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Sample records for severity future prevalence

  1. Future trends in the prevalence of severe activity limitations among older adults in Europe: a cross-national population study using EU-SILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbov, Sergei; Weber, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective To project the proportion of population 65+ years with severe long-term activity limitations from 2017 to 2047. Design Large population study. Setting Population living in private households of the European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. Participants Participants from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions aged 55 years and older and living in one of 26 EU and neighbouring countries, who answered the health section of the questionnaire. Outcome measures Prevalence of severe long-term activity limitations of particular subpopulations (ie, 55+, 65+, 75+ and 85+ years) by sex and country. Results We find a huge variation in the prevalence of self-reported severe long-term limitations across Europe for both sexes. However, in 2017, about 20% of the female population aged 65 years and above and about 16% of their male counterparts are expected to report severe long-term activity limitations after accounting for differences in reporting. Accounting for cultural differences in reporting, we expect that European countries will have about 21% (decile 1: 19.5%; decile 9: 22.9%) of female and about 16.8% (decile 1: 15.4%; decile 9: 18.1%) of male 65+ years population with severe long-term activity limitations by 2047. Conclusions Overall, despite the expected increase of life expectancy in European countries, our results suggest almost constant shares of older adults with severe long-term activity limitations within the next 30 years. PMID:29061570

  2. prevalence and severity of pterygium among commer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, ... ies so as to reduce the prevalence of these disorders. ... It is speculated to be associated with corneal and con- ... A number of risk factors have been identified for the ... glaucoma, cataract, refractive errors were referred to the eye ...

  3. Prevalence of exchange blood transfusion in severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exchange blood transfusion (EBT) is carried out for the treatment of conditions presenting with severe hyperbilirubinaemia and anaemia, such as ABO incompatibility, sepsis, prematurity and birth trauma among others. While it is fast being abandoned as treatment modality for severe neonatal jaundice in the ...

  4. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia has been estimated in several countries and a meta-analysis has shown moderate and severe dementia in people aged 65 years and older to be between 4% and 6%. The Odense study is aiming to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and to identify risk factors....

  5. [Prevalence and severity of domestic violence among pregnant women, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto; Ruíz, Agustín

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at public clinics in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were investigated. A severity index was built up. Logistic regression analysis was applied in order to identify the main variables associated to domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of domestic violence did not change significantly before and during pregnancy (32%). The prevalence of each type of violence remained the same. About 27% of women who reported violence during pregnancy did not have experience it before, and a comparable proportion had experienced violence before but not during pregnancy. The severity of emotional violence significantly increased during pregnancy (compared to the previous year) whereas the severity of physical violence decreased. Variables most clearly related to violence during pregnancy were: couple's past history of child abuse; women witnessing domestic violence during childhood; and violence in the year before pregnancy. Several risk scenarios were identified, which could be helpful for health care providers. The results showed that emotional violence is more prevalent than physical and sexual violence, allowing for a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  6. Severe Family Violence and Alzheimer's Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveza, Gregory J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined violence among 184 Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. Analysis of severe violence subscale of Conflict Tactics Scale indicated that 15.8 percent of patients had been violent in year since diagnosis; 5.4 percent of caregivers had been violent toward patient; and prevalence of violence was 17.4 percent. Variables most associated with…

  7. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  8. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Forecasting future prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Mzayek, Fawaz; Rastam, Samer; M Fouad, Fouad; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Maziak, Wasim

    2013-05-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the future burden of diabetes is instrumental to guide the public health response to the epidemic. This study aims to project the prevalence of T2DM among adults in Syria over the period 2003-2022 by applying a modelling approach to the country's own data. Future prevalence of T2DM in Syria was estimated among adults aged 25 years and older for the period 2003-2022 using the IMPACT Diabetes Model (a discrete-state Markov model). According to our model, the prevalence of T2DM in Syria is projected to double in the period between 2003 and 2022 (from 10% to 21%). The projected increase in T2DM prevalence is higher in men (148%) than in women (93%). The increase in prevalence of T2DM is expected to be most marked in people younger than 55 years especially the 25-34 years age group. The future projections of T2DM in Syria put it amongst countries with the highest levels of T2DM worldwide. It is estimated that by 2022 approximately a fifth of the Syrian population aged 25 years and older will have T2DM.

  10. Imagining the future in children with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Suncica; Gott, Chloe; Epps, Adrienne; Parry, Louise

    2018-03-22

    Imagining the future events is thought to rely on re-combination and integration of past episodic memory traces into future events. Future and past events contain episodic and non-episodic details. Children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were found to have impaired recall of past episodic (but not semantic) event details. Here we examined whether severe TBI impairs construction of future events. Cross-sectional. Children with severe TBI (n = 14) and healthy controls (NC; n = 33) (i) completed tests of anterograde (narrative and relational) memory and executive skills, (ii) recalled past events and generated future events, and (iii) rated events' phenomenological qualities. Events were scored for episodic (internal) and non-episodic (external) details. The groups did not differ in generating details of future events although children with TBI recalled significantly fewer past internal (but not external) events' details relative to NCs. Moreover, the number of past internal details relative to future internal details was significantly higher in the NC group, but not in the TBI groups. Significant correlations between past and future were found for (i) episodic details in both groups, and (ii) semantic details in the NC group. The TBI group rated their events as being less significant than did the NC group. The groups did not differ on ratings of visual intensity and rehearsal. Children who have sustained severe TBI had impoverished recall of past, but not generation of future events. This unexpected dissociation between past and future event construction requires further research.

  11. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Norway: prevalence, clinical and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retterstøl, Kjetil; Narverud, Ingunn; Selmer, Randi; Berge, Knut E; Osnes, Ingvild V; Ulven, Stine M; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål; Holven, Kirsten B; Iversen, Per O

    2017-06-12

    There is a lack of comprehensive patient-datasets regarding prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG; triglycerides ≥10 mmol/L), frequency of co-morbidities, gene mutations, and gene characterization in sHTG. Using large surveys combined with detailed analysis of sub-cohorts of sHTG patients, we here sought to address these issues. We used data from several large Norwegian surveys that included 681,990 subjects, to estimate the prevalence. Sixty-five sHTG patients were investigated to obtain clinical profiles and candidate disease genes. We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from six male patients and nine healthy controls and examined expression of mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. The prevalence of sHTG was 0.13 (95% CI 0.12-0.14)%, and highest in men aged 40-49 years and in women 60-69 years. Among the 65 sHTG patients, a possible genetic cause was found in four and 11 had experienced acute pancreatitis. The mRNA expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1A, CPT2, and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly higher in patients compared to controls, whereas those of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 1 were significantly lower. In Norway, sHTG is present in 0.1%, carries considerable co-morbidity and is associated with an imbalance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, all potentially contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity in sHTG.

  12. Prevalence of radiological findings among cases of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Sampaio Lacativa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT2 are prone to develop heterotopic calcifications and severe bone disease. Determination of the sites most commonly affected would decrease costs and patients' exposure to X-ray radiation. The aim here was to determine which skeletal sites produce most radiographic findings, in order to evaluate hemodialysis patients with HPT2, and to describe the most prevalent radiographic findings. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study was cross-sectional, conducted in one center, the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Whole-body radiographs were obtained from 73 chronic hemodialysis patients with indications for parathyroidectomy due to severe HPT2. The regions studied were the skull, hands, wrists, clavicles, thoracic and lumbar column, long bones and pelvis. All the radiographs were analyzed by the same two radiologists, with great experience in bone disease interpretation. RESULTS: The most common abnormality was subperiosteal bone resorption, mostly at the phalanges and distal clavicles (94% of patients, each. "Rugger jersey spine" sign was found in 27%. Pathological fractures and deformities were seen in 27% and 33%, respectively. Calcifications were presented in 80%, mostly at the forearm fistula (42%, abdominal aorta and lower limb arteries (35% each. Brown tumors were present in 37% of the patients, mostly on the face and lower limbs (9% each. CONCLUSION: The greatest prevalence of bone findings were found on radiographs of the hands, wrists, lateral view of the thoracic and lumbar columns and femurs. The most prevalent findings were bone resorption and ectopic calcifications.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Personality Change After Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Of the sample, 59.1% experienced personality change after acquired brain injury, and the most dominant changes were observed in the personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Changes in neuroticism were most......Objectives To investigate the prevalence of personality change after severe brain injury; to identify predictors of personality change; and to investigate whether personality change is associated with distress in family members. Design A longitudinal study of personality change. Setting...... often observed in patients with frontal or temporal lesions. Generally, personality changes in patients were not associated with more distress and lower HRQOL in family members; however, change in patient agreeableness was associated with lower HRQOL on the role limitations-emotional scale. Conclusions...

  14. Pterygium in Indonesia: prevalence, severity and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, G; Saw, S-M; Farook, M; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Chia, S-E; Hong, C-Y; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine prevalence rates, severity, and risk factors for pterygium in adults in provincial Indonesia and to validate a clinical grading scheme in a population based setting. Methods: A population based prevalence survey of 1210 adults aged 21 years and above was conducted in five rural villages and one provincial town in Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area near to the equator. A one stage household cluster sampling procedure was employed: 100 households were randomly selected from each village or town. Pterygia were graded for severity (T1 to T3, by visibility of episcleral vessels) and the basal and apical extent measured by an ophthalmologist (GG) with a hand held slit lamp. Refraction was measured by hand held autorefractor (Retinomax). Face to face household interviews assessed outdoor activity, occupation, and smoking. The participation rate was 96.7%. Results: The mean age was 36.6 years (SD 13.1), 612 were male. The age adjusted prevalence rate of any pterygium was 10.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 8.2 to 11.7) and of bilateral pterygia was 4.1% (95% CI 2.9 to 5.3). There was a significant dose-response relation with age (2.9% (95% CI 0.4 to 5.8) for 21–29 years versus 17.3% (95% CI 10.4 to 24.2) 50 years and above; p for trend <0.001) and occupations with more time outdoors (p for trend = 0.02). This was true for both sexes, all grades of lesion (T1 to T3), and bilateral disease. A multivariate logistic regression model showed pterygium was independently related to increasing age and outdoor activity 10 years earlier. The mean basal diameter = 3.3 mm (SD 1.51, range 0.1–9.5) and extent from limbus = 1.4 mm (SD 1.18, range 0.1–8.0). Higher grade pterygia were larger for basal and apical extent (p for trend <0.001). The presence of pterygium was associated with astigmatism (defined as cylinder at least −0.5 dioptres (D); p <0.001). This association increased with increasing grade of lesion (p for trend <0.001). Median cylinder for

  15. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino; Casagrandi, Renato; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility

  16. Cognitive impairment in patients with AIDS – prevalence and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins CC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal C Watkins,1,2 Glenn J Treisman2 1The Memory Center in Neuropsychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Health System, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV patients and decreased the number of adults who progress to AIDS and HIV-associated dementia. However, neurocognitive deficits remain a pronounced consequence of HIV/AIDS. HIV-1 infection targets the central nervous system in subcortical brain areas and leads to high rates of delirium, depression, opportunistic central nervous system infections, and dementia. Long-term HIV replication in the brain occurs in astrocytes and microglia, allowing the virus to hide from antiviral medication and later compromise neuronal function. The associated cognitive disturbance is linked to both viral activity and inflammatory and other mediators from these immune cells that lead to the damage associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, a general term given for these disturbances. We review the severity and prevalence of the neuropsychiatric complications of HIV including delirium, neurobehavioral impairments (depression, minor cognitive-motor dysfunction, and HIV-associated dementia. Keywords: HIV, delirium, depression, HAND, dementia; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

  17. Pregnancy-Associated Severe Sepsis: Contemporary State and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infection related to its associated mechanical and physiological changes. Sepsis remains among the top causes of maternal death worldwide and is associated with substantial maternal morbidity. However, there are sparse data on pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS), related in part to infrequent reports, varying case definitions and methodological approach, small cohort size, and often limited focus on severe sepsis in selected phases of pregnancy outcomes. Available reports vary, but indicate that PASS is a rare but likely increasing complication, and it is more likely to develop with increased maternal age, among minority women, the poor, those lacking health insurance, those with chronic illness or pregnancy-associated complications, and following invasive procedures. Obstetric sites of infection are the most prevalent, but non-obstetric infections often underlie pregnancy-associated severe sepsis, though the source of infection is often not readily apparent during initial care. Women with PASS can have a rapidly fatal course and require heightened clinician vigilance for early diagnosis and timely effective intervention. Nevertheless, available reports raise concerns about prevalent substandard care of these patients, contributing to adverse outcomes. The case fatality of PASS appears lower than that in the general population with severe sepsis, while the long-term outcomes of survivors remain unknown.

  18. Multidimensional fatigue in pulmonary hypertension: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartavoulle, Todd M.; Karpinski, Aryn C.; Aubin, Andrew; Kluger, Benzi M.; Distler, Oliver; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a potentially fatal disease. Despite pharmacological advances in pulmonary hypertension, fatigue remains common in patients with pulmonary hypertension. A convenience sample of 120 participants at an international patient conference completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)-20 scale. Data on New York Heart Association Functional Class, body mass index, oxygen use and medication type/use were also collected. There was a high prevalence of “severe” to “very severe” fatigue for each dimension: General Fatigue (60%), Physical Fatigue (55.8%), Reduced Activity (41.7%), Reduced Motivation (32.5%) and Mental Fatigue (27.5%). The mean±sd overall MFI-20 score was 58±5.1. Dimensions with the highest averaged levels were General Fatigue (13.40±3.61), Physical Fatigue (13.23±3.67) and Reduced Activity (11.33±4.16). Body mass index correlated with higher fatigue scores. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor plus endothelin receptor antagonist combination negatively predicted General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Motivation and Reduced Activity. Triple therapy was a significant predictor of General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue and Reduced Activity. There were no significant predictors of Mental Fatigue. Multidimensional fatigue is common and severe in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor plus endothelin receptor antagonist combination resulted in lower scores in most fatigue dimensions. Comprehensive assessment of fatigue should be considered in the clinical care of patients with pulmonary hypertension and clinical research to develop formal interventions that target this disabling symptom. PMID:29577043

  19. Dental erosion: Prevalence and severity among 16-year-old adolescents in Troms, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulic, A; Fredriksen, Ø; Jacobsen, I D; Tveit, A B; Espelid, I; Crossner, C G

    2016-09-01

    To study the prevalence, distribution and severity of dental erosion among 16-year-old adolescents in the Troms region of Norway. Study design: The participants were recruited through the Tromsø-study ("Fit Futures"), and 392 16-year-olds were examined for dental erosion using clinical intraoral photographs. Three calibrated clinicians used the Visual Erosion Dental Examination (VEDE) system to register and grade the dental erosive wear. More than one third (38%) of the participants showed dental erosion on at least one tooth surface, 18% were limited to the enamel, while 20% of the adolescents showed erosive wear extending into the dentine. The occlusal surfaces of the lower first molars, and the palatal surfaces of the maxillary incisors were the most often and most severely affected. Of the participants showing dental erosion, 93% exhibited "cuppings" on the molars, with 48% limited to the enamel and 52% extending into the dentine. The highest prevalence of "cuppings" (73%) was found on the first lower molars, especially the mesiobuccal cusp of the teeth. The prevalence and severity of dental erosion was found to be higher in male than in female participants (p dental erosion among adolescents in Troms and stress the importance of information, early and effective diagnostics and implementation of prevention strategies.

  20. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...

  1. Periodontitis prevalence and severity in Indonesians with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; Nesse, W.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Agustina, D.; Vissink, A.; Abbas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in Indonesia is high and still rising. Periodontitis is associated with DM2. No study has investigated this association in Indonesia, nor has any study investigated this association using a variety of methods to operationalize

  2. Periodontitis Prevalence and Severity in Indonesians With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, Hendri; Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Agustina, Dewi; Vissink, Arjan; Abbas, Frank

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in Indonesia is high and still rising. Periodontitis is associated with DM2. No study has investigated this association in Indonesia, nor has any study investigated this association using a variety of methods to operationalize

  3. Prevalence and Severity of Depression among People Living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validated Patient Health, Duke University of North Carolina functional social support questionnaires were used as interviewer-administered tools. The study revealed 14.4% prevalence of depression, with the mild category (9.5%) as the predominant subtype. Factors associated with the risk of developing depression ...

  4. Prevalence of exchange blood transfusion in severe hyper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... cause a large number of our pa- tients had severe NNJ at presenta- ... bilirubinaemiadue such as prematurity, rhesus isoimmu- nization, ABO ... presents very late to health facilities, often with severe neonatal jaundice, some ...

  5. Prevalence and Severity of Malaria Parasitemia among Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced anemia is much more common in younger children and may require blood transfusion with high mortality rates.[2,3]. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), children admitted with severe anemia are more likely to die than those without anemia.[4,5]. Blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia can be important in preventing ...

  6. Pain symptoms in patients with severe cerebral palsy: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the presence of pain in patients diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy (CP) according to the degree of motor function impairment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students of the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) diagnosed with cerebral palsy and ...

  7. Prevalence and Severity of Periodontitis in Indonesian Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, Hendri; Nesse, Willem; Kertia, Nyoman; Soeroso, Juwono; van Reenen, Yvonne Huijser; Hoedemaker, Eveliene; Agustina, Dewi; Vissink, Arjan; Abbas, Frank; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Soeroso§, Juwono

    Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have more prevalent and severe periodontitis than healthy controls. Periodontitis may increase the systemic inflammation in RA. The aim of this study is to assess periodontitis prevalence and severity and its potential association with systemic

  8. Skin diseases: prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General definitions of health encompass different dimensions of disease outcome divided in disease severity, accompanying physical symptoms, and psychosocial well-being. These dimensions of disease outcom...

  9. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The prevalence of severe fatigue in rheumatic diseases: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Cécile L; Kool, Marianne B; Da Silva, José A P; Geenen, Rinie

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is a common, disabling, and difficult-to-manage problem in rheumatic diseases. Prevalence estimates of fatigue within rheumatic diseases vary considerably. Data on the prevalence of severe fatigue across multiple rheumatic diseases using a similar instrument is missing. Our aim was to provide an overview of the prevalence of severe fatigue across a broad range of rheumatic diseases and to examine its association with clinical and demographic variables. Online questionnaires were filled out by an international sample of 6120 patients (88 % female, mean age 47) encompassing 30 different rheumatic diseases. Fatigue was measured with the RAND(SF)-36 Vitality scale. A score of ≤35 was taken as representing severe fatigue (90 % sensitivity and 81 % specificity for chronic fatigue syndrome). Severe fatigue was present in 41 to 57 % of patients with a single inflammatory rheumatic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjögren's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, and scleroderma. Severe fatigue was least prevalent in patients with osteoarthritis (35 %) and most prevalent in patients with fibromyalgia (82 %). In logistic regression analysis, severe fatigue was associated with having fibromyalgia, having multiple rheumatic diseases without fibromyalgia, younger age, lower education, and language (French: highest prevalence; Dutch: lowest prevalence). In conclusion, one out of every two patients with a rheumatic disease is severely fatigued. As severe fatigue is detrimental to the patient, the near environment, and society at large, unraveling the underlying mechanisms of fatigue and developing optimal treatment should be top priorities in rheumatologic research and practice.

  11. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). AIMS: To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. METHOD: This cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). RESULTS: Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence...... of SAD compared with full sight controls, Pvisual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters...

  12. Severe fatigue is highly prevalent in ALL rheumatic diseases : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Overman, C.L.; Da Silva, J.A.P.; Kool, M.B.

    Background Fatigue is a common, disabling, and difficult to manage problem in rheumatic diseases. Prevalence estimates of fatigue within various rheumatic disease groups vary considerably. Data on the relative prevalence of severe fatigue across multiple rheumatic diseases using a similar instrument

  13. Treatment Options for Severe Obesity in the Pediatric Population: Current Limitations and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Justin R; Fox, Claudia K; Kelly, Aaron S

    2018-06-01

    Severe obesity is the only obesity classification increasing in prevalence among children and adolescents. Treatment options that produce meaningful and sustained weight loss and comorbidity resolution are urgently needed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the current treatment options for pediatric severe obesity and offer suggestions regarding future opportunities for accelerating the development and evaluation of innovative treatment strategies. At present, there are three treatment options for youth with severe obesity: lifestyle modification therapy, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Lifestyle modification therapy can be useful for improving many chronic disease risk factors and comorbid conditions but often fails to achieve clinically meaningful and sustainable weight loss. Pharmacotherapy holds promise as an effective adjunctive treatment but remains in the primordial stages of development in the pediatric population. Bariatric surgery provides robust weight loss and risk factor/comorbidity improvements but is accompanied by higher risks and lower uptake compared to lifestyle modification therapy and pharmacotherapy. New areas worth pursuing include combination pharmacotherapy, device therapy, identification of predictors of response aimed at precision treatment, and interventions in the postbariatric surgical setting to improve long-term outcomes. Treating pediatric severe obesity effectively and safely is extremely challenging. Some progress has been made, but substantially more effort and innovation are needed in the future to combat this serious and ongoing medical and public health issue. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  14. Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Errol Wei'en; Li, Xiang; Tham, Yih-Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 individuals and 691 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) cases in 72,767 individuals in Asia. Regions in Asia were defined based on United Nations' (UN) classification of macro-geographic regions. PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for population-based glaucoma prevalence studies using standardised criteria published to 31 December 2013. Pooled glaucoma prevalence for individuals aged 40-80 years was calculated using hierarchical Bayesian approaches. Prevalence differences by geographic subregion, subtype and habitation were examined with random effects meta-regression models. Estimates of individuals with glaucoma from 2013 to 2040 were based on the UN World Population Prospects. In 2013, pooled overall glaucoma prevalence was 3.54% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.83 to 6.28). POAG (2.34%, 95% CrI 0.96 to 4.55) predominated over PACG (0.73%, 95% CrI 0.18 to 1.96). With age and gender adjustment, PACG prevalence was higher in East than South East Asia (OR 5.55, 95% CrI 1.52 to 14.73), and POAG prevalence was higher in urban than rural populations (OR 2.11, 95% CrI 1.57 to 2.38). From 2013 to 2040, South Central Asia will record the steepest increase in number of glaucoma individuals from 17.06 million to 32.90 million compared with other Asian subregions. In 2040, South-Central Asia is also projected to overtake East Asia for highest overall glaucoma and POAG burden, while PACG burden remains highest in East Asia. Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. Sleep Disruption in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Prevalence, Severity, and Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M.; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M.; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of patients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, up to 82% experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant, and up to 43% in the post-transplant period. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. The review opens with a discussion of sleep disruption measurement and clinical diagnosis of sleep disorders. An overview of the prevalence, severity, and chronicity of sleep disruption and disorders in patients receiving HCT follows. Current evidence regarding sociodemographic and clinical predictors of sleep disruption and disorders is summarized. The review concludes with suggestions for behavioral and pharmacologic management of sleep disruption and disorders as well as directions for future research. PMID:24747335

  16. Targeted BCG Vaccination Against Severe Tuberculosis in Low-prevalence Settings Epidemiologic and Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altes, Hester Korthals; Dijkstra, Frederika; Lugnèr, Anna; Cobelens, Frank; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Background: BCG vaccine protects against the severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several low-prevalence countries are reviewing their policy, usually shifting from universal vaccination to vaccination of infants in high-risk groups only. We combined an epidemiologic analysis with a

  17. Design consideration on severe accident for future LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities' Severe Accident Management strategies, selected based on Individual Plant Examination, are in the process of implementation for each operating plant. Activities for the next generation LWR design are going on by Utilities, NSSS vendors and Research Institutes. The proposed new designs vary from evolutionary design to revolutionary design such as the supercritical LWR. Discussion on the consideration of Severe Accident in the design of next generation LWR is being held to establish the industry's self-regulatory document on containment design and its performance, which ABWR-IER (Improved Evolutionary Reactor) on the part of BWR and Evolutionary APWR and New PWR21 on the part of PWR are expected to comply. Conceptual design study for ABWR-IER will illustrate an example of design approach for the prevention and mitigation of Severe Accident and its impact on capital cost

  18. Prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their relationships with dermatological diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi; Zohreh Hajheidari; Abbas Masoudzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Mahbubeh Mozaffari

    2014-01-01

    Most obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients meet psychiatrists 5 to 10 years after onset of OCD .Its relatively high prevalence ratio and the delay in seeking help suggest that patients with OCD may seek help at non-psychiatric clinics. The present study was undertaken to provide some epidemiological data on the prevalence and severity of OCD in dermatological patients. The participants included 265 consecutive patients with primary dermatologic chief complaint. They were visited by a d...

