global Measure of Dementia Screening Test Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Larner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Single, global or unitary, indicators of test diagnostic performance have intuitive appeal for clinicians. The Q* index, the point in receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve space closest to the ideal top left-hand corner and where test sensitivity and specificity are equal, is one such measure. Methods: Datasets from four pragmatic accuracy studies which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Test Your Memory test, and Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination were examined to calculate and compare the Q* index, the maximal correct classification accuracy, and the maximal Youden index, as well as the sensitivity and specificity at these cutoffs. Results: Tests ranked similarly for the Q* index and the area under the ROC curve (AUC ROC. The Q* index cutoff was more sensitive (and less specific than the maximal correct classification accuracy cutoff, and less sensitive (and more specific than the maximal Youden index cutoff. Conclusion: The Q* index may be a useful global parameter summarising the test accuracy of cognitive screening instruments, facilitating comparison between tests, and defining a possible test cutoff value. As the point of equal sensitivity and specificity, its use may be more intuitive and appealing for clinicians than AUC ROC.

  8. Temperature independent refractive index measurement using a fiber Bragg grating on abrupt tapered tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, André D.; Silveira, Beatriz; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Frazão, Orlando

    2018-05-01

    A fiber Bragg grating was inscribed in an abrupt fiber taper using a femtosecond laser and phase-mask interferometer. The abrupt taper transition allows to excite a broad range of guided modes with different effective refractive indices that are reflected at different wavelengths according to Bragg's law. The multimode-Bragg reflection expands over 30 nm in the telecom-C-band. This corresponds to a mode-field overlap of up to 30% outside of the fiber, making the device suitable for evanescent field sensing. Refractive index and temperature measurements are performed for different reflection peaks. Temperature independent refractive index measurements are achieved by considering the difference between the wavelength shifts of two measured reflection peaks. A minimum refractive index sensitivity of 16 ± 1 nm/RIU was obtained in a low refractive index regime (1.3475-1.3720) with low influence of temperature (-0.32 ± 0.06 pm/°C). The cross sensitivity for this structure is 2.0 × 10-5 RIU/°C. The potential for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature is also studied.

  9. Frequency comb calibrated frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute group refractive index measurement of air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2017-04-10

    The absolute group refractive index of air at 194061.02 GHz is measured in real time using frequency-sweeping interferometry calibrated by an optical frequency comb. The group refractive index of air is calculated from the calibration peaks of the laser frequency variation and the interference signal of the two beams passing through the inner and outer regions of a vacuum cell when the frequency of a tunable external cavity diode laser is scanned. We continuously measure the refractive index of air for 2 h, which shows that the difference between measured results and Ciddor's equation is less than 9.6×10-8, and the standard deviation of that difference is 5.9×10-8. The relative uncertainty of the measured refractive index of air is estimated to be 8.6×10-8. The data update rate is 0.2 Hz, making it applicable under conditions in which air refractive index fluctuates fast.

  10. Development of the Eating Choices Index (ECI): a four-item index to measure healthiness of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K; Richards, Marcus; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M

    2014-12-01

    Current indices of diet quality generally include intakes of specific foods or nutrients. We sought to develop an index that discriminates healthy and unhealthy eating choices for use in large surveys as a short questionnaire and as a measure in existing studies with adequate dietary data. The Eating Choices Index (ECI) score included four components: (i) consumption of breakfast, (ii) consumption of two portions of fruit per day, (iii) type of milk consumed and (iv) type of bread consumed, each providing a score from 1 to 5. In analysis of 5 d food records, the ECI score was examined in relation to macronutrients, fibre, vitamin C, Fe, Ca and folate using Pearson correlations. Variation with sex, BMI, socio-economic status, marital status, smoking status and physical activity were also investigated. Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Individuals (n 2256) aged 43 years. The ECI score (mean 12·3 (sd 3·5)) was significantly positively associated with protein, carbohydrate, fibre, vitamin C, Fe, Ca and folate (r = 0·2-0·5; P < 0·001) and significantly negatively associated with fat intake (r = -0·2; P < 0·001); ECI scores were not correlated with total energy intake. Individuals with a lower ECI score were more likely to be men (P < 0·001), overweight or obese (P < 0·001), have lower socio-economic status (P < 0·001), smoke more (P < 0·001) and be less physically active (P < 0·001). ECI scores correlated with nutrient profiles consistent with a healthy diet. It provides a simple method to rank diet healthiness in large observational studies.

  11. Measurement and modelization of silica opal reflection properties: Optical determination of the silica index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Nga, Pham Thu; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    Self-assembled artificial opals (in particular silica opals) constitute a model system to study the optical properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal but is difficult to measure at the submicrometer scale and usually treated as a free parameter. Here, we propose a method to extract the silica index from the opal reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent methods based on infrared measurements. We show that this index gives a correct description of the opal reflection spectra, either by a band structure or by a Bragg approximation. In particular, we are able to provide explanations in quantitative agreement with the measurements for two features : the observation of a second reflection peak in specular direction, and the quasicollapse of the p-polarized main reflection peak at a typical angle of 54∘.

  12. Planning of continuity of service: The nuisance index, a measurement of the impact of interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naggar, R.

    1992-01-01

    An improved approach has been developed by Hydro-Quebec to integrate its customers' needs into the planning for service continuity. A nuisance index has been developed to measure the impact of service interruptions and is currently being tested with a pilot project in the Richelieu service area. The analytic framework used differentiates three categories of customers for which a normative cost of interrptions is calculated. The classification of networks according to load density and use characteristics allows the utility to define appropriate service continuity objectives. Service continuity is measured using an indicator which is directly deduced from the cost of interruptions. The index takes into account the circumstances surrounding each interruption and an individual nuisance index is calculated for each customer. Then an average individual nuisance index is computed for customers within each category. Finally, an aggregated nuisance index is calculated for all categories as a whole. The cost of interruptions may then be derived through multiplying the nuisance indexes by the energy consumption of the corresponding set of customers and by a constant. It is possible to check whether a customer is receiving acceptable service continuity. An indicator determines the share of energy consumption for which a tolerance threshold has been exceeded. Once integrated into the planning process, these concepts enable optimal distribution network design and operation. Adjustments of network classes that match both the evolution of customers and load contribute to the permanent improvement of networks and their operation. 4 figs

  13. Risk factors for mortality in fournier's gangrene in a general hospital: use of simplified founier gangrene severe index score (SFGSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugênio Lira Tenório

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate risk factors for mortality in patients with Fournier's gangrene (FG, with emphasis in the Simplified Fournier Gangrene Severe Index Score (SFGSI. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out from January 2010 to December 2014, with 124 patients treated for FG in a General Hospital. Several clinical and laboratory variables, including SFGSI, were evaluated and correlated with mortality through univariate analysis and logistic regression. Results Of the 124 patients, 99 were men (79.8%, the mean age was 50.8±19.5 years and the main comorbidity was diabetes mellitus (51.6%. The mortality rate was 25.8%. Variables that presented independent correlation with mortality were the extension of the lesion to the abdomen (OR=4.0, CI=1.10-14.68, p=0.03, hematocrit (OR=0.81, CI=0.73-0.90, p2 result was the largest of the independent predictors of mortality (OR=50.2; CI=13.18-191.47; p2 presented a higher correlation with mortality than any variable tested alone. It seems to be a promising alternative to evaluate predictors of mortality in Fournier's gangrene. The main advantage is easy applicability because it contains only three parameters and can be used immediately after patient's admission.

  14. Severe obesity is a limitation for the use of body mass index standard deviation scores in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Benestad, Beate; Lekhal, Samira; Danielsen, Yngvild; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran; Hertel, Jens K

    2018-02-01

    We analysed the distribution of the body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) in children and adolescents seeking treatment for severe obesity, according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO) and the national Norwegian Bergen Growth Study (BGS) BMI reference charts and the percentage above the International Obesity Task Force 25 cut-off (IOTF-25). This was a cross-sectional study of 396 children aged four to 17 years, who attended a tertiary care obesity centre in Norway from 2009 to 2015. Their BMI was converted to SDS using the three growth references and expressed as the percentage above IOTF-25. The percentage of body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Regardless of which BMI reference chart was used, the BMI-SDS was significantly different between the age groups, with a wider range of higher values up to 10 years of age and a more narrow range of lower values thereafter. The distributions of the percentage above IOTF-25 and percentage of body fat were more consistent across age groups. Our findings suggest that it may be more appropriate to use the percentage above a particular BMI cut-off, such as the percentage above IOTF-25, than the IOTF, WHO and BGS BMI-SDS in paediatric patients with severe obesity. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability, version II (TRIPS-II): a simple and practical neonatal illness severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo K; Aziz, Khalid; Dunn, Michael; Clarke, Maxine; Kovacs, Lajos; Ojah, Cecil; Ye, Xiang Y

    2013-05-01

    Derive and validate a practical assessment of infant illness severity at admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Prospective study involving 17,075 infants admitted to 15 NICUs in 2006 to 2008. Logistic regression was used to derive a prediction model for mortality comprising four empirically weighted items (temperature, blood pressure, respiratory status, response to noxious stimuli). This Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability, version II (TRIPS-II) was then validated for prediction of 7-day and total NICU mortality. TRIPS-II discriminated 7-day (receiver operating curve [ROC] area, 0.90) and total NICU mortality (ROC area, 0.87) from survival. Furthermore, there was a direct association between changes in TRIPS-II at 12 and 24 hours and mortality. There was good calibration across the full range of TRIPS-II scores and the gestational age at birth, and addition of TRIPS-II improved performance of prediction models that use gestational age and baseline population risk variables. TRIPS-II is a validated benchmarking tool for assessing infant illness severity at admission and for up to 24 hours after. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Risk factors for mortality in fournier's gangrene in a general hospital: use of simplified founier gangrene severe index score (SFGSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Carlos Eugênio Lira; Lima, Salvador Vilar Correia; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos de; Cavalcanti, Mariana Pauferro; Teles, Flávio

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors for mortality in patients with Fournier's gangrene (FG), with emphasis in the Simplified Fournier Gangrene Severe Index Score (SFGSI). This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out from January 2010 to December 2014, with 124 patients treated for FG in a General Hospital. Several clinical and laboratory variables, including SFGSI, were evaluated and correlated with mortality through univariate analysis and logistic regression. Of the 124 patients, 99 were men (79.8%), the mean age was 50.8±19.5 years and the main comorbidity was diabetes mellitus (51.6%). The mortality rate was 25.8%. Variables that presented independent correlation with mortality were the extension of the lesion to the abdomen (OR=4.0, CI=1.10-14.68, p=0.03), hematocrit (OR=0.81, CI=0.73-0.90, p2 result was the largest of the independent predictors of mortality (OR=50.2; CI=13.18-191.47; p2 presented a higher correlation with mortality than any variable tested alone. It seems to be a promising alternative to evaluate predictors of mortality in Fournier's gangrene. The main advantage is easy applicability because it contains only three parameters and can be used immediately after patient's admission. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. Evaluation of the correlation between Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis and Feline Extent and Severity Index and skin hydration in atopic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Łukasz R; Zając, Marcin; Gołyński, Marcin; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Taszkun, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of the severity of clinical signs of cats with allergic skin diseases has used two scoring systems: Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis (SCORFAD) and the Feline Extent and Severity Index (FeDESI). The integrity of the cutaneous barrier can also be evaluated by measuring skin hydration. A correlation between the clinical score and skin hydration has been observed in humans and dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). To demonstrate a correlation between the clinical score and skin hydration of cats affected with presumed AD. European short hair cats (n = 18): 11 females and seven males with a confirmed diagnosis of AD. SCORFAD and FeDESI scores were calculated and the measurements of skin hydration were assessed from seven body sites using corneometry. The correlation between the SCORFAD and FeDESI systems and skin hydration of each site, and the average skin hydration was calculated. There was a positive correlation between the SCORFAD score and skin hydration for the axilla, thorax and forelimb; for FeDESI and axilla and lumbar sites. There was a negative correlation between the FeDESI and skin hydration for the pinna (r = -0.47). Measurements of skin hydration could be a useful tool for the evaluation of allergic cats. There is limited evidence of any useful correlation between clinical scoring systems and measurements of hydration. The pinna may be a suitable region for the assessment of skin barrier function in normal and allergic cats. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Absolute distance measurement with correction of air refractive index by using two-color dispersive interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-10-17

    Two-color interferometry is powerful for the correction of the air refractive index especially in the turbulent air over long distance, since the empirical equations could introduce considerable measurement uncertainty if the environmental parameters cannot be measured with sufficient precision. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for absolute distance measurement with high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-color dispersive interferometry. The distances corresponding to the two wavelengths can be measured via the spectrograms captured by a CCD camera pair in real time. In the long-term experiment of the correction of air refractive index, the experimental results show a standard deviation of 3.3 × 10-8 for 12-h continuous measurement without the precise knowledge of the environmental conditions, while the variation of the air refractive index is about 2 × 10-6. In the case of absolute distance measurement, the comparison with the fringe counting interferometer shows an agreement within 2.5 μm in 12 m range.

  19. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Targets Individualized to Pressure-Reactivity Index in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Edward; McFadyen, Charles; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese J; Czosnyka, Marek; Menon, David

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently triggers a disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) at which autoregulation is optimal ("CPPopt") varies between individuals, and can be calculated based on fluctuations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This review assesses the effect of individualizing CPP targets to pressure reactivity index (a measure of autoregulation) in patients with TBI. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched in March 2015 for studies assessing the effect of targeting CPPopt in TBI. We included all studies that assessed the impact of targeting CPPopt on outcomes including mortality, neurological outcome, and physiological changes. Risk of bias was assessed using the RTI Item Bank and evidence quality was considered using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Eight cohort studies (based on six distinct data sets) assessing the association between CPPopt and mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale and physiological measures in TBI were included. The quality of evidence was deemed very low based on the GRADE criteria. Although the data suggest an association between variation from CPPopt and poor clinical outcome at 6 months, the quality of evidence prevents firm conclusions, particularly regarding causality, from being drawn. Available data suggest that targeting CPPopt might represent a technique to improve outcomes following TBI, but currently there is insufficient high-quality data to support a recommendation for use in clinical practice. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies should be undertaken to clarify its role in the acute management of TBI.

  20. Comparison of disease-severity measures within severe and very severe COPD patients: results from a nationally representative chart review and patient survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solem CT

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caitlyn T Solem,1 Shawn X Sun,2 Sizhu Liu,1 Cynthia Macahilig,3 Monica Katyal,3 Xin Gao,1 Andrew F Shorr4 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 2Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, 3Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 4Pulmonary Critical Care, Washington Hospital Center and Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Objective: This study aimed to compare spirometry- and risk + symptom-based classification systems to physician-based severity assessment and find which system is most predictive of patient-reported health status, as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SGRQ-C.Materials and methods: In this chart review/patient survey, 99 physicians recruited patients with physician-assessed severe or very severe COPD who had recently experienced a moderate or severe exacerbation. A cross-tabulation was undertaken comparing physician report, spirometry (mild/moderate, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] ≥50%; severe, 30% ≤ FEV1 <50%; very severe, FEV1 <30% predicted, and risk + symptom-based (A, low risk/fewer symptoms; B, low risk/more symptoms; C, high risk/fewer symptoms; D, high risk/more symptoms severity systems. Analysis of covariance models were run for SGRQ-C, varying COPD-severity systems.Results: Of 244 patients, 58.6% were severe and 34.8% very severe by physician report, 70% had FEV1 ≤50% at their most recent visit, and 86% fell into quadrant D. Spirometry and physician report had 57.4% agreement, with physicians often indicating higher severity. Physician report and risk + symptom agreement was high (81.2% severe/very severe and D. Physician-reported severity, risk + symptoms, exacerbations in the previous year, and symptoms were significant SGRQ-C predictors, while spirometry was not.Conclusion: For recently exacerbating severe or very severe COPD patients, risk + symptoms more closely aligned with physician-reported severity and SGRQ-C versus

  1. Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

  2. The Severity of Dysmenorrhea and its Relationship with Body Mass Index among Female Adolescents in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Khodakarami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem among women, resulting in a decline in their performance level and quality of life. Previous studies have not indicated a definite relationship between body mass index (BMI and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the severity of dysmenorrhea and investigate its relationship with BMI among female adolescents in Hamadan, Iran. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 579 single, female adolescents in schools of Hamadan, Iran in 2011. Students with primary dysmenorrhea (without any other conditions were selected, using random cluster sampling. Demographic characteristics and menstrual cycle information were collected, using two separate questionnaires. BMI was recorded in all participants and visual analogue scale was applied for pain assessment. Chi-square, t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between variables. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age, BMI and age at menarche in participants were 15.94±1.17 years, 21.16±3.36 kg/m2 and 12.92± 1.05 years, respectively. The frequency of dysmenorrhea was estimated to be 85.31%. The frequency and severity of dysmenorrhea was higher in the normal-weight group than other subjects. No relationship was seen between the severity and duration of dysmenorrhea with BMI. But dysmenorrhea had a significant relationship with age at menarche and premenstrual syndrome (P

  3. A New ENSO Index Derived from Satellite Measurements of Column Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Oman, L. D.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Column Ozone measured in tropical latitudes from Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), Earth Probe TOMS, solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV), and Aura ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) are used to derive an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. This index, which covers a time period from 1979 to the present, is defined as the Ozone ENSO Index (OEI) and is the first developed from atmospheric trace gas measurements. The OEI is constructed by first averaging monthly mean column ozone over two broad regions in the western and eastern Pacific and then taking their difference. This differencing yields a self-calibrating ENSO index which is independent of individual instrument calibration offsets and drifts in measurements over the long record. The combined Aura OMI and MLS ozone data confirm that zonal variability in total column ozone in the tropics caused by ENSO events lies almost entirely in the troposphere. As a result, the OEI can be derived directly from total column ozone instead of tropospheric column ozone. For clear-sky ozone measurements a +1K change in Nino 3.4 index corresponds to +2.9 Dobson Unit (DU) change in the OEI, while a +1 hPa change in SOI coincides with a -1.7DU change in the OEI. For ozone measurements under all cloud conditions these numbers are +2.4DU and -1.4 DU, respectively. As an ENSO index based upon ozone, it is potentially useful in evaluating climate models predicting long term changes in ozone and other trace gases.

  4. Patient Health Questionnaire 15 as a generic measure of severity in fibromyalgia syndrome: surveys with patients of three different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Brähler, Elmar; Wolfe, Frederick; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Graduated treatment of patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) depending on their severity has been recommended by recent guidelines. The Patient Health Questionnaire 15 (PHQ 15) is a validated measure of somatic symptom severity in FSS. We tested the discriminant and transcultural validity of the PHQ 15 as a generic measure of severity in persons with FMS. Persons meeting recognized FMS-criteria of the general German population (N=98), of the US National Data Bank of Rheumatic Diseases (N=440), and of a single German pain medicine center (N=167) completed validated self-report questionnaires on somatic and psychological distress (Polysymptomatic Distress Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire 4), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (Short Form Health Survey 12 or 36) and disability (Pain Disability Index). In addition, self-reports of working status were assessed in the clinical setting. Overall severity of FMS was defined by PHQ 15 scores: mild (0-9), moderate (10-14) and severe (15-30). Persons with mild, moderate and severe FMS did not differ in age and gender. Irrespective of the setting, persons with severe FMS reported more pain sites, fatigue, depressed mood, impaired HRQOL and disability than persons with moderate or mild FMS. Patients with severe FMS in the NDB and in the German clinical center reported more work-related disability than patients with mild FMS. The PHQ 15 is a valid generic measure of overall severity in FMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Estefânia; Fuchs, Sandra C; Fuchs, Flávio D; Moreira, Leila B; Ferlin, Elton; Cichelero, Fábio T; Moreira, Carolina M; Neyeloff, Jeruza; Moreira, Marina B; Gus, Miguel

    2010-11-05

    Blood pressure (BP) variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI). In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first derivative of SBP over time), standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour SBP; and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP. ABI was measured with a doppler probe. The sample included 425 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12 years, being 69.2% women, 26.1% current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI (≤ 0.90 or ≥ 1.40) was present in 58 patients. The time rate index was 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min in patients with abnormal ABI versus 0.476 ± 0.124 mmHg/min in patients with normal ABI (P = 0.007). In a logistic regression model the time rate index was associated with ABI, regardless of age (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04). In a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, SBP and diabetes, the time rate index was strongly associated with ABI (P < 0.01). None of the other indexes of BP variability were associated with ABI in univariate and multivariate analyses. Time rate index is a sensible method to measure BP variability by ABPM. Its performance for risk stratification of patients with hypertension should be explored in longitudinal studies.

  6. Indexing measurement in diesel engines - status report; Indiziermesstechnik an Dieselmotoren - aktueller Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoewing, J. [Kistler Instrumente GmbH, Ostfildern (Germany); Bertola, A.; Stadler, J.; Wolfer, P. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    What with increasing demands on diesel engine efficiency, comfort and performance on the one hand and continuous tightening of emission standards on the other hand, indexing measurement has become a standard tool in the development process. Amplifier and indexing system in test stands have reached a high degree of sohistication. Modern systems are modular, easy to configurate, and help prevent setup errors and ensure high availability. The cylinder pressure probe is the most important element in the measuring chain. The quality and accuracy of the measurements depends on the probe characteristics, the quality of installation, and its position inside the combustion chamber. There are many different commercial probes and measuring systems in the market, which must be carefully selected for a given application. A comparison of probe concepts enables the user to identify advantages and select the measuring chain that is best suited for her purpose. (orig.)

  7. Sequential Oxygenation Index and Organ Dysfunction Assessment within the First 3 Days of Mechanical Ventilation Predict the Outcome of Adult Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Ching Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine early predictors of outcomes of adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Method. 100 consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data including comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score, PaO2, FiO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, mean airway pressure (mPaw, and oxygenation index (OI on the 1st and the 3rd day of mechanical ventilation, and change in OI within 3 days were recorded. Primary outcome was hospital mortality; secondary outcome measure was ventilator weaning failure. Results. 38 out of 100 (38% patients died within the study period. 48 patients (48% failed to wean from ventilator. Multivariate analysis showed day 3 OI ( and SOFA ( score were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Preexisting cerebrovascular accident (CVA ( was the predictor of weaning failure. Results from Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated that higher day 3 OI was associated with shorter survival time (log-Rank test, . Conclusion. Early OI (within 3 days and SOFA score were predictors of mortality in severe acute respiratory failure. In the future, prospective studies measuring serial OIs in a larger scale of study cohort is required to further consolidate our findings.

  8. Measurement Properties of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory Electronic Daily Diary in Patients with Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Hema N; Mutebi, Alex; Milmont, Cassandra E; Gordon, Kenneth; Wilson, Hilary; Zhang, Hao; Klekotka, Paul A; Revicki, Dennis A; Augustin, Matthias; Kricorian, Gregory; Nirula, Ajay; Strober, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    The Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI) is a patient-reported outcome instrument that measures the severity of psoriasis signs and symptoms. This study evaluated measurement properties of the PSI in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This secondary analysis used pooled data from a phase 3 brodalumab clinical trial (AMAGINE-1). Outcome measures included the PSI, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), static Physician's Global Assessment (sPGA), psoriasis-affected body surface area, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The PSI was evaluated for dimensionality, item performance, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct validity, ability to detect change, and agreement between PSI response and response measures based on the PASI, sPGA, and DLQI. Results supported unidimensionality, good item fit, ordered responses, and PSI scoring. The PSI demonstrated reliability: baseline Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95. Correlations between PSI total score and DLQI item 1 (r = 0.86), DLQI symptoms and feelings (r = 0.87), and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 bodily pain (r = -0.61) supported convergent validity. PSI scores differed significantly (P 10%), and DLQI (≤ 5/> 5) at weeks 8 and 12. At week 12, the PSI detected significant changes in severity based on PASI responses (psoriasis signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Auditory-Perceptual and Acoustic Methods in Measuring Dysphonia Severity of Korean Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Kim, Jaeock

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related concurrent validity of two standardized auditory-perceptual rating protocols and the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) for measuring dysphonia severity in Korean speech. Sixty native Korean subjects with various voice disorders were asked to sustain the vowel [a:] and to read aloud the Korean text "Walk." A 3-second midvowel portion of the sustained vowel and two sentences (with 25 syllables) were edited, concatenated, and analyzed according to methods described elsewhere. From 56 participants, both continuous speech and sustained vowel recordings had sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios (35.5 dB and 37 dB on average, respectively) and were therefore subjected to further dysphonia severity analysis with (1) "G" or Grade from the GRBAS protocol, (2) "OS" or Overall Severity from the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice protocol, and (3) AVQI. First, high correlations were found between G and OS (rS = 0.955 for sustained vowels; rS = 0.965 for continuous speech). Second, the AVQI showed a strong correlation with G (rS = 0.911) as well as OS (rP = 0.924). These findings are in agreement with similar studies dealing with continuous speech in other languages. The present study highlights the criterion-related concurrent validity of these methods in Korean speech. Furthermore, it supports the cross-linguistic robustness of the AVQI as a valid and objective marker of overall dysphonia severity. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Hobdell, Martin; Mulder, Jan; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2011-07-13

    Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight.The present study aimed to investigate the association between untreated dental decay and Body Mass Index (BMI) among 12-year-old Filipino children. Data collection was part of the National Oral Health Survey, a representative cross-sectional study of 1951 11-13-year-old school children using a modified, stratified cluster sampling design based on population classifications of the Philippine National Statistics Office. Caries was scored according to WHO criteria (1997) and odontogenic infections using the PUFA index. Anthropometric measures were performed by trained nurses. Some socio-economic determinants were included as potential confounding factors. The overall prevalence of caries (DMFT + dmft > 0) was 82.3% (95%CI; 80.6%-84.0%). The overall prevalence of odontogenic infections due to caries (PUFA + pufa > 0) was 55.7% (95% CI; 53.5%-57.9%) The BMI of 27.1% (95%CI; 25.1%-29.1%) of children was below normal, 1% (95%CI; 0.5%-1.4%) had a BMI above normal. The regression coefficient between BMI and caries was highly significant (p Children with odontogenic infections (PUFA + pufa > 0) as compared to those without odontogenic infections had an increased risk of a below normal BMI (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.19-1.80). This is the first-ever representative survey showing a significant association between caries and BMI and particularly between odontogenic infections and below normal BMI. An expanded model of hypothesised associations is presented that includes progressed forms of dental decay as a significant, yet largely neglected determinant of poor child development.

  11. Development of a self-reporting tool to obtain a Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve-Vives Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a syndrome with heterogeneous symptoms. The evaluation in the clinical setting usually fails to cover the complexity of the syndrome. This study aims to determine how different aspects of fibromyalgia are inter-related when measured by means of a self-reporting tool. The objective is to develop a more complete evaluation model adjusted to the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the syndrome. Methods Application was made of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale and the Sleep Quality Scale. An assessment was made, on the basis of clinical interviews, case histories and specific tests, of the patient sociodemographic data, comorbidity, physical exploration and other clinical indexes. An exploratory factor analysis was made, with comparisons of the clinical index scores in extreme groups of patients. Results The ICAF composed of 59 items was obtained, offering four factors that explain 64% of the variance, and referred to as Emotional Factor (33.7%, Physical-Activity (15%, Active Coping (9% and Passive Coping (6.3%. A t-test between the extreme scores of these factors in the 301 patients revealed statistically significant differences in occupational status, medically unexplained syndromes, number of tender points, the six-minutes walk test, comorbidity and health care costs. Conclusions This study offers a tool allowing more complete and rapid evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia. The test intrinsically evaluates the emotional aspects: anxiety and depression, and their impact upon social aspects. It also evaluates patient functional capacity, fatigue, sleep quality, pain, and the way in which the patient copes with the disease. This is achieved by means of a

  12. [Risk factors of venous thromboembolism recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in medical inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C L; Zhou, H X; Tang, Y J; Wang, L; Yi, Q; Liang, Z A

    2016-04-12

    To explore the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) in medical inpatients. A total of 149 consecutive patients with first diagnosed VTE from the medical departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2011 and December 2012 were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. The VTE recurrence rate was calculated and univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with VTE recurrence. All the patients were evaluated by sPESI, and survival analysis was used to explore its value in predicting VTE recurrence in these medical patients. Out of the included 149 patients, 23(15.4%) patients had VTE recurrence during the 2 years' follow-up and median recurrence time was 167 days. The univariate analysis showed bed rest, severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, smoking, diabetes, and malignant neoplasm might be associated with VTE recurrence (P=0.043, 0.006, 0.009, 0.032, 0.098, 0.048, 0.021). Among these risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and malignant neoplasm were the independent risk factors (HR=3.45, 5.67, 3.60; P=0.020, 0.020, 0.047); while for inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, the P value was marginal (HR=3.94, 95% CI: 0.99-15.63, P=0.051). The median sPESI scores of the patients with VTE recurrence was higher than that of the patients without VTE recurrence[1(1, 2) vs 0(0, 1), P=0.001], and patients with sPESI≥1 were associated with 5.57-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared with patients with sPESI=0 (95%CI: 1.79-17.30, P=0.001). Survival analysis also showed that the 2-year cumulative VTE recurrence rate of patients with sPESI≥1 was significant higher than that of patients with sPESI=0 (38.4% vs 5.7%, P=0.001). The medical VTE patients have high VTE recurrence risk

  13. Lodgepole pine site index in relation to synoptic measures of climate, soil moisture and soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Geoff Wang; Shongming Huang; Robert A. Monserud; Ryan J. Klos

    2004-01-01

    Lodgepole pine site index was examined in relation to synoptic measures of topography, soil moisture, and soil nutrients in Alberta. Data came from 214 lodgepole pine-dominated stands sampled as a part of the provincial permanent sample plot program. Spatial location (elevation, latitude, and longitude) and natural subregions (NSRs) were topographic variables that...

  14. The Tripod School Climate Index: An Invariant Measure of School Safety and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sarah Fierberg; Rowley, Jacob F S

    2016-03-01

    Recently revised standards for social work practice in schools encourage data-informed school climate interventions that implicitly require invariant measures of school climate. Invariant measures have the same meaning, scale, and origin across different groups of respondents. Although noninvariant measures bias statistical analyses and can lead users to erroneous conclusions, most school climate measures have not been tested for invariance. This study examines the invariance of the Tripod School Climate Index. Exploratory, confirmatory, and multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 66,531 students across 222 schools. Results indicate that the index is an excellent fit for the data and invariant by student grade level, demographic background, prior achievement, and dropout risk. Results imply that student responses can be validly aggregated to create school-level scores. The index will not bias studies of school climate interventions or bivariate analyses comparing perceptions of school climate across subgroups of students attending the same school. Given the centrality of school climate interventions to social work practice in schools and the consequences of noninvariance, the development of an index with these properties is an important contribution to the field.

  15. Streak camera measurements of laser pulse temporal dispersion in short graded-index optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillips, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Streak camera measurements were used to determine temporal dispersion in short (5 to 30 meter) graded-index optical fibers. Results show that 50-ps, 1.06-μm and 0.53-μm laser pulses can be propagated without significant dispersion when care is taken to prevent propagation of energy in fiber cladding modes

  16. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  17. Effect of scintillometer height on structure parameter of the refractive index of air measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintillometers measure amount of scintillations by emitting a beam of light over a horizontal path and expresses as the atmospheric turbulence structure parameter as the refractive index of air (Cn**2). Cn**2 represents the turbulent strength of the atmosphere and describes the ability of the atmos...

  18. Design of a Michelson Interferometer for Quantitative Refraction Index Profile Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, J.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    This book describes the theoretical design of a three camera Michelson interferometer set-up for quantitative refractive index measuerments. Although a two camera system is easier to align and less expensive, a three camera interferometer is preferred because the expected measuring accuracy is much

  19. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  20. Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurement with the transmission interferometric adsorption sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Voeroes, Janos [Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Balmer, Tobias E [Materials Research Center, ETH Zurich, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Heuberger, Manfred, E-mail: sannomiya@biomed.ee.ethz.c, E-mail: tobias.balmer@mat.ethz.c, E-mail: manfred.heuberger@empa.c, E-mail: janos.voros@biomed.ee.ethz.c [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-13

    Refractive index and thickness of the adlayer are determined simultaneously using the transmission interferometric adsorption sensor (TInAS). Optical biosensors, where both refractive index and thickness of a homogeneous adlayer (thus the adsorbed mass) are determined simultaneously, so-called model-free biosensors, are important tools to investigate the adsorbed mass of biomolecules with unknown conformation. Our proposed calculation method enables model-free biosensing from a single spectrum acquired by a simple TInAS setup, namely using information of peak/dip positions as well as peak/dip intensities. The feasibility of this method was experimentally tested by adsorbing polyelectrolyte multilayer as well as biomolecules. To validate the new method also for the more intricate heterogeneous adlayer, the apparent refractive index and thickness were assessed theoretically by simulating a selection of different adsorbate configurations with the multiple multipole program (MMP). We found that a lateral inhomogeneity of the adsorbate (e.g. islands or adsorbed colloids) results in correct thickness and in reduced refractive index averaged in proportion to their density while vertically inhomogeneous density caused more complex responses. However, the apparent mass was always correct. Measurement errors can lead to significant errors in the apparent refractive index, particularly when the adlayer is very thin (<5 nm). This model-free TInAS technique would be useful not only for the measurement of adsorbed mass but also for the conformational analysis of the adsorbed molecules.

  1. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Li, J.C. [Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Li, Y. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2}), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m{sup 2}), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m{sup 2}), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m{sup 2}. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ{sup 2}=35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  3. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T.; Li, J.C.; Li, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 ), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m 2 ), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m 2 ). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m 2 . The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ 2 =35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

  4. Evaluation of the severity of malocclusions in children affected by osteogenesis imperfecta with the peer assessment rating and discrepancy indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis; Vu, Duy-Dat; Muller, Katia; Retrouvey, Jean-Marc

    2013-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable disorder affecting bone and tooth development. Malocclusion is frequent in those affected by osteogenesis imperfecta, but this has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify the severity of malocclusions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Articulated dental casts were obtained from 49 patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (ages 5-19 years; 28 female) and 49 age- and sex-matched control subjects who did not have osteogenesis imperfecta. Both groups were seeking orthodontic treatment. Malocclusions were scored by using the peer assessment rating (PAR) and the discrepancy index (DI). The average United Kingdom weighted PAR scores were 31.1 (SD, 14.5) for the osteogenesis imperfecta group and 22.7 (SD, 10.7) for the control group (P osteogenesis imperfecta and 21.6 (SD, 9.6) for the controls (P osteogenesis imperfecta group and 12.4 (SD, 6.8) for the control group (P osteogenesis imperfecta group, 7.1; control group, 0.3) for the DI parameters and anterior crossbite (osteogenesis imperfecta group, 13.0; control group, 3.8 [United Kingdom]) for the PAR. Both the PAR and the DI showed that malocclusions were significantly more severe in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta than in the control group. There was a higher incidence of Class III malocclusion associated with anterior and lateral open bites in patients affected by osteogenesis imperfecta. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Qi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m2, overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m2, and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2. Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m2. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ2=35.16, P<0.001. The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  6. Influence of the measurement location on the resistance index in the umbilical arteries: a hemodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyres, P; Durand, A; Patat, F; Descamps, P; Gregoire, J M; Pourcelot, D; Pourcelot, L

    1991-12-01

    A computer model was used to study the primary factors generating the reduction in resistance index, (S-D)/S, values observed by ultrasonic Doppler measurements in the umbilical artery, from the fetal insertion to the placental insertion (S represents the amplitude of the systolic peak and D the amplitude of the diastolic peak). This hemodynamic approach shows that the placental resistance is the primary factor, the viscosity and the cord length playing secondary roles. Clinically, the position of the measurement along the cord is an important factor. To increase the sensitivity of the index, the Doppler measurement must be performed near the fetal insertion, whereas a measurement near the placental insertion will make the Doppler examination more specific.

  7. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, Sandra; Man, Stella A. de; Boot, Annemieke M.; Heus, Karen G.C.B.B.; Huijbers, Wim A.R.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  8. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  9. Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Leila B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI. Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first derivative of SBP over time, standard deviation (SD of 24-hour SBP; and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP. ABI was measured with a doppler probe. The sample included 425 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12 years, being 69.2% women, 26.1% current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI (≤ 0.90 or ≥ 1.40 was present in 58 patients. The time rate index was 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min in patients with abnormal ABI versus 0.476 ± 0.124 mmHg/min in patients with normal ABI (P = 0.007. In a logistic regression model the time rate index was associated with ABI, regardless of age (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04. In a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, SBP and diabetes, the time rate index was strongly associated with ABI (P Conclusion Time rate index is a sensible method to measure BP variability by ABPM. Its performance for risk stratification of patients with hypertension should be explored in longitudinal studies.

  10. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  11. New Measures of Gender Inequality: The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI)and its Subindices

    OpenAIRE

    Branisa, Boris; Klasen, Stephan; Ziegler, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) and its five subindices Family code, Civil liberties, Physical integrity, Son Preference and Ownership rights using variables of the OECD Gender, Institutions and Development database. Instead of measuring gender inequalities in education, health, economic or political participation, these new indices allow a new perspective on gender issues in developing countries. The SIGI and the subindices measure long-lasting soci...

  12. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  13. New Evidence on Measuring Financial Constraints: Moving Beyond the KZ Index

    OpenAIRE

    Charles J. Hadlock; Joshua R. Pierce

    2010-01-01

    We collect detailed qualitative information from financial filings to categorize financial constraints for a random sample of firms from 1995 to 2004. Using this categorization, we estimate ordered logit models predicting constraints as a function of different quantitative factors. Our findings cast serious doubt on the validity of the KZ index as a measure of financial constraints, while offering mixed evidence on the validity of other common measures of constraints. We find that firm size a...

  14. An iterative method to reconstruct the refractive index of a medium from time-of-flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Udo; Schuster, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The article deals with a classical inverse problem: the computation of the refractive index of a medium from ultrasound time-of-flight measurements. This problem is very popular in seismics but also for tomographic problems in inhomogeneous media. For example ultrasound vector field tomography needs a priori knowledge of the sound speed. According to Fermat’s principle ultrasound signals travel along geodesic curves of a Riemannian metric which is associated with the refractive index. The inverse problem thus consists of determining the index of refraction from integrals along geodesics curves associated with the integrand leading to a nonlinear problem. In this article we describe a numerical solver for this problem scheme based on an iterative minimization method for an appropriate Tikhonov functional. The outcome of the method is a stable approximation of the sought index of refraction as well as a corresponding set of geodesic curves. We prove some analytical convergence results for this method and demonstrate its performance by means of several numerical experiments. Another novelty in this article is the explicit representation of the backprojection operator for the ray transform in Riemannian geometry and its numerical realization relying on a corresponding phase function that is determined by the metric. This gives a natural extension of the conventional backprojection from 2D computerized tomography to inhomogeneous geometries. The authors dedicate this article to Prof Todd Quinto on the occasion of his 65th birthday.

  15. The Association Between Body Mass Index and the Prevalence, Severity, and Frequency of Low Back Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Charles A; Kusin, David J; Li, Samuel Q; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2018-02-16

    Cross-sectional study. To determine whether there is an association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain and identify other potential patient risk factors for the development of low back pain. Many studies have implicated that a high BMI is a risk factor for low back pain. However, few studies have examined the association between increased BMI and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multicenter, prospective study of knee osteoarthritis, were used to conduct this study, which included 4796 patients. BMI was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to identify additional patient risk factors associated with low back pain. The prevalence of low back pain was found to be significantly higher in patients with an elevated BMI compared to those with normal or underweight BMI and demonstrated a stepwise increase with each BMI category. Approximately 47.4% of patients with normal or underweight BMI complained of low back pain compared with 72.8% of morbidly obese patients (P frequency or severity of low back pain episodes. Osteoarthritis of the back and depression were patient variables found to be associated with all three measures (prevalence, severity, and frequency) of low back pain. Elevated BMI is strongly associated with an increased prevalence of low back pain. Depression and osteoarthritis of the back are associated with the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. 3.

  16. Three-dimensional display and measurement of cardiac dynamic indexes from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Matsuo, M.; Yamasaki, K.; Banno, T.; Toriwaki, J.; Yokoi, S.; Oshita, H.

    1986-01-01

    The cardiac dynamic index, to which such variables as cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion contribute, is routinely determined using various modalities such as angiography, radionuclide imaging, US, and x-ray CT. Each of these modalities, however, has some disadvantages in regard to evaluating the cardiac dynamic index. The authors have obtained precise multidirectional projection images of the heart by means of computer graphics and reformatted data of cardiac MR images obtained with cardiac gating. The contiguous coronal MR images of the heart are made at an interimage distance of 5 mm. In each section, five or six cardiac images can be obtained, depending on the systolic or diastolic phase. These images are stored in a computer, and a three-dimensional display of the heart with biocular observation and with multiplex holograms is made possible with computer graphics. Three-dimensional measurement of the cardiac index is now being attempted, including cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion

  17. Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance Use Disorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future Inpatient Mental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padyab, Mojgan; Armelius, Bengt-Åke; Armelius, Kerstin; Nyström, Siv; Blom, Björn; Grönlund, Ann-Sofie; Lundgren, Lena

    2018-04-23

    In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for substance use disorder with the ASI used nine years of the National Patient Register and examined whether clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). ASI composite scores and interviewer severity rating were used to measure clients' problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, employment, alcohol, drug use, health, and legal) at baseline. A stepwise regression method was used to assess the relative importance of ASI composite scores, MHD hospitalization two years prior to baseline, age, and gender for MHD hospitalization seven years post-baseline. Almost two-thirds of the individuals (63%) were hospitalized at least once for MHD in the seven years post-baseline. At the multivariable level, MHD hospitalization prior to baseline was the strongest predictor of future MHD hospitalization, followed by ASI composite scores for drug use, employment, mental health and, last, male gender. A key finding is that higher ASI composite scores for drug use and mental health are predictors of future need for MHD treatment. Future studies will replicate this effort with a national population of individuals with substance use disorder.

  18. A study examining inter-rater and intrarater reliability of a novel instrument for assessment of psoriasis: the Copenhagen Psoriasis Severity Index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berth-Jones, J.; Thompson, J.; Papp, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a perceived need for a better method for clinical assessment of the severity of psoriasis vulgaris. The most frequently used system is the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), which has significant disadvantages, including the requirement for assessment of the percentage of

  19. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  20. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Usefulness of modified Pulmonary Index Score (mPIS) as a quantitative tool for the evaluation of severe acute exacerbation in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Takeshi; Tokuyama, Kenichi; Itano, Atsushi; Morita, Eiji; Ueda, Yutaka; Katsunuma, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Acute exacerbation of asthma is divided qualitatively into mild, moderate, and severe attacks and respiratory failure. This system is, however, not suitable for estimating small changes in respiratory condition with time and for determining the efficacy of treatments, because it has a qualitative, but not quantitative nature. To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative estimation of asthma exacerbation, modified Pulmonary Index Score (mPIS) values were measured in 87 asthmatic children (mean age, 5.0 ± 0.4 years) during hospitalization. mPIS was calculated by adding the sum of scores for 6 items (scores of 0-3 were given for each item). These consisted of heart rate, respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, inspiratory-to-expiratory flow ratio, degree of wheezing, and oxygen saturation in room air. Measurements were made at visits and at hospitalization and were then made twice a day until discharge. mPIS values were highly correlated among raters. mPIS values at visits were 9.1 ± 0.1 and 12.6 ± 0.4 in subjects with moderate and severe attacks, respectively (p asthma attacks, including the determination of a treatment plan, and prediction of the period of hospitalization in admitted patients, although prospective studies would be required to establish our hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring cervical cancer risk: development and validation of the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2009-12-01

    To develop and validate a risky sexual behavior index specific to cervical cancer research. Sexual behavior data on 428 women from the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) study were utilized. A weighting scheme for eight risky sexual behaviors was generated and validated in creating the CARE Risky Sexual Behavior Index. Cutpoints were then identified to classify women as having a low, medium, or high level of risky sexual behavior. Index scores ranged from 0 to 35, with women considered to have a low level of risky sexual behavior if their score was less than six (31.3% of sample), a medium level if their score was 6–10 (30.6%), or a high level if their score was 11 or greater (38.1%). A strong association was observed between the created categories and having a previous abnormal Pap smear test (p Sexual Behavior Index provides a tool for measuring risky sexual behavior level for cervical cancer research. Future studies are needed to validate this index in varied populations and test its use in the clinical setting.