  19. Prevalence of degree of severity of temporomandibular joint disorder based on sex and age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dewanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders are disturbances of mastication system due to one or more component of mastication system does not properly function. The factors that play a role in this problem divided into three factors; a predisposition factor (systemic, occlusion disturbances and psychological trouble, b initiation factor (traumatic and c perpetuation factor (social behavior. These disorders are able to cause a variety of symptom suck as limitedness of jaw movement, clicking, deviation locked joint, muscle pain, joint pain, jaw movement pain and pain of ear and headache. The objective of this study was to obtain information about the prevalence degree of severity of the temporomandibular joint disorder, the differences of prevalence between man and woman and the different among age groups. The study was descriptive and analysis survey, done to 134 patients as an experimental sample of 3–75-year old that have visited Dental Hospital, Padjadjaran University Bandung, during February 2008. Sample consist of 57 men and 77 women were evaluated by using Helkimo Index and analysis by using Z statistical proportion test to know the existence of difference prevalence degree of severity between man and woman and using the chi-square test to know the difference prevalence among age groups.The result of this study shows that there is highly prevalence severity of temporomandibular joint disorder (84,33% and significantly different on prevalence severity between man and woman and among a group of ages.The conclusion can be drawn that patients who visited the dental hospital, Padjadjaran University have higher prevalence severity of temporomandibular joint disorder where a woman has higher level compare to man, and the young adult group has highest either man and woman. Clicking is the most often symptom appear to man and woman.

  20. Contraceptive prevalence, reproductive health and our common future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diczfalusy, E

    1991-03-01

    The 1980s will go into history as a decade of lost opportunities to increase contraceptive prevalence and improve reproductive health worldwide. As the decade closes, 500 million couples still have no access to fertility regulation, there are 30-50 million induced abortions each year, 15 million infant and child deaths (30% of all deaths worldwide), an estimated 250 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases and 60-80 million infertile couples. One of the major problems is that many policy makers are still unimpressed with the global demographic reality. World population was less than 300 million 1991 years ago. It took some 1500 years to double this number by the time of the voyages of Columbus to America. The first billion was reached at the beginning of the last century and the second in the lifetime of the author, in 1927. Then it took less than 50 years to double this number to 4 billion by 1976. Global population is 5.3 billion today. In view of such figures, it is understandable that, historically, it was this demographic concern that in the 1960s persuaded many governments to support family planning programmes. During the subsequent decades, it was gradually recognized by developing country governments that family planning lowers infant, child and maternal mortality and morbidity and reduces the number of illegal abortions and their health hazards. Today, 52 developing country governments support family planning programmes for the demographic rationale, but 65 for the reproductive health and human rights rationale. Where do we go from here? That will mainly depend on the number of years it will take to reach replacement level of fertility (around 2.1 children per couple) worldwide. If the level is reached in 2010 (the low projection of the United Nations), global population will stabilize by the end of the 21st century at 8 billion; if it is reached in 2035 (medium projection), population will stabilize around 10 billion; however, if it is reached

  1. DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Severity in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, Criteria Profile, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Gruenewald, Paul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 AUD among men and women was 38 and 16%, respectively. Mild lifetime DSM-5 AUD was the most prevalent severity level among both men (18%) and women (9%). The most common criteria, independent of gender and severity level, were drinking larger quantities and for longer than planned (men range: 80 to 97%; women range: 78 to 91%) and hazardous use (men range: 56 to 91%; women range: 42 to 74%). Results from ordered logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio for weekly drinking frequency, greater volume of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion, positive attitudes about drinking, drinking norms, and male gender invariantly increased risks across all DSM-5 AUD severity levels (mild, moderate, severe). Greater negative attitudes about drinking, low family cohesion, and Protestant religion were related to greater risks at higher AUD severity levels. AUD prevalence is high in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prevalence rates for some criteria are equally high across severity levels and poorly differentiate between mild, moderate, or severe DSM-5 AUD. The sociodemographic and alcohol-related risks vary across DSM-5 severity levels. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James; Walker, Patricia; Mills, Thomas; Thurston, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Current published estimates of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the United States are outdated and underestimate the true prevalence of the condition. The objectives of this study are to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US population and to further assess the severity and impact of sweating on those affected by the condition. For the purposes of obtaining prevalence, a nationally representative sample of 8160 individuals were selected using an online panel, and information as to whether or not they experience hyperhidrosis was obtained. The 393 individuals (210 female, 244 non-Hispanic white, 27 black, mean age 40.3, SE 0.64) who indicated that they have hyperhidrosis were asked further questions, including body areas impacted, severity of symptoms, age of onset, and socioemotional impact of the condition. Current results estimate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis at 4.8 %, which represents approximately 15.3 million people in the United States. Of these, 70 % report severe excessive sweating in at least one body area. In spite of this, only 51 % have discussed their excessive sweating with a healthcare professional. The main reasons are a belief that hyperhidrosis is not a medical condition and that no treatment options exist. The current study's findings with regard to age of onset and prevalence by body area generally align with the previous research. However, current findings suggest that the severity and prevalence are both higher than previously thought, indicating a need for greater awareness of the condition and its associated treatment options among medical professionals.

  3. Knee flexion contractures in institutionalized elderly: prevalence, severity, stability, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollinger, L A; Steffen, T M

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence, severity, and progression of knee flexion contractures (KFCs) in a population of institutionalized elderly and to identify relationships between knee extension and other variables. The subjects were 112 nursing home residents who exhibited a broad range of ambulation and cognitive function abilities. Data were collected initially (T1) and after a 10-month period (T2). Only 25% of the population had extension in the 0- to 5-degree (lacking full extension) range bilaterally at T1 and T2, leaving the majority of subjects with some degree of unilateral KFC. Most of the subjects with a KFC greater than 20 degrees were nonambulatory and had a significantly higher occurrence of resistance to motion than did nonambulators with a KFC of less than 20 degrees. Knee extension measurements did not change in most subjects between T1 and T2. The knees that did show a change in KFC (either an increase or a decrease) had a significantly higher occurrence of resistance to passive motion than did other knees. Compared with the subjects who gained extension, the subjects who lost extension over the study period more frequently had minimal KFC at T1, were ambulatory at T1, showed a regression in ambulation at T2, and developed resistance to motion at T2. The data confirmed significant positive correlations between degree of KFC and presence of resistance to passive knee motion, cognitive impairment, impaired ambulation, and presence of knee pain. Physical therapy assessment and intervention may be appropriate in nonambulatory nursing home residents with resistance to passive motion, residents with KFC approaching 20 degrees, and ambulatory residents with minimal KFC who develop resistance and begin to regress in ambulation. Several areas for future study are suggested.

  4. Present and future of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Huang, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Nan; Xia, Qing

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of prophylactic antibiotics in the reduction of mortality of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients, which is highly questioned by more and more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. METHODS: An updated meta-analysis was performed. RCTs comparing prophylactic antibiotics for SAP with control or placebo were included for meta-analysis. The mortality outcomes were pooled for estimation, and re-pooled estimation was performed by the sensitivity analysis of an ideal large-scale RCT. RESULTS: Currently available 11 RCTs were included. Subgroup analysis showed that there was significant reduction of mortality rate in the period before 2000, while no significant reduction in the period from 2000 [Risk Ratio, (RR) = 1.01, P = 0.98]. Funnel plot indicated that there might be apparent publication bias in the period before 2000. Sensitivity analysis showed that the RR of mortality rate ranged from 0.77 to 1.00 with a relatively narrow confidence interval (P antibiotic prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Current evidences do not support prophylactic antibiotics as a routine treatment for SAP, but the potentially benefited sub-population requires further investigations. PMID:22294832

  5. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Kanijo, B; Fredheim, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to pinpoint predictors of this acute complication in children on modern treatment modalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids...

  7. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We

  8. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; van Achterberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We

  9. Severe bacterial infections in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: prevalence and clinical risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattiya Teawtrakul

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients with NTDT was found to be moderate. Time after splenectomy >10 years, deferoxamine therapy, and iron overload may be clinical risk factors for severe bacterial infection in patients with NTDT. Bacterial infection should be recognized in splenectomized patients with NTDT, particularly those who have an iron overload.

  10. Using the symptom monitor in a randomized controlled trial: the effect on symptom prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Johanna; de Vos, Rien; van Duijn, Nico P.; Schadé, Egbert; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of reporting physical symptoms by using a systematic symptom monitoring instrument, the Symptom Monitor, on symptom prevalence and severity among patients with cancer in the palliative phase. The overall objective was to achieve symptom relief

  11. Prevalence and Severity of DSM-5 Eating Disorders in a Community Cohort of Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Objective: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of

  12. Prevalence, severity, and natural history of jack jumper ant venom allergy in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon G A; Franks, Rodney W; Baldo, Brian A; Heddle, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    The jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is responsible for greater than 90% of Australian ant venom allergy. However, deaths have only been recorded in the island of Tasmania. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features, natural history, and predictors of severity of M pilosula sting allergy in Tasmania. We performed a random telephone survey supported by serum venom-specific IgE analysis, review of emergency department presentations, and follow-up of allergic volunteers. M pilosula, honeybee (Apis mellifera), and yellow jacket wasp (Vespula germanica) sting allergy prevalences were 2.7%, 1.4%, and 0.6% compared with annual sting exposure rates of 12%, 7%, and 2%, respectively. Similarly, emergency department presentations with anaphylaxis to M pilosula were double those for honeybee. M pilosula allergy prevalence increased with age of 35 years or greater (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and bee sting allergy (OR, 16.9). Patients 35 years of age or older had a greater risk of hypotensive reactions (OR, 2.9). Mueller reaction grades correlated well with adrenaline use. During follow-up, 79 (70%) of 113 jack jumper stings caused anaphylaxis. Prior worst reaction severity predicted the likelihood and severity of follow-up reactions; only 3 subjects had more severe reactions. Venom-specific IgE levels and other clinical features, including comorbidities, were not predictive of severity. Sting allergy prevalence is determined by age and exposure rate. M pilosula sting exposure in Tasmania is excessive compared with that found in mainland Australia, and there is a high systemic reaction risk in allergic people on re-sting. Prior worst reaction severity (Mueller grade) and age predict reaction severity and might be used to guide management.

  13. Prevalence, severity, and related factors of anemia in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of anemia in HIV infected patients has not been well characterized in Iran. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia and related factors in HIV positive patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, anemia prevalence and risk factors of 212 HIV positive patients were assessed, at the behavioral disease consulting center in Isfahan. The relationship between anemia, demographic variables, and clinical histories were analyzed. Mild to moderate anemia was defined as hemoglobin 8-13 g/dL for men and 8-12 g/dL for women. Severe anemia was defined as hemoglobin, 8 g/dL. Results: A total of 212 HIV positive patients with a mean±SD age of 36.1 ± 9.1 years were assessed. We found that hemoglobin levels were between 4.7 and 16.5 gr/dL. In this study, the overall prevalence of anemia was 71%, with the majority of patients having mild to moderate anemia. Mild to moderate anemia and severe anemia occurred in 67% and 4% of patients, respectively. The mean absolute CD4 count was 348 ± 267.8 cells/cubic mm. Sixty one of 212 patients were at late stage of HIV infection (males=51 and female=10. Of the 212 HIV positive patients enrolled, 17 (8% had a positive history of tuberculosis. We found a strong association between anemia and death. Conclusion: Normocytic anemia with decreased reticulocyte count was the most common type of anemia in overall. Prevalence of anemia in this study is relatively higher than other similar studies. Such a high prevalence of anemia needs close monitoring of patients on a zidovudine-based regimen. Better screening for anemia and infectious diseases, and modified harm reduction strategy (HRS for injection drug users are primary needs in HIV seropositive patients.

  14. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J.J.; Draijer, Nel; Achterberg, Theo van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice.Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and traumarelated dis...

  15. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in this low‐humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population.

  16. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Nicoli Tamie; Campos, Luana Moraes; Simão, Maria Odete; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 5...

  17. The disease prevalence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet cultivations in Kayseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Handan ALTINOK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc., is one of the most economically important fungal diseases in sugar beet growing. Under appropriate climatic conditions, the disease can reach epidemic levels. Although some fungicides exist for disease control, resistance development by pathogen against fungicides is creating difficulties. Besides, use of resistant varieties which is considered as the most efficient and environment-friendly method is adversely affected by pathogen’s ability to exhibit high genetic variations and varying resistance levels against different races of pathogen restricts the success of resistance breeding studies. In order to reveal status of this disease in Kayseri province, surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2011 in sugar beet growing areas and disease prevalence and severity were determined. Approximately, 1500 da area in 90 fields were examined and about 700 da of this area found as infected with Cercospora leaf spot disease in both years of the survey. Highest disease prevalence and severity were found as 80 % and 45 %, respectively, in Sarıoğlan district, which is followed by central district, Develi and Bünyan. Among surveyed districts, lowest prevalence and severity were detected as approx. 65 % and 35 %, respectively, in Yeşilhisar.

  18. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  19. Prevalence and severity of self-reported asthma in young adults, 1976-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browatzki, A; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male) sub...... to increase over the last three decades among young Danish adults, and the observed increase in severity seems, at least partly, to be related to the increase in prevalence of obesity.......The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male...... index, especially >30 kg.m(-2), was associated with a lower percentage predicted FEV1 (pobesity on FEV1. The proportion of smokers declined from 60 to 38% (p

  20. Prevalence and severity of anemia among pregnant women in primary health centers/Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushna Ghazi Abdulwahid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia worldwide and mainly includes iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C deficiencies. Iron deficiency contributes to half of the burden of anemia globally. The objectives of this study were to find out the prevalence and severity of anemia among pregnant women. A descriptive study was conducted on 600 pregnant women, during the period October 2015 to November 2016 at four primary health care centers in Erbil city. Data gathered through interview with study sample and filling questionnaire format and reviewing their antenatal records. Blood hemoglobin level was measured to assess the severity of anemia. Chi-square test and regression were used to analyze the data. Prevalence of anemia was 46.2%, and 67.1% of the anemic women had mild anemia. There was a significant association of severity of anemia with wife education and occupation, smoking, the number of abortions and cesarean section, ante partum hemorrhage, taking tablets of iron and folic acid per month. The study concluded that prevalence of anemia considered high in Erbil city, the highest percentage had mild anemia.

  1. The impact of climatic risk factors on the prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trachoma is the most common cause of infectious blindness. Hot, dry climates, dust and water scarcity are thought to be associated with the distribution of trachoma but the evidence is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the extent to which climatic factors explain the current prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma. Understanding the present relationship between climate and trachoma could help inform current and future disease elimination. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify observational studies which quantified an association between climate factors and acute or chronic trachoma and which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies that assessed the association between climate types and trachoma prevalence were also reviewed. RESULTS: Only eight of the 1751 papers retrieved met the inclusion criteria, all undertaken in Africa. Several papers reported an association between trachoma prevalence and altitude in highly endemic areas, providing some evidence of a role for temperature in the transmission of acute disease. A robust mapping study found strong evidence of an association between low rainfall and active trachoma. There is also consistent but weak evidence that the prevalence of trachoma is higher in savannah-type ecological zones. There were no studies on the effect of climate in low endemic areas, nor on the effect of dust on trachoma. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on the potential role of climate on trachoma distribution is limited, despite a wealth of anecdotal evidence. Temperature and rainfall appear to play a role in the transmission of acute trachoma, possibly mediated through reduced activity of flies at lower temperatures. Further research is needed on climate and other environmental and behavioural factors, particularly in arid and savannah areas. Many studies did not

  2. Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaba, Patricia A; Meloni, Seema T; Sule, Halima M; Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2017-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5.6 ± 2.7 years. The mean age of the cohort was 46 ± 5 years. The most prevalent menopause symptoms were hot flushes (67.2%), joint and muscle discomfort (66.2%), physical/mental exhaustion (65.3%), heart discomfort (60.4%), and anxiety (56.4%). The median MRS score was higher for HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women (p = 0.01). Factors associated with severe menopause symptoms included HIV-positive status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.54) and history of cigarette smoking (aOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.31-13.26). Being married (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.77), premenopausal (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94), and self-reporting good quality of life (aOR: 0.62. 95% CI: 0.39-0.98) were protective against severe menopause symptoms. We found HIV infection, cigarette smoking, quality of life, and stage of the menopause transition to be associated with severe menopause symptoms. As HIV-positive populations are aging, additional attention should be given to the reproductive health of these women.

  3. Prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemaitienė, Miglė; Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Razmienė, Jaunė; Slabšinskienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents and to disclose possible differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries related to gender, urbanization, and different county. A total of 1063 18-year-old adolescents attending school, 427 boys and 636 girls from 10 Lithuanian counties including urban and rural areas, were included in the cross-sectional study on dental caries. The method of multistage cluster sampling was used. The dental examination was performed according to the methodology of oral status evaluation recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of dental caries, DMFT score, Significant Caries Index, and dental care index were determined. The overall prevalence of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents was 78.3%. The study population had a mean DMFT score of 2.93 [SD, 2.81]. Considering the gender, a higher DMFT score was observed among girls than boys (3.03 [SD, 2.88] versus 2.73 [SD, 2.71]) and in rural than urban areas (3.02 [SD, 2.98] versus 2.89 [SD, 2.73]). The Significant Caries Index and the dental care index among 18-year-old adolescents were 6.14 and 62.3%, respectively. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of dental caries. The existing differences of caries experience between the urban and the rural areas as well as between the counties could be influenced by the socioeconomic differences in the country. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients with aortic valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang-wei; Qian, Ju-ying; Jian, Ying; Ge, Lei; Liu, Xue-bo; Shu, Xian-hong; Ge, Junbo

    2011-02-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is common in the elderly and associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, while diabetes is one of the confirmed risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and severity of CAD in type-2 diabetic patients with AVC. From June to December in 2007, a total of 325 consecutive patients with chest pain or chest distress were admitted for coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was evaluated by the Gensini score and the number of stenosed vessels. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for detecting AVC. Compared with the patients without diabetes (n = 221), the type-2 diabetic patients (n = 104) had a similar prevalence of CAD (66.5% vs. 72.1%, P = 0.312). Further classified by the presence of AVC, patients with AVC had a higher prevalence of CAD, average Gensini score and the number of stenosed vessels, both in the group with and without diabetes. It was also demonstrated that the odds ratio (OR) of AVC for CAD in the diabetic patients was higher than in the non-diabetic ones (3.405 vs 2.515) after chi-square analysis (single-variable). However, at multivariable logistic regression analysis for CAD, the OR of AVC was 3.757 (P = 0.03) in diabetic group, while it did not achieve statistical significance in the non-diabetic group (OR = 2.130, P= 0.074). Type-2 diabetic patients with AVC had a higher prevalence of and more severe CAD.

  5. The prevalence of urinary tract infection in children with severe acute malnutrition: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaezuoke, Samuel N

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to review the current evidence which shows that the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). UTI remains one of the most common causes of febrile illness in pediatric practice. Most studies conducted among hospitalized children with complicated SAM have reported high prevalence rates of UTI. Clearly, the knowledge of baseline risk of UTI can help clinicians to make informed diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in these children. From the global reports reviewed in this article, UTI prevalence rates range from as low as 6% to as high as 37% in developing countries, while the most common bacterial isolates from urine cultures are Gram-negative coliform organisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. These findings form the basis for the current diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for clinicians managing children with complicated SAM. With the reported high prevalence of UTI among these children and concerns over antibiotic resistance, more extensive data are required using standardized microbiological methods. Thus, the assessment of the performance of urine dipsticks and microscopy against the gold standard urine culture is an important step toward strengthening the evidence for the therapeutic guidelines for UTI in children with SAM. PMID:29388594

  6. Dental trauma in individuals with severe cerebral palsy: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista Miamoto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental trauma and associated factors among a sample of patients with severe cerebral palsy. The sample was made up of 120 individuals equally divided into two groups. The group with cerebral palsy was made up of 60 patients diagnosed with the spastic form of the disease. The control group was made up of 60 individuals with no mental impairment. Questionnaires were used to collect information on individual, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Dental trauma was assessed based on the clinical chart of each participant, on a questionnaire and on a clinical evaluation to determine past injuries. Mouth mirrors and millimeter periodontal probes (Community Periodontal Index probe were used to measure overjet. Lip seal and breathing type were determined during the clinical exams and interviews. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure. The prevalence of dental trauma was greater among individuals with cerebral palsy (18% than in the control group (5%, with the difference achieving statistical significance (p = 0.023. Individuals with lip incompetence had a greater chance of exhibiting dental trauma (OR [CI 95%] = 3.81 [1.19-12.24]. The prevalence of dental trauma among individuals with cerebral palsy was high. A lack of lip seal was identified as a factor directly associated to this prevalence.

  7. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010 and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results: Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%, sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD 30% (range 20–47%. Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  8. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W; Goossens, Peter J J; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25-72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24-49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20-47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  9. Future-oriented tweets predict lower county-level HIV prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Schwartz, H Andrew; Chen, Qijia; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Future orientation promotes health and well-being at the individual level. Computerized text analysis of a dataset encompassing billions of words used across the United States on Twitter tested whether community-level rates of future-oriented messages correlated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates and moderated the association between behavioral risk indicators and HIV. Over 150 million tweets mapped to U.S. counties were analyzed using 2 methods of text analysis. First, county-level HIV rates (cases per 100,000) were regressed on aggregate usage of future-oriented language (e.g., will, gonna). A second data-driven method regressed HIV rates on individual words and phrases. Results showed that counties with higher rates of future tense on Twitter had fewer HIV cases, independent of strong structural predictors of HIV such as population density. Future-oriented messages also appeared to buffer health risk: Sexually transmitted infection rates and references to risky behavior on Twitter were associated with higher HIV prevalence in all counties except those with high rates of future orientation. Data-driven analyses likewise showed that words and phrases referencing the future (e.g., tomorrow, would be) correlated with lower HIV prevalence. Integrating big data approaches to text analysis and epidemiology with psychological theory may provide an inexpensive, real-time method of anticipating outbreaks of HIV and etiologically similar diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Standards for reporting chronic periodontitis prevalence and severity in epidemiologic studies: Proposed standards from the Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Birte; Albandar, Jasim M; Dietrich, Thomas; Dye, Bruce A; Eaton, Kenneth A; Eke, Paul I; Papapanou, Panos N; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal diseases are common and their prevalence varies in different populations. However, prevalence estimates are influenced by the methodology used, including measurement techniques, case definitions, and periodontal examination protocols, as well as differences in oral health status. As a consequence, comparisons between populations are severely hampered and inferences regarding the global variation in prevalence can hardly be drawn. To overcome these limitations, the authors suggest standardized principles for the reporting of the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in future epidemiological studies. These principles include the comprehensive reporting of the study design, the recording protocol, and specific subject-related and oral data. Further, a range of periodontal data should be reported in the total population and within specific age groups. Periodontal data include the prevalence and extent of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing depth (PD) on site and tooth level according to specific thresholds, mean CAL/PD, the CDC/AAP case definition, and bleeding on probing. Consistent implementation of these standards in future studies will ensure improved reporting quality, permit meaningful comparisons of the prevalence of periodontal diseases across populations, and provide better insights into the determinants of such variation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of lattice degeneration and its relation to axial length in severe myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celorio, J M; Pruett, R C

    1991-01-15

    We studied 436 eyes of 218 patients with myopia of -6.00 diopters or more in both eyes. Of 218 patients, 72 (33.0%) had lattice degeneration of the retina. Among these 72 patients, lattice lesions were uniocular in 39 (54.2%) and binocular in 33 (45.8%). Of 105 males, 33 (31.4%) had lattice degeneration; of 113 females, 39 (34.5%) had lattice degeneration. Contrary to previously published data, we found an inverse relationship between axial length and the prevalence of lattice degeneration in severely myopic eyes. The greatest prevalence of lattice degeneration (63 of 154 eyes, 40.9%) was found in eyes with an axial length of 26.0 to 26.9 mm (-6.00 to -8.70 diopters), and the least prevalence of lattice degeneration (five of 71 eyes, 7.0%) was found in eyes with an axial length of 32.0 mm (-24.00 diopters) or greater. This may explain the observation that retinal detachment after cataract surgery has been noted more commonly among patients with moderate than severe myopia.

  12. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  13. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Carvalho Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821, and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875. The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05. The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  14. Prevalence, severity and determinations of asthma in Danish five-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; De Fine Olivarius, Niels; Høst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    regarding respiratory symptoms and our own questions on sociodemography and tobacco exposure. RESULTS: "Wheeze ever" was reported in 38.3%, "doctor-diagnosed asthma ever" in 10.5%, "childhood bronchitis ever" in 30.0%, "current wheeze" (3 episodes) in 3.......9% of the children. Current wheeze was associated with male gender (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35-1.96), low parental post-primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63 for or =3 y) and current maternal smoking (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.04). "Severe current wheeze" was recognized as asthma in six and childhood......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and wheeze is increasing. AIM: To study the annual and cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 5-y-old Danish children. METHODS: We obtained data on 3052 (82.0% of eligible) Danish children by a postal parental questionnaire including ISAAC questions...

  15. Prevalence and Severity of Dysphonia in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John; Michael, Deirdre D; Boyer, Holly; Misono, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dysphonia in patients with cystic fibrosis sinusitis. We hypothesized that patients with CF sinusitis, compared with 2 control groups, would have higher self-reported prevalence of dysphonia and greater severity of dysphonia, according to patient-reported outcome measures as well as auditory-perceptual evaluation by expert listeners. Cross-sectional comparative pilot study. Academic tertiary care clinic. Analysis included 37 study participants: 17 patients with CF sinusitis, 10 healthy individuals, and 10 patients with non-CF sinusitis. All participants completed the 10-item Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) questionnaire and provided voice samples. On all samples, 6 blinded speech-language pathologists independently performed auditory-perceptual evaluation, using Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. To assess severity of sinonasal symptoms, we used the 20-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Standard parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. The differences between the 3 groups in prevalence of abnormal VHI-10 scores were not statistically significant. SNOT-20 scores were similar in the 2 sinusitis patient groups. VHI-10 scores were highest in patients with CF sinusitis, intermediate in patients with non-CF sinusitis, and lowest in healthy individuals (P = .005). Auditory-perceptual evaluation demonstrated greater overall severity of dysphonia in patients with CF sinusitis compared with the 2 control groups (P = .0005). Cystic fibrosis sinusitis appeared to be associated with worse vocal function as measured by patient self-report as well as auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice compared with patients with non-CF sinusitis and healthy controls. Further investigation in this area is warranted. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2014-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of adolescents. This study is part of TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), a Dutch cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into young adulthood. At baseline, the participants (n = 2,230) were about 11 years old. Body mass index was measured at all four assessment waves. At age 19, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to 1,584 of the participants. A two-stage screening approach was used to estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders. Adolescents at high risk for eating disorders (n = 312) were selected for an additional interview administered by eating disorder experts. Of the high-risk group n = 296 (95%) could be interviewed. Among the women, the lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa was 1.7%, of bulimia nervosa 0.8% and of binge eating disorder 2.3%. Eating disorders were relatively rare among the men. The severity of most cases was mild to moderate and detection and treatment rates depended on the level of severity. The most common DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in adolescents in the community are anorexia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Severity ratings for eating disorders seem valid in terms of both the distribution in the community and the correlation with detection and treatment by health care services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Scapini, Annarosa; Busato, Adair Luiz Stefanello; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis. A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT  =  1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean  =  29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P  =  .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P  =  .021). Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  19. Impact of Childhood Nutritional Status on Pathogen Prevalence and Severity of Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, Kirkby D; Pavlinac, Patricia B; John-Stewart, Grace C; Denno, Donna M; Richardson, Barbra A; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Kirera, Ronald K; Swierczewski, Brett E; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2017-11-01

    Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection. Clinical and microbiological features were compared using log binomial regression among children with and without wasting (mid-upper arm circumference ≤ 125 mm) or stunting (height-for-age z score ≤ -2). Among 1,363 children, 7.0% were wasted and 16.9% were stunted. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with wasting were more likely than nonwasted children to present with at least one Integrated Management of Childhood Illness danger sign (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.5, P = 0.05), severe dehydration (aPR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8, P malnutrition which may be explained by a delay in care-seeking or diminished immune response to infection. Combating social determinants and host risk factors associated with severe disease, rather than specific pathogens, may reduce the disparities in poor diarrhea-associated outcomes experienced by malnourished children.

  20. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

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    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  1. Presence of Gout is Associated With Increased Prevalence and Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rennie G.; Samuels, Jonathan; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Leung, Joseph; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gout and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most prevalent arthritides, but their relationship is neither well established nor well understood. Objectives We assessed whether a diagnosis of gout or asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AH) is associated with increased prevalence/severity of knee OA. Methods 119 male patients ages 55–85 were sequentially enrolled from the primary care clinics of an urban VA hospital, assessed and categorized into 3 groups: gout (ACR Classification Criteria), AH ([serum urate] ≥ 6.8 mg/dL, no gout), and control ([serum urate] gout). 25 patients from each group subsequently underwent formal assessment of knee OA presence and severity (ACR Clinical/Radiographic Criteria, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade). Musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to detect monosodium urate (MSU) deposition at the knees and 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. Results 68.0% of gout, 52.0% of AH, and 28.0% of age-matched control subjects had knee OA (gout vs. control, P=0.017). Odds ratio for knee OA in gout vs. controls was 5.46 prior to, and 3.80 after adjusting for BMI. Gout subjects also had higher KL grades than controls (P=0.001). Subjects with sonographically-detected MSU crystal deposition on cartilage were more likely to have OA than those without (60.0 vs 27.5%, P=0.037), with crystal deposition at the 1st MTP joints correlating most closely with OA knee involvement. Conclusion Knee OA was more prevalent in gout patients vs. controls, and intermediate in AH. Knee OA was more severe in gout patients vs. controls. PMID:25710856

  2. The prevalence and predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Tahir, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    The population of Malaysia is relatively young, due to this there is a dearth in research conducted among the elderly especially relating to depression. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia. A sample of 2005 older adults randomly selected from the Penang State government's list of elderly receiving aid participated in the study. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. Socio-demographic, social support, disease, functional and other factors were looked at as possible predictor variables. The prevalence of severe depression was 19.2 %. Indians (aOR = 2.0), being married (aOR = 10.5), widowed & divorced (aOR = 5.2), having poor (aOR = 2.7) or moderate social support (aOR = 2.7), having no one (aOR = 2.9), relatives (aOR = 2.3) or religious figures & others (aOR = 1.9) as compared to a spouse as a source of emotional support, feeling extremely lonely (aOR = 3.4), not socially active (aOR = 2.3), cognitively impaired (aOR 2.5), activities limited due to illness or disability (aOR = 1.6) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 3.6) were significant predictor variables. The prevalence of severe depression was high. It is pertinent that older adults, especially those with risk factors identified in this study be screened for depression at every opportunity.

  3. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate

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    Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. Results: A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; p < 0.03. Associated factors that remained significant after adjustment were history of asthma in parents (PR = 2.65, p < 0.001 and personal diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (PR = 1.96, p < 0.001 and/or atopic dermatitis (PR = 2.18, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in this low-humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

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    Shamima Saloojee

    Full Text Available There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI.In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS criteria.Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2% and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3% in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.4. MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03. Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001 and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, p < 0.001, female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.55, p = 0.035 and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66-20.52, p = 0.006 but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26.The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years.

  5. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe: The Past and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L; Khawaja, Anthony P; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M J; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E; Foster, Paul J; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2017-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in Europe from 1990 to 2013 using the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium, and made projections for the future. Meta-analysis of prevalence data. A total of 42 080 individuals 40 years of age and older participating in 14 population-based cohorts from 10 countries in Europe. AMD was diagnosed based on fundus photographs using the Rotterdam Classification. Prevalence of early and late AMD was calculated using random-effects meta-analysis stratified for age, birth cohort, gender, geographic region, and time period of the study. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was compared between late AMD subtypes; geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Prevalence of early and late AMD, BCVA, and number of AMD cases. Prevalence of early AMD increased from 3.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1%-5.0%) in those aged 55-59 years to 17.6% (95% CI 13.6%-21.5%) in those aged ≥85 years; for late AMD these figures were 0.1% (95% CI 0.04%-0.3%) and 9.8% (95% CI 6.3%-13.3%), respectively. We observed a decreasing prevalence of late AMD after 2006, which became most prominent after age 70. Prevalences were similar for gender across all age groups except for late AMD in the oldest age category, and a trend was found showing a higher prevalence of CNV in Northern Europe. After 2006, fewer eyes and fewer ≥80-year-old subjects with CNV were visually impaired (P = 0.016). Projections of AMD showed an almost doubling of affected persons despite a decreasing prevalence. By 2040, the number of individuals in Europe with early AMD will range between 14.9 and 21.5 million, and for late AMD between 3.9 and 4.8 million. We observed a decreasing prevalence of AMD and an improvement

  6. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Junior, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Rizzo, José Angelo; Sarinho, Silvia Wanick

    To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; pclimate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, severity, and clinical features of acute and chronic pancreatitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Shen, Min; Leng, Xiaomei; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Qian, Jiaming

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatitis is a rare, life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to describe the clinical features of acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with SLE. Data of patients who fulfilled the revised criteria of the American Rheumatism Association for diagnosis of SLE were retrospectively analyzed. SLE activity was graded according to the SLE Disease Activity Index. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find out independent associations. Survival rates were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier plots. This study included 5665 SLE patients admitted between January 1983 and January 2014, of whom 52 patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis prevalence in SLE patients was 0.92 % (52/5665). AP (0.8 %, 46/5665) was more prevalent than CP (0.1 %, 6/5665), presented mostly during active SLE, and affected more organs. Hypertriglyceridemia occurred in 76.9 % of AP patients and in none of the CP patients. AP patients were divided into severe (n = 10) or mild (n = 20) cases. The average triglyceride level in severe AP cases was higher than that in mild AP cases (P = 0.006), and the mortality rate of lupus-associated AP was 32.6 % (15/46). Concomitant infections and thrombocytopenia were independently associated with poor prognosis (P risk factors for poor prognosis.

  10. PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN SEVERE AORTIC STENOSIS PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanapilai Jayaprasad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is to find out the prevalence of CAD in severe Aortic Stenosis (AS patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and the relation between the conventional risk factors and CAD in them. Calcific aortic stenosis is associated with the same risk factors as coronary artery disease. Studies on calcific aortic stenosis and CAD are rarely reported from India. The aim of the study is to find out the predictive value of angina for presence of CAD in severe aortic stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS All cases of isolated severe aortic stenosis undergoing CAG before aortic valve replacement were included in the study. Data regarding various risk factors, symptoms, echocardiographic parameters and angiographic profile were collected. RESULTS Among a total of 94 patients who have undergone aortic valve replacement for severe AS 40 (42.6% had CAD. Risk factors like advanced age, hypertension, diabetes and smoking were more in patients with CAD compared to isolate AS. Mean gradient was more in the AS + CAD group compared with AS group. Presence of angina had a sensitivity of 82.5% and specificity of 51.85% for predicting coexisting CAD. CONCLUSION Among severe aortic stenosis, patients undergoing AVR 42.6% of patients had significant obstructive CAD. The conventional risk factors predict presence of coronary artery disease. Angina has got a fairly good sensitivity, but moderate specificity for CAD.

  11. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  12. Prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in adult renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Katharina; Steiger, Jürg; Denhaerynck, Kris; Dobbels, Fabienne; Bock, Andreas; De Geest, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Severe alcohol use is recognized as a major public health concern, even though light to moderate alcohol use might have beneficial effects on health. Alcohol use has been studied to some extent in solid organ transplant populations, yet evidence is lacking on alcohol use and its correlates in the renal transplant population. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in renal transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of the Supporting Medication Adherence in Renal Transplantation (SMART) study. Alcohol use was assessed by patient's self-report. At risk and binge drinkers were classified using World Health Organization criteria. The following correlates of alcohol use were explored: adherence with immunosuppression (Siegal questionnaire; electronic monitoring), smoking, coping style (UCL), depressive symptomatology (BDI) and busyness/routine in life style (ACQ Busyness Scale). Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included in this analysis, 58.1% male, with a mean age of 54 yr (range 20-84) and a median of seven (interquartile ranges [IQR] 8) yr post-transplantation. A total of 52.8% of study participants reported to drink alcohol at least once a week. Two hundred and eighty of 284 subjects (98.5%) were drinking at low risk, four at moderate risk (1.5%). None of the participants were drinking severely. Correlates of alcohol use were male gender and being professionally active. Alcohol use is less prevalent in renal transplant recipients than in the general population. Severe alcohol use does not seem to represent a serious problem in renal transplant patients.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms and their association with the prevalence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofwijk, D M N; van Reij, R R I; Rutten, B P; Kenis, G; Buhre, W F; Joosten, E A

    2016-12-01

    Although several patient characteristic, clinical, and psychological risk factors for chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) have been identified, genetic variants including single nucleotide polymorphisms have also become of interest as potential risk factors for the development of CPSP. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence on genetic polymorphisms associated with the prevalence and severity of CPSP in adult patients. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and additional literature was obtained by reference tracking. The primary outcome was CPSP, defined as pain at least 2 months after the surgery. Studies performed exclusively in animals were excluded. Out of the 1001 identified studies, 14 studies were selected for inclusion. These studies described 5269 participants in 17 cohorts. A meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity of data and data analysis. Associations with the prevalence or severity of CPSP were reported for genetic variants in the COMT gene, OPRM1, potassium channel genes, GCH1, CACNG, CHRNA6, P2X7R, cytokine-associated genes, human leucocyte antigens, DRD2, and ATXN1 CONCLUSIONS: Research on the topic of genetic variants associated with CPSP is still in its initial phase. Hypothesis-free, genome-wide association studies on large cohorts are needed in this field. In addition, future studies may also integrate genetic risk factors and patient characteristic, clinical, and psychological predictors for CPSP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  15. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pelagio Raick Maués

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular, treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed, root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9% presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  16. Prevalence and severity of anemia in pediatric hemodialysis patients, a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Azhir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and severity of anemia in children and adolescents on chronic hemodialysis, and to identify independent predictors of anemia in children on hemodialysis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed between September 2005 and January 2006. The study population consisted of 25 patients aged 7−20 years on chronic hemodialysis from pediatric hemodialysis centers in Isfahan. RESULTS: A total of 22 (88% patients had hemoglobin levels of <11 g/dL (anemic and 12 patients (48% had hemoglobin levels of <8 g/dL (severe anemia. The mean age of these patients was 15.5 ± 3.7 years. Mean time on chronic dialysis was 20.44 ± 15.25 months. Anemia was more common and more severe among children who were on dialysis for less than 6 months. There was an inverse relationship between the severity of anemia and duration of hemodialysis (P = 0.019, r = – 0.465. Nearly all patients were treated with erythropoietin, Children with more severe anemia received slightly higher dose of erythropoietin (P = 0.09, r = 0.202. There was a significant difference between serum albumin values in anemic patients and patients without anemia (P = 0.023. There was a correlation between serum albumin and hemoglobin level (r = 0.511, P = 0.01. Intact PTH levels were >200 pg/ml in 16 patients (66% and >400 pg/ml in 9 patients (37. 5%. There was a reverse correlation between intact PTH level >200 pg/ml and hemoglobin level (r = -0.505, P = 0.046. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anemia in hemodialysis children in Isfahan appears to be higher than that reported in the other studies in spite of extensive use of rHuEPO and iron supplementation. We found this to be especially true for patients new on hemodialysis (less than 6 months and in those with low albumin and severe hyperparathyroidism. KEY WORDS: Hemodialysis, anemia, children.

  17. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Whan; Song, Bong Gu; Shin, E-Hyun; Yun, Seok-Min; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis a vector that harbors severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a major species of tick in South Korea. To investigate the existence and prevalence of SFTSV in Korea, we collected ticks from nine provinces in South Korea for detecting SFTSV. In all, we collected 13,053 ticks, and H. longicornis (90.8%, 11,856/13,053) was the most abundant among them. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.46% (55 pools). SFTSV was detected in ticks during all the developmental stages, showing MIR in larvae (2/350, 0.57%), nymphs (38/10,436, 0.36%), males (2/221, 0.90%), and females (13/849, 1.53%), respectively. Viruses were detected in ticks collected between April and September. A higher MIR was detected in ticks from the southern part of the country. We amplified the M and S segment partial genes from a sample and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The results showed a 93-98% homology to Chinese and Japanese strains registered in Genbank. In this study, we confirmed the existence of SFTSV for the first time in South Korea. The SFTSV prevalence data from the studies are essential for raising the awareness of SFTS in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  19. [Institutional Prevalence and Context of Severe Sleep Disorders in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In cases of burnout, chronic fatigue, depression, somatization, overtaxation, or impairment in wellbeing and work capacity, the cause can be sleep problems. Goal of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems in psychosomatic inpatients. Included were 1325 unselected patients from a psychosomatic rehabilitation hospital. They filled in the SCL-90, the PSQI and were assessed in respect to their clinical, social and occupational status. At admission 13.4% of patients had a PSQI score of 5 at maximum (no sleep problem), 34.6% 6 to 10 (moderate sleep problem) und 52.1% over 10 (severe sleep problem). At discharge there was a reduction of sleep problems with 32.7% of patients over 10. Sleep problems were significantly associated with more severe mental problems, older age, women, lower socioeconomic status, and also incapacity to work or early retirement. Mental disorders can cause sleep problems and sleep problems mental disorders and incapacity to work, with a negative interaction. The high rate of severe sleep problems in rehabilitation patients shows that this problem is in need of special diagnostic and therapeutic attention. Also, the equipment of hospitals and the qualification of therapists should allow adequate care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatović, Maja; Heijstek, Marloes W; Verkaaik, Marleen; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Kuis, Wietse; Egberts, Toine C G; Sinnema, Gerben; Rademaker, Carin M A; Wulffraat, Nico M

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS)

  1. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic, M.; Heijstek, M.W.; Verkaaik, M.; Dijkhuizen, E.H. van; Armbrust, W.; Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H.; Kamphuis, S.; Kuis, W.; Egberts, T.C.; Sinnema, G.; Rademaker, C.M.A.; Wulffraat, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS)

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with lung cancer: Prevalence, severity, and common pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin JP

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop a clinical prediction model of contribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to the pathogenesis of lung cancer, by reporting the estimated prevalence and severity by GOLD criteria in a single-institution cohort of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Primary objective was investigating the effects of impaired lung function with various histological cell types on crude survival, while considering the initial staging of disease extent. Materials & methods: A total of 441 patients, in this historical cohort from electronic medical records, completed spirometry prior to invasive diagnostic procedures and initial treatment of their lung cancer. All statistical analyses, including ANOVA and survival analysis, were performed using SAS version 9.1 software. Results: Estimated prevalence of COPD was 79.1% (95% confidence interval: 71.3%-82.9%. Lung function as measured by spirometry was a significant predictor of survival time in months (p<0.0001 both with and without adjusting for tumor-cell-type, age, and stage of disease. Median survival was similar (p=0.32 and longer among those patients with normal pulmonary function, those with restrictive disease patterns, and those with COPD–GOLD-1 defects. Median survival was shortest among patients with COPD–GOLD-4 impairment (p=0.001. Those patients with COPD–GOLD-2 and COPD-GOLD-3 impairment levels had intermediate survival times (p=0.003. Conclusions: This investigation suggests that strategies for early detection and slowing the progression of COPD before the development of lung cancer might increase patient survival. As demonstrated in this study, the presence and severity of COPD in lung cancer patients is an independent predictor of survival time, different from the established staging of initial extent of disease.

  3. Smoke-free air laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Melanie S; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth (aged 3-15 years). We examined data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the US population. Survey locations were dichotomized as having or not having at least 1 smoke-free workplace, restaurant, or bar law at the county or state level that covered the entire county population. Asthma prevalence was assessed as self-reported current asthma and as ever having asthma with current symptoms. Asthmatic symptoms included persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use. We also examined asthma severity (asthma attack or emergency-department visit for asthma) and persistent ear infection. Smoke-free laws were not associated with current asthma but were significantly associated with lower odds of asthmatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. The association between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms approached significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.53-1.03]). Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma attacks (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency-department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), although these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that smoke-free laws reduce asthmatic symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use in nonsmoking youth.

  4. Prevalence and Severity of Preoperative Disabilities in Iranian Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Literature recommends that refractory cases with lumbar disc herniation and appropriate indications are better to be treated surgically, but do all the patients throughout the world consent to the surgery with a same disability and pain threshold? We aim to elucidate the prevalence and severity of disabilities and pain in Iranian patients with lumbar disc herniation who have consented to the surgery.   Methods: In this case series study, we clinically evaluated 194 (81 female and 113 male admitted patients with primary, simple, and stable L4-L5 or L5-S1 lumbar disc herniation who were undergoing surgical discectomy. The mean age of the patients was 38.3±11.2 (range: 18-76 years old. Disabilities were evaluated by the items of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI questionnaire and severity of pain by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Chi-square test was used to compare the qualitative variables. Results: Severe disability (39.2% and crippled (29.9% were the two most common types of disabilities. Mean ODI score was 56.7±21.1 (range: 16-92. Total mean VAS in all patients was 6.1±1.9 (range: 0-10. Sex and level of disc herniation had no statistical effect on preoperative ODI and VAS. The scale of six was the most frequent scale of preoperative VAS in our patients. Conclusion: Iranian patients with lumbar disc herniation who consented to surgery have relatively severe pain or disability. These severities in pain or disabilities have no correlation with sex or level of disc herniation and are not equal with developed countries.

  5. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Valois Correia Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13–14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. Results: A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; p < 0.03. Associated factors that remained significant after adjustment were history of asthma in parents (PR = 2.65, p < 0.001 and personal diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (PR = 1.96, p < 0.001 and/or atopic dermatitis (PR = 2.18, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in this low-humidity environment was lower, but more severe than those reported in other Brazilian cities. The dry climate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Resumo: Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência, a gravidade e os fatores associados à asma em adolescentes que vivem em uma região de baixa umidade relativa do ar. Métodos: Estudo transversal em adolescentes de 13 e 14 anos do semiárido brasileiro. Os

  6. Prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in the lorestan province of iran, using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hessom; Kuper, Hannah; Rezvan, Farhad; Amelie, Khatere; Mahboobi-Pur, Hassan; Oladi, Mohammad Reza; Muhit, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed.