  3. Intrathecal IgM index correlates with a severe disease course in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and MRI results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakbas, Serkan; Cinar, Bilge Piri; Özcelik, Pinar; Baser, Hatice; Kosehasanoğullari, Gorkem

    2017-09-01

    Intrathecally synthesized IgM can be seen not only in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, but also in that of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgM synthesis in MS seems to be correlated with an unfavorable disease course. In one cross-sectional study, intrathecal synthesis of IgM (IgM index) was found to be correlated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationship between the IgM index and MRI and clinical parameters. Eighty-one patients with MS (58 female) undergoing lumbar puncture were included in the study. Fifty-one patients had a relapsing-remitting (RR) disease course, while 30 cases were secondary progressive MS (SPMS). IgM was detected in paired CSF and serum specimens using ELISA. The IgM index was calculated using the formula CSF IgM/serum IgM: CSF albumin/serum albumin. IgM indexes higher than 0.1 were considered "increased". All patients underwent brain and whole spinal cord MRI. The IgM index was normal in 43 of the 81 patients (53.1%) and increased in 38 (46.9%). A significant correlation was determined between the IgM index and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (r=0.638, p=0.001). Most of the subjects with increased IgM indexes were SPMS patients, 28 having a SPMS course and 10 a RRMS course. Only two patients with SPMS courses had normal IgM indexes. EDSS scores were significantly higher in patients with increased IgM indexes (EDSS 4.3 vs EDSS 2.8, p=0.000). All patients with EDSS >3 had increased IgM indexes. All patients with IgM index values higher than 0.2 IgM had SPMS courses and EDSS >6. Time to onset of the secondary progressive phase of the disease was correlated with IgM index values (p=0.004). IgM index values were also correlated with T1 hypointense lesions (r=0.0431, p=0.008) and Gd enhancing lesions (r=0.0396, p=0.006). Patients with increased IgM indexes also had more

  4. Relations of mood with body mass index changes in severely obese women enrolled in a supported physical activity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical activity may affect weight reduction outcomes through associated improvements in mood. Relations of physical activity, mood, and weight change are not well understood in persons classified as severely obese (BMI > or = 40 kg/m(2)), however. This research tested these relationships in women with severe obesity. 57 women with a mean BMI of 43.8 kg/m(2) were enrolled in a cognitive-behavioral exercise support treatment with group-based nutrition information. Measurement of depression, tension, overall mood, and BMI was taken at baseline and month 6, and exercise session attendance was recorded. The treatment was associated with significant improvements in depression, tension and total mood disturbance scores as well as in BMI over 6 months. Changes in mood scores that were more positive were correlated with a greater reduction in BMI. Mean attendance in the prescribed 3 session/week exercise regimen was 46.0%, and attendance was significantly correlated with changes in tension and total mood disturbance scores, and approached significance with changes in depression scores. Findings suggested significant relations of mood and weight change as well as of physical activity and mood in severely obese women associated with a treatment of moderate physical activity. With extensions of this research, weight loss theory and treatment may benefit. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Utility of the Instability Severity Index Score in Predicting Failure After Arthroscopic Anterior Stabilization of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Joideep; Arnold, Christine; Elmorsy, Ahmed; Flannery, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The redislocation rate after arthroscopic stabilization for anterior glenohumeral instability is up to 30%. The Instability Severity Index Score (ISIS) was developed to preoperatively rationalize the risk of failure, but it has not yet been validated by an independent group. To assess the utility of the ISIS in predicting failure of arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization and to identify other preoperative factors for failure. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A case-control study was performed on 141 consecutive patients, comparing those who suffered failure of arthroscopic stabilization with those who had successful arthroscopic stabilization. The mean follow-up time was 47 months (range, 24-132 months). The ISIS was applied retrospectively, and an analysis was performed to establish independent risk factors for failure. A receiver operator coefficient curve was constructed to set a threshold ISIS for considering alternative surgery. Of 141 patients, 19 (13.5%) suffered recurrent instability. The mean ISIS of the failed stabilization group was higher than that of the successful stabilization group (5.1 vs 1.7; P surgery (P < .001), age at first dislocation (P = .01), competitive-level participation in sports (P < .001), and participation in contact or overhead sports (P = .03). The presence of glenoid bone loss carried the highest risk of failure (70%). There was a 70% risk of failure if the ISIS was ≥4, as opposed to a 4% risk of failure if the ISIS was <4. This is the first completely independent study to confirm that the ISIS is a useful preoperative tool. It is recommended that surgeons consider alternative forms of stabilization if the ISIS is ≥4. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Research on alternative measures in the F1000 system with Google Scholar citation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ebrahimy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altmetrics measures of F1000 website and citation Indexes of Google scholar. Applied research and survey methods, citation analysis, and webometrics with descriptive analytical approach are used. The study population comprised 218 biomedical research papers have been indexed in F1000 system in the period 2012-2014. A sample of 100 research articles were purposely selected from F1000 system based on the purpose of the research. Variables associated with altmetrics measures were extracted from F1000 and variables associated with citation measures were from Google scholar. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS software version 16 using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of this study indicate a significant positive correlation between variables associated with altmetrics and citation measures. They also confirm a strong positive correlation between Altmetrics indicators. However, the measures of the number of the authors and the funding supply of the articles show no significant correlation with altmetrics and citation measures. So an Altmetrics measure presents a new way to measure the impact of writers and publications which is a complementary to traditional assessment indicators. The significant correlation between altmetrics and citation metrics indicate that combination of traditional and altmetrics indicators presents a more complete history of the writer or the article  which provides clear dimensions of scientific assessment of research.

  7. Why Summary Comorbidity Measures Such As the Charlson Comorbidity Index and Elixhauser Score Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Steven R; Wong, Yu-Ning; Uzzo, Robert G; Beck, J Robert; Egleston, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    Comorbidity adjustment is an important component of health services research and clinical prognosis. When adjusting for comorbidities in statistical models, researchers can include comorbidities individually or through the use of summary measures such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index or Elixhauser score. We examined the conditions under which individual versus summary measures are most appropriate. We provide an analytic proof of the utility of comorbidity summary measures when used in place of individual comorbidities. We compared the use of the Charlson and Elixhauser scores versus individual comorbidities in prognostic models using a SEER-Medicare data example. We examined the ability of summary comorbidity measures to adjust for confounding using simulations. We devised a mathematical proof that found that the comorbidity summary measures are appropriate prognostic or adjustment mechanisms in survival analyses. Once one knows the comorbidity score, no other information about the comorbidity variables used to create the score is generally needed. Our data example and simulations largely confirmed this finding. Summary comorbidity measures, such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index and Elixhauser scores, are commonly used for clinical prognosis and comorbidity adjustment. We have provided a theoretical justification that validates the use of such scores under many conditions. Our simulations generally confirm the utility of the summary comorbidity measures as substitutes for use of the individual comorbidity variables in health services research. One caveat is that a summary measure may only be as good as the variables used to create it.

  8. Water stress index for alkaline fen habitat based on UAV and continuous tower measurements of canopy infrared temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciężkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on developing water stress index for alkaline fen, to evaluate water stress impact on habitat protected within Natura 2000 network: alkaline fens (habitat code:7230). It is calculated based on continuous measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and canopy temperature from meteorological tower and several UAV flights for canopy temperature registration. Measurements were taken during the growing season in 2016 in the Upper Biebrza Basin in north-east Poland. Firstly methodology of the crop water stress index (CWSI) determination was used to obtained non-water stress base line based on continuous measurements (NWSBtower). Parameters of NWSBtower were directly used to calculate spatial variability of CWSI for UAV thermal infrared (TIR) images. Then for each UAV flight day at least 3 acquisition were performed to define NWSBUAV. NWSBUAV was used to calculate canopy waters stress for whole image relative to the less stressed areas. The spatial distribution of developed index was verified using remotely sensed indices of vegetation health. Results showed that in analysed area covered by sedge-moss vegetation NWSB cannot be used directly. The proposed modification of CWSI allows identifying water stress in alkaline fen habitats and was called as Sedge-Moss Water Stress Index (SMWSI). The study shows possibility of usage remotely sensed canopy temperature data to detect areas exposed to the water stress on wetlands. This research has been carried out under the Biostrateg Programme of the Polish National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), project No.: DZP/BIOSTRATEG-II/390/2015: The innovative approach supporting monitoring of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, using remote sensing methods (HabitARS).

  9. Validation of the Hong Kong Cantonese Version of World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index for People with Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C L; Lee, C C; Ip, Y C; Chow, L P; Leung, C H; Lam, Y C

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) has been developed to measure psychological wellbeing. Translation and linguistic validation of the WHO-5 into a Cantonese version has been accomplished for local use but it is not yet validated in people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong. This study aimed to examine the applicability of WHO-5 in measuring the psychological wellbeing dimension of people with severe mental illness. A brief and easily administrated tool to measure psychological wellbeing of people with severe mental illness can be used to provide an outcome measure in research studies and clinical trials. Subjects were randomly recruited from the Extended-Care Patient Intensive Treatment, Early Diversion and Rehabilitation Stepping-Stone Project (EXITERS) and the Rehabilitation Activity Centre (RAC) of Kwai Chung Hospital in Hong Kong. They were invited to complete the abbreviated version of Hong Kong Chinese World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF [HK]) and WHO-5 (Cantonese version) separately and concurrent validity was examined. A total of 84 subjects were recruited, 42 each from EXITERS and RAC. In all, 49 (58%) were male and 35 (42%) were female. The mean ± standard deviation age was 43.2 ± 9.7 years. Their mean duration of mental illness was 16.4 ± 10.5 years and the mean years of education was 10.17 ± 2.5 years, i.e. about junior secondary school level in Hong Kong. The internal consistency of the WHO-5 was satisfactory (0.86) and was comparable with previous reports. Regarding validity, 1-factor structure with an eigenvalue of 3.24 explained 64.8% of total variance of WHO-5 for people with severe mental illness. Concurrent validity was established with moderate correlation (0.41-0.51) between WHO-5 and 4 domains of the WHOQOL-BREF (HK). The WHO-5 (Cantonese version) is a reliable and valid tool to assess the psychological wellbeing of people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong. It can be used to monitor

  10. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  11. Online Labour Index: Measuring the Online Gig Economy for Policy and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kässi, Otto; Lehdonvirta, Vili

    2016-01-01

    Labour markets are thought to be in the midst of a dramatic transformation, where standard employment is increasingly supplemented or substituted by temporary gig work mediated by online platforms. Yet the scale and scope of these changes is hard to assess, because conventional labour market statistics and economic indicators are ill-suited to measuring online gig work. We present the Online Labour Index (OLI), a new economic indicator that provides the online gig economy equivalent of conven...

  12. [Relevance and validity of a new French composite index to measure poverty on a geographical level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, B; Viel, J F

    2001-02-01

    A number of disease conditions are influenced by deprivation. Geographical measurement of deprivation can provide an independent contribution to individual measures by accounting for the social context. Such a geographical approach, based on deprivation indices, is classical in Great Britain but scarcely used in France. The objective of this work was to build and validate an index readily usable in French municipalities and cantons. Socioeconomic data (unemployment, occupations, housing specifications, income, etc.) were derived from the 1990 census of municipalities and cantons in the Doubs departement. A new index was built by principal components analysis on the municipality data. The validity of the new index was checked and tested for correlations with British deprivation indices. Principal components analysis on municipality data identified four components (explaining 76% of the variance). Only the first component (CP1 explaining 42% of the variance) was retained. Content validity (wide choice of potential deprivation items, correlation between items and CP1: 0.52 to 0.96) and construct validity (CP1 socially relevant; Cronbach's alpha=0.91; correlation between CP1 and three out of four British indices ranging from 0.73 to 0.88) were sufficient. Analysis on canton data supported that on municipality data. The validation of the new index being satisfactory, the user will have to make a choice. The new index, CP1, is closer to the local background and was derived from data from a French departement. It is therefore better adapted to more descriptive approaches such as health care planning. To examine the relationship between deprivation and health with a more etiological approach, the British indices (anteriority, international comparisons) would be more appropriate, but CP1, once validated in various health problem situations, should be most useful for French studies.

  13. The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index): an instrument to measure adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Geelen, Anouk; van Huysduynen, Eveline J C Hooft; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van't Veer, Pieter; Feskens, Edith J M

    2012-07-20

    The objective was to develop an index based on the Dutch Guidelines for a healthy Diet of 2006 that reflects dietary quality and to apply it to the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS) to examine the associations with micronutrient intakes. A total of 749 men and women, aged 19-30 years, contributed two 24-hour recalls and additional questionnaires in the DNFCS of 2003. The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index) includes ten components representing the ten Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet. Per component the score ranges between zero and ten, resulting in a total score between zero (no adherence) and 100 (complete adherence). The mean ± SD of the DHD-index was 60.4 ± 11.5 for women and 57.8 ± 10.8 for men (P for difference = 0.002). Each component score increased across the sex-specific quintiles of the DHD-index. An inverse association was observed between the sex-specific quintiles of the DHD-index and total energy intake. Calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin E intake decreased with increasing DHD-index, an inverse association which disappeared after energy adjustment. Vitamin C showed a positive association across quintiles, also when adjusted for energy. For folate, iron, magnesium, potassium, thiamin, and vitamin B6 a positive association emerged after adjustment for energy. The DHD-index is capable of ranking participants according to their adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet by reflecting variation in nine out of ten components that constitute the index when based on two 24-hour recalls. Furthermore, the index showed to be a good measure of nutrient density of diets.

  14. The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index: an instrument to measure adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lee Linde

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to develop an index based on the Dutch Guidelines for a healthy Diet of 2006 that reflects dietary quality and to apply it to the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS to examine the associations with micronutrient intakes. Methods A total of 749 men and women, aged 19–30 years, contributed two 24-hour recalls and additional questionnaires in the DNFCS of 2003. The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index includes ten components representing the ten Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet. Per component the score ranges between zero and ten, resulting in a total score between zero (no adherence and 100 (complete adherence. Results The mean ± SD of the DHD-index was 60.4 ± 11.5 for women and 57.8 ± 10.8 for men (P for difference = 0.002. Each component score increased across the sex-specific quintiles of the DHD-index. An inverse association was observed between the sex-specific quintiles of the DHD-index and total energy intake. Calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin E intake decreased with increasing DHD-index, an inverse association which disappeared after energy adjustment. Vitamin C showed a positive association across quintiles, also when adjusted for energy. For folate, iron, magnesium, potassium, thiamin, and vitamin B6 a positive association emerged after adjustment for energy. Conclusions The DHD-index is capable of ranking participants according to their adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet by reflecting variation in nine out of ten components that constitute the index when based on two 24-hour recalls. Furthermore, the index showed to be a good measure of nutrient density of diets.

  15. Structure stability index allocation theory and measurement of laser prototype facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junwei; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Zhou Hai; Feng Bin; Lin Donghui; Jing Feng; Zhou Yi; Wang Shilong

    2008-01-01

    Structure stability is an important design index of ICF driver. Based on laser prototype facility(TIL) design characteristic of multi-pass amplifier and frame structure, the optical matrix is used to analyze the single optical element influence on the beam drift and get the mathematic model. Considering all the optical elements influence on the beam drift, the mathematic model of the optical element stability index allocation is built, the parameter relation of the mathematic model is defined according to the structure characteristic of TIL, the stability index of each optical element is got as the support structure design index. Charge-coupled device(CCD) detect technology is used to measure the general beam stability of TIL. The root mean square beam drift in x and y direction are 2.78 μm, the difference between peak and valley values are 14.4 μm and 15.60 μm, respectively. The result indicates that the stability drift of the prototype facility can satisfy the design requirement, the way of the stability allocation is reasonable. (authors)

  16. Measurement of lower canine clinical crown index in male and female for gender identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dewi Handayani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to acquire the value index of clinical crown lower jaw canine male and female, and to prove whether the index of male's canine is bigger than female's. The samples of the research was the students of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran class of 1998 until 2001 by using proportional random sampling method according to the criteria and also adjust with the numbers of male and female composition in per class. The characteristic of the research was analytical descriptive with survey technique. The result of t test statistic measurement was that index of clinical crown tower jaw canine of mate was 1.50 and female was 1.21, by using reliance 95%. The inference of the research showed that the index of clinical crown lower jaw canine of male was significantly bigger than female's. The result of the research can be used as auxiliary data from the techniques to process gender identification in odontology forensic.

  17. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*: factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF, an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61 and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03. The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria. A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35. The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with

  18. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*): factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF), an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61) and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03). The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest) and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria). A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men) with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35). The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with the added advantage

  19. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  20. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and ionization rates in air using a wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Kimmel, Mark; Atherton, Briggs

    2012-04-09

    A wavefront sensor has been used to measure the Kerr nonlinear focal shift of a high intensity ultrashort pulse beam in a focusing beam geometry while accounting for the effects of plasma-defocusing. It is shown that plasma-defocusing plays a major role in the nonlinear focusing dynamics and that measurements of Kerr nonlinearity and ionization are coupled. Furthermore, this coupled effect leads to a novel way that measures the laser ionization rates in air under atmospheric conditions as well as Kerr nonlinearity. The measured nonlinear index n₂ compares well with values found in the literature and the measured ionization rates could be successfully benchmarked to the model developed by Perelomov, Popov, and Terentev (PPT model) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 1393 (1966)].

  1. Improving and measuring inpatient documentation of medical care within the MS-DRG system: education, monitoring, and normalized case mix index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Lorenz, Robert R; Luther, Ralph B; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L; Weil, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the "normalized case mix index," that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved.

  2. Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. McConnell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Much uncertainty in the value of the imaginary part of the refractive index of mineral dust contributes to uncertainty in the radiative effect of mineral dust in the atmosphere. A synthesis of optical, chemical and physical in-situ aircraft measurements from the DODO experiments during February and August 2006 are used to calculate the refractive index mineral dust encountered over West Africa. Radiative transfer modeling and measurements of broadband shortwave irradiance at a range of altitudes are used to test and validate these calculations for a specific dust event on 23 August 2006 over Mauritania. Two techniques are used to determine the refractive index: firstly a method combining measurements of scattering, absorption, size distributions and Mie code simulations, and secondly a method using composition measured on filter samples to apportion the content of internally mixed quartz, calcite and iron oxide-clay aggregates, where the iron oxide is represented by either hematite or goethite and clay by either illite or kaolinite. The imaginary part of the refractive index at 550 nm (ni550 is found to range between 0.0001 i to 0.0046 i, and where filter samples are available, agreement between methods is found depending on mineral combination assumed. The refractive indices are also found to agree well with AERONET data where comparisons are possible. ni550 is found to vary with dust source, which is investigated with the NAME model for each case. The relationship between both size distribution and ni550 on the accumulation mode single scattering albedo at 550 nm (ω0550 are examined and size distribution is found to have no correlation to ω0550, while ni550 shows a strong linear relationship with ω0550. Radiative transfer modeling was performed with different

  3. High prevalence of subtle and severe menstrual disturbances in exercising women: confirmation using daily hormone measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, M J; Toombs, R J; Scheid, J L; O'Donnell, E; West, S L; Williams, N I

    2010-02-01

    The identification of subtle menstrual cycle disturbances requires daily hormone assessments. In contrast, the identification of severe menstrual disturbances, such as amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, can be established by clinical observation. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of subtle menstrual disturbances, defined as luteal phase defects (LPD) or anovulation, in exercising women, with menstrual cycles of 26-35 days, who engage in a variety of sports, both recreational and competitive. Secondly, the prevalence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea was also determined via measurement of daily urinary ovarian steroids rather than self report alone. Menstrual status was documented by daily measurements of estrone and pregnanediol glucuronide and luteinizing hormone across two to three consecutive cycles and subsequently categorized as ovulatory (Ovul), LPD, anovulatory (Anov), oligomenorrheic (Oligo) and amenorrheic (Amen) in sedentary (Sed) and exercising (Ex) women. Sed (n = 20) and Ex women (n = 67) were of similar (P > 0.05) age (26.3 +/- 0.8 years), weight (59.3 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass index (22.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2), age of menarche (12.8 +/- 0.3 years) and gynecological maturity (13.4 +/- 0.9 years). The Sed group exercised less (P exercising women experience subtle menstrual disturbances, i.e. LPD and anovulation, and that one third of exercising women may be amenorrheic. Estimates of the prevalence of subtle menstrual disturbances in exercising women determined by the presence or absence of short or long cycles does not identify these disturbances. In light of known clinical consequences of menstrual disturbances, these findings underscore the lack of reliability of normal menstrual intervals and self report to infer menstrual status.

  4. Comparison of index velocity measurements made with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The State of Illinois' annual withdrawal from Lake Michigan is limited by a U.S. Supreme Court decree, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics is convened to review the U.S. Geological Survey's streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee raised a number of questions concerning the flows and streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont and this report provides answers to many of those questions. In addition, it is the purpose of this report to examine the index velocity meters in use at Lemont and determine whether the acoustic velocity meter (AVM), which is now the primary index velocity meter, can be replaced by the horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP), which is currently the backup meter. Application of the AVM and H-ADCP to index velocity measurements in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois, has produced good ratings to date. The site is well suited to index velocity measurements in spite of the large range of velocities and highly unsteady flows at the site. Flow variability arises from a range of sources: operation of the waterway through control structures, lockage-generated disturbances, commercial and recreational traffic, industrial withdrawals and discharges, natural inflows, seiches, and storm events. The influences of these factors on the index velocity measurements at Lemont is examined in detail in this report. Results of detailed data comparisons and flow analyses show that use of bank-mounted instrumentation such as the AVM and H-ADCP appears to be the best option for index velocity measurement in the CSSC near Lemont. Comparison of the rating curves for the AVM and H-ADCP demonstrates

  5. Measurement of velocity field in pipe with classic twisted tape using matching refractive index technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations.

  6. Virtual reality sickness questionnaire (VRSQ): Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun K; Park, Jaehyun; Choi, Yeongcheol; Choe, Mungyeong

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design. The existing SSQ was revised to develop a VR sickness questionnaire, which is used as the measurement index in a VR environment. In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A MEASUREMENT OF THE ADIABATIC COOLING INDEX FOR INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PICKUP IONS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Kallenbach, Reinald

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar neutral gas enters the inner heliosphere where it is ionized and becomes the pickup ion population of the solar wind. It is often assumed that this population will subsequently cool adiabatically, like an expanding ideal gas due, to the divergent flow of the solar wind. Here, we report the first independent measure of the effective adiabatic cooling index in the inner heliosphere from SOHO CELIAS measurements of singly charged helium taken during times of perpendicular interplanetary magnetic field. We use a simple adiabatic transport model of interstellar pickup helium ions, valid for the upwind region of the inner heliosphere. The time averaged velocity spectrum of helium pickup ions measured by CELIAS/CTOF is fit to this model with a single free parameter which indicates an effective cooling rate with a power-law index of γ = 1.35 ± 0.2. While this average is consistent with the 'ideal-gas' assumption of γ = 1.5, the analysis indicates that such an assumption will not apply in general, and that due to observational constraints further measurements are necessary to constrain the cooling process. Implications are discussed for understanding the transport processes in the inner heliosphere and improving this measurement technique.

  8. Measurement of velocity field in pipe with classic twisted tape using matching refractive index technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations

  9. Differences between h-index measures from different bibliographic sources and search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Aragão, Erika; Sousa, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes de; Santana, Táris Maria; Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the use of the h-index as a measure of the bibliometric impact of Brazilian researchers' scientific publications. The scientific production of Brazilian CNPq 1-A researchers in the areas of public health, immunology and medicine were compared. The mean h-index of the groups of researchers in each area were estimated and nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test and multiple comparisons Behrens-Fisher test were used to compare the differences. The h-index means were higher in the area of Immunology than in Public Health and Medicine when the Web of Science base was used. However, this difference disappears when the comparison is made using Scopus or Google Scholar. The emergence of Google Scholar brings a new level to discussions on the measure of the bibliometric impact of scientific publications. Areas with strong professional components, in which knowledge is produced and must also be published in the native language, vis-a-vis its dissemination to the international community, necessarily have a standard of scientific publications and citations different from areas exclusively or predominantly academic and they are best captured by Google Scholar.

  10. Correlation among the dysphonia severity index (DSI), the RBH voice perceptual evaluation, and minimum glottal area in female patients with vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein Gaber, Ammar Gaber; Liang, Fa-Ya; Yang, Jin-Shan; Wang, Ya-Jing; Zheng, Yi-Qing

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance and correlation of the dysphonia severity index (DSI), the RBH (roughness [R]; breathiness [B]; hoarseness [H]) perceptual voice quality evaluation, and minimum glottal area (MGA) in patients with vocal fold nodules and validate the practicality of the DSI further. The DSI evaluation, the voice RBH perceptual evaluation, and the MGA were performed on 30 female patients with vocal fold nodules (the patient group) and 30 female volunteers with normal voices (the control group). The DSI determination was calculated using the following formula: DSI = 0.13 × MPT + 0.0053 × F(0)-High - 0.26 × I-Low - 1.18 × Jitter(%) + 12.4. The RBH evaluation was graded according to four scales. The MGA was measured by KayPENTAX Kips (7105) software. The differences among the DSI, the RBH grade, and MGA of the patients were compared. The median DSI values of the patient group and the control group were -0.81 and 3.79, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P dysphonia in female patients with vocal nodules has significant clinical application and good correlation with MGA measurement. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  11. Noncontact Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring the Refractive Index of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvas-Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A noncontact optical fiber sensor for measuring the refractive index of transparent liquids is proposed. It operates by calculating the path of a focused laser beam at 635 nm that travels across the boundaries of a liquid sample. The optical power Fresnel reflections are detected and, subsequently, the refractive index is determined as the ratio between the traveled beam paths when the liquid is deposited versus a reference without the liquid sample. Additionally, a mathematical analysis of the geometrical case is included. The theoretical data from our sensor are in good agreement with the experimental results. The resolution achieved by the sensor is better than 10−3 RIU.