  7. Tracheomalacia in adults with cystic fibrosis: determination of prevalence and severity with dynamic cine CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and severity of tracheomalacia in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) by using dynamic cine multidetector computed tomography (CT) and to correlate these findings with pulmonary function test (PFT) results and the severity of parenchymal lung disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, 40 patients with CF (22 men, 18 women; mean age, 28 years +\\/- 8 [standard deviation]; age range, 18-54 years) prospectively underwent PFTs, standard thin-section CT, and two dynamic cine multidetector CT acquisitions. Ten control subjects underwent dynamic cine multidetector CT. After standard thin-section CT was completed, dynamic cine multidetector CT was performed during a forced expiratory maneuver and during coughing. Dynamic cine multidetector CT images in nine patients were excluded. Maximal inspiratory, dynamic expiratory, and end-expiratory tracheal luminal areas were compared (Student t test) and correlated (Spearman rank) with PFT results and severity of parenchymal lung disease. RESULTS: Mean predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) was 70.6% +\\/- 20.7, and mean Bhalla CT score was 41.8% +\\/- 13.6. In patients with CF, dynamic cine mean tracheal cross-sectional area reduction was 51.7% +\\/- 18.4 (range, 9%-89%) for forced expiratory maneuvers and 68.8% +\\/- 11.7 (range, 18%-88%) for coughing (P = .001). Tracheomalacia was demonstrated in 24 (69%) patients and no control subjects during forced expiratory maneuvers (P = .001) and in 10 (29%) patients and one (10%) control subject during coughing. For end-expiration images, mean tracheal luminal reduction was 16.1% +\\/- 14.0% (range, 0.0%-53.0%), with one patient demonstrating tracheal luminal reduction of more than 50%. There was no correlation between tracheal cross-sectional luminal reduction and either predicted FEV(1) or CT Bhalla score. CONCLUSION: Tracheomalacia depicted at dynamic cine multidetector CT is a

  8. Prevalence and clinical presentation of constipation in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A; Calis, Elsbeth A C; Willemsen, Sten P; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9 y 6 mo, SD 4 y 6 mo). Intellectual disability ranged from moderate (7%) to profound (52%) in all participants who also had severe motor disabilities (83% classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V). We collected data on defaecation characteristics, food and fluid intake, and laxative consumption using standardized bowel diaries and interviews. Constipation was defined as (1) scybalous, pebble-like, hard stools in over a quarter of defaecations in combination with a defaecation frequency of less than three times per week during a 2-week study period; (2) large stools palpable on abdominal examination; or (3) laxative use or manual disimpaction of faeces. Of the studied population, 57% were constipated and 55% used laxatives, 27% of whom showed symptoms of constipation. Daily intakes of water and fibre were below the required standards in 87% and 53% of participants respectively, without a proven relation to constipation. Constipation is a common problem in children with severe disabilities. Laxative use is high but dosing is frequently inadequate to prevent symptoms.

  9. Prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances among patients with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Fakih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Data regarding health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients in the Middle East are limited with fatigue and sleep disturbance being the most distressing symptoms reported by patients treated for early breast cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of insomnia among patients with early-stage breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. We enrolled patients with stage I-III breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. At three different time points (prior to, during, and following chemotherapy, we assessed the severity of sleep disturbances using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index. The Institution Review Board approved the study. Results: Fifty-two patients were recruited. There was a significant increase in sleep disturbances during chemotherapy which improved to below baseline levels on completion of therapy. Prior to chemotherapy, 36% of patients reported poor sleep versus 58% during chemotherapy. The percentage of patients reporting clinical insomnia rose from 11% pretreatment to 36% during chemotherapy reflecting a significant symptomatic burden that is poorly documented and managed in routine clinical practice. Conclusions: Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer experience an increase in sleep disturbances during the treatment phase. Physicians should be aware of the need to routinely screen for sleep disturbance in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  10. High prevalence of subtle and severe menstrual disturbances in exercising women: confirmation using daily hormone measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, M J; Toombs, R J; Scheid, J L; O'Donnell, E; West, S L; Williams, N I

    2010-02-01

    The identification of subtle menstrual cycle disturbances requires daily hormone assessments. In contrast, the identification of severe menstrual disturbances, such as amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, can be established by clinical observation. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of subtle menstrual disturbances, defined as luteal phase defects (LPD) or anovulation, in exercising women, with menstrual cycles of 26-35 days, who engage in a variety of sports, both recreational and competitive. Secondly, the prevalence of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea was also determined via measurement of daily urinary ovarian steroids rather than self report alone. Menstrual status was documented by daily measurements of estrone and pregnanediol glucuronide and luteinizing hormone across two to three consecutive cycles and subsequently categorized as ovulatory (Ovul), LPD, anovulatory (Anov), oligomenorrheic (Oligo) and amenorrheic (Amen) in sedentary (Sed) and exercising (Ex) women. Sed (n = 20) and Ex women (n = 67) were of similar (P > 0.05) age (26.3 +/- 0.8 years), weight (59.3 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass index (22.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2), age of menarche (12.8 +/- 0.3 years) and gynecological maturity (13.4 +/- 0.9 years). The Sed group exercised less (P exercising women experience subtle menstrual disturbances, i.e. LPD and anovulation, and that one third of exercising women may be amenorrheic. Estimates of the prevalence of subtle menstrual disturbances in exercising women determined by the presence or absence of short or long cycles does not identify these disturbances. In light of known clinical consequences of menstrual disturbances, these findings underscore the lack of reliability of normal menstrual intervals and self report to infer menstrual status.

  11. Determining the Prevalence and Assessing the Severity of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed martial arts (MMA) is currently the fastest growing sport in the United States and has recently surpassed boxing as the most popular full contact sport. Due to the physical nature of the sport, MMA is associated with various types of injuries. Objective The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying prevalence and assessing the severity, location, and type of injuries in MMA athletes sustained during MMA related activities in the twelve month period prior to the survey. Methods A total of fifty-five subjects between the ages of 18 to 39 participated in the study. Participants were given a two-part questionnaire to collect demographic and injury data. Results Two hundred seven injuries were reported in the study. Low belt ranks had significantly more injuries more than any other belt rank, resulting in more than two times higher injury rate. Professional fighters had significantly more injuries than amateur fighters, resulting in three times higher injury rate. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (38.2%), followed by the lower extremities (30.4%), upper extremities (22.7%), torso (8.2%), and groin (0.5%). Injuries to the nose (6.3%), shoulder (6.3%), and toe (6.3%) were the most common. The most common type of injury was contusions (29.4%), followed by strains (16.2%), sprains (14.9%), and abrasions (10.1%). Conclusion Injury prevention efforts should consider the prevalence and distribution of injuries and focus on reducing or preventing injuries to the head/neck/face in MMA related activities. Preventative measures should focus on improving protective equipment during training, and possible competition rule modifications to further minimize participant injury. PMID:21509103

  12. Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2018-02-01

    To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in

  14. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad

    2007-01-01

    with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  15. Nailfold capillaroscopy for prediction of novel future severe organ involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vanessa; Riccieri, Valeria; Pizzorni, Carmen; Decuman, Saskia; Deschepper, Ellen; Bonroy, Carolien; Sulli, Alberto; Piette, Yves; De Keyser, Filip; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of associations of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc) ("early," "active," and "late") with novel future severe clinical involvement in 2 independent cohorts. Sixty-six consecutive Belgian and 82 Italian patients with SSc underwent NVC at baseline. Images were blindly assessed and classified into normal, early, active, or late NVC pattern. Clinical evaluation was performed for 9 organ systems (general, peripheral vascular, skin, joint, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, lung, heart, and kidney) according to the Medsger disease severity scale (DSS) at baseline and in the future (18-24 months of followup). Severe clinical involvement was defined as category 2 to 4 per organ of the DSS. Logistic regression analysis (continuous NVC predictor variable) was performed. The OR to develop novel future severe organ involvement was stronger according to more severe NVC patterns and similar in both cohorts. In simple logistic regression analysis the OR in the Belgian/Italian cohort was 2.16 (95% CI 1.19-4.47, p = 0.010)/2.33 (95% CI 1.36-4.22, p = 0.002) for the early NVC SSc pattern, 4.68/5.42 for the active pattern, and 10.14/12.63 for the late pattern versus the normal pattern. In multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for disease duration, subset, and vasoactive medication, the OR was 2.99 (95% CI 1.31-8.82, p = 0.007)/1.88 (95% CI 1.00-3.71, p = 0.050) for the early NVC SSc pattern, 8.93/3.54 for the active pattern, and 26.69/6.66 for the late pattern versus the normal pattern. Capillaroscopy may be predictive of novel future severe organ involvement in SSc, as attested by 2 independent cohorts.

  16. Research Review: Changes in the prevalence and symptom severity of child post-traumatic stress disorder in the year following trauma - a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Fearon, Pasco; Lobo, Sarah; McKinnon, Anna; Fraser, Abigail; Halligan, Sarah L

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the natural course of child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has significant implications for the identification of, and intervention for, at-risk youth. We used a meta-analytic approach to examine longitudinal changes in youth PTSD prevalence and symptoms over the first 12 months posttrauma. We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal studies of PTSD in young people (5-18 years old), excluding treatment trials. The search yielded 27 peer-reviewed studies and one unpublished dataset for analysis of pooled prevalence estimates, relative prevalence reduction and standardised mean symptom change. Key moderators were also explored, including age, proportion of boys in the sample, initial prevalence of PTSD and PTSD measurement type. Analyses demonstrated moderate declines in PTSD prevalence and symptom severity over the first 3-6 months posttrauma. From 1 to 6 months posttrauma, the prevalence of PTSD reduced by approximately 50%. Symptoms also showed moderate decline, particularly across the first 3 months posttrauma. There was little evidence of further change in prevalence or symptom severity after 6 months, suggesting that it is unlikely a child would lose a PTSD diagnosis without intervention beyond this point. The current findings provide key information about the likelihood of posttrauma recovery in the absence of intervention and have important implications for our understanding of child and adolescent PTSD. Results are discussed with reference to the timing of PTSD screening and the potential role of early interventions. Findings particularly highlight the importance of future research to develop our understanding of what factors prevent the action of normal recovery from the 'acute' posttrauma period. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers: a study on 1311 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthieu; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Loas, Gwénolé; Hubain, Philippe; Linkowski, Paul

    2017-07-06

    Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers who were recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed. An apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15 events per hour was used as the cut-off score for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine clinical and demographic risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. The prevalence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in our sample of insomnia sufferers was 13.88%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, lower maintenance insomnia complaint, presence of metabolic syndrome, age ≥ 50 & 30 kg/m 2 , and CRP >7 mg/L were significant risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common pathology in insomnia sufferers. The identification of these different risk factors advances a new perspective for more effective screening of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers.

  18. Prevalence and severity of categorical and dimensional personality disorders in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; González, Esther; Canalda, Gloria; Forns, Maria; De La Fuente, J Eugenio; Martínez, Estebán; García, Raquel; Lara, Anais; Vallès, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to explore and compare the prevalence of categorical and dimensional personality disorders (PDs) and their severity in Spanish adolescents with Eating Disorders (EDs). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision-10 modules of the International Personality Disorder Examination were administered to a sample of 100 female adolescents with EDs (mean age=15.8 years, SD=0.9). 'Thirty-three per cent of the sample had at least one PD, in most cases a simple PD. The rate of PDs was 64-76% in bulimia patients, 22-28% in anorexia and 25% in EDs not otherwise specified. The highest dimensional scores were observed in bulimia, [corrected] mainly in borderline and histrionic PDs, and higher scores for anankastic PD in anorexia than in the other ED diagnoses. Overall, purging type EDs had higher cluster B personality pathology scores than restrictive type.' [corrected] The Publisher would like to apologize for this error and any confusion it may have caused. [corrected]. Adolescent female patients with ED have a risk of presenting a comorbid PD, especially patients with bulimia and purging type EDs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Children in families with a severely mentally ill member. Prevalence and needs for support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Margareta; Hansson, Lars

    2002-05-01

    The prevalence of minor children in families with a severely mentally ill member, these children's needs for support and the situation of the spouses were investigated as part of a multi-centre study of the quality of the mental health services in Sweden performed in 1986, 1991 and 1997. The sample was drawn from relatives of compulsorily and voluntarily admitted inpatients to acute psychiatric wards. The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire, interviewing relatives about the burden of relatives, their needs for support and participation in care and items concerning the situation of the under-aged children in these families. The results over the years investigated showed the same proportion of patients admitted to hospital who were also parents to minor children and a decreasing proportion of patients who had the custody of their children. Female patients were more often a parent and also more often had the custody of the children. The majority of the children had needs for support caused by their parent's illness and these needs were met in half of the cases. The healthy spouses in families with minor children more often had to give up their own occupation and to a higher extent experienced own needs for care and support from psychiatric services compared to spouses without minor children. The study supports that there is an urgent need for the psychiatric services to initiate parental issues in programmes for treatment and rehabilitation to ensure that the specific needs of minor children are met.

  20. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar; Sapna Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged...

  1. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Gu?ye, Nd?ye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Ba?la; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HI...

  2. Long-term future risk of severe exacerbations: Distinct 5-year trajectories of problematic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yii, A C A; Tan, J H Y; Lapperre, T S; Chan, A K W; Low, S Y; Ong, T H; Tan, K L; Chotirmall, S H; Sterk, P J; Koh, M S

    2017-09-01

    Assessing future risk of exacerbations is an important component of asthma management. Existing studies have investigated short- but not long-term risk. Problematic asthma patients with unfavorable long-term disease trajectory and persistently frequent severe exacerbations need to be identified early to guide treatment. To identify distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates among "problematic asthma" patients and develop a risk score to predict the most unfavorable trajectory. Severe exacerbation rates over five years for 177 "problematic asthma" patients presenting to a specialist asthma clinic were tracked. Distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Baseline predictors of trajectory were identified and used to develop a clinical risk score for predicting the most unfavorable trajectory. Three distinct trajectories were found: 58.5% had rare intermittent severe exacerbations ("infrequent"), 32.0% had frequent severe exacerbations at baseline but improved subsequently ("nonpersistently frequent"), and 9.5% exhibited persistently frequent severe exacerbations, with the highest incidence of near-fatal asthma ("persistently frequent"). A clinical risk score composed of ≥2 severe exacerbations in the past year (+2 points), history of near-fatal asthma (+1 point), body mass index ≥25kg/m 2 (+1 point), obstructive sleep apnea (+1 point), gastroesophageal reflux (+1 point), and depression (+1 point) was predictive of the "persistently frequent" trajectory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.84, sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 81.1% using cutoff ≥3 points). The trajectories and clinical risk score had excellent performance in an independent validation cohort. Patients with problematic asthma follow distinct illness trajectories over a period of five years. We have derived and validated a clinical risk score that accurately identifies patients who will have persistently

  3. [Effect of litter type on prevalence and severity of pododermatitis in male broilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    During the course of two trial periods on broilers (Ross 308), the effects of 5 different types of litter (chopped straw, wood shavings, spelt glumes, Pelletinos, HygieneWood-Shavings) on the development of pododermatitis and animal performance (body weight, feed conversion, mortality) were investigated. Pelletinos are for sale under the name Pelletino Strohstreugranulat G. HygieneWood-Shavings are a special product that currently is not available on the market. Male broilers were kept under practical conditions (feeding, light program) for 35 days. Foot pad lesions could already be observed at the first assessment on their 7th day after hatching. Broilers kept on chopped straw showed in both trials the highest score (trial 1: 1.50; trial 2: 1.58). Animals reared on Pelletinos (trial 1: 0.59; trial 2: 0.17) followed by HygieneWood-Shavings (trial 1: 0.63; trial 2: 0.47), wood shavings (trial 1: 1.30; trial 2: 0.71) and spelt glumes (trial 1: 1.13, trial 2:0.93) showed significant lower lesions. During the second trial, the average body weights were significantly higher while feed conversion was lower.The mortality on the other hand showed no significant differences between the trials. Groups kept on Pelletinos showed the best foot pads and the highest body weights in both trials at the end of experiments. The investigation showed that the prevalence and the severity of pododermatitis as well as the performance could be influenced by various types of litter. Chopped straw which is standard for the broiler industry in Germany, seems to be the least suitable variant in our study.

  4. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Tamie Yoshimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 53 adults who were in treatment for alcohol dependence at a Brazilian public university outpatient service. Assessment instruments Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses between the categorical outcome (Probable SAD: SPIN ≥ 19 and explanatory variables were conducted. Correlates of SPIN total and subscales scores (dimensional outcomes were also investigated. Results The diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence occurred, on average, 30 years after the onset of alcohol use and 39.6% of the 53 patients (37 men and 16 women reported alleviation of social anxiety symptoms with alcohol use. Twenty-four (45.3% patients presented probable SAD. These patients differed from non-SAD alcohol-dependent individuals by having lower income and higher frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts. The SPIN subscales mostly associated with suicidal behaviors were social inadequacy and social inferiority. Conclusions SAD symptoms are common among help-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals and should be directly investigated and treated, since depression and suicidality are associated with this comorbidity. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of SAD treatment on the clinical course of alcohol dependence.

  5. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveInflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Cyclophilin B (CypB can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice.MethodsSerum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components. Additionally, CypB expression in metabolic organs was examined in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD and genetically obese (ob/ob mice.ResultsSerum CypB level was significantly higher in MetS subjects compared with both groups of non-MetS subjects (193.80 ± 83.22 vs. 168.38 ± 65.01 vs. 124.26 ± 47.83 ng/mL, P < 0.001. Particularly, serum CypB level was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, elevated levels of triglycerides, or reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein than in those without. Moreover, CypB was positively associated with the number of MetS components (r = 0.404, P < 0.001, indicating that a higher serum CypB level reflected more severe MetS. Multivariate regression revealed that a one SD increase in CypB was associated with an odds ratio of 1.506 (1.080–2.101, P = 0.016 for MetS prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, conventional risk factors, and medication. Stratified analyses by age and gender demonstrated that subjects >60 years old with higher CypB levels were more likely to have MetS, and the risk for MetS was higher and more significant in women compared with men. Additionally, CypB expression levels were lower at baseline and dramatically enhanced in metabolic organs (such as the liver and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice and ob/ob mice.ConclusionIncreased CypB levels were

  6. Elevated Serum Cyclophilin B Levels Are Associated with the Prevalence and Severity of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Fan, Qin; Xie, Hongyang; Lu, Lin; Tao, Rong; Wang, Fang; Xi, Rui; Hu, Jian; Chen, Qiujing; Shen, Weifeng; Zhang, Ruiyan; Yan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cyclophilin B (CypB) can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice. Serum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS) (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components). Additionally, CypB expression in metabolic organs was examined in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. Serum CypB level was significantly higher in MetS subjects compared with both groups of non-MetS subjects (193.80 ± 83.22 vs. 168.38 ± 65.01 vs. 124.26 ± 47.83 ng/mL, P  CypB level was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, elevated levels of triglycerides, or reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein than in those without. Moreover, CypB was positively associated with the number of MetS components ( r  = 0.404, P  CypB level reflected more severe MetS. Multivariate regression revealed that a one SD increase in CypB was associated with an odds ratio of 1.506 (1.080-2.101, P  = 0.016) for MetS prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, conventional risk factors, and medication. Stratified analyses by age and gender demonstrated that subjects >60 years old with higher CypB levels were more likely to have MetS, and the risk for MetS was higher and more significant in women compared with men. Additionally, CypB expression levels were lower at baseline and dramatically enhanced in metabolic organs (such as the liver) and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice and ob/ob mice. Increased CypB levels were significantly and independently associated with the presence and severity of MetS, indicating that CypB could be

  7. [Experience, prevalence, severity, treatment needs for dental caries and care index in Mexican adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, José Obed; Mejia-Cruz, Jorge Adrián; Medina-Cerda, Eduardo; Orozco-De la Torre, Guillermo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Carlo; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Islas-Granillo, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    To determine the experience, prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as to establish the treatment needs and restorative care in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study included 638 subjects 16-25 years old candidates to enter to state public university of San Luis Potosí, México. For caries detection was used the DMFT index (sum of decayed teeth + missing teeth + filled teeth in the permanent dentition). With DMFT index data were calculated the experience, the prevalence and the severity of caries. Also are reported the significant caries index (SiC), the treatment needs index (TNI) and the care index (CI). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests. The mean DMFT index was 4.24 ± 3.85, prevalence 76.5% and severity of 52.3% for DMFT > 3 and 26.2% for DMFT > 6. The SiC index was 8.7. The TNI was 43.0% and 52.8% CI. No variation was observed (p > 0.05) on the experience, prevalence and severity of caries by age. The component "filled teeth" showed differences by age (p caries experience and severity than men (p dental caries in this sample of adolescents and young adults. We found almost 40% of untreated caries lesions. We found some differences by sex.

  8. Prevalence and impact of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult cancer patients in comparison with population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Knoop, Hans; Jansen, Rosemarie; Prins, Judith B; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Husson, Olga; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-09-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (aged 18-35 years at diagnosis) consulting a multidisciplinary AYA team in comparison with gender- and age-matched population-based controls. In addition, impact of severe fatigue on quality of life and correlates of fatigue severity were examined. AYAs with cancer (n = 83) completed questionnaires including the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), Quality of Life (QoL)-Cancer Survivor, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (reflecting psychological distress), and the Cancer Worry Scale (reflecting fear of cancer recurrence or progression). The vast majority of participants had been treated with chemotherapy (87%) and had no active treatment at the time of participation (73.5%). Prevalence of severe fatigue (CIS-fatigue score ≥35) in AYAs with cancer (48%, n = 40/83) was significantly higher in comparison with matched population-based controls (20%, n = 49/249; p fatigued AYAs with cancer reported lower QoL compared to non-severely fatigued AYAs with cancer (p fatigue severity (p fatigue based on a validated cut-off score was highly prevalent in this group of AYAs with cancer. QoL is significantly affected by severe fatigue, stressing the importance of detection and management of this symptom in those patients affected by a life-changing diagnosis of cancer in late adolescence or young adulthood.

  9. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle A Benzekri

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes.We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review.One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01 and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02. Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01.Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.

  10. [Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, characterized by symptoms of itching, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing induced by an IgE-mediated response. In Mexico we have reports of prevalence, with fluctuations of 5.5% to 47.7% with the question of rhinitis symptoms the past 12 months. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of prevalence in which a questionnaire was applied to preschool, elementary-, middle- and high-school population. It was performed in four cities in four states of Mexico: Puebla, Puebla, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and Cancun, Quintana Roo. Parents answered questionnaires of preschool and elementary school and middle- and high-school students answered their questionnaires. The study was conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. The instrument used was: questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies. Of the surveys, 8,159 completed questionnaires were obtained, in the city of Puebla: 2,267, Tulancingo, Hidalgo: 2,478, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: 2,574, Cancun, Quintana Roo: 840; total male: 4,190 (51%). The overall average rate of prevalence of allergic rhinitis among four states including all respondents ages was 15%. With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  11. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U.; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic

  12. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition in pre-school children in a rural area of western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwena, Arthur M.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Hawley, William A.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2003-01-01

    We determined the nutritional status of children less than five years of age in an area in rural western Kenya with intense malaria transmission, a high prevalence of severe anemia and human immunodeficiency virus, and high infant and under-five mortality (176/1,000 and 259/1,000). No information is

  13. Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Kanan, Shaza O H; Swar, Mohammed Osman

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient’s hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients’ record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (...

  14. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20......-35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later...... in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first...

  15. Essential severe accident mitigation measures for operating and future PWR's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittermann, Dietmar; Eckardt, Bernd A.; Lechleuthner, Michael [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Severe Accident mitigation measures are a constituent of the safety concept in Europe not only for operating but also for future light water reactors. While operating reactors mainly have been backfitted with such measure, for future reactors Severe Accident mitigation measures already have to be considered in the design phase. Severe Accident measures are considered as the 4{sup th} level of defense for future reactors. This difference has consequences also on the kind of measures proposed to be introduced. While in operating plants Severe Accident mitigation measures are considered for further risk reduction, in future reactors an explicit higher level of safety is required resulting in additional design measures. This higher safety level is expressed in the requirement that there must be no need for evacuation of surrounding populations except in the immediate vicinity of the plant and for long-term restrictions with regard to the consumption of locally grown food. Because of the potential hazard posed by radioactive releases to the environment in the event of an Severe Accident situation depends largely on the airborne material in the containment atmosphere and on the containment integrity, new system features to prevent loss of containment integrity have been introduced in the design of the NPP's. For these tasks it has been necessary to develop and qualify new system technologies and implement them finally into NPP's, e.g. like systems for containment atmosphere H{sub 2}-control, filtered venting, core retention devices and atmosphere sampling. The following systems are introduced for operating as well as for future plants: {center_dot} The Hydrogen Control System is based on the Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) technology. There is no need for any operator actions because of the self-starting feature of the catalyst if hydrogen is released. {center_dot} In situ Post Accident Sampling System (In situ-PASS) are introduced for the purpose of

  16. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekri, Noelle A; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.

  17. Prevalence and clinical presentation of constipation in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth Ac; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-01-01

    AIM Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. METHOD A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Constipation in Children with Severe Generalized Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. Method: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9y…

  19. Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Mancilla-Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  20. [Prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory disease in hospitalized adult patients in a tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; González-Cruz, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    Severe periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process associated with systemic diseases. To determine the prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory diseases among hospitalized patients at the Institute of Respiratory Diseases "Ismael Cosio Villegas" (INER) in 2011. A cross-sectional study was developed. The severe periodontal disease was diagnosed by the Department of Stomatology. The International Classification of Diseases 10th revision was used. A multinomial logistic was fit to estimate relative-risk. Three thousand and fifty-nine patients were included; 772/3,059 (25.2%) had severe periodontal disease. After controlling for age, sex, inpatient days, death, and socioeconomic status, the infectious respiratory diseases that were significantly associated with severe periodontal disease were: HIV/AIDS (RR: 10.6; 95% CI: 9.1-23.3; p abscess (RR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6-7.8; p = 0.002). Lung cancer and pleural diseases were also significantly associated with severe periodontal disease. High prevalence of severe periodontal disease was observed in the different respiratory diseases. Severe periodontal disease was associated with both infectious and non-infectious respiratory diseases. It is important to study an oral health intervention.

  1. Esophagitis in a high H. pylori prevalence area: severe disease is rare but concomitant peptic ulcer is frequent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ponce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the prevalence of erosive and severe esophagitis in Western countries. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively determine the prevalence and the factors predicting erosive esophagitis and severe esophagitis in a large series of endoscopies in Spain. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine variables predicting severe esophagitis. SETTING: Databases of 29 Spanish endoscopy units. PATIENTS: Patients submitted to a diagnostic endoscopy during the year 2005. INTERVENTIONS: Retrospective review of the databases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Esophagitis severity (graded according to the Los Angeles classification and associated endoscopic findings. RESULTS: Esophagitis was observed in 8.7% of the 93,699 endoscopies reviewed. Severe esophagitis (LA grade C or D accounted for 22.5% of cases of the disease and was found in 1.9% of all endoscopies. Incidences of esophagitis and those of severe esophagitis were 86.2 and 18.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year respectively. Male sex (OR 1.89 and advanced age (OR 4.2 for patients in the fourth age quartile were the only variables associated with severe esophagitis. Associated peptic ulcer was present in 8.8% of cases. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study, no data on individual proton pump inhibitors use. CONCLUSIONS: Severe esophagitis is an infrequent finding in Spain. It occurs predominantly in males and in older individuals. Peptic ulcer disease is frequently associated with erosive esophagitis.

  2. Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Kamperman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so, few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population. METHOD: This multisite epidemiological survey included a random sample of 956 adult severely mentally ill outpatients. Data on victimisation were obtained using the victimisation scale of the Dutch Crime and Victimisation Survey, which assesses crime victimisation over the preceding 12 months. Comparison data were derived from the nationwide survey on safety and victimisation in the Netherlands. Prevalence and incident rates were weighted for sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and compared with a general population sample matched by region (N = 38,227. RESULTS: In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47% had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats (RR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.72-2.61, physical assaults (RR = 4.85, 95% CI: 3.69-6.39 and sexual harassment and assaults (RR = 3.94, 95% CI: 3.05-5.09. In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population (IRR = 13.68, 95% CI: 12.85-14.56. CONCLUSION: Crime victimisation is a serious problem in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients. Mental-healthcare institutions and clinicians should become aware of their patients' victimisation risk, and should implement structural measures to detect and prevent (re-victimisation.

  3. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. UNMASKING MASKED HYPERTENSION: PREVALENCE, CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS, DIAGNOSIS, CORRELATES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, James; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    ‘Masked hypertension’ is defined as having non-elevated clinic blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-clinic average BP, typically determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. Approximately 15–30% of adults with non-elevated clinic BP have masked hypertension. Masked hypertension is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to sustained normotension (non-elevated clinic and ambulatory BP), which is similar to or approaching the risk associated with sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and ambulatory BP). The confluence of increased cardiovascular risk and a failure to be diagnosed by the conventional approach of clinic BP measurement makes masked hypertension a significant public health concern. However, many important questions remain. First, the definition of masked hypertension varies across studies. Further, the best approach in the clinical setting to exclude masked hypertension also remains unknown. It is unclear whether home BP monitoring is an adequate substitute for ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying masked hypertension. Few studies have examined the mechanistic pathways that may explain masked hypertension. Finally, scarce data are available on the best approach to treating individuals with masked hypertension. Herein, we review the current literature on masked hypertension including definition, prevalence, clinical implications, special patient populations, correlates, issues related to diagnosis, treatment, and areas for future research. PMID:24573133

  5. High prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in patients with severe psoriasis with suboptimal performance of screening questionnaires.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among Psoriasis (Ps) patients attending dermatology clinics; (2) identify clinical predictors of the development of PsA; and (3) compare the performance of three PsA screening questionnaires: Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE), Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening (ToPAS).

  6. Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Shaza O H; Swar, Mohammed Osman

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0.9. The mean age these children was 22.3 months. Children 36-59 months were least affected. 35.4% were classified as low socioeconomic class, 22.9% classified as an average class and there were no sufficient data to classify the remaining. The overall prevalence of severe malnutrition was 6.5%, and the general mortality rate was 2.4% while mortality rate among children with severe malnutrition was 9.3%. Among the 593 admitted children with malnutrition, 407 (68.6%) had marasmus, 141 (23.8%) had kwashiorkor and 45 (7.6%) had marasmic-kwashiorkor. The highest prevalence and mortality rate occurred in September. The most common clinical presentations were gastroenteritis, malaria, urinary tract infections, giardiasis, tuberculosis and AIDS. Only 10.8% of the admitted children were exclusively breast fed for the first three months. 33% were fully vaccinated. Overall 75.7% improved and discharged, 15% discharged against medical advice and 9.3% died. We concluded that prevalence and mortality among children with acute severe malnutrition at Omdurman paediatrics hospital were high, and the current management strategies require review to identify the causes. We recommended adopting policies to manage malnutrition in the community and hospitals.

  7. Dental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors Cárie dentária em homens jovens: prevalência, severidade e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as the needs for dental treatment in 18-year-old males from Maringá, PR, Brazil. The association of dental caries experience with socioeconomic variables was also tested. A cross sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 241 conscripts of the Brazilian Army. The adopted diagnosis criteria were those proposed by the World Health Organization. A socioeconomic questionnaire was utilized to determine family income and the criterion of the Brazil Economic Classification of the National Association of Research Enterprises. Associations among caries prevalence, DMF-T index, treatment needs and socioeconomic variables were evaluated by means of the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Caries prevalence was 82.6% and the mean DMF-T index was 4.6. Only a mean of 0.8 tooth per individual presented treatment needs. Significant statistical differences were found in caries prevalence and severity (DMF-T. The worst results were observed in the groups of lower income and purchasing power, indicating a need for the implementation of social policies that address these populations aiming at diminishing the existing differences in the health-disease process indicators. On the other hand, treatment needs were only associated to the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion variable (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária, bem como as necessidades de tratamento odontológico de jovens de 18 anos de idade do sexo masculino em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. A associação da experiência de cárie com variáveis socioeconômicas também foi testada. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma amostra aleatória de conscritos (n = 241 do Exército Brasileiro. Os critérios de diagnóstico adotados foram aqueles estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram utilizados um question

  8. Severe Autumn storms in future Western Europe with a warmer Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, Michiel; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Van Delden, Aarnout J.; de Vries, Hylke

    2015-08-01

    Simulations with a very high resolution (~25 km) global climate model indicate that more severe Autumn storms will impact Europe in a warmer future climate. The observed increase is mainly attributed to storms with a tropical origin, especially in the later part of the twentyfirst century. As their genesis region expands, tropical cyclones become more intense and their chances of reaching Europe increase. This paper investigates the properties and evolution of such storms and clarifies the future changes. The studied tropical cyclones feature a typical evolution of tropical development, extratropical transition and a re-intensification. A reduction of the transit area between regions of tropical and extratropical cyclogenesis increases the probability of re-intensification. Many of the modelled storms exhibit hybrid properties in a considerable part of their life cycle during which they exhibit the hazards of both tropical and extratropical systems. In addition to tropical cyclones, other systems such as cold core extratropical storms mainly originating over the Gulf Stream region also increasingly impact Western Europe. Despite their different history, all of the studied storms have one striking similarity: they form a warm seclusion. The structure, intensity and frequency of storms in the present climate are compared to observations using the MERRA and IBTrACS datasets. Damaging winds associated with the occurrence of a sting jet are observed in a large fraction of the cyclones during their final stage. Baroclinic instability is of great importance for the (re-)intensification of the storms. Furthermore, so-called atmospheric rivers providing tropical air prove to be vital for the intensification through diabatic heating and will increase considerably in strength in the future, as will the associated flooding risks.

  9. Prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea: a problem related to menstruation, among first and second year female medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amita; Kiran, Dukhu; Singh, Harminder; Nel, Bithika; Singh, Prabhakar; Tiwari, Pavan

    2008-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is the most common of gynecologic complaints. It affects half of all female adolescents today and represents the leading cause of periodic college/school absenteeism among that population. To evaluate the menstrual problem specially dysmenorrhea and its severity in female medical students and its effect on their regular activities. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study; conducted on 107 female medical students, all participants were given a questionnaire to complete; questions were related to menstruation elucidating variations in menstrual patterns, history of dysmenorrhea and its severity, pre-menstrual symptom and absenteeism from college and/or class; to detect the severity of dysmenorrhea we used the verbal multi-dimensional scoring system, participants were given 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The mean age of subjects at menarche was 12.5 (+/-1.52) years, with a range of 10-15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 73.83%; approximately 4.67% of dysmenorrhic subjects had severe dysmenorrhea. The average duration between two periods and the duration of menstrual flow were 28.34 (+/-7.54) days and 4.5 (+/-2.45) days respectively. Prevalence of other menstrual disorders like irregularity, prolonged menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding and PCOD were 7.47%, 10.28%, 23.36% and 3.73% respectively. Among female medical students who reported dysmenorrhea; 31.67% and 8.68% were frequently missing college & classes respectively. Premenstrual symptom was the second most (60.50%) prevalent disorder and 67.08% reported social withdrawal. Dysmenorrhea and PMS is highly prevalent among female medical students, it is related to college/class absenteeism, limitations on social, academic, sports and daily activities. Maximum participants do not seek medical advice and self treat themselves with prostaglandin inhibitors; like Ibuprofen.

  10. Depressive symptomatology in severe dementia in a European sample: prevalence, associated factors and prescription rate of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Arve, Seija; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Soto, Maria; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan; Saks, Kai; Challis, David

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common comorbid disorder of dementia. This study explores the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant prescription rates in severe dementia across eight European countries. In total, 414 people with severe dementia completed measures of cognition and quality of life (QoL), whilst carers completed proxy measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, QoL and comorbidity. Findings indicated that 30% of the sample had depression, whilst the highest and lowest prevalence of depression was reported in Germany and Finland, respectively. Lower QoL, the presence of pain and more frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with depressive symptomatology, whilst no significant relationship between impairment of ADLs, comorbidity, and depression emerged. Spain and Estonia had the highest and lowest rates of antidepressant prescribing, respectively, whilst Germany had the highest discrepancy between depressive symptomatology and prescription. The study highlights variations across countries in the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in severe dementia and prescription of antidepressants. Information about factors associated with depressive symptomatology may help to better identify and manage depression.

  11. Prevalence and severity of dental erosion among jeep battery manufacturing workers at Metagalli, Mysore: A cross-sectional study

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    Jyothi Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Majority of people employed in various industries are exposed to hazardous environment. Exposure to chemical agents in the workplace can result in adverse effects on workers. This exposure deteriorates the general and oral health of people, working in industries for long hours. Aim: The aim is to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion among battery manufacturing factory workers at Metagalli, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 jeep battery manufacturing factory workers were enrolled and divided into study and comparison groups based on acid exposure. Demographic details of workers were recorded. Severity of dental erosion was calculated using Smith and Knight tooth wear index. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables. Results: The prevalence of dental erosion among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers was 80%. Majority of the participants in the study group had severe degree of dental erosion (scores of 3 and 4 when compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Dental erosion was more prevalent among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers. Study participants were the more affected group with dental erosion when compared to comparison group.

  12. Prevalence, Severity and Potential Nutritional Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms during a Marathon in Recreational Runners

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    Jamie N. Pugh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool (n = 66 and Dublin (n = 30 marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS. Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4 GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16% during training, and nausea (8% during the marathon race. Correlations between all nutritional intake and GIS were not statistically significant (p > 0.05. There were significant correlations between total GIS score (r = 0.510, p < 0.001, upper GIS score (r = 0.346, p = 0.001 and lower GIS score (r = 0.483, p < 0.001 in training and during the marathon. There appears to be a modest prevalence of GIS in recreational runners, in the week prior to a marathon and during marathon running, although there was no association with nutritional intake before or during the race.

  13. Prevalence, Severity and Potential Nutritional Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms during a Marathon in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Kirk, Ben; Fearn, Robert; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2018-06-24

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) amongst recreational runners during a marathon race, and potential nutritional factors that may contribute. Recreational runners of the 2017 Liverpool ( n = 66) and Dublin ( n = 30) marathons were recruited. GIS were reported post-marathon and we considered GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and during the marathon using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). Nutritional intake was recorded using food diaries for the day before the race, morning of the race, and during the race; 43% of participants reported moderate (≥4) GIS in the 7 days prior to the marathon and 27% reported moderate symptoms during the marathon with most common symptoms being flatulence (16%) during training, and nausea (8%) during the marathon race. Correlations between all nutritional intake and GIS were not statistically significant ( p > 0.05). There were significant correlations between total GIS score ( r = 0.510, p training and during the marathon. There appears to be a modest prevalence of GIS in recreational runners, in the week prior to a marathon and during marathon running, although there was no association with nutritional intake before or during the race.

  14. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  15. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  16. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

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    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  17. The prevalence and correlates of severe depression in a cohort of Mexican teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Lajous, Martin; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2018-07-01

    Depression is among the 10 major causes of disability in Mexico. Yet, local contextual factors associated to the disorder remain poorly understood. We measured the impact of several factors on severe depression such as demographics, pharmacotherapy, multimorbidity, and unhealthy behaviors in Mexican teachers. A total of 43,845 Mexican female teachers from 12 Mexican states answered the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). Data were part the Mexican Teacher's Cohort prospective study, the largest ongoing cohort study in Latin America. Unadjusted and adjusted estimates assessed the impact of several contextual factors between severe versus mild-no depression cases. In total 7026 teachers (16%) had a PHQ9 score compatible with severe depression. From them, only 17% received psychotropics, compared to 60% for those with a formal diagnosis. Less than 5% of teachers with PHQ9 scores compatible with severe depression had a formal diagnosis. Adjusted analysis reported higher odds of pharmacotherapy, having ≥ 3 comorbidities, higher levels of couple, family and work stress, fewer hours of vigorous physical activity, higher alcohol consumption, and smoking as risk factors for severe depression. Also, rural residents of northern and center states appeared more severely depressed compared to their urban counterparts. On average, the PHQ9 scores differed by ~ 10 points between severe and mild-no depressed teachers. A cross-sectional design. Also, the study focused on female teachers between ages 25 and 74 years old, reducing the generalizability of the estimates. Under-diagnosis of clinical depression in Mexican teachers is concerning. Unhealthy behavior is associated with severe depression. The information collected in this study represents an opportunity to build prevention mechanisms of depression in high-risk subgroups of female educators and warrants improving access to mental care in Mexico. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pain in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: Prevalence, Mechanisms, Management and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Andreas I; Banim, Paul; Hart, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence. There are two principal mechanisms for pain: pancreatic duct obstruction and pancreatic neuropathy which, respectively, activate mechanical and chemical nociceptors. In pancreatic neuropathy, several histological, molecular, and immunological changes occur which correlate with pain including: transient receptor potential cation channel activation and mast cell infiltration. Current pain management is empirical rather etiology-based and is informed by the WHO analgesic ladder for first-line therapies, and then endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) in patients with resistant pain. For EUS-CPN, there is only one clinical trial reporting a benefit, which has limited generalizability. Case series report pancreatic duct stenting gives effective analgesia, but there are no clinical trials. Progress in understanding the mechanisms for pain and when this occurs in the natural history, together with assessing new therapies both pharmacological and endoscopic, will enable individualized care and may improve patients' quality of life and survival.

  19. The Prevalence of Severe Asthma and Low Asthma Control Among Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Kriegbaum, Margit; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    asthma, the extent of asthma control, and contact with specialist care. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional register study was performed. By using a nationwide prescription database, we identified current patients with asthma (age, 18-44 years) in 2010. Severity was classified as severe versus mild......-moderate asthma according to the level of antiasthma treatment. We investigated prescription drug use, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient clinic visits according to severity. RESULTS: Among a nationwide population, we identified 61,583 current patients with asthma. Based on the level...... asthma and low asthma control were not managed by specialist care. Patients with severe asthma with specialist contact more frequently had impaired asthma control compared with subjects not treated by a specialist (44.4% vs 33.1%, P

  20. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  1. Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere

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    M Kirthiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar. There is a rarity of prevalence studies in Indian population. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH in a population of South Indian children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey, included 2000 children aged 11-16 years chosen by stratified random sampling from government and private schools of Davangere, a city in South India. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of MIH and decayed, missing and filled teeth was carried out in these children by a calibrated examiner. The severity of hypomineralization was recorded according to the Wetzel and Reckel scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: About 8.9% of all examined children showed at least one ill-structured first permanent molar in terms of MIH. The male and female ratio was found to be 1:1.1. The decreasing order of occurrence of MIH affected teeth were permanent maxillary molars, maxillaryincisors, mandibular molars and the mandibular incisors. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of south Indian children was 8.9%. There is a need for a proper planned preventive and restorative program with regard to the increasing prevalence of MIH.

  2. Prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in relation to job description and socioeconomic status: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Patrick J; Swift, Steven E; O'Boyle, Amy L; Valley, Michael T; Bland, Deirdre R; Kahn, Margie A; Schaffer, Joseph I

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if certain occupations or socioeconomic levels are associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Investigators at six American sites performed pelvic organ prolapse quantification examinations on women presenting for routine gynecologic care. Between September 1999 and March 2002, 1,004 patients were examined. Severe pelvic organ prolapse was defined as the leading edge being 1 cm or more beyond the hymeneal ring. The data was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Bonferroni test, multiple logistic regression, and descriptive statistics. The prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in our group was 4.3%. Women who were laborers/factory workers had significantly more severe prolapse than the other job categories (p 30, and smoking status (all p jobs and an annual household income of Dollars 10,000 or less are associated with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

  3. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

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    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged 8-13 years selected by random sampling procedure. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were followed for MIH diagnosis. The presence of dental caries and treatment need for MIH-affected teeth were recorded as per the WHO criteria. Results: The prevalence of MIH in the children examined was 9.46%. Severity of the defects increased with the age of the children. Involvement of incisors increased when more First permanent molars (FPMs were affected. An average of 3.65 teeth was involved per MIH-affected individual. Significantly larger numbers of mandibular FPMs and maxillary central incisors were diagnosed with MIH. The association of dental caries was significantly higher with MIH-affected FPMs. Primary molars and permanent canines and premolars were also showed MIH like lesions in some of the MIH-affected children. Conclusion: MIH was observed in about 10% of the children examined. MIH-affected FPMs appear to be more vulnerable to early caries and subsequent pulp involvement with need for extensive dental treatment.

  4. The Prevalence of Anemia and Moderate-Severe Anemia in the US Population (NHANES 2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Since anemia is associated with poor health outcomes, the prevalence of anemia is a significant public health indicator. Even though anemia is primarily caused by iron deficiency, low oxygen-carrying capacity may result from other conditions such as chronic diseases, which remain a relevant health concern in the United States. However, studies examining current rates of anemia in the total US population and in more specific subgroups are limited. Data from five National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed to assess two outcomes: anemia and moderate-severe anemia, which were based upon serum hemoglobin levels (Hb) as per World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Statistical analysis using SAS examined temporal trends and the prevalence of anemia among sexes, age groups, and races/ethnicities. The study estimated that an average of 5.6% of the U.S. population met the criteria for anemia and 1.5% for moderate-severe anemia during this 10-year period. High-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly persons, women of reproductive age, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics were identified, and relationships between multiple risk factors were examined. Rates of anemia in men increased monotonically with age, while that of women increased bimodally with peaks in age group 40–49 years and 80–85 years. The effect of risk factors was observed to compound. For instance, the prevalence of anemia in black women aged 80–85 years was 35.6%, 6.4 times higher than the population average. Moreover, anemia is a growing problem because of the increased prevalence of anemia (4.0% to 7.1%) and moderate-severe anemia (1.0% to 1.9%), which nearly doubled from 2003–2004 to 2011–2012. Thus, these results augment the current knowledge on anemia prevalence, severity, and distribution among subgroups in the US and raised anemia as an issue that requires urgent public health intervention. PMID:27846276

  5. Prevalence of Auditory Neuropathy in a Population of Children with Severe to Profound Hearing Loss

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    Nader Saki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this investigation is to determine auditory neuropathy in the students with severe to profound hearing losses in Ahwaz.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 212 children of 7-11 year old with severe to profound hearing loss performed ordinary audiometric evaluations as well as ABR and OAE. The patients with normal DPOAE who had no record of acoustic reflex having normal ABR, were considered as the patients with auditory neuropathy. Results: The neuropathic complication found in 14 children was appeared in 8 ones as one-sided (57.14% and in 6 ones (42.86% as two-sided. 68% of the patients as diagnosed had a very low Speech Discrimination Score (SDS.Conclusion: we must be very vigilant in auditory neuropathy diagnosis for the purpose to be successful in appropriate treatment of severe to profound hearing losses.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis and Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in Women with Several Cervical Pathologies

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    Gülçin Alp Avcı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determinate the prevalence of HPV types in patients with cervical cancers in our legion by Real time PCR and DNA sequence analysis and to make phylogenetic analysis was aimed in this study. Material and methods: From January to October 2010, cervical swap samples of 77 patients directed to colposcopy were included in the study. HPV DNA and HPV type 16 were detected by Real Time polymerase chain reaction using the L1 region. Real Time PCR amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV DNA and HPV type 16 specific probe. HPV types determinate by GP5+/GP6+. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences was calculated by Kimura’s two parameters method. Statistically analyses were by using Pearson chi-square and odss ratio tests. Results: Forty seven samples (prevalence; 61% of total seventy seven cervical samples detected as HPV DNA positive. While HPV type 16; 52%, HPV type 16+11; 4%, HPV type 16+6; 1% and non-typing HPV DNA 4% of seventy seven samples determining, 39% of samples observed as negative HPV. Participated in the study population, HPV DNA positive individuals are among 34-56 years. Most HPV DNA positivity rate of 80.0% was between the ages of 31-40. 52.2% of HPV DNA positivity between the ages of 41-50 to fall, but again, 83.3% between the ages of 51-60 to a second peak was determined that increased. 60.0% of 20 ASC-H cases, 63.8% of 36 ASC-US cases, 100% 9 of HSIL cases and 25.0% of 12 LSIL cases were positive for HPV DNA. Conclusion: The investigation of the distribution of HPV genotypes in women with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in our region is important. Early diagnosis of HPV by using improved technological assays, play a key role to prevent the turn precancerous lesions into invasive cancers.

  7. Recovery from anemia in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation--prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Arnous, Samer; Lønborg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative anemia is common in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and has been linked to a poorer outcome--including a higher 1-year mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of successful TAVI...... on baseline anemia. METHODS: A total of 253 patients who survived at least 1 year following TAVI were included in this study. The prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of hemoglobin (Hb)-recovery were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of baseline anemia was 49% (n = 124)--recovery from anemia occurred......-recovery, while blood transfusion (OR 0.31, P = 0.038) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, OR 0.33, P = 0.043) were identified as negative predictors at, respectively, one and two years after TAVI. When compared to patients without baseline anemia, those anemic patients with Hb-recovery had a similar functional...