  12. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  13. Organizational Health Index and Organizational Agility Maturity Criteria as Measurement Tools of Organizational Transformation Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swasti Sri Harjanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a response to negative growth in the mobile legacy projection - which supports 50% of Telkom revenue, and a positive high growth projection in the ICT and digital business revenue, Telkom decides to shift the business to digital. To be a successful digital company, Telkom has created strategic initiatives, including organizational transformation adopting Customer Facing Unit (CFU concept that has been done for several months but there still no evaluation method for the success. This paper purpose is to evaluate the implementation of one human capital management strategic initiatives - CFU transformation implementation success, through Organizational Health Index and Organizational Agility Maturity model and formulate a recommendation for Telkom to create a more healthy and agile organization. This research using 11 synthetized dimension of Organization Health Index and Organizational Agility Maturity Model method as tools. Questionnaire consist of 53 practices that represented by 55 questions that asks about respondents extent to which they agree (satisfaction and whether it meet respondents expectation. Survey result shows that Telkom already in a healthy condition and agile as an organization. This result concluded that by methods used in this research, the transformation could be stated as a success. However, according to the result, maintain and improvement of current health and agility still needed, especially improvement regarding innovation and learning. Keywords:Organization, organizational agility, organizational health index, telecommunication, transformation

  14. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  15. Proposal of a service delivery integration index of home care for older persons: application in several European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.C.; Ankri, J.; Frijters, D.; Carpenter, I.; Topinkova, E.; Garms-Homolova, V.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Wergeland Sorbye, L.; Jonsson, P.V.; Ljunggren, G.; Schroll, M.; Wagner, C.; Bernabei, R.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To propose an integration index of home care delivery to older persons, to study its validity and to apply it to home care services of European cities. THEORY: Home care delivery integration was based on two dimensions referring to process-centred integration and organisational structure

  16. Design, building and use of a selective pyranometer for the definition and measurement of the lighting index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guicherd, Roger.

    1976-03-01

    The design, building, testing, calibration and operation of a selective pyranometer intended for the definition and measurement of the lighting index are described; with this original apparatus the energetic lighting at ground level is measured selectively and continuously. The measurement head has three transducers equipped with hollow hemispherical filters measuring energy in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared range respectively. In conclusion, a definition of the lighting index obtained with this thermally compensated, selective pyranometer P.S. is proposed [fr

  17. Severe maternal morbidity in Zanzibar's referral hospital: Measuring the impact of in-hospital care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanneke Herklots

    Full Text Available to analyse the impact of in-hospital care on severe maternal morbidity using WHO's near-miss approach in the low-resource, high mortality setting of Zanzibar's referral hospital.Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, a tertiary care facility, in Zanzibar, Tanzania.We identified all cases of morbidity and mortality in women admitted within 42 days after the end of pregnancy at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital in the period from April to October 2016. The severity of complications was classified using WHO's near-miss approach definitions: potentially life-threatening condition (PLTC, maternal near-miss (MNM or maternal death (MD. Quality of in-hospital care was assessed using the mortality index (MI defined as ratio between mortality and severe maternal outcome (SMO where SMO = MD + MNM, cause-specific case facility rates and comparison with predicted mortality based on the Maternal Severity Index model.5551 women were included. 569 (10.3% had a potentially life-threatening condition and 65 (1.2% a severe maternal outcome (SMO: 37 maternal near-miss cases and 28 maternal deaths. The mortality index was high at 0.43 and similar for women who developed a SMO within 12 hours of admission and women who developed a SMO after 12 hours. A standardized mortality ratio of 6.03 was found; six times higher than that expected in moderate maternal mortality settings given the same severity of cases. Obstetric haemorrhage was found to be the main cause of SMO. Ruptured uterus and admission to ICU had the highest case-fatality rates. Maternal death cases seemed to have received essential interventions less often.WHO's near-miss approach can be used in this setting. The high mortality index observed shows that in-hospital care is not preventing progression of disease adequately once a severe complication occurs. Almost one in two women experiencing life-threatening complications will die. This is six times higher than in moderate mortality settings.

  18. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratios Are More Effective than the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index for Predicting Poor Prognosis in Fournier's Gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sang Un; Kim, Sun Woo; Ahn, Ji Hoon; Cho, Yang Hyun; Chung, Hoseok; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Jung, Seung Il; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as markers of mortality in patients with Fournier's gangrene. Records from 62 patients treated for Fournier's gangrene between 2003 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected regarding medical history, symptoms, physical examination findings, admission laboratory tests, and the extent of body surface area involved (%). Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score, NLR, and PLR were calculated. The data were assessed separately for surviving and deceased patients. Of the 62 patients, 36 survived (58%, group 1) and 26 died (42%, group 2). Parameters that were statistically different between the two groups (p Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score, and admission laboratory parameters, including body temperature, heart rate, bicarbonate, albumin, and serum calcium. The average body surface area affected in group 2 was statistically different from that of group 1 (6.0% versus 2.3%, p = 0.001). A high Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score (>9), high NLR (>8), and high PLR (>140) were associated more frequently with group 2 patients. Multivariable regression analysis showed that high NLR (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-17.3; p = 0.022) and high PLR (adjusted OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 2.7-49.5; p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for poor prognosis from Fournier's gangrene. However, the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score did not shown any statistically significant effect on mortality (p = 0.086). The Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index scoring system was not associated with determining poor prognosis, however, high NLR and high PLR were associated with predictors of mortality in patients with Fournier's gangrene.

  19. The equivalence of two phylogenetic biodiversity measures: the Shapley value and Fair Proportion index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Klaas

    2013-11-01

    Most biodiversity conservation programs are forced to prioritise species in order to allocate their funding. This paper contains a mathematical proof that provides biological support for one common approach based on phylogenetic indices. Phylogenetic trees describe the evolutionary relationships between a group of taxa. Two indices for computing the distinctiveness of each taxon in a phylogenetic tree are considered here-the Shapley value and the Fair Proportion index. These indices provide a measure of the importance of each taxon for overall biodiversity and have been used to prioritise taxa for conservation. The Shapley value is the biodiversity contribution a taxon is expected to make if all taxa are equally likely to become extinct. This interpretation makes it appealing to use the Shapley value in biodiversity conservation applications. The Fair Proportion index lacks a convenient interpretation, however it is significantly easier to calculate and understand. It has been empirically observed that there is a high correlation between the two indices. This paper shows the mathematical basis for this correlation and proves that as the number of taxa increases, the indices become equivalent. Consequently in biodiversity prioritisation the simpler Fair Proportion index can be used whilst retaining the appealing interpretation of the Shapley value.

  20. Multiple regression analysis of anthropometric measurements influencing the cephalic index of male Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Saw, Aik; Alam, Rashidul; Ohtsuki, Fumio; Kamarul, Tunku

    2013-09-01

    Cephalic index (CI), the ratio of head breadth to head length, is widely used to categorise human populations. The aim of this study was to access the impact of anthropometric measurements on the CI of male Japanese university students. This study included 1,215 male university students from Tokyo and Kyoto, selected using convenient sampling. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of anthropometric measurements on CI. The variance inflation factor (VIF) showed no evidence of a multicollinearity problem among independent variables. The coefficients of the regression line demonstrated a significant positive relationship between CI and minimum frontal breadth (p regression analysis showed a greater likelihood for minimum frontal breadth (p regression analysis revealed bizygomatic breadth, head circumference, minimum frontal breadth, head height and morphological facial height to be the best predictor craniofacial measurements with respect to CI. The results suggest that most of the variables considered in this study appear to influence the CI of adult male Japanese students.

  1. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: alonso@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Programa de Ciencia y Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  2. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  3. Intra and interobserver variability of renal allograft ultrasound volume and resistive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, Marcello; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Daniele, Stefania; Raffio, Teresa; Salvatore, Marco; Sabbatini, Massimo; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Ferrara, Liberato Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of the presents study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the Doppler Resistive Index (R.I.) and the Ultrasound renal volume measurement in renal transplants. Materials and methods: Twenty -six consecutive patients (18 men, 8 women) mean age of 42,8±12,4 years (M±SD)(range 22-65 years) were studied twice by each of two trained sonographers using a color Doppler ultrasound scanner. Twelve of them had a normal allograft function (defined as stable serum creatinine levels ≤123,76 μmol/L), whilst the remaining 14 had decreased allograft function (serum creatinine 132.6-265.2 μmol/L). Results were given as mean of 6 measurements performed at upper, middle and lower pole of the kidney. Intra- and interobserver variability was assessed by the repeatability coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV). Results: Regarding Resistive Index measurement, repeatability coefficient was between 0.04 and 0.06 and the coefficient of variation was [it

  4. Calcification remodeling index characterized by cardiac CT as A novel parameter to predict the use of rotational atherectomy for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Lu, Zhi Gang; Wei, Meng; Zhang, Jia Yin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2017-09-15

    To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation.

  5. Calcification remodeling index characterized by cardiac CT as A novel parameter to predict the use of rotational atherectomy for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Lu, Zhi Gang; Wei, Meng; Zhang, Jia Yin

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation.

  6. Calcification Remodeling Index Characterized by Cardiac CT as a Novel Parameter to Predict the Use of Rotational Atherectomy for Coronary Intervention of Lesions with Moderate to Severe Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengmeng; Li, Yuehua; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Zhigang; Wei, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Materials and Methods Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. Results A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Conclusion Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation. PMID:28860893

  7. Measurement Properties of the Functional Rating Index: A systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongfei; Shu, Tian; Lu, Jiani; Niu, Wenxin

    2018-04-13

    A systematic review and meta-analysis. To assess the measurement properties of the Functional Rating Index (FRI) and determine whether its measurement properties are comparable with other region-specific questionnaires. In addition to low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP), multi-region spinal pain (SP) is a common problem with a considerable prevalence in the general population. The FRI was built to assess physical functioning in patients with SP. However, a systematic review assessing evidence of its measurement properties in separated populations and a comparison with other questionnaires regarding each measurement property is lacking. Articles concerning the FRI's measurement properties or head-to-head comparison with other questionnaires on measurement properties were obtained from MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, extracted data, and conducted the methodological quality assessment. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 18 studies evaluating the FRI's measurement properties, including seven that carried out head-to-head comparisons in at least one measurement property with other questionnaires, were included in the current review. Our findings show strong positive evidence for structural validity and internal consistency in patients with SP and LBP. Evidence for most of the FRI's measurement properties is limited, conflicting, or even unknown. The current evidence shows that the FRI is comparable with both the ODI and the NDI in responsiveness. However, relevant information about the majority of the other measurement properties is lacking. Our finding suggests that clinicians and researchers should use the FRI with caution until there are more studies with high methodological quality that support the view that it is positive in all measurement properties

  8. Optical fibre cavity ring down measurement of refractive index with a microchannel drilled by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaiming; Webb, David; Mou, Chengbo; Farries, Mark; Hayes, Neil; Bennion, Ian

    2009-10-01

    μA microchannel was inscribed in the fibre of a ring cavity which was constructed from two 0.1%:99.9% couplers and a 10m fibre loop. Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) was used to measure the refractive index (RI) of gels infused into the microchannel with high resolution. The ring down time discloses a nonlinear increase with respect to the RI of the gel and sensitivity up to 300μs/RI unit (RIU) and resolution of 5×10-4 were obtained.

  9. Measuring Anatomic Severity in Pediatric Appendicitis: Validation of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Appendicitis Severity Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Matthew C; Polites, Stephanie F; Aho, Johnathon M; Haddad, Nadeem N; Kong, Victor Y; Saleem, Humza; Bruce, John L; Laing, Grant L; Clarke, Damian L; Zielinski, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system accurately corresponds with appendicitis outcomes in a US pediatric population. This single-institution retrospective review included patients appendicitis from 2008 to 2012. Demographic, clinical, procedural, and follow-up data (primary outcome was measured as Clavien-Dindo grade of complication severity) were abstracted. AAST grades were generated based on intraoperative findings. Summary, univariate, and multivariable regression analyses were performed to compare AAST grade and outcomes. Overall, 331 patients (46% female) were identified with a median age of 12 (IQR, 8-15) years. Appendectomy was laparoscopic in 90% and open in 10%. AAST grades included: Normal (n = 13, 4%), I (n = 152, 46%), II (n = 90, 27%), III (n = 43, 13%), IV (n = 24 7.3%), and V (n = 9 2.7%). Increased AAST grade was associated with increased Clavien-Dindo severity, P =.001. The overall complication rate was 13.6% and was comprised by superficial surgical site infection (n = 13, 3.9%), organ space infection (n = 15, 4.5%), and readmission (n = 17, 5.1%). Median duration of stay increased with AAST grade (P appendicitis grading system is valid in a single-institution pediatric population. Increasing AAST grade incrementally corresponds with patient outcomes including increased risk of complications and severity of complications. Determination of the generalizability of this grading system is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Center index method-an alternative for wear measurements with radiostereometry (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jon; Figved, Wender; Snorrason, Finnur; Nordsletten, Lars; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2013-03-01

    Radiostereometry (RSA) is considered to be the most precise and accurate method for wear-measurements in total hip replacement. Post-operative stereoradiographs has so far been necessary for wear measurement. Hence, the use of RSA has been limited to studies planned for RSA measurements. We compared a new RSA method for wear measurements that does not require previous radiographs with conventional RSA. Instead of comparing present stereoradiographs with post-operative ones, we developed a method for calculating the post-operative position of the center of the femoral head on the present examination and using this as the index measurement. We compared this alternative method to conventional RSA in 27 hips in an ongoing RSA study. We found a high degree of agreement between the methods for both mean proximal (1.19 mm vs. 1.14 mm) and mean 3D wear (1.52 mm vs. 1.44 mm) after 10 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.958 and 0.955, respectively (pRSA offers comparable results to conventional RSA measurements. It allows precise wear measurements without previous radiological examinations. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Measurement of International Roughness Index by Using Z-Axis Accelerometers and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Roughness Index (IRI is a well-recognized standard in the field of pavement management. Many different types of devices can be used to measure the IRI, but these devices are mainly mounted on a full-size automobile and are complicated to operate. In addition, these devices are expensive. The development of methods for IRI measurement is a prerequisite for pavement management systems and other parts of the road management industry. Based on the quarter-car model and the vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, there is a strong correlation between the in-car Z-axis acceleration and the IRI. The variation of speed of the car during the measurement process has a large influence on IRI estimation. A measurement system equipped with Z-axis accelerometers and a GPS device was developed. Using the self-designing measurement system based on the methodology proposed in this study, we performed a small-scale field test. We used a one-wheel linear model and two-wheel model to fit the variation of the Z-axis acceleration. The test results demonstrated that the low-cost measurement system has good accuracy and could enhance the efficiency of IRI measurement.

  12. Effects of glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics on serum infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones in patients with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics on serum infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods: a total of 80 patients with severe pneumonia who were hospitalized between August 2014 and January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into the routine treatment group (n=46 who received conventional antibiotic therapy and the combined treatment group (n=34 who received glucocorticoid combined with antibiotic therapy, and the differences in infection indexes, acute proteins and stress hormones were compared between the two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: The differences in serum levels of infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones were not statistically significant between the two groups before treatment. After 1 week of treatment, serum infection indexes CRP and PCT levels of observation group were lower than those of control group; serum acute phase proteins α1-AT, α1-AG and CER levels were lower than those of control group; serum stress hormones Cor, AngⅠ and AngⅡ levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics can effectively inhibit systemic infection and stress and optimize the illness in patients with severe pneumonia.

  13. Assessment and Calibration of Ultrasonic Measurement Errors in Estimating Weathering Index of Stone Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating the degree of weathering in stone cultural heritage, such as pagodas and statues is very important to plan conservation and restoration. The ultrasonic measurement is one of commonly-used techniques to evaluate weathering index of stone cultual properties, since it is easy to use and non-destructive. Typically we use a portable ultrasonic device, PUNDIT with exponential sensors. However, there are many factors to cause errors in measurements such as operators, sensor layouts or measurement directions. In this study, we carried out variety of measurements with different operators (male and female), different sensor layouts (direct and indirect), and sensor directions (anisotropy). For operators bias, we found that there were not significant differences by the operator's sex, while the pressure an operator exerts can create larger error in measurements. Calibrating with a standard sample for each operator is very essential in this case. For the sensor layout, we found that the indirect measurement (commonly used for cultural properties, since the direct measurement is difficult in most cases) gives lower velocity than the real one. We found that the correction coefficient is slightly different for different types of rocks: 1.50 for granite and sandstone and 1.46 for marble. From the sensor directions, we found that many rocks have slight anisotropy in their ultrasonic velocity measurement, though they are considered isotropic in macroscopic scale. Thus averaging four different directional measurement (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°) gives much less errors in measurements (the variance is 2-3 times smaller). In conclusion, we reported the error in ultrasonic meaurement of stone cultural properties by various sources quantitatively and suggested the amount of correction and procedures to calibrate the measurements. Acknowledgement: This study, which forms a part of the project, has been achieved with the support of national R&D project, which has been hosted by

  14. [Discordance between mitral valve area (MVA) and pressure gradient in patients with mitral valve stenosis: mean transmitral valve gradient is a severity index or a tolerance index of severity of mitralss valve stenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najih, Hayat; Arous, Salim; Laarje, Aziza; Baghdadi, Dalila; Benouna, Mohamed Ghali; Azzouzi, Leila; Habbal, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (MVS) is a frequent valvulopathy in developing countries. However, industrialized countries have seen the emergence of new etiologies of MVS in recent years, in particular drug-induced and/or toxic valvular regurgitation and stenosis. For this reason, the echocardiographic assessment of MVS and especially the definition of objective diagnostic criteria for severe MVS remains relevant. The objectives are: to determine whether there is a direct causal link between mean transmitral gradient (MTG) and severity of MVS in patients with severe MVS or true severe MVS (primary criterion); to analyze different parameters determining mean transmitral gradient (MTG) (secondary criterion). We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study including all patients with severe or true severe MVS admitted to the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Ibn Rushd, Casablanca over a period of one year (January 2014-December 2014). We analyzed data from two groups of patients separately: those with a mean transmitral gradientgradient>10mmHg (group 2). 50 patients with severe or true severe MVS have been included in the study. The average age of our patients was 41.7 years with a female predominance (sex ratio 0,25). 64% of patients had severe MVS and 36% of patients had true severe MVS. 52% (26 patients) had MTG gradient> 10mmHg, suggesting no direct correlation between the severity of MVS and MTG (Pearson's correlation coefficient R: -0,137). With regards to dyspnea, 80% of patients of group 1 had stage II NYHA dyspnea (classification system) and 70% of patients of group 2 had stage III NYHA dyspnea (41%) or IV NYHA dyspnea (29%), which means that there was a significant correlation between MTG and the severity of dyspnea (R: 0,586 and p: 0,001). The analytical study of heart rate and the presence of cardiac decompensation compared with mean gradient transmitral showed a significant correlation. Indeed, among patients in group 1, 96% had HR

  15. Whole lesion histogram analysis of meningiomas derived from ADC values. Correlation with several cellularity parameters, proliferation index KI 67, nucleic content, and membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Hamerla, Gordian; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Schob, Stefan; Fiedler, Eckhard

    2018-09-01

    To analyze several histopathological features and their possible correlations with whole lesion histogram analysis derived from ADC maps in meningioma. The retrospective study involved 36 patients with primary meningiomas. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated: ADC mean , ADC max , ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , ADC percentiles: P10, P25, P75, P90, as well kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. All measures were performed by two radiologists. Proliferation index KI 67, minimal, maximal and mean cell count, total nucleic area, and expression of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. A perfect interobserver agreement for all ADC values (0.84-0.97) was identified. All ADC values correlated inversely with tumor cellularity with the strongest correlation between P10, P25 and mean cell count (-0.558). KI 67 correlated inversely with all ADC values except ADC min . ADC parameters did not correlate with total nucleic area. All ADC values correlated statistically significant with expression of AQP4. ADC histogram analysis is a valid method with an excellent interobserver agreement. Cellularity parameters and proliferation potential are associated with different ADC values. Membrane permeability may play a greater role for water diffusion than cell count and proliferation activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of femtosecond-laser-induced refractive-index changes in an optical fiber from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    A new method for direct writing of localized, circularly symmetric refractive-index changes in optical fibers with a femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The refractive-index changes are characterized using a novel approach employing comparison of numerical simulations to the measured far......-field profiles of unmodified and modified fibers. From the analysis, a negative refractive-index change of −0.015 0.005 within a radius of 0.6 0.1 μm is determined....

  17. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  18. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  19. Simultaneous measurement of focal length and index of refraction of a microlens using a compound microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, Franck; Ashraf, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of microlenses has spurred a lot of interest and resulted in multiple techniques of fabrication in the past decade. However the metrology of these lenses has received less attention and remains a complex and time-consuming task that does not allow frequent control during development and manufacturing. We propose a simple technique based on a standard compound microscope that would allow measuring the focal length of a plano-convex lens and at the same time obtain a measure of the index of refraction of the lens material. The method relies on observing the different images of an object placed in the illumination path of the microscope. Among these images, some are created by the light going through the lens and others by its reflection on the surface. We show that with the image distance and size it is possible to retrieve the focal length and the average index of refraction of the lens material in the case of quasi-spherical lenses. The accuracy obtained by the technique is better than a few per cent and its cost is negligible as it only uses existing equipment

  20. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on intensity demodulation using matching grating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liang; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Kang, Juan; Jin, Yongxing; Wang, Jianfeng; Ye, Manping; Jin, Shangzhong

    2013-07-01

    A solution refractive index (SRI) and temperature simultaneous measurement sensor with intensity-demodulation system based on matching grating method were demonstrated. Long period grating written in a photonic crystal fiber (LPG-PCF), provides temperature stable and wavelength dependent optical intensity transmission. The reflective peaks of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), one of which is etched then sensitive to both SRI and temperature, another (FBG2) is only sensitive to temperature, were located in the same linear range of the LPG-PCF's transmission spectrum. An identical FBG with FBG2 was chosen as a matching FBG. When environments (SRI and temperature) change, the wavelength shifts of the FBGs are translated effectively to the reflection intensity changes. By monitoring output lights of unmatching and matching paths, the SRI and temperature were deduced by a signal processing unit. Experimental results show that the simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement system work well. The proposed sensor system is compact and suitable for in situ applications at lower cost.

  1. The social media index: measuring the impact of emergency medicine and critical care websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; pimpact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; pimpact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool.

  2. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on radio Xmax measurements of air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corstanje Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When performing radio measurements of air showers, natural variations in n will change the radio lateral intensity distribution, by changing the Cherenkov angle. Using CoREAS simulations, we have evaluated the systematic error on measurements of the shower maximum Xmax due to variations in n. It was found that a 10% increase in refractivity (n – 1 leads to an underestimation of Xmax between 8 and 22 g/cm2 for proton-induced showers at zenith angles from 15 to 45 degrees, respectively.