  8. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

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    Brkovic T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonci Brkovic,1 Eliana Burilovic,2 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Objectives: Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.Results: We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain.Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain

  9. Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among Adolescents: A Comparison Across Modes of Access, Gambling Activities, and Levels of Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roz, Alba; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Weidberg, Sara; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The high availability and accessibility of online gambling have recently caused public concern regarding the potential increase of gambling-related problems among young people. Nonetheless, few studies among adults and none among adolescents have explored specific characteristics of gamblers as a function of gambling venues to date. This study sought to analyze the prevalence of gambling among a sample of adolescents in the last year, as well as sociodemographic and gambling-related characteristics as possible predictors of at-risk and problem gambling. The sample comprised 1313 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Participants were asked to respond to several questions regarding their gambling behavior. Chi square and ANOVA tests were performed in order to explore differences between groups, and a set of multinomial regressions established significant severity predictors. The prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling was 4 and 1.2 %, respectively. Regression analyses showed that having a relative with gambling problems predicted at-risk gambling. Both living with only one parent or not living with parents at all, and the prevalence of Electronic Gambling Machines in the last year were associated with problem gambling. Mixed-mode gambling was a predictor of both at-risk and problem gambling. Our findings extend previous research on gambling among adolescents by exploring gambling behavior according to different modes of access. Although the prevalence of exclusive online gambling among the total sample was low, these results support the need to consider specific subgroups of gamblers and their concrete related features when conducting both indicated prevention and treatment protocols for adolescents.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008-10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J.; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Study Design Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities. PMID:23984289

  12. Prevalence of severe obesity among New Zealand adolescents and associations with health risk behaviors and emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Fleming, Theresa; Denny, Simon

    2013-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of severe obesity among New Zealand young people attending secondary school and the associations of severe obesity with health risk behaviors and emotional well-being. A random sample of 9107 secondary school students in New Zealand participated in a 2007 health survey. Participants had their height and weight measured and answered an anonymous survey on multiple aspects of their health and well-being. Overall, 2.5% of students met the International Obesity Task Force definition of severe obesity. Students with severe obesity had more weight-related concerns, were more likely to have used unhealthy weight control strategies, and were more likely to experience bullying compared with healthy weight students. For example, students with severe obesity were 1.7 times more likely to have been bullied at school (95% CI 1.2-2.7) and 1.9 times more likely to vomit for weight loss (95% CI 1.1-3.3) than were healthy weight students. Indicators of emotional well-being and most health risk behaviors were similar among young people with severe obesity and a healthy weight. Clinicians who work with young people with severe obesity should prioritize discussing issues of bullying and healthy weight control strategies with families and their children. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and profound intellectual disability. The review aimed to examine the methods used to assess for depression. The secondary aim was to explore the frequency and symptoms of depression. The PRISMA (2009) Checklist for systematic review was followed, and a search of electronic databases was undertaken. Nine studies were included in the qualitative synthesis from over 2000 records identified. The quality of the studies was assessed and scored, with a wide range of results. Individual studies scored between 2 and 7 of a maximum possible score of 8. The diagnostic tools utilized by each of the studies were assessed and compared. In terms of the methods used to assess for depression, results were varied. This was due to the heterogeneous nature of the individual study designs. The Aberrant Behaviour Checklist consistently showed promise, in particular when combined with other instruments or clinical examination. Qualitative analysis of the selected studies has shown a wide variation in the quality of primary research in this field, with more required to make firm conclusions regarding the diagnosis, frequency and presentation of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357

  15. What’s new? Investigating risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a high HIV prevalence South African setting1

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALOOJEE, HAROON; DE MAAYER, TIM; GARENNE, MICHEL L.; KAHN, KATHLEEN

    2010-01-01

    Aim To identify risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a rural South African district with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Design Case-control study. Setting Bushbuckridge District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Participants 100 children with severe malnutrition (marasmus, kwashiorkor, and marasmic kwashiorkor) were compared with 200 better nourished (>−2 SD weight-for-age) controls, matched by age and village of residence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on a variety of biological and social risk factors. Results HIV status was known only for a minority of cases (39%), of whom 87% were HIV positive, while 45% of controls were stunted. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for severe malnutrition included suspicion of HIV in the family (parents or children) (OR 217.7, 95% CI 22.7–2091.3), poor weaning practices (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0–4.6), parental death (OR 38.0, 95% CI 3.8–385.3), male sex (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.0), and higher birth order (third child or higher) (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1). Protective factors included a diverse food intake (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41–0.67) and receipt of a state child support grant (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20–0.97). A borderline association existed for family wealth (OR 0.9 per unit, 95% CI 0.83–1.0), father smoking marijuana (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1–14.5), and history of a pulmonary tuberculosis contact (OR 3.2, 95% CI 0.9–11.0). Conclusions Despite the increasing contribution of HIV to the development of severe malnutrition, traditional risk factors such as poor nutrition, parental disadvantage and illness, poverty, and social inequity remain important contributors to the prevalence of severe malnutrition. Interventions aiming to prevent and reduce severe childhood malnutrition in high HIV prevalence settings need to encompass the various dimensions of the disease: nutritional, economic, and social, and address the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17676510

  16. What's new? Investigating risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a high HIV prevalence South African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloojee, Haroon; De Maayer, Tim; Garenne, Michel L; Kahn, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    To identify risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a rural South African district with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Case-control study. Bushbuckridge District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. 100 children with severe malnutrition (marasmus, kwashiorkor, and marasmic kwashiorkor) were compared with 200 better nourished (>-2 SD weight-for-age) controls, matched by age and village of residence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on a variety of biological and social risk factors. HIV status was known only for a minority of cases (39%), of whom 87% were HIV positive, while 45% of controls were stunted. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for severe malnutrition included suspicion of HIV in the family (parents or children) (OR 217.7, 95% CI 22.7-2091.3), poor weaning practices (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.6), parental death (OR 38.0, 95% CI 3.8-385.3), male sex (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.0), and higher birth order (third child or higher) (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1). Protective factors included a diverse food intake (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.67) and receipt of a state child support grant (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97). A borderline association existed for family wealth (OR 0.9 per unit, 95% CI 0.83-1.0), father smoking marijuana (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-14.5), and history of a pulmonary tuberculosis contact (OR 3.2, 95% CI 0.9-11.0). Despite the increasing contribution of HIV to the development of severe malnutrition, traditional risk factors such as poor nutrition, parental disadvantage and illness, poverty, and social inequity remain important contributors to the prevalence of severe malnutrition. Interventions aiming to prevent and reduce severe childhood malnutrition in high HIV prevalence settings need to encompass the various dimensions of the disease: nutritional, economic, and social, and address the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  17. Open standing castration in Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong: Prevalence and severity of complications 30 days post-castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; MacEoin, F; Graham, R J T Y; Riggs, C M

    2018-05-01

    Complications following open standing castration (OSC) in Thoroughbred racehorses are well recognised but variation in their prevalence and severity between populations is not well documented. To describe the prevalence and severity of complications in the 30 days following OSC. A retrospective cohort study of veterinary clinical records relating to horses that underwent OSC between July 2007 and July 2012. Complications were graded on a severity score from N, no complications, to C3, severe complications. Additional data were accessed for each horse including age, import date, racing history, trainer and veterinarian performing the castration. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial sensitivities were performed on a limited number of castration wounds that became infected. In total, 250 horses were castrated in Hong Kong using the OSC technique over the period of the study. Sixty percent (150/250) of horses experienced some type of post-castration complication, with eight horses experiencing a severe (C3) complication requiring intensive veterinary treatment. Scrotal swelling, funiculitis and seroma formation were present in 70.0%, 36.7% and 24.7% of cases respectively. Most horses experiencing complications required wound reopening (87.3%; 131/150), and/or an extended course of first-line antimicrobials and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (75/150; 50.0%). Eight horses had cultures submitted for bacterial sensitivity, with 17 bacterial isolates grown. In vitro, the bacteria cultured were sensitive to enrofloxacin (76%; 13/17) and ceftiofur (100%; 17/17). Resistance was detected to penicillin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline, metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfadiazine. Differences in post-castration management cannot be accounted for in this study. Complications following OSC in horses in Hong Kong were common. The majority were mild and were successfully treated using antimicrobials and simple wound management. Given the high rate of complications and

  18. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  19. Prevalence and consequences of the dual diagnosis of substance abuse and severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a severe mental illness and a substance use or abuse disorder is common in the United States as well as internationally and could be considered as more the expectation than the exception when assessing patients with serious mental illness. Substance use disorders can occur at any phase of the mental illness, perhaps even inducing psychosis. Causes of this comorbidity may include self-medication, genetic vulnerability, environment or lifestyle, underlying shared origins, and/or a common neural substrate. The consequences of dual diagnosis include poor medication compliance, physical comorbidities and poor health, poor self-care, increased suicide risk or aggression, increased sexual behavior, and possible incarceration. All of these factors contribute to a greater health burden, which reduces the health care system's capacity to adequately treat patients. Therefore, screening, assessment, and integrated treatment plans for dual diagnosis that can address both the addiction disorder and the mental illness are recommended in order to provide accurate treatment, after-care, and other health care to accommodate patients' social and vocational needs.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus in adults with severe acute respiratory illness in a high HIV prevalence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Walaza, Sibongile; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Haffejee, Sumayya; Variava, Ebrahim; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-10-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was calculated for the one site with population denominators. Of 7796 participants investigated, 329 (4%) tested positive for RSV. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected individuals with RSV-associated SARI had greater odds of being in the age groups 18-44 and 45-64 years (odd ratios (OR) 26.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-112.1 and OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.6-50.0) compared with those ≥65 years and being female (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.4). The relative risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated SARI was 12-18 times higher in HIV infected individual compared to that of HIV-uninfected. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was higher in HIV-infected individuals and those aged 65 years and older. Further studies are warranted to describe the disease association of RSV detected in adults with SARI. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Gonzalez, Brian D; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-10-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients.. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  2. High prevalence/low severity language delay in preschool children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H; Friesen, Myron D; Champion, Patricia R; Woodward, Lianne J

    2010-10-01

    To examine the language development at corrected age 4 years of a regionally representative cohort of children born very preterm (VPT). Of particular interest was the identification of biological and socioenvironmental risk and protective factors that influence VPT children's early language development. Data were collected as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 110 VPT (VPT: ≤ 33 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term children (full term: 37-41 weeks gestation) born in Canterbury, New Zealand from 1998 to 2000. At corrected age 4 years, all children were assessed with the preschool version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Extensive information was also collected about children's family social background, perinatal health, childrearing environment, education/intervention exposures, and neurodevelopmental progress from birth to age 4. At the age of 4 years, VPT children were characterized by poorer receptive and expressive language development than full-term children. These differences persisted after exclusion of children with neurosensory impairment as well as statistical adjustment for the effects of social risk. Within the VPT group, the key predictors of children's overall language development were family social risk at birth (p =.05), severity of white matter abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (p =.49), observed parent-child synchrony (p =.001), and concurrent child cognitive ability (p =.001). Together, these factors accounted for 45% of the variance in children's total Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool scores. By preschool age, children born VPT show early emerging mild to moderate language delays that are likely to affect their school success and longer-term developmental progress. Findings highlight the importance of potentially modifiable factors such as early brain injury and parenting quality in predicting the language outcomes of children born VPT.

  3. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst patients with severe mental illness in the community in Hong Kong ? a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bressington, Daniel T; Mui, Jolene; Cheung, Eric F C; Petch, Joel; Clark, Allan B; Gray, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders. The risk of metabolic syndrome in the Hong Kong general population is lower than that observed in western countries; however the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong is unknown. Method: This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong and to identify the rela...

  4. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved rural areas: a crucial issue for future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H; Yekta, A; Jafarzadehpur, E; Doostdar, A; Ostadimoghaddam, H; Khabazkhoob, M

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved Iranian villages and to identify the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness.Patients and methodsMultistage cluster sampling was used to select the participants who were then invited to undergo complete examinations. Optometric examinations including visual acuity, and refraction were performed for all individuals. Ophthalmic examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Visual impairment was determined according to the definitions of the WHO and presenting vision.ResultsOf 3851 selected individuals, 3314 (86.5%) participated in the study. After using the exclusion criteria, the present report was prepared based on the data of 3095 participants. The mean age of the participants was 37.6±20.7 years (3-93 years). The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was 6.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71-9.14) and 1.18% (95% CI: 0.56-1.79), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment varied from 0.75% in participants aged less than 5 years to 38.36% in individuals above the age of 70 years. Uncorrected refractive errors and cataract were the first and second leading causes of visual impairment; moreover, cataract and refractive errors were responsible for 35.90 and 20.51% of the cases of blindness, respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence of visual impairment was markedly high in this study. Lack of access to health services was the main reason for the high prevalence of visual impairment in this study. Cataract and refractive errors are responsible for 80% of visual impairments which can be due to poverty in underserved villages.

  5. Prevalence, severity and early outcomes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy among newborns at a tertiary hospital, in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Irene N; Mchaile, Deborah N; Katsongeri, Kahindo; Philemon, Rune N; Msuya, Sia E

    2017-05-25

    Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) remains a problem of great concern worldwide especially in developing countries. The occurrence of a neurological syndrome can be an indicator of insult to the brain. We aimed to determine the prevalence, HIE proportions, neurological signs and early outcomes of newborns that developed birth asphyxia at KCMC Tanzania. A prospective study was conducted at KCMC from November 2014 to April 2015 among newborns with birth asphyxia. Sarnat and Sarnat score was used to assess newborns immediately after birth to classify HIE and were later followed daily for 7 days or until discharge. Of the 1752 deliveries during the study period, 11.5% (n = 201) had birth asphyxia. Of the 201 newborns, 187 had HIE. Of these 187 with HIE; 39.0% had moderate HIE and 10.2% had severe HIE according to the Sarnat and Sarnat classification. Neurological signs that were observed during the study period were; weak/absent reflexes (46.0%), hypotonia (43.3%) and lethargy (42.2%). Mortality was 9.1% among the 187 newborns with HIE. Mortality was higher among newborns with severe HIE 84.2% (16/19) compared to those with moderate HIE 1.4% (1/73). On the 7th day after delivery, 17.1% (32/187) of the newborns did not show any change from the initial score at delivery. Prevalence of birth asphyxia is high in our setting and most of the newborns (49%) end up with moderate/severe HIE. Good obstetric care and immediate resuscitation of newborns are vital in reducing the occurrence of HIE and improving the general outcome of newborns.

  6. WHO systematic review of maternal morbidity and mortality: the prevalence of severe acute maternal morbidity (near miss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert C

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To determine the prevalence of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM worldwide (near miss. Method Systematic review of all available data. The methodology followed a pre-defined protocol, an extensive search strategy of 10 electronic databases as well as other sources. Articles were evaluated according to specified inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using data extraction instrument which collects additional information on the quality of reporting including definitions and identification of cases. Data were entered into a specially constructed database and tabulated using SAS statistical management and analysis software. Results A total of 30 studies are included in the systematic review. Designs are mainly cross-sectional and 24 were conducted in hospital settings, mostly teaching hospitals. Fourteen studies report on a defined SAMM condition while the remainder use a response to an event such as admission to intensive care unit as a proxy for SAMM. Criteria for identification of cases vary widely across studies. Prevalences vary between 0.80% – 8.23% in studies that use disease-specific criteria while the range is 0.38% – 1.09% in the group that use organ-system based criteria and included unselected group of women. Rates are within the range of 0.01% and 2.99% in studies using management-based criteria. It is not possible to pool data together to provide summary estimates or comparisons between different settings due to variations in case-identification criteria. Nevertheless, there seems to be an inverse trend in prevalence with development status of a country. Conclusion There is a clear need to set uniform criteria to classify patients as SAMM. This standardisation could be made for similar settings separately. An organ-system dysfunction/failure approach is the most epidemiologically sound as it is least open to bias, and thus could permit developing summary estimates.

  7. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Oh, Sung-Suck; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Ko, Mee-Kyung; Yi, Jongyoun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Choi, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young-Hun; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2018-04-26

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SFTSV antigens and anti-SFTSV antibodies in black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) throughout the ROK. Sera were collected from 737 black goats in nine provinces in the ROK. Eighteen of 737 (2.4%) goat sera were positive for SFTSV on one-step reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction. The amplified 346-bp S segments of SFTSV sequences were classified into three genotypes (BG1, BG2, and BG3), and were included in the Japanese clade rather than the Chinese clade, based on phylogenetic analysis. Forty-three of 624 (6.9%) serum samples were seropositive for anti-SFTSV antibodies on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. This study is the first to examine the molecular prevalence of SFTSV in goats and the first to perform serological detection of anti-SFTSV antibodies in livestock in the ROK. Moreover, the results indicate that SFTSV is widely distributed in goats and that additional monitoring for SFTSV is needed in livestock in the ROK. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of HPV prevalence in young women in Scotland; monitoring of future vaccine impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kimberley; Sinka, Katy; Cuschieri, Kate; Love, John; Potts, Alison; Pollock, Kevin G J; Cubie, Heather; Donaghy, Martin; Robertson, Chris

    2013-11-05

    Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20-21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Residual liquid based cytology samples (n = 2148), collected from women aged 20-21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n = 709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n = 378) or self-taken swabs (n = 331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections examined. The influence of demographic factors on high-risk HPV positivity and multiple infections was examined via logistic regression. The prevalence of any HPV in young women aged 20-21 was 32.2% for urine, 39.5% for self-taken swab, and 49.4% for LBC specimens. Infection with vaccine specific types (HPV 16, 18) or those associated with cross-protection (HPV 31, 33, 45, 51) was common. Individuals were more likely to test positive for high-risk HPV if they resided in an area of high deprivation or in a rural area. The overall distribution of HPV types did not vary between defaulters and attenders. Multiple infections occurred in 48.1% of high-risk HPV positive individuals. Excluding vaccine types the most common pairing was HPV 56 and 66. Understanding of the pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV in young women puts Scotland in a prime position to assess the early effect of vaccination as the first highly vaccinated cohorts of individuals enter the screening

  9. Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine Willemoes; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking share a common neurocognitive basis. Although previous research has shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can impair the ability to remember the personal past, episodic future thinking has not previously been...... asked to report a series of events that had happened to them in the past and a series of events that might happen to them in the future. Transcriptions were scored according to a reliable system for categorizing internal (episodic) and external (semantic) information. For each event described......, participants also completed two modified Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire items to assess self-reported phenomenal qualities associated with remembering and imagining. In addition, TBI patients underwent neuropsychological assessment. Results revealed that TBI patients recalled/imagined proportionally...

  10. Prevalence, severity, and relationships of lung lesions, liver abnormalities, and rumen health scores measured at slaughter in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U; Bartle, S J; Osterstock, J B; Prouty, F L; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-06-01

    population were observed with a severe lesion (lung, liver, or rumen). In conclusion, a gross pathology monitoring system is feasible and the 22.9% prevalence of severe lesions (lung, liver, or rumen) indicates that significant opportunity exists to improve beef cattle health, well-being, and productivity. Data generated using HAP may be used to support decisions concerning the implementation or removal of managerial practices and health interventions in beef cattle production systems.

  11. Prevalence of oral health-related conditions that could trigger accidents for patients with moderate-to-severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Soga, Yoshihiko; Maekawa, Kyoko; Kanda, Yuko; Kobayashi, Eiko; Inoue, Hisako; Kanao, Ayana; Himuro, Yumiko; Fujiwara, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents in hospitalised patients with moderate-severe dementia. Dementia patients may not recognise risks in the mouth, such as tooth mobility or ill-fitting dental prostheses and/or dentures. In addition to the risk of choking, injury by sharp edges of collapsed teeth or prosthodontics could pose risks. However, many previous publications were limited to case reports or series. Ninety-two consecutive hospitalised dementia patients (M: 52, F: 40, median age: 82.5 years, range: 62-99 years, from 2011 to 2014), referred for dentistry for dysphagia rehabilitation, were enrolled in this study. Participants referred for dental treatment with dental problems detected by ward staff were excluded. All participants had a Global Clinical Dementia Rating Score >2. Their dental records were evaluated retrospectively for issues that may cause incidents and/or accidents. Problems in the mouth, for example tooth stumps, dental caries, and ill-fitting dentures, were detected in 51.1% of participants (47/92). Furthermore, 23.9% (22/92) showed risk factors that could lead to incidents and/or accidents, for example falling out of teeth and/or prosthodontics or injury by sharp edges of teeth and/or prosthodontics. Hospitalised moderate-severe dementia patients had a high prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Accuracy of plant specimen disease severity estimates: concepts, history, methods, ramifications and challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the extent of the symptoms of a plant disease, generally referred to as severity, is key to both fundamental and applied aspects of plant pathology. Most commonly, severity is obtained visually and the accuracy of each estimate (closeness to the actual value) by individual raters is par...

  13. Hypercoagulability in end-stage liver disease: prevalence and its correlation with severity of liver disease and portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Ashish; Karachristos, Andreas; Bromberg, Michael; Daly, Ellen; Maloo, Manoj; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to well-recognized bleeding diathesis in chronic liver disease, thrombotic events can occur in these patients due to reduction or loss of synthesis of anticoagulant proteins. Forty-seven consecutive patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) were investigated for activity of protein C, protein S, antithrombin, and factor V Leiden mutation. Forty-two (89.4%) patients had low levels of at least 1 while 33 (70.2%) patients were deficient for all anticoagulant proteins studied. Forty-six (97.9%) patients were negative for factor V Leiden mutation. The deficiencies were more marked in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and patients with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >15. Six (12.8%) patients had portal vein thrombosis (PVT), and all had diminished protein S activity. In conclusions, deficiency of anticoagulant proteins occur in early phase of chronic liver disease. The severity of deficiency is proportional to the severity of liver disease. Despite the high prevalence of hypercoagulability, the incidence of PVT is low. Further studies with larger cohort of patients are needed to support these conclusions and to study other associated factors.

  14. Differences in Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection severity between upper Yukon River and Tanana River chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R; Hershberger, P

    2006-08-01

    Two genetically distinct populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were simultaneously sampled at the confluence of the Yukon and Tanana rivers in 2003. Upper Yukon-Canadian fish had significantly higher infection prevalence as well as more severe infections (higher parasite density in heart tissue) than the lower Yukon-Tanana River fish. Both populations had migrated the same distance from the mouth of the Yukon River at the time of sampling but had significantly different distances remaining to swim before reaching their respective spawning grounds. Multiple working hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences between the two stocks: (1) the two genetically distinct populations have different inherent resistance to infection, (2) genetically influenced differences in feeding behaviour resulted in temporal and/or spatial differences in exposure, (3) physiological differences resulting from different degrees of sexual maturity influenced the course of disease, and (4) the most severely infected Tanana River fish either died en route or fatigued and were unable to complete their migration to the Tanana River, thus leaving a population of apparently healthier fish.

  15. France-Japan collaboration on the severe accident studies for ASTRID. Outcomes and future work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, F.; Bertrand, F.; Bachrata, A.; Marie, N.; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kamiyama, Kenji; Carluec, B.; Farges, B.; Koyama, K.