  3. The Bidimensional Impression Management Index (BIMI): measuring agentic and communal forms of impression management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasberg, Sabrina A; Rogers, Katherine H; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2014-01-01

    Measures of impression management have yet to incorporate two-factor models of person perception. The 2 primary factors are often labeled agency and communion. In Study 1, we assembled a new measure of impression management—the Bidimensional Impression Management Index (BIMI): It comprises 2 subscales designed specifically to tap agentic and communal content. Both subscales showed adequate alpha reliabilities under both honest and faking conditions. In Study 2, the BIMI was cross-validated in a new sample: The subscales remained relatively independent, and their reliabilities remained solid. A coherent pattern of personality correlates also supported the validities of both subscales. In Study 3, the differential sensitivity of the 2 subscales was demonstrated by manipulating the job type in simulated job applications. Implications and applications of the BIMI are discussed.

  4. PIV Measurement of Pulsatile Flows in 3D Curved Tubes Using Refractive Index Matching Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyeon Ji; Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Three-dimensional models of stenosis blood vessels were prepared using a 3D printer. The models included a straight pipe with axisymmetric stenosis and a pipe that was bent 10° from the center of stenosis. A refractive index matching method was utilized to measure accurate velocity fields inside the 3D tubes. Three different pulsatile flows were generated and controlled by changing the rotational speed frequency of the peristaltic pump. Unsteady velocity fields were measured by a time-resolved particle image velocimetry method. Periodic shedding of vortices occurred and moves depended on the maximum velocity region. The sizes and the positions of the vortices and symmetry are influenced by mean Reynolds number and tube geometry. In the case of the bent pipe, a recirculation zone observed at the post-stenosis could explain the possibility of blood clot formation and blood clot adhesion in view of hemodynamics.

  5. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in many engineering problems as well as in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbines by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 min. - Highlights: • Semi-Markov models. • Time series generation of wind speed. • Computation of availability, reliability and maintainability.

  6. PIV Measurement of Pulsatile Flows in 3D Curved Tubes Using Refractive Index Matching Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyeon Ji; Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of stenosis blood vessels were prepared using a 3D printer. The models included a straight pipe with axisymmetric stenosis and a pipe that was bent 10° from the center of stenosis. A refractive index matching method was utilized to measure accurate velocity fields inside the 3D tubes. Three different pulsatile flows were generated and controlled by changing the rotational speed frequency of the peristaltic pump. Unsteady velocity fields were measured by a time-resolved particle image velocimetry method. Periodic shedding of vortices occurred and moves depended on the maximum velocity region. The sizes and the positions of the vortices and symmetry are influenced by mean Reynolds number and tube geometry. In the case of the bent pipe, a recirculation zone observed at the post-stenosis could explain the possibility of blood clot formation and blood clot adhesion in view of hemodynamics.

  7. Measuring green productivity of country: A generlized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures environmental productivity in 70 countries over the period 1981–2007. Differences in green (environmental) productivity growth across countries under distinct country specific production frontier are measured using directional distance function model, which incorporates desirable output (GDP) and undesirable output (CO 2 emissions). The metafrontier which envelops the two country groups, developed countries and developing countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. A parametric method is used to compute technical efficiency change, technical change, and scale efficiency change, which aggregate to the generalized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index. The overall results indicated the two country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that developing countries achieved higher growth in their average environmental productivity relative to the metafrontier. Thus the results coincide with the convergence growth theory

  8. Measurement of the effective refractive index of a turbid colloidal suspension using light refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Coronado, A; Garcia-Valenzuela, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Barrera, R G

    2005-01-01

    We propose and analyse a simple method to measure simultaneously the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of a turbid suspension of particles. The method is based on measurements of the angle of refraction and transmittance of a laser beam that traverses a hollow glass prism filled with a colloidal suspension. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the method. It can offer high sensitivity while still being simple to interpret. We present results of experiments using an optically turbid suspension of polystyrene particles and compare them with theoretical predictions. We also report experimental evidence showing that the refractive behaviour of the diffuse component of light coming from a suspension depends on the volume fraction of the colloidal particles

  9. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  10. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of monocomponent droplet temperature/refractive index, size and evaporation rate with phase rainbow refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchun; Crua, Cyril; Li, Haipeng; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Mädler, Lutz; Wu, Xuecheng; Gréhan, Gérard

    2018-07-01

    The accurate measurements of droplet temperature, size and evaporation rate are of great importance to characterize the heat and mass transfer during evaporation/condensation processes. The nanoscale size change of a micron-sized droplet exactly describes its transient mass transfer, but is difficult to measure because it is smaller than the resolutions of current size measurement techniques. The Phase Rainbow Refractometry (PRR) technique is developed and applied to measure droplet temperature, size and transient size changes and thereafter evaporation rate simultaneously. The measurement principle of PRR is theoretically derived, and it reveals that the phase shift of the time-resolved ripple structures linearly depends on, and can directly yield, nano-scale size changes of droplets. The PRR technique is first verified through the simulation of rainbows of droplets with changing size, and results show that PRR can precisely measure droplet refractive index, absolute size, as well as size change with absolute and relative errors within several nanometers and 0.6%, respectively, and thus PRR permits accurate measurements of transient droplet evaporation rates. The evaporations of flowing single n-nonane droplet and mono-dispersed n-heptane droplet stream are investigated by two PRR systems with a high speed linear CCD and a low speed array CCD, respectively. Their transient evaporation rates are experimentally determined and quantitatively agree well with the theoretical values predicted by classical Maxwell and Stefan-Fuchs models. With the demonstration of evaporation rate measurement of monocomponent droplet in this work, PRR is an ideal tool for measurements of transient droplet evaporation/condensation processes, and can be extended to multicomponent droplets in a wide range of industrially-relevant applications.

  12. The reward probability index: design and validation of a scale measuring access to environmental reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, John P; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Hellmuth, Julianne C; McNulty, James K; Magidson, Jessica F; Lejuez, C W; Hopko, Derek R

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral models of depression implicate decreased response-contingent positive reinforcement (RCPR) as critical toward the development and maintenance of depression (Lewinsohn, 1974). Given the absence of a psychometrically sound self-report measure of RCPR, the Reward Probability Index (RPI) was developed to measure access to environmental reward and to approximate actual RCPR. In Study 1 (n=269), exploratory factor analysis supported a 20-item two-factor model (Reward Probability, Environmental Suppressors) with strong internal consistency (α=.90). In Study 2 (n=281), confirmatory factor analysis supported this two-factor structure and convergent validity was established through strong correlations between the RPI and measures of activity, avoidance, reinforcement, and depression (r=.65 to .81). Discriminant validity was supported via smaller correlations between the RPI and measures of social support and somatic anxiety (r=-.29 to -.40). Two-week test-retest reliability was strong (r=.69). In Study 3 (n=33), controlling for depression symptoms, hierarchical regression supported the incremental validity of the RPI in predicting daily diary reports of environmental reward. The RPI represents a parsimonious, reliable, and valid measure that may facilitate understanding of the etiology of depression and its relationship to overt behaviors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Psychometric evaluation of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) as depression severity scale using the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data) as index of validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Timmerby, N; Martiny, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was developed to cover the universe of depressive symptoms in DSM-IV major depression as well as in ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standardization of the MDI as a depression severity......-IV major depression. The conventional VAS scores for no, mild, moderate, and severe depression were used for the standardization of the MDI. RESULTS: The inter-correlation for the MDI with the clinician ratings (VAS, MES, HAM-D17 and HAM-D6) increased over the rating weeks in terms of Pearson coefficients....... After nine weeks of therapy the coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.83. Using the clinician-rated VAS depression severity scale, the conventional MDI cut-off scores for no or doubtful depression, and for mild, moderate and severe depression were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Using the VAS as index of external...

  14. Accounting for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity with pre- and posttrauma measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling older adults, we analyzed the most extensive set of known correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms obtained from a single sample to examine the measures’ independent and combined utility in accounting for PTSD symptom...... attachment and factors related to the current trauma memory, such as self-rated severity, event centrality, frequency of involuntary recall, and physical reactions to the memory, accounted for symptom severity better than did measures of pretrauma factors. In an analysis restricted to prospective measures...... severity. Fifteen measures identified as PTSD risk factors in published meta-analyses as well as 12 theoretically and empirically supported individual difference and health-related measures were included in our analysis. Individual difference measures assessed after the trauma, including insecure...

  15. More than just tapping: index finger-tapping measures procedural learning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Felipe N; Irani, Farzin; Richard, Jan; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-05-01

    Finger-tapping has been widely studied using behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Evidence supports the use of finger-tapping as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, but its relationship with motor procedural learning remains unexplored. To our knowledge, this study presents the first use of index finger-tapping to study procedural learning in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SZA) as compared to healthy controls. A computerized index finger-tapping test was administered to 1169 SCZ/SZA patients (62% male, 88% right-handed), and 689 healthy controls (40% male, 93% right-handed). Number of taps per trial and learning slopes across trials for the dominant and non-dominant hands were examined for motor speed and procedural learning, respectively. Both healthy controls and SCZ/SZA patients demonstrated procedural learning for their dominant hand but not for their non-dominant hand. In addition, patients showed a greater capacity for procedural learning even though they demonstrated more variability in procedural learning compared to healthy controls. Left-handers of both groups performed better than right-handers and had less variability in mean number of taps between non-dominant and dominant hands. Males also had less variability in mean tap count between dominant and non-dominant hands than females. As expected, patients had a lower mean number of taps than healthy controls, males outperformed females and dominant-hand trials had more mean taps than non-dominant hand trials in both groups. The index finger-tapping test can measure both motor speed and procedural learning, and motor procedural learning may be intact in SCZ/SZA patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of Leaf Area Index measurements based on the Wireless Sensor Network platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q.; Li, X.; Liu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is one of the important parameters for estimating plant canopy function, which has significance for agricultural analysis such as crop yield estimation and disease evaluation. The quick and accurate access to acquire crop LAI is particularly vital. In the study, LAI measurement of corn crops is mainly through three kinds of methods: the leaf length and width method (LAILLW), the instruments indirect measurement method (LAII) and the leaf area index sensor method(LAIS). Among them, LAI value obtained from LAILLW can be regarded as approximate true value. LAI-2200,the current widespread LAI canopy analyzer,is used in LAII. LAIS based on wireless sensor network can realize the automatic acquisition of crop images,simplifying the data collection work,while the other two methods need person to carry out field measurements.Through the comparison of LAIS and other two methods, the validity and reliability of LAIS observation system is verified. It is found that LAI trend changes are similar in three methods, and the rate of change of LAI has an increase with time in the first two months of corn growth when LAIS costs less manpower, energy and time. LAI derived from LAIS is more accurate than LAII in the early growth stage,due to the small blade especially under the strong light. Besides, LAI processed from a false color image with near infrared information is much closer to the true value than true color picture after the corn growth period up to one and half months.

  17. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  18. Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. N.; Rasmussen, O. W.; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of parboiling and the severity of the process on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, to examine changes in starch structure related to parboiling, which may affect the metabolic responses and digestibility. Design: Nine type 2...... that to white bread (P type 2 diabetic...... diabetic subjects ingested four test meals: white bread (WB) and three meals of cooked polished rice of the same variety being non-parboiled (NP), mildly traditionally parboiled (TP) and severely pressure parboiled (PP). The participants ingested the test meals (50 g available carbohydrates) on separate...

  19. Quantifying Dysphonia Severity Using a Spectralcepstral-Based Acoustic Index: Comparisons with Auditory-Perceptual Judgements from the CAPE-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson; JettE, Marie E.; Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustic spectral/cepstral measures and listener severity ratings in normal and disordered voice samples. CAPE-V sentence samples and the vowel /[script]/were elicited from eight normal speakers and 24 patients with varying degrees of dysphonia severity. Samples were analysed for measures of the…

  20. Damage Localization of Severely Damaged RC-Structures Based on Measured Eigenperiods from a Single Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the estimation of the damage location of severely damaged Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures excited by earthquakes. It is assumed that the building is instrumented with a sensor measuring the earthquake acceleration signal at ground surface and a sensor measuring only...

  1. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  2. TST, as a polysomnographic variable, is superior to the apnea hypopnea index for evaluating intermittent hypoxia in severe obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Zen, Hui-Qing; Lin, Qi-Chang; Chen, Gong-Ping; Chen, Li-Da; Chen, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The polysomnography (PSG) index of the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) is considered the 'gold standard' for stratifying the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, AHI cannot reflect the true characteristic of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which may trigger systemic inflammation in some OSA patients. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is considered a biomarker of systemic inflammation in OSA patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PSG variables and hsCRP in men with severe OSA. Men with severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30 events/h) diagnosed by PSG were enrolled. AHI and body mass index were matched between a high hsCRP group (hsCRP ≥ 3.0 mg/L) and a low hsCRP group. A blood sample was taken for serum hsCRP analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess independent predictors of high hsCRP. One hundred and fifty-two subjects were enrolled in the study (76 in each group). Mean serum hsCRP was 3.76 ± 2.13 mg/L. The mean percentage of total sleep time spent with SaO2 hypoxia variables.

  3. Femtosecond refractive-index tailoring of an optical fiber and phase retrieval from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation.......A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation....

  4. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness distributions using low-coherence digital holography and vertical scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kaho; Ohshima, Masashi; Nomura, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement method of a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution using low-coherence digital holography with a vertical scanning is proposed. The proposed method consists of a combination of digital holography and low-coherence interferometry. The introduction of a datum plane enables the measurement of both a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution. By the optical experiment, the potential of the proposed method is confirmed. (paper)

  5. MEASURING WORKLOAD OF ICU NURSES WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY: THE NASA TASK LOAD INDEX (TLX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M

    2011-01-01

    High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses' workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX.We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses' workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs.Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs.

  6. Measuring participation in patients with chronic back pain-the 5-Item Pain Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Ashley B; Carroll, Linda J; Dick, Bruce D; Battié, Michele C

    2018-02-01

    Of the three broad outcome domains of body functions and structures, activities, and participation (eg, engaging in valued social roles) outlined in the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), it has been argued that participation is the most important to individuals, particularly those with chronic health problems. Yet, participation is not commonly measured in back pain research. The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a modified 5-Item Pain Disability Index (PDI) score as a measure of participation in people with chronic back pain. A validation study was conducted using cross-sectional data. Participants with chronic back pain were recruited from a multidisciplinary pain center in Alberta, Canada. The outcome measure of interest is the 5-Item PDI. Each study participant was given a questionnaire package containing measures of participation, resilience, anxiety and depression, pain intensity, and pain-related disability, in addition to the PDI. The first five items of the PDI deal with social roles involving family responsibilities, recreation, social activities with friends, work, and sexual behavior, and comprised the 5-Item PDI seeking to measure participation. The last two items of the PDI deal with self-care and life support functions and were excluded. Construct validity of the 5-Item PDI as a measure of participation was examined using Pearson correlations or point-biserial correlations to test each hypothesized association. Participants were 70 people with chronic back pain and a mean age of 48.1 years. Forty-four (62.9%) were women. As hypothesized, the 5-Item PDI was associated with all measures of participation, including the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (r=-0.61), Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument: Disability Component (frequency: r=-0.66; limitation: r=-0.65), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (r=0.85), a global

  7. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10 -3 to 25 . 10 -3 ) mol . kg -1 . The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

  9. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  10. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers’ Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Briley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers’ sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child’s lunch. Design This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. Participants A total of 607 parent–child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Main outcome measures Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children’s consumption. Statistical analysis Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m2). Results Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Conclusions Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. PMID

  11. REDI: The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development IndexMeasuring regional entrepreneurship Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Acs, Zoltan J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Autio, Erkko; Komlosi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The main outcome of the project is a new index (REDI - Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index) that describes the entrepreneurial process. The index takes into account both individual attitudes and characteristics and the regional context and, accordingly, not only whether people are

  12. Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.

    2008-02-01

    A synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements has been applied to airborne observations performed during the Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile-de-France (ESQUIF), enabling the retrieval of vertical profiles for the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI) and single-scattering albedo with a vertical resolution of 200 m over Paris area. The averaged value over the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL) for the ACRI is close to 1.51(±0.02)-i0.017(±0.003) at 532 nm. The single-scattering albedo of the corresponding aerosols is found to be ~0.9 at the same wavelength. A good agreement is found with previous studies for urban aerosols. A comparison of vertical profiles of ACRI with simulations combining in situ measurements and relative humidity (RH) profiles has highlighted a modification in aerosol optical properties linked to their history and the origin of the air mass. The determination of ACRI in the atmospheric column enabled to retrieve vertical profiles of extinction coefficient in accordance with lidar profiles measurements.

  13. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DOSE INDEX MEASUREMENT FOR Hi-ART MEGAVOLTAGE HELICAL CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minglu; Wang, Yunlai; Liao, Xiongfei

    2016-11-01

    On-line megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images are used to verify patient daily set-up in Hi-ART helical TomoTherapy unit. To evaluate the patient dose from MVCT scanning in image guidance, weighted computed tomography (CT) dose index (CTDI w ) was measured with PTW TM30009 CT pencil chamber in head and body phantoms for slice thicknesses of 2, 4 and 6 mm with different scan lengths. Dose length products (DLPs) were subsequently calculated. The CTDI w and DLP were compared with XVI kV CBCT and Brilliance simulator CT for routine clinical protocols. It was shown that CTDI and DLP had close relationship with the slice thickness and the scan length. The dose distribution in the transversal plane was very inhomogeneous due to the attenuation of the couch. Patient dose from MVCT was lower than XVI CBCT for the head scan, while larger for body scan. CTDI w , which is measured easily and reproducibly, can be used to assess the patient dose in MVCT. Regular measurement should be performed in QA & QC programmes. Appropriate slice thickness and scan range should be chosen to reduce the patient dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Indirect Field Measurement of Wine-Grape Vineyard Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Pierce, Lars L.; Skiles, J. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) indirect measurements were made at 12 study plots in California's Napa Valley commercial wine-grape vineyards with a LI-COR LI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA). The plots encompassed different trellis systems, biological varieties, and planting densities. LAI ranged from 0.5 - 2.25 sq m leaf area/ sq m ground area according to direct (defoliation) measurements. Indirect LAI reported by the PCA was significantly related to direct LAI (r(exp 2) = 0.78, p less than 001). However, the PCA tended to underestimate direct LAI by about a factor of two. Narrowing the instrument's conical field of view from 148 deg to 56 deg served to increase readings by approximately 30%. The PCA offers a convenient way to discern relative differences in vineyard canopy density. Calibration by direct measurement (defoliation) is recommended in cases where absolute LAI is desired. Calibration equations provided herein may be inverted to retrieve actual vineyard LAI from PCA readings.

  15. Measurement of MV CT dose index for Hi-ART helical tomotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunlai; Liao Xiongfei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the patient dose from Hi-ART MV helical CT imaging in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Weighted CT dose index (CTDI W ) was measured with PTW TM30009 CT ion chamber in head and body phantoms, respectively,for slice thicknesses of 2, 4, 6 mm with scanned range of 5 cm and 15 cm. Dose length products (DLP) were subsequently calculated. The CTDI W and DLP were compared with XVI kV CBCT and ACQSim simulator CT for routine clinical protocols. Results: An inverse relationship between CTDI and the slice thickness was found. The dose distribution was inhomogeneous owing to the attenuation of the couch. CTDI and DLP had close relationship with the slice thickness and the scanned range. Patient dose from MVCT was lower than XVI CBCT for head, but larger for body scan. Conclusions: CTDI W can be used to assess the patient dose in MV helical CT due to its simplicity for measurement and reproducibility. Regular measurement should be performed in QA and QC program. Appropriate slice thickness and scan range should be chosen to reduce the patient dose. (authors)

  16. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  17. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  18. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  19. The relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI and coronary artery disease severity and risk factors: an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-07-01

    .Keywords: Ankle–Brachial Index, Angiography, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors.

  20. Severe maternal morbidity: A population-based study of an expanded measure and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lazariu

    Full Text Available Severe maternal morbidity conditions such as sepsis, embolism and cardiac arrest during the delivery hospitalization period can lead to extended length of hospital stays, life-long maternal health problems, and high medical costs. Most importantly, these conditions also contribute to the risk of maternal death. This population-based observational study proposed and evaluated the impact of expanding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC measure of severe maternal morbidity by including additional comorbidities and intensive care admissions during delivery hospitalizations and examined associated factors. A New York State linked hospitalization and birth record database was used. Study participants included all New York State female residents, ages 10 to 55 years, who delivered a live infant in a New York acute care hospital between 2008 and 2013, inclusive. Incidence trends for both severe maternal morbidity measures were evaluated longitudinally. Associations between covariates and the two severe maternal morbidity measures were examined with logistic regression models, solved using generalized estimating equations and stratified by method of delivery. The New York expanded severe maternal morbidity measure identified 34,478 cases among 1,352,600 hospital deliveries (estimated incidence 2.55% representing a 3% increase in the number of cases compared to the CDC measure. Both estimates increased over the study period (p 1.5 included most measured comorbidities (e.g., pregnancy-induced hypertension, placentation disorder, multiple births, preterm birth, no prenatal care, hospitalization prior to delivery, higher levels of perinatal care birthing facilities and race/ethnicity. Expanding the measure for severe maternal morbidity during delivery to capture intensive care admissions provides a more sensitive estimate of disease burden. Perinatal regionalization in New York appears effective in routing high risk pregnancies to higher

  1. Measurement of the refractive index of soft contact lenses during wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikooty, Jalaiah; Keir, Nancy; Woods, Craig A; Fonn, Desmond

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the refractive index (RI) of a soft contact lens can be evaluated using refractometry while the lens remains on the eye and to compare this with more traditional ex vivo RI measurements. A slitlamp apparatus was modified to incorporate a customized Atago hand refractometer. With a double-masked study design, nine adapted symptomatic soft contact lens wearers wore a contact lens in each eye (lotrafilcon B and etafilcon A) in a randomized order. In vivo RI was determined from the relative Brix scale measurements immediately after lens insertion and after 1 and 10 hr of lens wear. Ex vivo refractometry was performed after 10 hr of lens wear for comparison. Means +/- standard errors of the means are reported. In vivo RI values at baseline were 1.422 +/- 0.0004 (lotrafilcon B) and 1.405 +/- 0.0021 (etafilcon A); after 1 hr of lens wear, values were 1.423 +/- 0.0006 and 1.408 +/- 0.0007, respectively; and after 10 hr of lens wear, values were 1.424 +/- 0.0004 and 1.411 +/- 0.0010, respectively. Ex vivo RI values at the end of the 10 hr wearing period were 1.424 +/- 0.0003 (lotrafilcon B) and 1.412 +/- 0.0017 (etafilcon A). The change in in vivo RI across the day was statistically significant for the etafilcon A lens (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P0.05). This novel adaptation of refractometry was able to measure the RI of soft contact lenses during wear (without lens removal). End of day RI measurements using in vivo and ex vivo refractometry were comparable with each other. Future work is required to determine whether this in vivo method can improve our understanding of the relationships between soft contact lens RI, hydration, on-eye lens performance, and symptomology.