    2017-01-01

    The ASTRID reactor (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is a technological demonstrator of GenIV sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designed by the CEA with its industrial partners, with very high levels of requirements. In the ASTRID project, the safety objectives are first to prevent the core melting, in particular by the development of an innovative core (named CFV core) with low void worth and complementary safety prevention devices, and second, to enhance the reactor resistance to severe accidents by design. In order to mitigate the consequences of hypothetical core melting situations, specific provisions (mitigation devices) are added to the core and to the reactor. To meet these ASTRID objectives, a large R and D program was launched in the Severe Accident domain by the CEA, with collaboration of AREVA NP, JAEA, MFBR and MHI organizations, in the frame of the France-Japan ASTRID and SFRs collaboration agreement. This R and D program covers exchanges on severe accident conditions to be studied for the SFR safety cases, the methodology to study these situations, ASTRID severe accident simulations, the comparison and understanding of the ASTRID and JSFR reactor behavior under these situations, the development and adaptation of simulation tools, and, despite an already large existing experimental database, a complementary experimental program to improve the knowledge and reduce the uncertainties. This paper will present the collaboration work performed on the Severe Accidents studies. (author)

  16. High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens’ needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public’s health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on

  17. Severe aortic stenosis patients with preserved ejection fraction according to flow and gradient classification: Prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Gómez, Ariana; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Monteagudo, Juan Manuel; Izurieta, Carlos; Hinojar, Rocío; García, Ana; Casas, Eduardo; Jiménez-Nacher, José Julio; Moya, José Luis; Ruiz, Soledad; Zamorano, José Luis

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians often encounter patients with apparently discordant echocardiographic findings, severe aortic stenosis (SAS) defined by aortic valve area (AVA) despite a low mean gradient. A new classification according to flow state and pressure gradient has been proposed. We sought to assess the prevalence, characteristics and outcomes of patients with asymptomatic SAS with preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) according to flow and gradient. In total 442 patients with SAS (AVAigradient (≥ or Gradient (LF/LG): 21.3%(n=94); Normal Flow/Low Gradient (NF/LG): 32.1%(n=142); Low Flow/High Gradient (LF/HG): 6.8%(n=30); Normal Flow/High Gradient (NF/HG): 39,8%(n=176). Mean follow-up time was 20.5months (SD=10.3). Primary combined endpoint was cardiovascular mortality and hospital admission for SAS related symptom, secondary endpoint was aortic valve replacement (AVR), comparing HG group to LF/LG group. During follow-up 17 (18%) of LF/LG patients and 21 (10.2%) of HG patients met the primary endpoint. A lower free of event survival (cardiovascular mortality and hospital admission) was observed in patients with LF/LG AS (Breslow, p=0.002). Significant differences were noted between groups with a lower AVR free survival in the LF/LG group compared to HG groups (Breslow, p=0.002). Our study confirms the high prevalence and worse prognosis of LF/LG SAS. Clinicians must be aware of this entity to ensure appropriate patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Raising the Bar: Significant Advances and Future Needs for Promoting Learning for Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; Browder, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay describes major advances in educating students with severe disabilities. The authors propose that applied behavior analysis, the focus on functional life skills, and the promotion of academic content have been the major advances in the "how" and "what" of learning for this population. An increased focus on literacy,…

  19. Formal thought disorder in autism spectrum disorder predicts future symptom severity, but not psychosis prodrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, M.L.J.M.; de Bruin, E.I.; van Gool, A.R.; Louwerse, E.S.; van der Ende, J.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a disruption in the flow of thought, which is inferred from disorganisation of spoken language. FTD in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) might be a precursor of psychotic disorders or a manifestation of ASD symptom severity. The current longitudinal study is a

  20. Pain severity reduces life quality in chronic pancreatitis: Implications for design of future outcome trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olesen, S.S.; Juel, J.; Nielsen, A.K.; Frokjaer, J.B.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a disabling disease characterised by abdominal pain, and various pancreatic and extra-pancreatic complications. We investigated the interactions between pain characteristics (i.e. pain severity and its pattern in time), complications, and quality

  1. Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill F. Johnstone; T. Scott Rupp; Mark Olson; David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    Much of the boreal forest in western North America and Alaska experiences frequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Secondary succession after fire initiates most forest stands and variations in fire characteristics can have strong effects on pathways of succession. Variations in surface fire severity that influence whether regenerating forests are dominated by coniferous...

  2. Prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in Graves' disease according to sex and age: A clinical study from Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sara; Moazezi, Zoleika; Bayani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated eye disease (TED), previously known as Graves' ophthalmopathy is a cosmetically and functionally debilitating disease that is seen worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical severity of ocular manifestations of Graves' disease according to sex, age and duration in northern Iran. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 105 patients with Graves' disease, underwent ophthalmic examination, including ocular motility, exophthalmometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and fundoscopy. Patients received scores according to modified Werner's NO SPECS classification. Ocular involvement was found in 70 patients with established Graves's disease. The mean age was 35.0 years, (SD 13.0, range 15 to 69). The most common ocular findings were exophthalmometric proptosis of more than 20 mm (63.8%), lid lag (55.7%), lid retraction (52.8%) and tearing (38.6%). Almost 70% of patients had bilateral involvement. Elevated IOP was seen in 15 (25.4%) patients, and was significantly related to proptosis (P=0.007). More than half of the patients (n=36, 52.2%) had a modified Werner's NO SPECS score of 3.00. Clinical severity as shown by the increasing number of signs and symptoms per patient was correlated to increasing age (r=0.31, P=0.01) but not to gender (P=0.17). Both functional (ocular motility disorders, increased IOP) and cosmetic (proptosis, periorbital edema) sequels are common ocular presentations in patients with Graves' disease. Proptosis was the most common finding in this study and was associated with elevated IOP. Clinical severity was found to correlate to increasing age.

  3. Breast cancer screening for severely disabled patients. Present status and future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Kaneyuki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the attendance rate for breast screening has been increasing in Japan. However, little is known about how to conduct effective breast cancer screening, especially for patients with mental disability. The purpose of this study was to clarify the present status of breast cancer screening for severely disabled patients. Breast screening was performed for 160 disabled patients by physical examination and ultrasound from 2002 to 2005. The patients included 158 women and two men, with an average age of 59 years old. Ten disabled patients (10/160; 6.3%) showed abnormal findings on physical examination and four (4/160; 2.5%) showed probably benign findings by ultrasound examination. Mammography (MMG) screening was performed for only 33 patients (33/160; 21%), one of whom needed further examination. One lesion was diagnosed as breast cancer (1/160; 0.63%). Breast ultrasound is useful for severely disabled patients because it is painless, easy and rapid to perform. On the other hand, it is sometimes difficult for such patients to participate in MMG screening because of their inability to adapt to the examination. Therefore, some psychological method, for example operant conditioning, will be necessary for breast screening of patients with severe mental disability. (author)

  4. Is athletic background associated with a future lower prevalence of risk factors for chronic disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano H.X. Batista

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined whether the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors of former elite athletes (both men and women, differed from nonelite athletes and nonathletes. A total of 491 individuals (225 former elite athletes, 168 former nonelite athletes, and 98 nonathletes participated in this study. Major behavioral and biological risk factors identified in the 2002 World Health Report were assessed. Apart from alcohol consumption, former elite athletes had at least 70% lower likelihood than nonathletes for the other behavioral risk factors. Regarding biological factors, being overweight/obesity seems to be the one where minor differences exist, with a significant odds ratio only among female former elite athletes (0.09, p < 0.001 when compared to nonathletes. In general, the results showed healthy outcomes among former elite athletes. Albeit the results extend to both sexes, women appear to have slightly healthier outcomes. Being a former athlete, especially at an elite level, seems to be associated with decreased risk factors for major chronic diseases.

  5. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Ashley N.; Borish, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a late onset condition characterized by the Samter triad (aspirin sensitivity [as well as sensitivity to any nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor], nasal polyps, asthma) and additional features, including eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, hypereosinophilia, anosmia, frequent absence of atopy, and, intolerance to ingestion of red wine and other alcoholic beverages. The diagnosis is rare, and, because of this, it is also often missed by physicians. However, it is highly overexpressed in patients with severe asthma (and severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps), which makes its recognition essential. For this review, we considered mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this disease and discussed the clinical symptoms of AERD. We also discussed the role of aspirin desensitization in the treatment of AERD. Also, we considered medications (e.g, leukotriene modifiers) and surgical interventions that have a role in the treatment of AERD. PMID:28124651

  6. The association between previous and future severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Updating the literature using robust statistical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Xie, Hui; Etminan, Mahyar; Johnson, Kate; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2018-01-01

    There is minimal evidence on the extent to which the occurrence of a severe acute exacerbation of COPD that results in hospitalization affects the subsequent disease course. Previous studies on this topic did not generate causally-interpretable estimates. Our aim was to use corrected methodology to update previously reported estimates of the associations between previous and future exacerbations in these patients. Using administrative health data in British Columbia, Canada (1997-2012), we constructed a cohort of patients with at least one severe exacerbation, defined as an episode of inpatient care with the main diagnosis of COPD based on international classification of diseases (ICD) codes. We applied a random-effects 'joint frailty' survival model that is particularly developed for the analysis of recurrent events in the presence of competing risk of death and heterogeneity among individuals in their rate of events. Previous severe exacerbations entered the model as dummy-coded time-dependent covariates, and the model was adjusted for several observable patient and disease characteristics. 35,994 individuals (mean age at baseline 73.7, 49.8% female, average follow-up 3.21 years) contributed 34,271 severe exacerbations during follow-up. The first event was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.75 (95%CI 1.69-1.82) for the risk of future severe exacerbations. This risk decreased to HR = 1.36 (95%CI 1.30-1.42) for the second event and to 1.18 (95%CI 1.12-1.25) for the third event. The first two severe exacerbations that occurred during follow-up were also significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. There was substantial heterogeneity in the individual-specific rate of severe exacerbations. Even after adjusting for observable characteristics, individuals in the 97.5th percentile of exacerbation rate had 5.6 times higher rate of severe exacerbations than those in the 2.5th percentile. Using robust statistical methodology that controlled

  7. The Association Between Body Mass Index and the Prevalence, Severity, and Frequency of Low Back Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Charles A; Kusin, David J; Li, Samuel Q; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2018-02-16

    Cross-sectional study. To determine whether there is an association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain and identify other potential patient risk factors for the development of low back pain. Many studies have implicated that a high BMI is a risk factor for low back pain. However, few studies have examined the association between increased BMI and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multicenter, prospective study of knee osteoarthritis, were used to conduct this study, which included 4796 patients. BMI was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to identify additional patient risk factors associated with low back pain. The prevalence of low back pain was found to be significantly higher in patients with an elevated BMI compared to those with normal or underweight BMI and demonstrated a stepwise increase with each BMI category. Approximately 47.4% of patients with normal or underweight BMI complained of low back pain compared with 72.8% of morbidly obese patients (P frequency or severity of low back pain episodes. Osteoarthritis of the back and depression were patient variables found to be associated with all three measures (prevalence, severity, and frequency) of low back pain. Elevated BMI is strongly associated with an increased prevalence of low back pain. Depression and osteoarthritis of the back are associated with the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. 3.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  9. Energy security impacts of a severe drought on the future Finnish energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Jaakko; Veijalainen, Noora; Syri, Sanna; Marttunen, Mika; Zakeri, Behnam

    2018-07-01

    Finland updated its Energy and Climate Strategy in late 2016 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energy sources, increasing energy self-sufficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Concurrently, the issue of generation adequacy has grown more topical, especially since the record-high demand peak in Finland in January 2016. This paper analyses the Finnish energy system in years 2020 and 2030 by using the EnergyPLAN simulation tool to model whether different energy policy scenarios result in a plausible generation inadequacy. Moreover, as the Nordic energy system is so heavily dependent on hydropower production, we model and analyse the impacts of a severe drought on the Finnish energy system. We simulate hydropower availability according to the weather of the worst drought of the last century (in 1939-1942) with Finnish Environment Institute's Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System and we analyse the indirect impacts via reduced availability of electricity imports based on recent realised dry periods. Moreover, we analyse the environmental impacts of hydropower production during the drought and peak demand period and the impacts of climate change on generation adequacy in Finland. The results show that the scenarios of the new Energy and Climate Strategy result in an improved generation adequacy comparing to the current situation. However, a severe drought similar to that experienced in 1940s could cause a serious energy security threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration.

  11. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayan; Callisen, Hannelisa E; Alwardt, Cory M; Larson, Joel S; Lowell, Amelia A; Libricz, Stacy L; Tarwade, Pritee; Patel, Bhavesh M; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration.

  12. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  13. The National and Regional Prevalence Rates of Disability, Type, of Disability and Severity in Saudi Arabia-Analysis of 2016 Demographic Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.

  14. Vaccination strategies for future influenza pandemics: a severity-based cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Joel K; Halder, Nilimesh; Milne, George J

    2013-02-11

    A critical issue in planning pandemic influenza mitigation strategies is the delay between the arrival of the pandemic in a community and the availability of an effective vaccine. The likely scenario, born out in the 2009 pandemic, is that a newly emerged influenza pandemic will have spread to most parts of the world before a vaccine matched to the pandemic strain is produced. For a severe pandemic, additional rapidly activated intervention measures will be required if high mortality rates are to be avoided. A simulation modelling study was conducted to examine the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of plausible combinations of social distancing, antiviral and vaccination interventions, assuming a delay of 6-months between arrival of an influenza pandemic and first availability of a vaccine. Three different pandemic scenarios were examined; mild, moderate and extreme, based on estimates of transmissibility and pathogenicity of the 2009, 1957 and 1918 influenza pandemics respectively. A range of different durations of social distancing were examined, and the sensitivity of the results to variation in the vaccination delay, ranging from 2 to 6 months, was analysed. Vaccination-only strategies were not cost effective for any pandemic scenario, saving few lives and incurring substantial vaccination costs. Vaccination coupled with long duration social distancing, antiviral treatment and antiviral prophylaxis was cost effective for moderate pandemics and extreme pandemics, where it saved lives while simultaneously reducing the total pandemic cost. Combined social distancing and antiviral interventions without vaccination were significantly less effective, since without vaccination a resurgence in case numbers occurred as soon as social distancing interventions were relaxed. When social distancing interventions were continued until at least the start of the vaccination campaign, attack rates and total costs were significantly lower, and increased rates of vaccination

  15. Socio-economic factors associated with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and pain-related sickness absence in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) investigate the relation of socio-economic status (SES), measured as education, occupation, and income, with the 12-month prevalence of severe pain and with pain-related sickness absence, and (2) analyse to what extent sociodemographic and medical factors influence these associations. The study population comprised 8084 subjects aged between 15 and 65 years from the Austrian Health Interview Survey in 2006/07. Associations of SES with the 1‑year prevalence of severe pain and sickness absence due to pain in those with severe pain was assessed with logistic regression analysis and adjusted for socio-demographic and chronic medical conditions. The 1‑year prevalence of severe pain was 33.7%. Among those with severe pain, 32.9% were on sickness absence due to pain. SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of severe pain and even more strongly with sickness absence due to pain. Stepwise adjustment for socio-demographics and medical factors had only marginal effects on these associations. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for severe pain were 1.14; 1.18 and 1.32 for low income, blue-collar workers, and low education, respectively. Related ORs for sickness absence due to pain were 1.52; 1.14 and 2.05. There was an association between SES, particularly measured as educational level, and the prevalence of severe pain, which was even stronger with sickness absence due to pain.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices

  17. Prevalence, Nature, Severity and Risk Factors for Prescribing Errors in Hospital Inpatients: Prospective Study in 20 UK Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Darren M; Lewis, Penny J; Tully, Mary P; Farragher, Tracey M; Taylor, David; Wass, Valerie; Williams, Steven D; Dornan, Tim

    2015-09-01

    It has been suggested that doctors in their first year of post-graduate training make a disproportionate number of prescribing errors. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of prescribing errors made by first-year post-graduate doctors with that of errors by senior doctors and non-medical prescribers and to investigate the predictors of potentially serious prescribing errors. Pharmacists in 20 hospitals over 7 prospectively selected days collected data on the number of medication orders checked, the grade of prescriber and details of any prescribing errors. Logistic regression models (adjusted for clustering by hospital) identified factors predicting the likelihood of prescribing erroneously and the severity of prescribing errors. Pharmacists reviewed 26,019 patients and 124,260 medication orders; 11,235 prescribing errors were detected in 10,986 orders. The mean error rate was 8.8 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.6-9.1) errors per 100 medication orders. Rates of errors for all doctors in training were significantly higher than rates for medical consultants. Doctors who were 1 year (odds ratio [OR] 2.13; 95 % CI 1.80-2.52) or 2 years in training (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.89-2.65) were more than twice as likely to prescribe erroneously. Prescribing errors were 70 % (OR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.61-1.80) more likely to occur at the time of hospital admission than when medication orders were issued during the hospital stay. No significant differences in severity of error were observed between grades of prescriber. Potentially serious errors were more likely to be associated with prescriptions for parenteral administration, especially for cardiovascular or endocrine disorders. The problem of prescribing errors in hospitals is substantial and not solely a problem of the most junior medical prescribers, particularly for those errors most likely to cause significant patient harm. Interventions are needed to target these high-risk errors by all grades of staff and hence

  18. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  19. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the

  20. How has severe accident analysis contributed to sizewell B and how can it continue to contribute in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.; Western, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Sizewell B is a proposed 1100 MWe PWR which is a UK development of the US SNUPPS design. The UK reference design document for the plant was first issued in 1981 and the Pre-Construction Safety Report (PCSR) was submitted to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), the UK licensing authority, in 1982. A major public inquiry into the proposal took place between January 1983 and March 1985. This paper is concerned with the analysis of severe accidents. This means all the analysis that is concerned with those fault sequences that are outside the design basis of the plant and which may lead to severe consequences - either in terms of plant damage or release of radioactivity. This analysis comprises probabilistic assessments of the frequency of such sequences, transient analysis of the way such sequences develop and radiological release analysis. Part one of this paper examines how the severe accident analysis carried out for Sizewell B has contributed to the judgement that the design is sound and that the construction phase should proceed. The second part of the paper looks to the future and asks ''Can severe accident analysis make any further contribution during the period from licensing up until operation commences

  1. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  2. Prevalence and severity of behavioural symptoms in patients with Korsakoff syndrome and other alcohol-related cognitive disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Moerman-van den Brink, Wiltine G; Depla, Marja F; Verschuur, Els M L; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Joling, Karlijn J

    2017-03-01

    Experiences from clinical practice suggest that behavioural symptoms in patients with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) are a frequent problem. Knowledge about behavioural symptoms is important in understanding and managing these symptoms. The aim of this study is to review the prevalence and severity of behavioural symptoms in KS. Relevant articles were identified by searching Medline (PubMed), PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL up to 4 June 2014. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted their baseline data and assessed methodological quality using a standardized checklist. Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diversity of diagnoses was used indicating that KS and other alcohol-related cognitive disorders and terms were used interchangeably. None of the studies were primarily designed to estimate the prevalence or severity of behavioural symptoms in patients with KS. Most studies had serious methodological limitations. The reported prevalence estimates of behavioural symptoms in the included studies varied strongly. Most prevalent were depressive symptoms and disorders (2-50%, median 27%) and agitation and aggression (10-54%, median 27%). None of the reported, mean severity estimates met pathological thresholds. The highest severity estimates were found for apathy. Good quality studies on behavioural symptoms in patients with KS are lacking. Observational research designed to provide reliable estimates of the prevalence and severity of behavioural symptoms in patients with KS is needed. This could improve understanding and managing these symptoms and help care staff to better support the needs of this specific patient group. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and severity of dental caries in school students aged 6-12 years in Mafraq governorate: Northeast of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Smadi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The caries prevalence in this age group in Mafraq was very high. One-third of the examined students had very high deft and DMFT scores, which reflected negligence of children oral health. Untreated dental caries was the main component of DMFT scores among the examined population, indicating lack of dental care services for those children, especially for refugees.

  4. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Prevalence, Severity, and Outcomes in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Nicole E; Oji, Stefany; Mufti, Arjmand R; Browning, Jeffrey D; Parikh, Neehar D; Odewole, Mobolaji; Mayo, Helen; Singal, Amit G

    2018-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting 75-100 million Americans. However, the disease burden may not be equally distributed among races or ethnicities. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize racial and ethnic disparities in NAFLD prevalence, severity, and prognosis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through August 2016 for studies that reported NAFLD prevalence in population-based or high-risk cohorts, NAFLD severity including presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and significant fibrosis, and NAFLD prognosis including development of cirrhosis complications and mortality. Pooled relative risks, according to race and ethnicity, were calculated for each outcome using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random-effects model. We identified 34 studies comprising 368,569 unique patients that characterized disparities in NAFLD prevalence, severity, or prognosis. NAFLD prevalence was highest in Hispanics, intermediate in Whites, and lowest in Blacks, although differences between groups were smaller in high-risk cohorts (range 47.6%-55.5%) than population-based cohorts (range, 13.0%-22.9%). Among patients with NAFLD, risk of NASH was higher in Hispanics (relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98-1.21) and lower in Blacks (relative risk, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.87) than Whites. However, the proportion of patients with significant fibrosis did not significantly differ among racial or ethnic groups. Data were limited and discordant on racial or ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with NAFLD. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found significant racial and ethnic disparities in NAFLD prevalence and severity in the United States, with the highest burden in Hispanics and lowest burden in Blacks. However, data are discordant on racial or ethnic differences in outcomes of patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by

  6. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second

  7. Update on Psychological Trauma, Other Severe Adverse Experiences and Eating Disorders: State of the Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Kathryn; MacDonald, Danielle E

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism. Biological vulnerabilities may also be relevant to this relationship. Overall, the literature is limited by predominantly cross-sectional designs. There is clear evidence of a correlational relationship between trauma exposure and other severe adverse events, and eating disorders. Both risk and maintenance factor hypotheses have been put forth; however, prospective research testing these hypotheses remains limited. Future research should use prospective designs and focus on trauma-related symptoms (rather than trauma exposure) in order to advance research on risk and maintaining factors for eating disorders and inform treatment directions.

  8. Prevalence, Disparities, and Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Among Students in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, School District, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Jessica M.; Mallya, Giridhar; Polansky, Marcia; Schwarz, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Epidemic increases in obesity negatively affect the health of US children, individually and at the population level. Although surveillance of childhood obesity at the local level is challenging, height and weight data routinely collected by school districts are valuable and often underused public health resources. Methods We analyzed data from the School District of Philadelphia for 4 school years (2006–2007 through 2009–2010) to assess the prevalence of and trends in obesity and...

  9. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in People With Korsakoff Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders Living in Specialized Long-Term Care Facilities: Prevalence, Severity, and Associated Caregiver Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerridzen, Ineke J; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Depla, Marja F; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Verschuur, Els M L; Joling, Karlijn J

    2018-03-01

    Caring for people with Korsakoff syndrome (KS) residing in specialized long-term care facilities (LTCFs) can be distressing because of challenging neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). However, good-quality studies on NPS in this under-researched population are lacking. This study examined the prevalence and severity of NPS in people with KS living in specialized LTCFs and the associated caregiver distress. Cross-sectional, observational study. Data were obtained using structured interviews with care staff, elderly care physicians, and residents. Nine specialized LTCFs in the Netherlands. KS residents admitted for at least 3 months. The prevalence and severity of NPS were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q). The associated caregiver distress was assessed with the NPI Distress Scale (NPI-D) according to the nurse or nurse assistant. Almost all of the 281 residents (96.4%) showed at least 1 NPS and 45.8% showed 5 or more symptoms. Irritability/lability (68.3%), agitation/aggression (58.7%), and disinhibition (52.7%) were most prevalent. Although the mean level of severity for all NPS was relatively low, half of the residents (49.1%) had at least 1 severe NPS. Care staff experienced low levels of distress associated with NPS. NPS are highly prevalent in KS residents. Unexpectedly, these did not have any severe impact on residents and care staff. Acquiring more insight into the persistence and course of NPS, and its associations, among KS residents is important to better understand and reduce these symptoms and, ultimately, improve the quality of care for these residents. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  11. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P blindness and visual impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  12. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  13. Prevalence and severity of eating disorders: A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 among German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Verena; Bürger, Arne; Hammerle, Florian

    2017-11-01

    Changes in the DSM-5 eating disorders criteria sought to increase the clarity of the diagnostic categories and to decrease the preponderance of nonspecified eating disorders. The first objective of this study was to analyze how these revisions affect threshold and EDNOS/OSFED eating disorder diagnoses in terms of prevalence, sex ratios, and diagnostic distribution in a student sample. Second, we aimed to compare the impairment levels of participants with a threshold, an EDNOS/OSFED and no diagnosis using both DSM-IV and DSM-5. A sample of 1654 7th and 8th grade students completed self-report questionnaires to determine diagnoses and impairment levels in the context of an eating disorder prevention program in nine German secondary schools. Height and weight were measured. The prevalence of threshold disorders increased from .48% (DSM-IV) to 1.15% (DSM-5). EDNOS disorders increased from 2.90 to 6.23% when using OSFED-categories. A higher proportion of girls was found throughout all the diagnostic categories, and the sex ratios remained stable. The effect sizes of DSM-5 group differences regarding impairment levels were equal to or larger than those of the DSM-IV comparisons, ranging from small to medium. We provide an in-depth overview of changes resulting from the revisions of DSM eating disorder criteria in a German adolescent sample. Despite the overall increase in prevalence estimates, the results suggest that the DSM-5 criteria differentiate participants with threshold disorders and OSFED from those no diagnosis as well as or even more distinctly than the DSM-IV criteria. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The comparison of severity and prevalence of major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder and eating disorders before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matini, Diana; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Ehtesham, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Severe obesity is highly co-morbid with psychiatric disorders and may have effect on the quality of life. This study aimed to compare severity and prevalence rate of depression, anxiety and eating disorders and quality of life in severe obese patients before and 6 months after the gastric bypass surgery. This was a prospective observational study which conducted at Hazarat Rasool-Akram Hospital in Tehran, 2012. Questionnaires included demographic questions, eating disorder Inventory (EDI), The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for quality of life, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and anxiety (HRSA). Participants were interviewed two times, before surgery and six months after, to determine changes of the disorders. Patients with the history of bariatric surgery, individuals younger than 18 year old and those who disagreed to join the study were excluded. In assessing the eating disorder inventory-3rd version (EDI-3), Significant reduction in drive for thinness (DT) (p= 0.010), bulimia (B) (pdepression in HRSD (p= 0.311), prevalence of depression (p= 0.189) and prevalence of general anxiety disorder according to SCID (p=0.167) did not differ significantly, at this period. Although weight loss after bariatric surgery improved the physical component of quality of life, this improvement did not affect the mental aspect of life, depression and anxiety and it seems that these psychopathologies need attention and treatment in addition to weight loss treatments in patients with obesity.