  2. Comparison of Singh index accuracy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density measurement for evaluating osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamat, M. R.; Rostampour, N.; Zofaghari, Sh. J.; Hoseyni-Panah, H.; Javdan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Singh index is an inexpensive simple method to evaluate bone density, commonly used to assess osteoporosis is based on the radiological appearance of the trabecular bone structure of the proximal femur on a plain antero-posterior radiograph. The purpose of this study was to compare between Singh index and bone mineral density measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Materials and Methods: Three orthopedists evaluated radiographs of 72 patients suspected with osteoporosis. The inter-observer agreements of the Singh index were obtained by using kappa statistics. The bone mineral density of proximal femur was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all patients, and then the bone mineral density results were compared with those of Singh index by using reference radiographic charts of the Singh index method. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density. A Norland XR46 system was used for the investigations. Results: The inter-observer agreement kappa values were 0.01, 0.07 and 0.09 (mean value: 0.05) and the strength of the observer agreements was negligible. The obtained Osteoporosis prevalence among the studied patients was 38.9%. Conclusion: The inter-observer variation was large, there was no any correlation between the Singh index and bone densitometry. So, the index cannot be used; for evaluating and osteoporosis diagnosis, because of its low reliability.

  3. Virtual continuity of the measurable functions of several variables, and Sobolev embedding theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Vershik, Anatoly; Zatitskiy, Pavel; Petrov, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    Classical Luzin's theorem states that the measurable function of one variable is "almost" continuous. This is not so anymore for functions of several variables. The search of right analogue of the Luzin theorem leads to a notion of virtually continuous functions of several variables. This probably new notion appears implicitly in the statements like embeddings theorems and traces theorems for Sobolev spaces. In fact, it reveals their nature as theorems about virtual continuity. This notion is...

  4. A Tool for Appraising Mobility Environment with a Percept Based Index Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulMajeed Olaremi Shittu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diverse methods, approaches and models have been employed in explaining mobility in both the urban and human context. However, there has been the ever-present drawback premised on data unavailability, “dyrtiness” or scantiness. More so, the techniques and parameters used, does not provide clues about mobility complexities engendered by attributes of “mobility environments”, as a result, determinants of mobility complexities are hardly fully described. To narrow the gap, it is conjectured that systematic evaluation of traveler perception of “mobility environments”, may provide hints about the degree to which specified spatial units enhance or hinder mobility, by rating such environment with a perception based index construct we hope will help improve assessments of “mobility environments”. This need is underscored by the necessity to explore alternative decision support tools, for mobility evaluations, especially where it may be implausible to apply advanced, high end, data hungry models of mobility evaluation. The method involved a two-pronged survey of transport professionals and randomly selected travelers. The professionals helped with “mobility environment” attributes identification and selection of contextually relevant ones from a list of potential attributes of influence, extracted from relevant literature using the Delphi method. Randomly selected travelers were in turn presented with the short listed attributes for rating on a five point Likert scale. Ratings were then used to determine attribute rankings and their commensurate index equivalents, as a basis for classification. Travelers indicated that a high activity mix, high road and pedestrian network density are good mobility enhancing qualities a city should possess. However, aggregate indexing indicated that enhancing development characteristics, mode characteristics, travel and economic attributes, are the most important for the study area. The measures are

  5. Percentage-based Author Contribution Index: a universal measure of author contribution to scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Schmidt, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the amount of work provided by different co-authors of a scientific paper has been a recurrent problem in science. Despite the myriad of metrics available, the scientific community still largely relies on the position in the list of authors to evaluate contributions, a metric that attributes subjective and unfounded credit to co-authors. We propose an easy to apply, universally comparable and fair metric to measure and report co-authors contribution in the scientific literature. The proposed Author Contribution Index (ACI) is based on contribution percentages provided by the authors, preferably at the time of submission. Researchers can use ACI to compare the contributions of different authors, describe the contribution profile of a particular researcher or analyse how contribution changes through time. We provide such an analysis based on contribution percentages provided by 97 scientists from the field of ecology who voluntarily responded to an online anonymous survey. ACI is simple to understand and to implement because it is based solely on percentage contributions and the number of co-authors. It provides a continuous score that reflects the contribution of one author as compared to the average contribution of all other authors. For example, ACI(i) = 3, means that author i contributed three times more than what the other authors contributed on average. Our analysis comprised 836 papers published in 2014-2016 and revealed patterns of ACI values that relate to career advancement. There are many examples of author contribution indices that have been proposed but none has really been adopted by scientific journals. Many of the proposed solutions are either too complicated, not accurate enough or not comparable across articles, authors and disciplines. The author contribution index presented here addresses these three major issues and has the potential to contribute to more transparency in the science literature. If adopted by scientific journals, it

  6. Dietary Quality of Preschoolers' Sack Lunches as Measured by the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E

    2015-11-01

    Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers. Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers' sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child's lunch. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial. A total of 607 parent-child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included. Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children's consumption. Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)). Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%). Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Total Deviation Index estimated by Tolerance Intervals to evaluate the concordance of measurement devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascaso Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study a technical simplification for inference about the total deviation index (TDI estimate to assess agreement between two devices of normally-distributed measurements and describe its utility to evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement if more than one reading per subject is available for each device. Methods We propose to estimate the TDI by constructing a probability interval of the difference in paired measurements between devices, and thereafter, we derive a tolerance interval (TI procedure as a natural way to make inferences about probability limit estimates. We also describe how the proposed method can be used to compute bounds of the coverage probability. Results The approach is illustrated in a real case example where the agreement between two instruments, a handle mercury sphygmomanometer device and an OMRON 711 automatic device, is assessed in a sample of 384 subjects where measures of systolic blood pressure were taken twice by each device. A simulation study procedure is implemented to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the approach to two already established methods, showing that the TI approximation produces accurate empirical confidence levels which are reasonably close to the nominal confidence level. Conclusions The method proposed is straightforward since the TDI estimate is derived directly from a probability interval of a normally-distributed variable in its original scale, without further transformations. Thereafter, a natural way of making inferences about this estimate is to derive the appropriate TI. Constructions of TI based on normal populations are implemented in most standard statistical packages, thus making it simpler for any practitioner to implement our proposal to assess agreement.

  8. Can we measure the ankle-brachial index using only a stethoscope? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, G A L; Mandil, A; Nascimento, B R; Arantes, B D; Bittencourt, J C; Falqueto, E B; Ribeiro, A L

    2009-02-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an excellent method for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) when it is performed with Doppler. However, this device is not always available for primary care physicians. The ABI measured with stethoscope is an easy alternative approach, but have not been proved to be useful. To assess the accuracy of the ABI measured using a stethoscope comparatively to that of the current eligible method for the diagnosis of PAD, the Doppler ABI, and describe the characteristics of this new approach. We conducted a diagnostic study of ABI measured with a stethoscope and a Doppler probe and compared the results. Eighty-eight patients were accessed by both methods. Mean stethoscope ABI, 1.01 +/- 0.15, and mean Doppler ABI, 1.03 +/- 0.20, (P = 0.047) displayed a good correlation. Measurements of stethoscope ABI diagnostic accuracy in recognizing a Doppler ABI are described. The comparison of this data with the current gold standard method results gave a sensitivity of 71.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41.9-91.6] and specificity of 91.0% (95% CI, 81.5-96.6), with predictive positive value of 62.5% (95% CI, 38.6-81.5) and negative predictive value of 93.8% (95% CI, 85.2-97.6). The study accuracy was 87.7%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.895 (95% CI, 0.804-0.986, P stethoscope ABI is a useful method to detect PAD and it may be suitable for its screening in the primary care setting.

  9. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Micro-structured optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-gang; Liu, Xin; Ma, Cheng-ju; Zhou, Yu-min

    2018-03-01

    Through using micro-machining method for optical fiber sensor, a kind of miniature, compact and composite structural all-fiber sensor is presented. Based on manufacturing two micro-holes with certain distance in ordinary single-mode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) by excimer laser processing technique, we fabricate a dual Fabry-Perot-FBG (FP-FBG) composite fiber interferometric sensor, which can be used in simultaneous measurement for liquid's refractive index (RI) and temperature change. Due to every micro-hole and the dual micro-holes in fiber acting as different Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities, this kind of sensor has not only different RI sensitivities but also different temperature sensitivities, which are corresponding to the wavelength shifts of the fine interference fringes and spectral envelope, respectively. The experimental results show that the spectral wavelength shift keep better linear response for temperature and RI change, so that we can select the higher temperature and RI sensitivities as well as the analyzed sensitivities of FBG to utilize them for constituting a sensitivity coefficients matrix. Finally, the variations of liquid's temperature and RI are detected effectively, and the resolutions can reach to 0.1 °C and 1.0 ×10-5 RIU. These characteristics are what other single-type sensors don't have, so that this kind of all-fiber dual FP-FBG composite fiber interferometric sensor can be used in extremely tiny liquid environment for measuring different physical quantities simultaneously.

  11. The Mayo-Portland Participation Index: A brief and psychometrically sound measure of brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the internal consistency, interrater agreement, concurrent validity, and floor and ceiling effects of the 8-item Participation Index (M2PI) of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI). M2PI data derived from MPAIs completed independently by the people with acquired brain injury undergoing evaluation, their significant others, and rehabilitation staff were submitted to Rasch Facets analysis to determine the internal consistency of each independent rater group and of composite measures that combined rater groups. Correlations with the full-scale MPAI were examined to assess concurrent validity, as was interrater agreement. Outpatient rehabilitation in academic physical medicine and rehabilitation department. People with acquired brain injury (N=134) consecutively seen for evaluation, significant others, and evaluating staff. Not applicable. The MPAI and M2PI. The M2PI showed satisfactory internal consistency, concurrent validity, interrater agreement, and minimal floor and ceiling effects, although evidence of rater bias was also apparent. Composite indices showed more desirable psychometric properties than ratings by individual rater groups. The M2PI, particularly in composite indices and with attention to rater biases, provides an outcome measure with satisfactory psychometric qualities and the potential to represent the varying perspectives of people with acquired brain injury, significant others, and rehabilitation staff.

  12. Conceptual Framework for Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D-Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raviraja

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources (OER are a global phenomenon that is fast gaining credibility in many academic circles as a possible solution for bridging the knowledge divide. With increased funding and advocacy from governmental and nongovernmental organisations paired with generous philanthropy, many OER repositories, which host a vast array of resources, have mushroomed over the years. As the inkling towards an open approach to education grows, many academics are contributing to these OER repositories, making them expand exponentially in volume. However, despite the volume of available OER, the uptake of the use and reuse of OER still remains slow. One of the major limitations inhibiting the wider adoption of OER is the inability of current search mechanisms to effectively locate OER that are most suitable for use and reuse within a given scenario. This is mainly due to the lack of a parametric measure that could be used by search technologies to autonomously identify desirable resources. As a possible solution to this limitation, this concept paper introduces a parametric measure of desirability of OER named the D-index, which can aid search mechanisms in better identifying resources suitable for use and reuse.

  13. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of refractive index by nanoparticle tracking analysis reveals heterogeneity in extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gardiner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Optical techniques are routinely used to size and count extracellular vesicles (EV. For comparison of data from different methods and laboratories, suitable calibrators are essential. A suitable calibrator must have a refractive index (RI as close to that of EV as possible but the RI of EV is currently unknown. To measure EV, RI requires accurate knowledge of size and light scattering. These are difficult to measure as most EVs cannot be resolved by light microscopy and their diameter is smaller than the wavelength of visible light. However, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA provides both size and relative light scattering intensity (rLSI values. We therefore sought to determine whether it was possible to use NTA to measure the RI of individual EVs. Methods: NTA was used to measure the rLSI and size of polystyrene and silica microspheres of known size and RI (1.470 and 1.633, respectively and of EV isolated from a wide range of cells. We developed software, based on Mie scattering code, to calculate particle RI from the rLSI data. This modelled theoretical scattering intensities for polystyrene and silica microspheres of known size (100 and 200 nm and RI. The model was verified using data from the polystyrene and silica microspheres. Size and rLSI data for each vesicle were processed by the software to generate RI values. Results: The following modal RI measurements were obtained: fresh urinary EV 1.374, lyophilised urinary EV 1.367, neuroblastoma EV 1.393, blood EV 1.398, EV from activated platelets 1.390, small placental EV 1.364–1.375 and 1.398–1.414 for large placental EV (>200 nm. Large placental EV had a significantly higher RI than small placental EV (p1.40 were observed for some large (>200 nm microvesicles. Conclusion: This method for measuring EV RI will be useful for developing appropriate calibrators for EV measurement.

  15. The index of harm: a useful measure for comparing occupational risk across industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Abraham, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an index of harm methodology which compares occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms. It extends the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection by considering American rather than European and Japanese industry groups, by treating the relative importance of various occupational harms as a parameter rather than an arbitrary constant, and by identifying several ways in which both the methodology and the data base could be improved. In the analysis, the risk affects are examined of six occupational harms-three nonradiological (death, accidental injury and disease or illness) and three radiological (somatic effects, genetic effects, and somatic effects to the fetus or embryo of pregnant women). The analysis was performed under five different assumptions about the relative importance of degree of aversion of the six harms in question. The results of this analysis show that radiological workers exposed to the current industry average of 0.35 rem/yr are among the safest of all industry groupings, and the riskiest industries appear to be mining; agriculture, fishing and farming; construction; transportation; and manufacturing, roughly in that order. (author)

  16. Measures for reduction of severe accident consequences: Comprehensive evaluation of the results sponsored by the BMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, K.; Friedrichs, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    A number of analytical studies were initial in the past by the Federal Ministry of Interior (BMI) of FRG, to investigate the potential of additional constructive measures for risk reduction. Those measures were proposed especially against uncontrolled overpressurization of the containment due to continuous gas/steam generation, penetration of the foundation of the reactor building by melt-concrete interaction, and failure of the containment due to violent hydrogen combustion. This report gives an overview about those studies and summarizes their results. Concerning uncontrolled overpressurization, only filtered venting may be a reasonable measure, while it seems to make not much sense, to look at measures against penetration of the foundation like 'core-catcher' in further detail. To prevent hydrogen combustion with severe consequences, several potential possibilities exist, but none of them can be considered as a safe measure. Additional analysis concerning hydrogen distribution and combustion in a multi-compartment containment are necessary. All studies mentioned in this report, deal with additional constructive measures to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Up to day in FRG, the potential of accident prevention and mitigation of its consequences by still or again operable and already existing systems of a plant have not been investigated in detail. As indicated by first results, the use of those systems in the frame of an appropriate accident management may have a large potential for risk reduction. (orig.) [de

  17. Temperature measurement by thermal strain imaging with diagnostic power ultrasound, with potential for thermal index determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Zhou, Li-Xia; Wells, Peter N T; Halliwell, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Over the years, there has been a substantial increase in acoustic exposure in diagnostic ultrasound as new imaging modalities with higher intensities and frame rates have been introduced; and more electronic components have been packed into the probe head, so that there is a tendency for it to become hotter. With respect to potential thermal effects, including those which may be hazardous occurring during ultrasound scanning, there is a correspondingly growing need for in vivo techniques to guide the operator as to the actual temperature rise occurring in the examined tissues. Therefore, an in vivo temperature estimator would be of considerable practical value. The commonly-used method of tissue thermal index (TI) measurement with a hydrophone in water could underestimate the actual value of TI (in one report by as much as 2.9 times). To obtain meaningful results, it is necessary to map the temperature elevation in 2-D (or 3-D) space. We present methodology, results and validation of a 2-D spatial and temporal thermal strain ultrasound temperature estimation technique in phantoms, and its apparently novel application in tracking the evolution of heat deposition at diagnostic exposure levels. The same ultrasound probe is used for both transmission and reception. The displacement and thermal strain estimation methods are similar to those used in high-intensity focused ultrasound thermal monitoring. The use of radiofrequency signals permits the application of cross correlation as a similarity measurement for tracking feature displacement. The displacement is used to calculate the thermal strain directly related to the temperature rise. Good agreement was observed between the temperature rise and the ultrasound power and scan duration. Thermal strain up to 1.4% was observed during 4000-s scan. Based on the results obtained for the temperature range studied in this work, the technique demonstrates potential for applicability in phantom (and possibly in vivo tissue

  18. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the fouling mechanism during silt density index (SDI) measurements of seawater in the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, 11 runs were conducted under constant-pressure (207kPa) dead-end filtration mode according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF) and coagulation followed by microfiltration (CMF) technologies were tested. Fouling mechanisms based on the constant-pressure filtration equation were fully analyzed. For all runs, only t/(V/A)∼t showed very good linearity (correlation coefficient R 2>0.99) since the first moment of the filtration, indicating that standard blocking rather than cake filtration was the dominant fouling mechanism during the entire filtration process. The very low concentration of suspended solids rejected by MF of 0.45μm in seawater was the main reason why a cake layer was not formed. High turbidity removal during filtration indicated that organic colloids retained on and/or adsorbed in membrane pores governed the filtration process (i.e., standard blocking) due to the important contribution of organic substances to seawater turbidity in this study. Therefore the standard blocking coefficient k s, i.e., the slope of t/(V/A)∼t, could be used as a good fouling index for seawater because it showed good linearity with feed seawater turbidity. The correlation of SDI with k s and feed seawater quality indicated that SDI could be reliably used for seawater with low fouling potential (SDI 15min<5) like pre-treated seawater in this study. From both k s and SDI, the order of fouling potential was raw seawater>seawater pre-treated by CSF>seawater pre-treated by CMF, indicating the better performance of CMF than CSF. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Neural correlates of instrumental responding in the context of alcohol-related cues index disorder severity and relapse risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Daniel J; Garbusow, Maria; Friedel, Eva; Sommer, Christian; Sebold, Miriam; Hägele, Claudia; Bernhardt, Nadine; Nebe, Stephan; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Liu, Shuyan; Eichmann, Uta; Beck, Anne; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Walter, Henrik; Sterzer, Philipp; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Huys, Quentin J M; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2018-01-08

    The influence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli on ongoing behavior may contribute to explaining how alcohol cues stimulate drug seeking and intake. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task, we investigated the effects of alcohol-related cues on approach behavior (i.e., instrumental response behavior) and its neural correlates, and related both to the relapse after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 24 healthy controls underwent instrumental training, where approach or non-approach towards initially neutral stimuli was reinforced by monetary incentives. Approach behavior was tested during extinction with either alcohol-related or neutral stimuli (as Pavlovian cues) presented in the background during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients were subsequently followed up for 6 months. We observed that alcohol-related background stimuli inhibited the approach behavior in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (t = - 3.86, p < .001), but not in healthy controls (t = - 0.92, p = .36). This behavioral inhibition was associated with neural activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) (t (30)  = 2.06, p < .05). Interestingly, both the effects were only present in subsequent abstainers, but not relapsers and in those with mild but not severe dependence. Our data show that alcohol-related cues can acquire inhibitory behavioral features typical of aversive stimuli despite being accompanied by a stronger NAcc activation, suggesting salience attribution. The fact that these findings are restricted to abstinence and milder illness suggests that they may be potential resilience factors. LeAD study, http://www.lead-studie.de , NCT01679145.

  20. An index to measure depreciation in air quality in some coal mining areas of Korba industrial belt of Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-11-01

    The comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standards does not always depict a true picture of the Air Quality Status of a study area. As an alternative an index that measures depreciation in Air Quality on more realistic terms has been proposed and applied to the ambient air monitoring data collected from some areas of Korba Coalfields in India. Results have been discussed in detail to illustrate the application of the proposed index and utility in bringing out more realistic air quality assessment.

  1. Absolute Measurement of the Refractive Index of Water by a Mode-Locked Laser at 518 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaopeng Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a method using a frequency comb, which can precisely measure the refractive index of water. We have developed a simple system, in which a Michelson interferometer is placed into a quartz-glass container with a low expansion coefficient, and for which compensation of the thermal expansion of the water container is not required. By scanning a mirror on a moving stage, a pair of cross-correlation patterns can be generated. We can obtain the length information via these cross-correlation patterns, with or without water in the container. The refractive index of water can be measured by the resulting lengths. Long-term experimental results show that our method can measure the refractive index of water with a high degree of accuracy—measurement uncertainty at 10−5 level has been achieved, compared with the values calculated by the empirical formula.

  2. Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penelope Morgan; Robert E. Keane; Gregory K. Dillon; Theresa B. Jain; Andrew T. Hudak; Eva C. Karau; Pamela G. Sikkink; Zachery A. Holden; Eva K. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of ecological change after fires have burned forests and rangelands is important if we are to understand, predict and measure fire effects. We highlight the challenges in effective assessment of fire and burn severity in the field and using both remote sensing and simulation models. We draw on diverse recent research for guidance on assessing...

  3. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...

  4. Measuring the Core Components of Maladaptive Personality: Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel); C.C. Berghout (Casper); C. Dolan (Conor); P.J.A. van der Kroft (Petra); A.W. Bateman (Anthony); P. Fonagy (Peter); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report describes a series of studies among 2231 subjects on the development of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire measuring the core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets have good

  5. Empirical measures vs. perceived gambling severity among youth: why adolescent problem gamblers fail to seek treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoon, Karen; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2003-07-01

    A comparison of empirical measures and perceived gambling severity among youth was conducted. Participants (N=980), mean age of 18.6 years, completed several widely accepted measures of pathological gambling [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Juveniles (DSM-IV-J), South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), and Gambler's Anonymous 20 Questions (GA 20)] and a questionnaire assessing gambling behavior. Findings revealed that while the DSM-IV-J, SOGS-RA, and GA 20 identified between 3.4% and 5.8% of participants as probable pathological gamblers, only 1.1% of individuals classified themselves as such. Further, 3.3% of the population reported that they considered themselves problem gamblers and 66% reported being social gamblers. It appears as though either youth are grossly underestimating the severity of their gambling problems or the gambling screens are overestimating prevalence rates. The clinical implications and future directions for research are considered.

  6. 20 CFR 404.272 - Indexes we use to measure the rise in the cost-of-living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cost-of-living. 404.272 Section 404.272 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.272 Indexes we use to measure the rise in the cost-of-living. (a) The bases. To measure...

  7. TAKE, development of the refractive index measurement technology for industrial needs; TAKE, taitekerroinmittaustekniikan kehittaeminen teollisuuden tarpeisiin - MPKT 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, J [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Refractive index is one of the basic physical phenomena of materials. Traditional refractive index measurement has been widely used e.g. In research, in quality inspection of products and raw materials. It is also used for follow up of the different industrial processes. A measuring and research environment, by which it is possible to determine the complex refractive index of liquid samples, was developed in 1996 at the Measuring Instrument laboratory of the University of Oulu. This equipment, based on the reflectance of light measures both the refractive index and absorption factor of liquids simultaneously. While the commercial refractometers are best suitable for research of clear liquids, by the developed equipment it is possible to investigate by the side of clear fluids also dark strongly light absorbing samples. The measuring wave length can be chosen continuously inside the UV-Visual range. The knowing of the wave-length dependence of the complex refractive index gives additional information on the state of the fluid under inspection. The main objective of the task is to solve measuring problems of biotechnology, food industry and forest industry by a new type of refractometric method. This means the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and absorption, and the utilisation of this knowledge in wide spectral region. A refractometer, based on the technology, suitable for applied research of new measuring targets will be designed and constructed in the research. The above mentioned goals also require the survey of the present situation of the refractometry. This one and a half year project will be started in spring 1998. (orig.)

  8. TAKE, development of the refractive index measurement technology for industrial needs; TAKE, taitekerroinmittaustekniikan kehittaeminen teollisuuden tarpeisiin - MPKT 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Refractive index is one of the basic physical phenomena of materials. Traditional refractive index measurement has been widely used e.g. In research, in quality inspection of products and raw materials. It is also used for follow up of the different industrial processes. A measuring and research environment, by which it is possible to determine the complex refractive index of liquid samples, was developed in 1996 at the Measuring Instrument laboratory of the University of Oulu. This equipment, based on the reflectance of light measures both the refractive index and absorption factor of liquids simultaneously. While the commercial refractometers are best suitable for research of clear liquids, by the developed equipment it is possible to investigate by the side of clear fluids also dark strongly light absorbing samples. The measuring wave length can be chosen continuously inside the UV-Visual range. The knowing of the wave-length dependence of the complex refractive index gives additional information on the state of the fluid under inspection. The main objective of the task is to solve measuring problems of biotechnology, food industry and forest industry by a new type of refractometric method. This means the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and absorption, and the utilisation of this knowledge in wide spectral region. A refractometer, based on the technology, suitable for applied research of new measuring targets will be designed and constructed in the research. The above mentioned goals also require the survey of the present situation of the refractometry. This one and a half year project will be started in spring 1998. (orig.)

  9. Intraoperative Hemodynamic and Echocardiographic Measurements Associated With Severe Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudejko, Michael D; Gebhardt, Brian R; Zahedi, Farhad; Jain, Ankit; Breeze, Janis L; Lawrence, Matthew R; Shernan, Stanton K; Kapur, Navin K; Kiernan, Michael S; Couper, Greg; Cobey, Frederick C

    2018-06-05

    Severe right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation increases morbidity and mortality. We investigated the association between intraoperative right heart hemodynamic data, echocardiographic parameters, and severe versus nonsevere RVF. A review of LVAD patients between March 2013 and March 2016 was performed. Severe RVF was defined by the need for a right ventricular mechanical support device, inotropic, and/or inhaled pulmonary vasodilator requirements for >14 days. From a chart review, the right ventricular failure risk score was calculated and right heart hemodynamic data were collected. Pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) [(pulmonary artery systolic pressure - pulmonary artery diastolic pressure)/central venous pressure (CVP)] was calculated for 2 periods: (1) 30 minutes before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and (2) after chest closure. Echocardiographic data were recorded pre-CPB and post-CPB by a blinded reviewer. Univariate logistic regression models were used to examine the performance of hemodynamic and echocardiographic metrics. A total of 110 LVAD patients were identified. Twenty-five did not meet criteria for RVF. Of the remaining 85 patients, 28 (33%) met criteria for severe RVF. Hemodynamic factors associated with severe RVF included: higher CVP values after chest closure (18 ± 9 vs 13 ± 5 mm Hg; P = .0008) in addition to lower PAPi pre-CPB (1.2 ± 0.6 vs 1.7 ± 1.0; P = .04) and after chest closure (0.9 ± 0.5 vs 1.5 ± 0.8; P = .0008). Post-CPB echocardiographic findings associated with severe RVF included: larger right atrial diameter major axis (5.4 ± 0.9 vs 4.9 ± 1.0 cm; P = .03), larger right ventricle end-systolic area (22.6 ± 8.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.9 cm; P = .03), lower fractional area of change (20.2 ± 10.8 vs 25.9 ± 12.6; P = .04), and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (0.9 ± 0.2 vs 1.1 ± 0.3 cm; P = .008). Right ventricular failure risk score was not a significant predictor of

  10. High temperature measurements in severe accident experiments on the PLINIUS Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, V.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Fouquart, P.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Parga, C.

    2013-06-01

    Severe accident experiments are conducted on the PLINIUS platform in Cadarache, using prototypic corium. During these experiments, it is essential to measure the temperature to know the thermo-physical state of the corium in static and dynamic conditions or to monitor the concrete ablation phenomenology. Temperature in the corium can reach about 2000 to 3000 K. Such aggressive conditions restrict the type of diagnostics that can be employed to do high temperature measurements during the experiments. We employ both non-intrusive (pyrometers) and intrusive (K-type and C-type thermocouples) diagnostics. In this paper, we present the different high temperature measurements techniques and the results that can be obtained in severe accident experiments as corium heating tests and molten core concrete interaction experiments. (authors)

  11. An Evaluation of h-Index as a Measure of Research Productivity Among Canadian Academic Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiayi; Gholami, Arian; Stone, Nicholas; Bartoszko, Justyna; Thoma, Achilleas

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of research productivity among plastic surgeons can be complex. The Hirsch index (h-index) was recently introduced to evaluate both the quality and quantity of one's research activity. It has been proposed to be valuable in assessing promotions and grant funding within academic medicine, including plastic surgery. Our objective is to evaluate research productivity among Canadian academic plastic surgeons using the h-index. A list of Canadian academic plastic surgeons was obtained from websites of academic training programs. The h-index was retrieved using the Scopus database. Relevant demographic and academic factors were collected and their effects on the h-index were analyzed using the t test and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test. Nominal and categorical variables were analyzed using χ 2 test and 1-way analysis of variance. Univariate and multivariate models were built a priori. All P values were 2 sided, and P h-index of 7.6. Over 80% of the surgeons were male. Both univariable and multivariable analysis showed that graduate degree ( P h-index. Limitations of the study include that the Scopus database and the websites of training programs were not always up-to-date. The h-index is a novel tool for evaluating research productivity in academic medicine, and this study shows that the h-index can also serve as a useful metric for measuring research productivity in the Canadian plastic surgery community. Plastic surgeons would be wise to familiarize themselves with the h-index concept and should consider using it as an adjunct to existing metrics such as total publication number.

  12. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.J.M.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.W.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  13. Refractive Index Measurement within a Photonic Crystal Fibre Based on Short Wavelength Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Groothoff

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of refractive index sensors using solid core photonic crystal fibres isdemonstrated. Coherent scattering at the cladding lattice is used to optically characterizematerials inserted into the fibre holes. The liquid to solid phase transition of water uponfreezing to ice 1h is characterized by determining the refractive index.

  14. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI) to measure environmental quality in warmwater streams of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lyons

    1992-01-01

    Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.

  15. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  16. Measuring negative and positive caregiving experiences: A psychometric analysis of the Caregiver Strain Index Expanded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, WJ; Post, MWM; Meily, JMA

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Index Expanded with those of the original Caregiver Strain Index among partners of stroke patients. Design and subjects: Cross-sectional validation study among 173 caregivers of stroke patients six months post-stroke. Main

  17. Measurement of spatial refractive index distributions of fusion spliced optical fibers by digital holographic microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Deng, Yating; Ma, Xichao; Xiao, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Digital holographic microtomography is improved and applied to the measurements of three-dimensional refractive index distributions of fusion spliced optical fibers. Tomographic images are reconstructed from full-angle phase projection images obtained with a setup-rotation approach, in which the laser source, the optical system and the image sensor are arranged on an optical breadboard and synchronously rotated around the fixed object. For retrieving high-quality tomographic images, a numerical method is proposed to compensate the unwanted movements of the object in the lateral, axial and vertical directions during rotation. The compensation is implemented on the two-dimensional phase images instead of the sinogram. The experimental results exhibit distinctly the internal structures of fusion splices between a single-mode fiber and other fibers, including a multi-mode fiber, a panda polarization maintaining fiber, a bow-tie polarization maintaining fiber and a photonic crystal fiber. In particular, the internal structure distortion in the fusion areas can be intuitively observed, such as the expansion of the stress zones of polarization maintaining fibers, the collapse of the air holes of photonic crystal fibers, etc.

  18. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  19. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  20. Measuring Empathic Tendencies: Reliability And Validity of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim De Corte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980 is a commonly used self-report instrument designed to assess empathic tendencies. The IRI consists of four separate subscales: Perspective Taking (PT, Fantasy (FS, Empathic Concern (EC, and Personal Distress (PD. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the IRI. The IRI was administered to a Dutch sample of 651 normal functioning adults. The factor structure of the IRI was examined by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results of the CFA revealed that there is room for improvement and modification of the original theoretical model. The validity of the IRI was tested using internal criteria (i. e., scale intercorrelations and external criteria (i. e., correlations with subscales of the EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997, the NEO-FFI (Hoekstra, Ormel, & De Fruyt, 1996, Mach-IV (Van Kenhove, Vermeir, & Verniers, 2001, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, and the WAIS-III (Wechsler, 2000. Overall, the internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure of scores from the Dutch version of the IRI suggest that it is a useful instrument to measure people's self-reported empathic tendencies.

  1. Measurement of 3D refractive index distribution by optical diffraction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Weining; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie; Rong, Lu; Yuan, Yuanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Optical Diffraction Tomography (ODT), as a novel 3D imaging technique, can obtain a 3D refractive index (RI) distribution to reveal the important optical properties of transparent samples. According to the theory of ODT, an optical diffraction tomography setup is built based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The propagation direction of object beam is controlled by a 2D translation stage, and 121 holograms based on different illumination angles are recorded by a Charge-coupled Device (CCD). In order to prove the validity and accuracy of the ODT, the 3D RI profile of microsphere with a known RI is firstly measured. An iterative constraint algorithm is employed to improve the imaging accuracy effectively. The 3D morphology and average RI of the microsphere are consistent with that of the actual situation, and the RI error is less than 0.0033. Then, an optical element fabricated by laser with a non-uniform RI is taken as the sample. Its 3D RI profile is obtained by the optical diffraction tomography system.

  2. Revised multicultural perspective index and measures of depression, life satisfaction, shyness, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, Robert R; Parker, Keesha N

    2004-12-01

    In a 2002 publication, Mowrer and McCarver reported weak but significant correlations (r =.24) between scores on the Multicultural Perspective Index and scores on Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's 1961 Life Satisfaction Index-A and the Life Satisfaction Scale developed in 1985 by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin. Using 382 undergraduate students the present study reduced the Index from 42 to 29 items based on each item's correlation with total items. An additional 104 undergraduate students then completed the modified 29-item version, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Cheek and Buss's Shyness Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale by Zung, and the Neugarten, et al. Life Satisfaction Index-A. Scores on the modified Index were negatively correlated with those on the Depression and Shyness scales and positively correlated with scores on the Self-esteem and Life Satisfaction scales (p< .05).

  3. Low-Coherence Reflectometry for Refractive Index Measurements of Cells in Micro-Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpignano, Francesca; Rigamonti, Giulia; Mazzini, Giuliano; Merlo, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The refractive index of cells provides insights into their composition, organization and function. Moreover, a good knowledge of the cell refractive index would allow an improvement of optical cytometric and diagnostic systems. Although interferometric techniques undoubtedly represent a good solution for quantifying optical path variation, obtaining the refractive index of a population of cells non-invasively remains challenging because of the variability in the geometrical thickness of the sample. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of infrared low-coherence reflectometry for non-invasively quantifying the average refractive index of cell populations gently confined in rectangular glass micro-capillaries. A suspension of human red blood cells in plasma is tested as a reference. As a use example, we apply this technique to estimate the average refractive index of cell populations belonging to epithelial and hematological families. PMID:27727172

  4. Radiotracer transit measurements as an index of regional cerebral blood flow. Pt. 2. Results in acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, T.

    1975-01-01

    The data obtained in 72 male chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndroms give evidence that there is a significant correlation between the numerical value of the cerebral radiorheographic index and the severity of the psychopathological syndrome (especially of the clouding of sensorium) in these patients. (author)

  5. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  6. Is the Oswestry Disability Index a valid measure of response to sacroiliac joint treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copay, Anne G; Cher, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Disease-specific measures of the impact of sacroiliac (SI) joint pain on back/pelvis function are not available. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a validated functional measure for lower back pain, but its responsiveness to SI joint treatment has yet to be established. We sought to assess the validity of ODI to capture disability caused by SI joint pain and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) after SI joint treatment. Patients (n = 155) participating in a prospective clinical trial of minimally invasive SI joint fusion underwent baseline and follow-up assessments using ODI, visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment, Short Form 36 (SF-36), EuroQoL-5D, and questions (at follow-up only) regarding satisfaction with the SI joint fusion and whether the patient would have the fusion surgery again. All outcomes were compared from baseline to 12 months postsurgery. The health transition item of the SF-36 and the satisfaction scale were used as external anchors to calculate MCID. MCID was estimated for ODI using four calculation methods: (1) minimum detectable change, (2) average ODI change of patients' subsets, (3) change difference between patients' subsets, and (4) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. After SI fusion, patients improved significantly (p disability caused by SI pain. We estimated the MCID for ODI to be 13-15 points, which falls within the range of that previously reported for lumbar back pain and indicates that an improvement in disability should be at least 15 % to be beyond random variation.

  7. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Transcutaneous oximetry compared to ankle-brachial-index measurement in the evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Wolf, Oliver; Weiss, Wolfgang; Berger, Hermann; Lutzenberger, Werner; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Heider, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate transcutaneous oximetry as parameter of the microcirculation is correlated to ankle-brachial-index as parameter of the macrocirculation after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Design: Prospective study. Materials and methods: 60 patients suffering from intermittent claudication were scheduled for angioplasty treatment. 45 patients were considered as eligible for angioplasty after angiographic evaluation, 15 patients underwent angiography only. Transcutaneous oximetry measurements were performed before the procedure, at the end of intervention, 24 h as well as 2 and 4 weeks after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Ankle-brachial-indices were obtained before intervention, 24 h as well as 2 and 4 weeks later. Results: Ankle-brachial-indices increased significantly at 24 h after angioplasty in patients being treated with angioplasty. Transcutaneous oximetry values dropped significantly at the end of the procedure and returned close to the baseline levels at 2 and 4 weeks after angioplasty. Ankle-brachial-indices and transcutaneous oximetry were positively correlated before (r = 0.3833, p = 0.009) as well as 4 weeks after angioplasty (r = 0.4596, p = 0.001). Immediately after radiological interventions, ankle-brachial-indices and transcutaneous oximetry are not positively correlated. In patients undergoing angiography only, transcutaneous oximetry levels drop significantly immediately after angiography and remain at decreased levels even at 4 weeks after intervention. Conclusion: Transcutaneous oximetry as parameter of the microcirculation is positively correlated with ankle-brachial-index as parameter of the macrocirculation before and at 4 weeks after angioplasty. Intraarterial angiography leads to a sudden decrease in skin microcirculation without affecting macrocirculation. As indicated by a lack of recovery in transcutaneous oximetry levels after 4 weeks, angiography alone results in a prolonged impaired microcirculation which may

  9. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  10. Measurement of the refractive index of air in a low-pressure regime and the applicability of traditional empirical formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, René; Walkov, Alexander; Voigt, Michael; Bartl, Guido

    2018-06-01

    The refractive index of air is a major limiting factor in length measurements by interferometry, which are mostly performed under atmospheric conditions. Therefore, especially in the last century, measurement and description of the air refractive index was a key point in order to achieve accuracy in the realisation of the length by interferometry. Nevertheless, interferometric length measurements performed in vacuum are much more accurate since the wavelength of the light is not affected by the air refractive index. However, compared with thermal conditions in air, in high vacuum heat conduction is missing. In such a situation, dependent on the radiative thermal equilibrium, a temperature distribution can be very inhomogeneous. Using a so-called contact gas instead of high vacuum is a very effective way to enable heat conduction on nearly the same level as under atmospheric pressure conditions whereby keeping the effect of the air refractive index on a small level. As physics predicts, and as we have demonstrated previously, helium seems like the optimal contact gas because of its large heat conduction and its refractive index that can be calculated from precisely known parameters. On the other hand, helium gas situated in a vacuum chamber could easily be contaminated, e.g. by air leakage from outside. Above the boiling point of oxygen (‑183 °C) it is therefore beneficial to use dry air as a contact gas. In such an approach, the air refractive index could be calculated based on measured quantities for pressure and temperature. However, existing formulas for the air refractive index are not valid in the low-pressure regime. Although it seems reasonable that the refractivity (n  ‑  1) of dry air simply downscales with the pressure, to our knowledge there is no experimental evidence for the applicability of any empirical formula. This evidence is given in the present paper which reports on highly accurate measurements of the air refractive index for the

  11. An Efficient Measure for Nonlinear Distortion Severity due to HPA in Downlink DS-CDMA Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaly TarekK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the nonlinear distortion (NLD effects of high power amplifiers (HPAs on direct sequence-code division multiple access systems. Such a distortion drastically degrades the system performance in terms of bit error rate (BER degradation and spectral regrowth. Much effort has been conducted to minimize NLD. A key requirement to do so is to define a certain measure for the HPA nonlinearity, which when reduced often allows NLD to also be reduced. Several measures were proposed such as peak-to-average power ratio, instantaneous power variance, and cubic metric. In this paper, we show that such measures are not closely related to NLD and their reduction does not always lead to optimum performance. Hence, we introduce an efficient measure, namely, nonlinearity severity (NLS, to characterize NLD effects, as an alternative to the existing measures. The NLS is characterized by having direct link to the system performance as it is formulated based on the signal characteristics contributing to BER performance and spectral regrowth. Additionally, a major advantage of the NLS measure is that it is linked to the IBO level allowing the possibility of improving performance at all IBO levels of interest.

  12. Higher body mass index is associated with greater severity of alopecia in men with male-pattern androgenetic alopecia in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsieh, Fu-Nien; Lin, Li-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chen, WenChieh

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of sputum and blood eosinophil concentrations with clinical measures of COPD severity: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Hansel, Nadia N; Christenson, Stephanie; Putcha, Nirupama; Ortega, Victor E; Li, Xingnan; Barr, R Graham; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Couper, David J; Cooper, Christopher B; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; O'Neal, Wanda K; Paine, Richard; Peters, Stephen P; Alexis, Neil E; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2017-12-01

    Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (George Respiratory Questionnaire symptom scores (p=0·037), and increased wheezing (p=0·018), but no evidence of an association with COPD exacerbations (p=0·35) or the other indices of COPD severity, such as emphysema measured by CT density, COPD assessment test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts

  14. Left ventricular filling pressure estimation at rest and during exercise in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis: comparison of echocardiographic and invasive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Doppler index of left ventricular (LV) filling (E/e') is recognized as a noninvasive measure for LV filling pressure at rest but has also been suggested as a reliable measure of exercise-induced changes. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in LV filling pressure......, measured invasively as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), at rest and during exercise to describe the relation with E/e' in patients with severe aortic stenosis. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with an aortic valve areas

  15. Radioisotopic measurement of glomerular filtration rate in severe chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrance, N.D.; Drew, H.H.; Walser, M.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the best method for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in severe renal failure, we compared simultaneously the urinary clearances of [/sup 99m/Tc] diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) (UD), [ 125 I]iothalamate (UI), 24-hr creatinine clearance (UC) and plasma clearance of [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA (PD), based on three plasma samples. In 60 studies in 22 patients with serum creatinine values of 2 to 8 mg/dl, UD and UI were almost identical: UD = 0.358 +/- 0.976 UI +/- 0.87 ml/min, r = 0.990. However, PD overestimated UD by a large and variable extent: PD = 11.3 +/- 0.843 UD +/- 5.5 ml/min, r = 0.694, and was inconsistent in sequential measurements in individual patients. UC also overestimated urinary isotope clearance: UC = 4.2 + 0.95 UI +/- 3.9 ml/min, r = 0.865. Sequential measurements of GFR in five patients with severe but stable renal failure (mean GFR 5.9 ml/min) showed an average standard deviation of only 0.83 ml/min. Thus both UD and UI appear to be reliable and precise measures of GFR in severe renal failure

  16. Challenges in Evaluating the Severity of Fibropapillomatosis: A Proposal for Objective Index and Score System for Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Silmara; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Dos Santos, Robson Guimarães; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Gattamorta, Marco Aurélio; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease that affects marine turtles worldwide, especially green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). FP tumors can develop on the body surface of marine turtles and also internally in the oral cavity and viscera. Depending on their quantity, size and anatomical distribution, these tumors can interfere with hydrodynamics and the ability to feed, hence scoring systems have been proposed in an attempt to quantify the clinical manifestation of FP. In order to establish a new scoring system adapted to geographic regions, we examined 214 juvenile green sea turtles with FP caught or rescued at Brazilian feeding areas, counted their 7466 tumors and classified them in relation to their size and anatomical distribution. The patterns in quantity, size and distribution of tumors revealed interesting aspects in the clinical manifestation of FP in specimens studied in Brazil, and that FP scoring systems developed for other areas might not perform adequately when applied to sea turtles on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We therefore propose a novel method to evaluate the clinical manifestation of FP: fibropapillomatosis index (FPI) that provides the Southwest Atlantic fibropapillomatosis score (FPSSWA). In combination, these indexing and scoring systems allow for a more objective, rapid and detailed evaluation of the severity of FP in green sea turtles. While primarily designed for the clinical manifestation of FP currently witnessed in our dataset, this index and the score system can be adapted for other areas and compare the characteristics of the disease across regions. In conclusion, scoring systems to classify the severity of FP can assist our understanding on the environmental factors that modulate its development and its impacts on the individual and population health of green sea turtles.

  17. Modeling the Severity of Drinking Consequences in First-Year College Women: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hagman, Brett T.; Graff, Fiona S.; Noel, Nora E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the latent continuum of alcohol-related negative consequences among first-year college women using methods from item response theory and classical test theory. Method: Participants (N = 315) were college women in their freshman year who reported consuming any alcohol in the past 90 days and who completed assessments of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Results: Item response theory analyses showed poor model fit for five items identified in the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Two-parameter item response theory logistic models were applied to the remaining 18 items to examine estimates of item difficulty (i.e., severity) and discrimination parameters. The item difficulty parameters ranged from 0.591 to 2.031, and the discrimination parameters ranged from 0.321 to 2.371. Classical test theory analyses indicated that the omission of the five misfit items did not significantly alter the psychometric properties of the construct. Conclusions: Findings suggest that those consequences that had greater severity and discrimination parameters may be used as screening items to identify female problem drinkers at risk for an alcohol use disorder. PMID:22051212

  18. Tomographic method for measurement of the gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens. I. The spherical fish lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Eva; Vazquez, Daniel; Garner, Leon; Smith, George

    2005-03-01

    We present an iterative tomographic algorithm to reconstruct refractive-index profiles for meridional planes of the lens of the spherical fish eye from measurements of deflection angles of refracted rays. Numerical simulations show that the algorithm allows accuracy up to the fourth decimal place, provided that the refractive index can be regarded as an analytical function of the radial coordinate and the experimental errors are neglected. An experimental demonstration is given by applying the algorithm to retrieve the refractive-index profile of a spherical fish lens. The method is conceptually simple and does not require matching of the index of the surrounding medium to that of the surface of the lens, and the related iterative algorithm rapidly converges.

  19. A PRESSURE ULCER AND FALL RATE QUALITY COMPOSITE INDEX FOR ACUTE CARE UNITS: A MEASURE DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. Objective The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index – the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Design Two-phase measure development study. Settings 5,144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors® during the year 2013. Methods The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. Results The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index = 100 − PUR − FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of

  20. The estimation of effective doses using measurement of several relevant physical parameters from radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzikova, A; Fronka, A.; Maly, B.; Moucka, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present investigation, we will be study the dose relevant factors from continual monitoring in real homes into account getting more accurate estimation of 222 Rn the effective dose. The dose relevant parameters include the radon concentration, the equilibrium factor (f), the fraction (fp) of unattached radon decay products and real time occupancy people in home. The result of the measurement are the time courses of radon concentration that are based on estimation effective doses together with assessment of the real time occupancy people indoor. We found out by analysis that year effective dose is lower than effective dose estimated by ICRP recommendation from the integral measurement that included only average radon concentration. Our analysis of estimation effective doses using measurement of several physical parameters was made only in one case and for the better specification is important to measure in different real occupancy houses. (authors)

  1. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Mothers on Respect (MOR index: measuring quality, safety, and human rights in childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathi Vedam

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The MOR index is a reliable, patient-informed quality and safety indicator that can be applied across jurisdictions to assess the nature of provider-patient relationships, and access to person-centered maternity care.

  3. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  4. ISLSCP II Leaf Area Index (LAI) from Field Measurements, 1932-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Leaf Area Index (LAI) data from the scientific literature, covering the period from 1932-2000, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  5. Effect of surface plasmon polaritons on the sensitivity of refractive index measurement using total internal reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan Entezar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The phase difference between two p-polarized and s-polarized plane waves which are reflected under total internal reflection from the base of a prism with a thin metal coating is studied. Typically such a quantity can be used to measure the refractive index of a test material using the total internal reflection method. It is shown that due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the interface between the tested dielectric material and the thin metal layer, the p-polarized light experiences a large phase shift which enlarges the phase difference between the p-polarized and the s-polarized waves. As a result, the sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases and the error in determining the refractive index decreases. - Highlights: • Phase difference of totally internally reflected p and s polarized beams is studied. • Excitation of the surface wave increases the phase shift of the p-polarized light. • The sensitivity of refractive index measurement increases by using a coated prism. • The error in determining the refractive index decreases using the coated prism

  6. The effect of change in body mass index on volumetric measures of mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vicki; Reeves, Katherine W.; Sturgeon, Susan R.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Shepherd, John; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Malkov, Serghei; Sprague, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how changes in body mass index (BMI) relate to changes in mammographic density is necessary to evaluate adjustment for BMI gain/loss in studies of change in density and breast cancer risk. Increase in BMI has been associated with a decrease in percent density, but the effect on change in absolute dense area or volume is unclear. Methods We examined the association between change in BMI and change in volumetric breast density among 24,556 women in the San Francisco Mammography Registry from 2007-2013. Height and weight were self-reported at the time of mammography. Breast density was assessed using single x-ray absorptiometry measurements. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between BMI and dense volume (DV), non-dense volume (NDV) and percent dense volume (PDV) were assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, risk factors, and reproductive history. Results In cross-sectional analysis, BMI was positively associated with DV (β=2.95 cm3, 95% CI 2.69, 3.21) and inversely associated with PDV (β=-2.03%, 95% CI -2.09, -1.98). In contrast, increasing BMI was longitudinally associated with a decrease in both DV (β=-1.01 cm3, 95% CI -1.59, -0.42) and PDV (β=-1.17%, 95% CI -1.31, -1.04). These findings were consistent for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Conclusion Our findings support an inverse association between change in BMI and change in PDV. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing DV requires confirmation. Impact Longitudinal studies of PDV and breast cancer risk, or those using PDV as an indicator of breast cancer risk, should evaluate adjustment for change in BMI. PMID:26315554

  7. Are chronotype, social jetlag and sleep duration associated with health measured by Work Ability Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Fischer, Dorothee; Germann, Christina; Lang, Stefan; Vetter, Céline; Oberlinner, Christoph

    The present study investigates the impact of chronotype, social jetlag and sleep duration on self-perceived health, measured by Work Ability Index (WAI), within an industrial setting. Between 2011 and 2013, 2474 day and shift workers participated in a health check offered by an occupational health promotion program and filled out the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (adapted to the rotational 12-h schedule for shift workers) and the WAI. We computed sleep duration on work and free days, chronotype, and social jetlag. We used linear regression models to examine chronotype, sleep duration and social jetlag for association with the WAI sum score, and proportional odds models to estimate the combined effect of social jetlag and sleep duration. Participants reported an average daily sleep duration of 7.35 h (SD: 1.2 h), had an average chronotype of 3:08 a.m. (SD: 1 h), and the average social jetlag corresponded to 1.96 h (SD: 2.05 h). Increasing social jetlag and shorter sleep duration were independently associated with a decreasing WAI, while chronotype per se was not associated with WAI. Short sleep duration combined with high social jetlag significantly increased the risk of poor WAI (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.72), while long sleep duration and high social jetlag were not associated with poor WAI (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.88-1.35). Our results add to a growing body of literature, suggesting that circadian misalignment, but not chronotype per se, may be critical for health. Our results indicate that longer sleep may override the adverse effects of social jetlag on WAI.

  8. CHI: A contemporaneous health index for degenerative disease monitoring using longitudinal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijun; Meng, Qiang; Evans, Heather; Lober, William; Cheng, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning; Liu, Ji; Huang, Shuai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel formulation for contemporaneous patient risk monitoring by exploiting the emerging data-rich environment in many healthcare applications, where an abundance of longitudinal data that reflect the degeneration of the health condition can be continuously collected. Our objective, and the developed formulation, is fundamentally different from many existing risk score models for different healthcare applications, which mostly focus on predicting the likelihood of a certain outcome at a pre-specified time. Rather, our formulation translates multivariate longitudinal measurements into a contemporaneous health index (CHI) that captures patient condition changes over the course of progression. Another significant feature of our formulation is that, CHI can be estimated with or without label information, different from other risk score models strictly based on supervised learning. To develop this formulation, we focus on the degenerative disease conditions, for which we could utilize the monotonic progression characteristic (either towards disease or recovery) to learn CHI. Such a domain knowledge leads us to a novel learning formulation, and on top of that, we further generalize this formulation with a capacity to incorporate label information if available. We further develop algorithms to mitigate the challenges associated with the nonsmooth convex optimization problem by first identifying its dual reformulation as a constrained smooth optimization problem, and then, using the block coordinate descent algorithm to iteratively solve the optimization with a derived efficient projection at each iteration. Extensive numerical studies are performed on both synthetic datasets and real-world applications on Alzheimer's disease and Surgical Site Infection, which demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the proposed method on degenerative conditions that include a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated gray level index measurements reveal only minor cytoarchitectonic changes of Brodmann area 9 in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepest, Ralf; Vogeley, Kai; Viebahn, Bettina; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Honer, William G; Falkai, Peter

    2008-07-15

    Using an automatized gray level index (GLI) method, we recently found cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in schizophrenia in Brodmann area 10 (BA10) [Vogeley, K., Tepest, R., Schneider-Axmann, T., Hutte, H., Zilles, K., Honer, W.G., Falkai, P., 2003. Automated image analysis of disturbed cytoarchitecture in Brodmann area 10 in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research 62, 133-140]. As another potential key region involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we have now investigated BA9 in the same sample consisting of 20 schizophrenic cases and 20 controls. The GLI value represents the area-percentage covered by perikarya in measuring fields of microscopic images. BA9 was analyzed with respect to the factors diagnosis and gender for six different compartments approximately corresponding to the neocortical layers. The main result in BA9 was a significant interaction of diagnosis and gender for GLI in layers IV and V on the left side. Subsequent analyses separately performed concerning gender revealed a significant GLI increase in layer V on the left side in male patients compared with controls. However, after an adjustment of error probabilities for multiple testing, differences did not reach significance. No GLI difference was observed in the sample between diagnostic groups for females and between the diagnostic groups in general. Comparisons with our BA10 results suggest that cytoarchitectural changes relevant to schizophrenia appear different in various Brodmann areas. Since increases in GLI were found only in selected layers (V and VI) of BA9, these findings do not support a generalized neuropil reduction across all cortical layers.

  10. Measurements of computed tomography dose index for axial and spiral CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiki, G; Abbas, Y.; Diab, H.M.; Gomaa, M

    2007-01-01

    The energy deposited in the patient by the rotating x-ray beam in computed tomography produces more uniform absorbed dose values within the section of imaged tissue than those produced in conventional radiological procedures. The dose values within a specific section are determined by factors such as voltage, current, scan field, rotation angle, filtration, collimation, and section thickness and spacing. This study is a part of extensive project, aiming to investigate practice of computed tomography at various hospitals and to implement a Reference Dose Levels (RDLs) to routine CT examinations in Egypt. The dosimetric quantities proposed in the European Guidelines (EG) for CT are weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI w ) for a single slice and dose-length product (DLP) for a complete examination. Patient-related data as well as technical parameters for head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations were collected for seven CT scanners in public and private hospitals.Dose measurements were performed for both axial and spiral models for a range of CT examinations using CT dosimetry head and body phantoms, and ion chamber designed for CT dosimetry. The determined CTDI w and DLP values were compared with the European Commission reference dose levels (ECRDLs) and also with some international survey results. Mean values of CTDI w had a range of 36-69 m Gy with average 55 m Gy for head, and 11-35 mGy with average 23 mGy for chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations. The current reference CTDI w values are 60 m Gy for adult head and 25 m Gy for adult Abdomen

  11. Quantitative autistic trait measurements index background genetic risk for ASD in Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Joshua; Constantino, John Nicholas; Zambrana, Katherine; Martin, Eden; Tunc, Ilker; Zhang, Yi; Abbacchi, Anna; Messinger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that quantitative autistic traits (QATs) of parents reflect inherited liabilities that may index background genetic risk for clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their offspring. Moreover, preferential mating for QATs has been observed as a potential factor in concentrating autistic liabilities in some families across generations. Heretofore, intergenerational studies of QATs have focused almost exclusively on Caucasian populations-the present study explored these phenomena in a well-characterized Hispanic population. The present study examined QAT scores in siblings and parents of 83 Hispanic probands meeting research diagnostic criteria for ASD, and 64 non-ASD controls, using the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2). Ancestry of the probands was characterized by genotype, using information from 541,929 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. In families of Hispanic children with an ASD diagnosis, the pattern of quantitative trait correlations observed between ASD-affected children and their first-degree relatives (ICCs on the order of 0.20), between unaffected first-degree relatives in ASD-affected families (sibling/mother ICC = 0.36; sibling/father ICC = 0.53), and between spouses (mother/father ICC = 0.48) were in keeping with the influence of transmitted background genetic risk and strong preferential mating for variation in quantitative autistic trait burden. Results from analysis of ancestry-informative genetic markers among probands in this sample were consistent with that from other Hispanic populations. Quantitative autistic traits represent measurable indices of inherited liability to ASD in Hispanic families. The accumulation of autistic traits occurs within generations, between spouses, and across generations, among Hispanic families affected by ASD. The occurrence of preferential mating for QATs-the magnitude of which may vary across cultures-constitutes a mechanism by which background genetic liability

  12. Assessment of vasodilator therapy in patients with severe congestive heart failure: limitations of measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, B.G.; Dehmer, G.J.; Markham, R.V. Jr.; Willerson, J.T.; Hillis, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Although noninvasive techniques are often used to assess the effect of vasodilator therapy in patients with congestive heart failure, it is unknown whether changes in noninvasively determined left ventricular ejection fraction, volume, or dimension reliably reflect alterations in intracardiac pressure and flow. Accordingly, we compared the acute effect of sodium nitroprusside on left ventricular volume and ejection fraction (determined scintigraphically) with its effect on intracardiac pressure and forward cardiac index (determined by thermodilution) in 12 patients with severe, chronic congestive heart failure and a markedly dilated left ventricle. Nitroprusside (infused at 1.3 +/- 1.1 [mean +/- standard deviation] microgram/kg/min) caused a decrease in mean systemic arterial, mean pulmonary arterial, and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as well as a concomitant increase in forward cardiac index. Simultaneously, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes decreased, but the scintigraphically determined cardiac index did not change significantly. Left ventricular ejection fraction averaged 0.19 +/- 0.05 before nitroprusside administration and increased by less than 0.05 units in response to nitroprusside in 11 of 12 patients. The only significant correlation between scintigraphically and invasively determined variables was that between the percent change in end-diastolic volume index and the percent change in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (r . 0.68, p . 0.01). Although nitroprusside produced changes in scintigraphically determined left ventricular ejection fraction, end-systolic volume index, and cardiac index, these alterations bore no predictable relation to changes in intracardiac pressure, forward cardiac index, or vascular resistance. Furthermore, nitroprusside produced a considerably greater percent change in the invasively measured variables than in the scintigraphically determined ones

  13. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  14. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  15. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BCCI and the BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  16. Assessing the Quality of Life Using the Health Utilities Index Questionnaire in Children With Severe Persistent Asthma During the Treatment With Omalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quality of life (QoL is an important parameter that provides additional information about changes in health status. Objective. Our aim was to study the change in QoL of patients with severe persistent bronchial asthma (BA during the treatment with genetically engineered biological preparation (GIBP omalizumab in addition to daily background therapy. Methods. The QoL assessment was conducted using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 and Mark 2 (HUI3, HUI2 questionnaires at two points (1st point and 2nd point — in 6 months in 47 children with severe BA at the age of 13 (7; 17 years, 72% of them are boys. At the same points, QoL was evaluated using the PAQLQ (S specialized pediatric questionnaire (Standardized Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results. Depending on the duration of omalizumab therapy, all children were divided into 5 groups: 1st group — children who did not receive treatment with monoclonal antibodies at the 1st point; in 2, 3, 4, 5-th groups, the QoL assessment was performed on GIBP treatment for different time. In children of the 1st group whose QoL was evaluated before starting GIBP therapy and in 6 months, a statistically significant change in scores on the Health Utilities Index questionnaire was noted: the multi-attribute indices HUI2 and HUI3 improved, respectively, by 21.3 and 10.71% (p = 0.041 and 0.086. According to the HUI2 classification system, a significant improvement in the emotion attribute was revealed, which positively correlated with the overall indicator and the emotion indicator of the PAQLQ (S questionnaire. In the remaining groups, the indicators of the Health Utilities Index questionnaire did not change significantly. Conclusion. The study results showed that the dynamics of the quality of life in children with severe persistent BA is an important additional criterion in a comprehensive assessment of the efficacy of targeted bioengineering therapy. 

  17. Measured neutron beam line shielding effectiveness of several iron/polyethylene configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legate, G.L.; Howe, M.L.; Mundis, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray leakage measurements were taken at various stages of shield construction of neutron flight path 5 (the Lash-up flight path) at LANSCE, to compare the relative effectiveness of several configurations. Dose equivalent rates were determined for three categories: ''low-energy neutrons'', below 20 MeV; ''high- energy neutrons'', above 20 MeV; and gamma rays, as measured by hand-held survey instruments. The low energy neutrons were measured by activation of an indium foil in a paraffin-filled cadmium canister, sized to be generally insensitive above 20 MeV. High-energy neutrons were measured by (n,2n) production of Carbon 11 in a plastic scintillator with a 20-MeV threshold. Thermal neutrons were not measured at the shield-leakage test points. Room-scattered neutrons were observed by Albatross IV detector readings, which were taken beside the shield as a measure of variation of room background as the shield configuration changed. 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Correlation between the Oswestry Disability Index and objective measurements of walking capacity and performance in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Annette Bennedsgaard; Gustafsson, Malin Eleonora Av Kák

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) plays a significant role in lumbar spinal stenosis research and is used to assess patient's walking limitations. The World Health Organisation describes the constructs of walking capacity and performance and recommend measuring both to fully describe...

  19. Development and validation of the Consumer Quality index instrument to measure the experience and priority of chronic dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Sabine N.; Jager, Kitty J.; Visserman, Ella; Beekman, Robert J.; Boeschoten, Els W.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Heuveling, Lara; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2012-01-01

    Patient experience is an established indicator of quality of care. Validated tools that measure both experiences and priorities are lacking for chronic dialysis care, hampering identification of negative experiences that patients actually rate important. We developed two Consumer Quality (CQ) index

  20. Reliability of ultrasonographic measurements in suspected patients of developmental dysplasia of the hip and correlation with the acetabular index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Copuroglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is accepted as a useful imaging modality in the early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Early detection and early treatment of DDH prevents hip dislocation and related physical, social, economic, and psychological problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic and roentgenographic measurements measured by seven different observers. Materials and Methods: The alpha angles of 66 hips in 33 patients were measured using the Graf method by seven different observers. Acetabular index degrees on plane roentgenograms were measured in order to assess the correlation between the ultrasonographic alpha angle and the radiographic acetabular index, which both show the bony acetabular depth, retrospectively. Results: The interclass correlation coefficient, measuring the interobserver reliability, was high and statistically significant for the ultrasonographic measurements. There was a negative correlation between the alpha angle and the acetabular index. Conclusions: Ultrasonography, when applied properly, is a reliable technique between different observers, in the diagnosis and follow up of DDH. When assessed concomitantly with the roentgenographic measurements, the results are reliable and statistically meaningful.

  1. The Calculated and Measured Performance Characteristics of a Heated-Wire Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Measuring Icing Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Carr B.; Steinmetz, Charles P.

    1952-01-01

    Ground tests have been made of an instrument which, when assembled in a more compact form for flight installation, could be used to obtain statistical flight data on the liquid-water content of icing clouds and to provide an indication of icing severity. The sensing element of the instrument consists of an electrically heated wire which is mounted in the air stream. The degree of cooling of the wire resulting from evaporation of the impinging water droplets is a measure. of the liquid-water content of the cloud. Determination of the value of the liquid-water content from the wire temperature at any instant requires a knowledge of the airspeed, altitude, and air temperature. An analysis was made of the temperature response of a heated wire exposed to an air stream containing water drops. Comparisons were made of the liquid-water content as measured with several heated wires and absorbent cylinders in an artificially produced cloud. For one of the wires, comparative tests were made with a rotating-disk icing-rate meter in an icing wind tunnel. From the test results, it was shown that an instrument for measuring the concentration of liquid water in an air stream can be built using an electrically heated wire of known temperatureresistance characteristics, and that the performance of such a device can be predicted using appropriate theory. Although an instrument in a form suitable for gathering statistical data in flight was not built, the practicability of constructing such an instrument was illustrated. The ground-test results indicated that a flight heated-wire instrument would be simple and durable, would respond rapidly to variations in liquid-water content, and could be used for the measurement of water content in clouds which are above freezing temperature, as well as in icing clouds.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW HYPERSPECTRAL ANGLE INDEX FOR ESTIMATION OF SOIL MOISTURE USING IN SITU SPECTRAL MEASURMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mobasheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous environmental studies. On the other hand, information of distributed soil moisture at large scale with reasonable spatial and temporal resolution is required for improving climatic and hydrologic modeling and prediction. The advent of hyperspectral imagery has allowed examination of continuous spectra not possible with isolated bands in multispectral imagery. In addition to high spectral resolution for individual band analyses, the contiguous narrow bands show characteristics of related absorption features, such as effects of strong absorptions on the band depths of adjacent absorptions. Our objective in this study was to develop a new spectral angle index to estimate soil moisture based on spectral region (350 and 2500 nm. In this paper, using spectral observations made by ASD Spectroradiometer for predicting soil moisture content, two soil indices were also investigated involving the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI, NMDI (Normalized Multi-band Drought Index indices. Correlation and regression analysis showed a high relationship between PDI and the soil moisture percent (R2 = 0.9537 and NMDI (R2 = 0.9335. Furthermore, we also simulated these data according to the spectral range of some sensors such as MODIS, ASTER, ALI and ETM+. Indices relevant these sensors have high correlation with soil moisture data. Finally, we proposed a new angle index which shows significant relationship between new angle index and the soil moisture percentages (R2 = 0.9432.angle index relevant bands 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 MODIS also showing high accuracy in estimation of soil moisture (R2 = 0.719.

  3. Generalized index for spatial data sets as a measure of complete spatial randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett-Jones, Emily J.; Davies, Kale J.; Binder, Benjamin J.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2012-06-01

    Spatial data sets, generated from a wide range of physical systems can be analyzed by counting the number of objects in a set of bins. Previous work has been limited to equal-sized bins, which are inappropriate for some domains (e.g., circular). We consider a nonequal size bin configuration whereby overlapping or nonoverlapping bins cover the domain. A generalized index, defined in terms of a variance between bin counts, is developed to indicate whether or not a spatial data set, generated from exclusion or nonexclusion processes, is at the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. Limiting values of the index are determined. Using examples, we investigate trends in the generalized index as a function of density and compare the results with those using equal size bins. The smallest bin size must be much larger than the mean size of the objects. We can determine whether a spatial data set is at the CSR state or not by comparing the values of a generalized index for different bin configurations—the values will be approximately the same if the data is at the CSR state, while the values will differ if the data set is not at the CSR state. In general, the generalized index is lower than the limiting value of the index, since objects do not have access to the entire region due to blocking by other objects. These methods are applied to two applications: (i) spatial data sets generated from a cellular automata model of cell aggregation in the enteric nervous system and (ii) a known plant data distribution.

  4. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  5. Bone material strength index as measured by impact microindentation is altered in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgo, F; Hamdy, N A T; Rabelink, T J; Kroon, H M; Claessen, K M J A; Pereira, A M; Biermasz, N R; Appelman-Dijkstra, N M

    2017-03-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excess growth hormone (GH) production by the pituitary adenoma. The skeletal complications of GH and IGF-1 excess include increased bone turnover, increased cortical bone mass and deteriorated microarchitecture of trabecular bone, associated with a high risk of vertebral fractures in the presence of relatively normal bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate tissue-level properties of bone using impact microindentation (IMI) in well-controlled patients with acromegaly aged ≥18 years compared to 44 controls from the outpatient clinic of the Centre for Bone Quality. In this cross-sectional study, bone material strength index (BMSi) was measured in 48 acromegaly patients and 44 controls with impact microindentation using the osteoprobe. Mean age of acromegaly patients (54% male) was 60.2 years (range 37.9-76.5), and 60.5 years (range 39.8-78.6) in controls (50% male). Patients with acromegaly and control patients had comparable BMI (28.2 kg/m 2  ± 4.7 vs 26.6 kg/m 2  ± 4.3, P = 0.087) and comparable BMD at the lumbar spine (1.04 g/cm 2  ± 0.21 vs 1.03 g/cm 2  ± 0.13, P = 0.850) and at the femoral neck (0.84 g/cm 2  ± 0.16 vs 0.80 g/cm 2  ± 0.09, P = 0.246). BMSi was significantly lower in acromegaly patients than that in controls (79.4 ± 0.7 vs 83.2 ± 0.7; P acromegaly after reversal of long-term exposure to pathologically high GH and IGF-1 levels. Our findings also suggest that methods other than DXA should be considered to evaluate bone fragility in patients with acromegaly. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Development of new index for forest fire risk using satellite images in Indonesia through the direct spectral measurements of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A.; Akita, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ogino, Y.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the smoke caused by the forest fires in Indonesia has become a serious problem. Most of the land in Indonesia is covered with peat moss, which occurs the expanding of fires due to the burning itself. Thus, the surface soil water, reflecting the amount of precipitation in the area, can become the indication of the risk of fires. This study aims to develop a new index reflecting the risk of forest fires in Indonesia using satellite remote sensing through the direct spectral measurements of peat moss soil.We have prepared the peat moss in 7 steps of soil water content measured at an accuracy of ±15 percent (Field pro, WD-3). We obtained spectra between 400nm and 1050nm (Source: halogen lamp, spectroscope: self-made space time, spectral analysis kit) from the peat moss.The obtained spectra show the difference from the previous spectral measurement for the soil in various water content. There are the features, especially, in the wavelength range of ultraviolet (400-450nm) and infrared (530-800nm) as shown in the figure; the more the soil water increases, the lower the reflectance becomes. We have developed a new index using the New deep blue band (433 453nm and NIR band 845 885nm of Landsat 8. The resulting satellite images calculated by our original index appears to reflect the risk of forest fires rather than well-known indices such as Normalized Difference Water Index and Normalized difference Soil Index