  15. Prevalence and severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome and its influence on survival in cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascasio, J M; Grilo, I; López-Pardo, F J; Ortega-Ruiz, F; Tirado, J L; Sousa, J M; Rodriguez-Puras, M J; Ferrer, M T; Sayago, M; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Grilo, A

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and its influence on survival before and after liver transplantation (LT) remain controversial. Additionally, the chronology of post-LT reversibility is unclear. This study prospectively analyzed 316 patients with cirrhosis who were evaluated for LT in 2002-2007; 177 underwent LT at a single reference hospital. HPS was defined by a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) position and positive contrast echocardiography. The prevalence of HPS was 25.6% (81/316 patients), and most patients (92.6%) had mild or moderate HPS. High Child-Pugh scores and the presence of ascites were independently associated with HPS. Patients with and without HPS did not significantly differ in LT waiting list survival (mean 34.6 months vs. 41.6 months, respectively; log-rank, p = 0.13) or post-LT survival (mean 45 months vs. 47.6 months, respectively; log-rank, p = 0.62). HPS was reversed in all cases within 1 year after LT. One-fourth of the patients with cirrhosis who were evaluated for LT had HPS (mostly mild to moderate); the presence of HPS did not affect LT waiting list survival. HPS was always reversed after LT, and patient prognosis did not worsen. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes e sua relação com índice de massa corporal Prevalence and severity of asthma among adolescents and their relationship with the body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Cassol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o aumento do índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e a gravidade da asma em escolares adolescentes residentes em Santa Maria e região (RS. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional, do qual participaram 4.010 adolescentes (13 e 14 anos de idade, sem restrições de sexo, tendo preenchido de forma correta o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies fase III (módulo asma. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal (kg/m² com os seguintes percentis (Organização Mundial de Saúde para definir o estado nutricional: abaixo do quinto (desnutrição, igual ou superior ao quinto e inferior ao 85° (normal, igual ou superior ao 85° e inferior ao 95° (sobrepeso, igual ou superior ao 95° (obesidade. Para verificar a associação entre índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e gravidade da asma, foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado para tendência linear, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O aumento do índice de massa corporal mostrou associação positiva e significante com o da prevalência de "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,036 e a de "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,008, independentemente do sexo. Quando estratificado por gênero, houve associação positiva apenas para "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,028 para meninos e "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,03 para meninas. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do índice de massa corporal associou-se com o aumento da prevalência de sibilos alguma vez na vida, mas não com o aumento da prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the increase of body mass index and the prevalence and severity of asthma in adolescents from Santa Maria, in southern Brazil, and surrounding regions. METHOD: A cross-sectional, observational, population-based study was carried out with 4,010 schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years, without any gender restrictions, who answered the written questionnaire of the

  17. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Metabolic Comorbidities Was Associated with Age at Onset of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Xin Xu

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been found to be highly prevalent in psoriatic patients. Adult onset psoriasis could be divided into either early or late onset psoriasis. The associations between NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities and age at onset of psoriasis have not yet been investigated. Our study was to evaluate the associations between prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic conditions and early, late, and childhood onset psoriasis. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Data on clinical characteristics of NAFLD and related metabolic diseases (diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome were collected. The prevalence of NAFLD in 439 patients (mean: 51±14 years, range: 18-85 years was 55.8%. NAFLD was frequently identified in early onset patients (74.2%, and this diagnosis was particularly common in patients currently younger than 40 (85.3%. Diabetes was the least prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in early onset patients with metabolic syndrome but the most often found component in late onset ones. Patients with childhood onset psoriasis had the lowest frequencies of all metabolic comorbidities except hyperuricemia among the three groups. In the multivariate analyses, early onset was independently and positively associated with NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and independently and negatively associated with diabetes among early and late onset patients. The results suggested prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities was associated with age at onset of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Early onset of psoriasis was independently associated with greater odds of NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia and smaller odds of diabetes compared to late onset. Early onset patients have metabolic syndrome mainly related to lipid disorders and abnormal glucose metabolism was not often involved.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Staeb, Clarissa; Jörgensen, Lena; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina; Osborn, David P J; Hayes, Joseph F

    2017-09-01

    Severe mental illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The elevated risk of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in people with severe mental illness is of concern, but the full extent of this problem is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for BBVs in people with severe mental illness. In this nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study, we estimated the point prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) in people with severe mental illness, including the total adult (≥18 years) Swedish population. We defined severe mental illness as a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychotic illness according to the Swedish version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 8, 9, or 10. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of BBVs in individuals with severe mental illness, relative to the general population, and to identify independent risk factors (age, sex, immigration status, socioeconomic status, education, and substance misuse) for BBV infection. We also did a sensitivity analysis excluding BBV diagnoses made before the introduction of the Register for Infection Disease Control (1997). Of 6 815 931 adults in Sweden, 97 797 (1·43%) individuals had a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Prevalence of BBVs was elevated in people with severe mental illness, of which 230 (0·24%) had HIV, 518 (0·53%) had HBV, and 4476 (4·58%) had HCV. After accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of HIV were 2·57 (95% CI 2·25-2·94, pmental illness than in the general population, whereas the odds of HBV were 2·29 (2·09-2·51, pmental illness and identify interventions preventing infection. Targeting of comorbid substance misuse would have particular effect on reduction of BBV prevalence in this population. Medical Research Council and Swedish Research Council. Copyright © 2017 The Author

  19. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

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    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5% men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9% men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133 of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133. Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87. Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  20. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161, 11.8% (519/4381, 11.1% (649/5867, 13% (908/6983, 14% (1385/9911 and 17.34% (1756/10133 in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.

  1. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  2. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

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    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  4. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in rural field practice area of a medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavaram Anniappan Arvind

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.

  5. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

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    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  6. Fast high-energy X-ray imaging for Severe Accidents experiments on the future PLINIUS-2 platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The future PLINIUS-2 platform of CEA Cadarache will be dedicated to the study of corium interactions in severe nuclear accidents, and will host innovative large-scale experiments. The Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache is in charge of real-time high-energy X-ray imaging set-ups, for the study of the corium-water and corium-sodium interaction, and of the corium stratification process. Imaging such large and high-density objects requires a 15 MeV linear electron accelerator coupled to a tungsten target creating a high-energy Bremsstrahlung X-ray flux, with corresponding dose rate about 100 Gy/min at 1 m. The signal is detected by phosphor screens coupled to high-framerate scientific CMOS cameras. The imaging set-up is established using an experimentally-validated home-made simulation software (MODHERATO. The code computes quantitative radiographic signals from the description of the source, object geometry and composition, detector, and geometrical configuration (magnification factor, etc.. It accounts for several noise sources (photonic and electronic noises, swank and readout noise, and for image blur due to the source spot-size and to the detector unsharpness. In a view to PLINIUS-2, the simulation has been improved to account for the scattered flux, which is expected to be significant. The paper presents the scattered flux calculation using the MCNP transport code, and its integration into the MODHERATO simulation. Then the validation of the improved simulation is presented, through confrontation to real measurement images taken on a small-scale equivalent set-up on the PLINIUS platform. Excellent agreement is achieved. This improved simulation is therefore being used to design the PLINIUS-2 imaging set-ups (source, detectors, cameras, etc..

  7. Fast high-energy X-ray imaging for Severe Accidents experiments on the future PLINIUS-2 platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, L.; Estre, N.; Tisseur, D.; Payan, E.; Eck, D.; Bouyer, V.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Journeau, C.; Tellier, R. Le; Pluyette, E.

    2018-01-01

    The future PLINIUS-2 platform of CEA Cadarache will be dedicated to the study of corium interactions in severe nuclear accidents, and will host innovative large-scale experiments. The Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache is in charge of real-time high-energy X-ray imaging set-ups, for the study of the corium-water and corium-sodium interaction, and of the corium stratification process. Imaging such large and high-density objects requires a 15 MeV linear electron accelerator coupled to a tungsten target creating a high-energy Bremsstrahlung X-ray flux, with corresponding dose rate about 100 Gy/min at 1 m. The signal is detected by phosphor screens coupled to high-framerate scientific CMOS cameras. The imaging set-up is established using an experimentally-validated home-made simulation software (MODHERATO). The code computes quantitative radiographic signals from the description of the source, object geometry and composition, detector, and geometrical configuration (magnification factor, etc.). It accounts for several noise sources (photonic and electronic noises, swank and readout noise), and for image blur due to the source spot-size and to the detector unsharpness. In a view to PLINIUS-2, the simulation has been improved to account for the scattered flux, which is expected to be significant. The paper presents the scattered flux calculation using the MCNP transport code, and its integration into the MODHERATO simulation. Then the validation of the improved simulation is presented, through confrontation to real measurement images taken on a small-scale equivalent set-up on the PLINIUS platform. Excellent agreement is achieved. This improved simulation is therefore being used to design the PLINIUS-2 imaging set-ups (source, detectors, cameras, etc.).

  8. High prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency in combined antiretroviral therapy-naive and successfully treated Swiss HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nicolas J; Fux, Christoph A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Elzi, Luigia; Schmid, Patrick; Dang, Thanh; Magenta, Lorenzo; Calmy, Alexandra; Vergopoulos, Athanasios; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency in HIV-positive patients, a population at risk for osteoporosis. Retrospective assessment of vitamin D levels by season and initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). 25(OH)D was measured in 211 HIV-positive patients: samples were taken before initiation of cART from February to April or from August to October as well as 12 (same season) and 18 months (alternate season) after starting cART. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] was measured in a subset of 74 patients. Multivariable analyses included season, sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, intravenous drug use (IDU), renal function, time since HIV diagnosis, previous AIDS, CD4 cell count and cART, in particular nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and tenofovir (TDF) use. At baseline, median 25(OH)D levels were 37 (interquartile range 20-49) nmol/l in spring and 57 (39-74) nmol/l in the fall; 25(OH)D deficiency less than 30 nmol/l was more prevalent in spring (42%) than in fall (14%), but remained unchanged regardless of cART exposure. In multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were higher in white patients and those with a longer time since HIV diagnosis and lower in springtime measurements and in those with active IDU and NNRTI use. 1-Hydroxylation rates were significantly higher in patients with low 25(OH)D. Hepatitis C seropositivity, previous AIDS and higher CD4 cell counts correlated with lower 1,25(OH)2D levels, whereas BMI and TDF use were associated with higher levels. In TDF-treated patients, higher 1,25(OH)2D correlated with increases in serum alkaline phosphatase. Based on the high rate of vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive patients, systematic screening with consideration of seasonality is warranted. The impact of NNRTIs on 25(OH)D and TDF on 1,25(OH)2D needs further attention.

  9. Prevalence, severity, and risk indicators of gingival inflammation in a multi-center study on South American adults: a cross sectional study

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    Paola Carvajal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation and associated risk indicators in South American adults. Material and Methods: Multi-stage samples totaling 1,650 adults from Porto Alegre (Brazil, Tucumán (Argentina, and Santiago (Chile were assessed. The sampling procedure consisted of a 4-stage process. Examinations were performed in mobile dental units by calibrated examiners. A multivariable logistic regression model was utilized for associating variables as indicators of gingival inflammation (GI (Gingival Index ≥0.5. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: A total of 96.5% of the adults have GI. Regarding the severity of GI, 22.5% of participants examined have mild GI, 74.0% have moderate GI, and 3.6% have severe GI. The multivariate analyses identify the main risk indicators for GI as adults with higher mean of Calculus Index (OR=18.59; with a Visible Plaque Index ≥30% (OR=14.56; living in Santiago (OR=7.17; having ≤12 years of schooling (OR=2.18, and females (OR=1.93. Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation, being the first one performed in adult populations in three cities of South America.

  10. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Theunissen, J.; Van, R.; Duurkoop, P.; Kikkert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a

  11. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.

  12. Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M. S.; Wahid, A.; Ahmad, M.; Mahboob, N.; Mehmood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Study Design: Prospective, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study. Urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels of all patients included in the study were checked and recorded in the data form with name, age and outcome. The prevalence of electrolyte disorders were ascertained and correlation with age was determined by Pearson's coefficient. Result: At total of 104 patients were included in the study. None of the patients died. Hyperchloremia was the commonest electrolyte disorder (53.8 percentage), followed by hyperkalemia (26.9 percentage) and hypernatremia (17.3 percentage). Hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were present in 10.6 percentage, 7.7 percentage, and 10.6 percentage cases, respectively. Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. Conclusion: Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration. (author)

  13. Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Wahid, Abdul; Ahmad, Mubashra; Mahboob, Nazia; Mehmood, Ramlah

    2016-05-01

    To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Prospective, analytical study. Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study. Urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels of all patients included in the study were checked and recorded in the data form with name, age and outcome. The prevalence of electrolyte disorders were ascertained and correlation with age was determined by Pearson's coefficient. At total of 104 patients were included in the study. None of the patients died. Hyperchloremia was the commonest electrolyte disorder (53.8%), followed by hyperkalemia (26.9%) and hypernatremia (17.3%). Hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were present in 10.6%, 7.7%, and 10.6% cases, respectively. Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration.

  14. Incomplete pulmonary fissures evaluated by volumetric thin-section CT: Semi-quantitative evaluation for small fissure gaps identification, description of prevalence and severity of fissural defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto – University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Paula, Wagner Diniz de, E-mail: wdpaula@unb.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Owsijewitsch, Michael, E-mail: michael.owsijewitsch@med.uniheidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Wielpütz, Mark Oliver, E-mail: mark.wielpuetz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.gompelmann@thoraxklinik-heidelberg.de [Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik) at University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter, E-mail: h.schlemmer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To assess the interobserver agreement for a semi-quantitative evaluation of the interlobar fissures integrity in volumetric thin-section CT images, looking for more detailed information regarding fissural defects; and describe prevalence and severity of fissural defects between the different functional groups of subjects. Materials and methods: Volumetric scans of 247 individuals exposed to tobacco with different functional status (normal to severe COPD), were retrospectively and independently evaluated by 2 chest radiologists, with a consensual reading additionally with a third reader in disagreement cases. Right oblique (RO), right horizontal (RH) and left oblique fissures (LO) integrity was estimated using a 5% scale. GOLD classification was available for all subjects. Results: Interobserver agreement (weighted Kappa-index) for fissural categorization was 0.76, 0.70 and 0.75, for RO, RH and LO, respectively. Final evaluation found 81%, 89% and 50% of RO, RH and LO to be incomplete, with respective mean integrity of 80%, 58% and 80%. Small fissure gaps (<10%) were present in 30% of patients. Prevalence and severity of fissural defects were not different between the GOLD categories. Conclusions: A substantial agreement between readers was found in the analysis of interlobar fissures integrity. The semi-quantitative method allowed a detailed description of the fissural defects, information that can be important, for example, in endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies for emphysema. Small fissure gaps, overlooked in previous studies, were found in almost a third of the patients. A higher than previously described prevalence of fissural defects was described, but without significant differences among the distinct functional groups.

  15. Prevalência e severidade da cárie dentária em escolares de seis e doze anos de idade Prevalence and severity of dental caries among schoolchildren aged six and twelve

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    Jefferson Luiz Traebert

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária e as necessidades de tratamento em escolares de 6 e 12 anos de idade, comparando-se os alunos de escolas públicas com os de privadas. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a população de escolares do município de Blumenau, SC, a partir de uma amostra de 1.473 escolares, representativa de quatro estratos: escolares de 6 anos de escolas públicas, de 6 anos de escolas privadas, de 12 anos de escolas públicas e de 12 anos de escolas privadas. Utilizaram-se os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial de Saúde (1997. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de cárie na dentição decídua em escolares de 6 anos foi de 60,9% em escolas públicas e de 34,9% em escolas privadas (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and to assess treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 in Blumenau, Brazil, and to compare the results found for private and public schools. METHODS: A schoolchildren population of Blumenau, SC, Brazil, was studied. A random sample of 1,473 schoolchildren from Blumenau, Brazil, was obtained. Four strata were studied: 6 and 12 years old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. WHO (1997 criteria for caries diagnosis and treatment needs were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries in the primary dentition of 6-years-old children was 60.9% and 34.9% in public and private schools (p<0.0001, respectively. The mean DMF-T for children aged 6 was 2.98 and 1.32 for public and private schools, respectively, (p<0.0001, and 2.42 for the whole sample. The prevalence of caries in the permanent dentition of 12-years-old children was 54.7% and the mean DMF-T was 1.46 for public schools. The response rate for private schools was low and the results could not be analyzed. Forty-two percent and 77.0% of children aged six of public and private schools, respectively, had no treatment needs. For those aged 12, the percentage was 53.0% for public

  16. Mental health in Dutch adolescents: a TRAILS report on prevalence, severity, age of onset, continuity and co-morbidity of DSM disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Raven, D; van Oort, F; Hartman, C A; Reijneveld, S A; Veenstra, R; Vollebergh, W A M; Buitelaar, J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J

    2015-01-01

    With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects' risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5-10% of the sample, experiencing 34-55% of all severe lifetime disorders. At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5-10% of the adolescent population.

  17. Prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM IV mental disorders and their severity among school going Omani adolescents and youths: WMH-CIDI findings

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    Morsi Magdi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies exploring the magnitude of mental disorders amongst adolescents and youths in the Arab world. To our knowledge, this phase 2 survey in Oman is the first nationally representative school-based study to determine the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders (lifetime and over the preceding 12 months, their age-of-onset distributions and determine their severity over the past 12 months using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the WMH-CIDI, used for international comparison. Methods A total of 1,682 (91.61% students out of 1836 students who formed the phase 2 random sub-sample of a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling design (phase 1, participated in the face-to-face structured interview using the Arabic-version of WMH-CIDI 3.0. Results The phase 1 results using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Child Depression Inventory (CDI showed depressive symptoms to be 17% prevalent in the larger sample of 5409 adolescents and youths. Amongst the phase 2 respondents from this sample, 13.9% had at least one DSM IV diagnostic label. The lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was 3.0%; Bipolar Mood Disorder (BMD was 1%, Specific phobia 5.8% and Social phobia 1.6%. The female gender was a strong predictor of a lifetime risk of MDD (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.3, p = 0.000; Any Mood Disorders (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.3, p = 0.002 and Specific Phobia (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p = 0.047. The severity of illness for cases diagnosed with 12 month DSM IV disorders was found to be 80% lower in females (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.0-0.8. The estimates over the previous 12 month period when compared with the lifetime prevalence showed a 25% to 40% lower prevalence for MDD, Specific phobia, Social phobia, Any Anxiety Disorders (AAD and Any Mood disorders (AMD while the rate was 80% lower for Separation Anxiety Disorder/Adult Separation Anxiety (SAD/ASA. Mood disorders were significantly

  18. Prevalence of Charcot Arthropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Aged over 50 Years with Severe Peripheral Neuropathy: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care South Indian Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Dharmadas; Harish, Kumar; Minnie, Pillay; Sundaram, Karimassery R; Arun, Bal; Sandya, Chirukandath J; Mangalanandan, Thacho S; Vivek, Lakshmanan; Praveen, Valiyaparambil P

    2018-01-01

    Available literature on the prevalence of Charcot arthropathy (CA) represents mainly Western population. No study has been reported from India so far. Hence we attempted to study the prevalence of CA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN), belonging to Indian population amongst whom type 2 diabetes is on the rise in alarming proportions. Medical records of 3387 patients who performed an objective vibration perception threshold test during the year 2015 were screened for T2DMPN. Out of these, 1475 T2DMPN patients above 50 years were selected and analyzed in detail for CA. CA was diagnosed based on clinical features and/or radiological investigations. The anatomical localization of the disease distribution of the affected foot was done according to Brodsky's classification. The prevalence of CA in T2DMPN patients was found to be 9.8%. The mean age of patients diagnosed with CA was 63 ± 8.36 years, and mean duration of DM for CA to develop was 18.01 ± 8.23 years. About 62.5% of the patients were male and 37.5% female. Bilateral presentation of CA was observed in 20.8% of patients. Multiple sites of the foot were affected in 48.6% of patients and belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky. A high prevalence of CA (9.8%) was observed in the present study conducted on T2DMPN patients who presented to the endocrinology department of a tertiary care South Indian hospital. In the majority of patients, the area of foot affected belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky.

  19. Prevalence of severe acute malnutrition and associated sociodemographic factors among children aged 6 months–5 years in rural population of Northern India: A population-based survey

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    Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 documented that nearly 57 million children are undernourished in India, which is one-third of the world's share. We planned a study to identify the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM among children aged <5 years in a rural population of Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 2 blocks of District Meerut during 2012–2014. A total of 70 villages were identified and all children in the age group 6–60 months were approached through house-to-house visits. Data on sociodemographic profile and anthropometry were collected utilizing standards methods and equipment. The Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (WHZ were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO reference data as standard. SAM (severe wasting was defined as per the WHO criteria (WHZ score −3 standard deviation or severe visible wasting or bipedal edema. Results: A total of 19,449 children were screened and 18,463 children (age, 32.6 ± 15.4 years, and 53.4% males were enrolled, and 466 were excluded due to erroneous age estimation and physical deformities. The prevalence of SAM was 2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.02–2.44%, (409/18,463. Multivariate logistic regression documented age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.98, nuclear family (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54, lower occupation of head of family (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.59, and lower paternal education (OR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.91 as independent predictor of SAM. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAM was lower (2.2% in this Northern district of India as compared to national prevalence (7.9%. Younger age, nuclear family, lower parental education, and poor occupation of the head of the family predispose a child to SAM.

  20. The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal (hikikomori) in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional telephone-based survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Li, Tim M H; Chan, Melissa; Law, Y W; Chau, Michael; Cheng, Cecilia; Fu, K W; Bacon-Shone, John; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-06-01

    Severe social withdrawal behaviors among young people have been a subject of public and clinical concerns. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of social withdrawal behaviors among young people aged 12-29 years in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional telephone-based survey was conducted with 1,010 young individuals. Social withdrawal behaviors were measured with the proposed research diagnostic criteria for hikikomori and were categorized according to the (a) international proposed duration criterion (more than 6 months), (b) local proposed criterion (less than 6 months) and (c) with withdrawal behaviors but self-perceived as non-problematic. The correlates of social withdrawal among the three groups were examined using multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses. The prevalence rates of more than 6 months, less than 6 months and self-perceived non-problematic social withdrawal were 1.9%, 2.5% and 2.6%, respectively. In terms of the correlates, the internationally and locally defined socially withdrawn youths are similar, while the self-perceived non-problematic group is comparable to the comparison group. The study finds that the prevalence of severe social withdrawal in Hong Kong is comparable to that in Japan. Both groups with withdrawal behaviors for more or less than 6 months share similar characteristics and are related to other contemporary youth issues, for example, compensated dating and self-injury behavior. The self-perceived non-problematic group appears to be a distinct group and the withdrawal behaviors of its members may be discretionary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Min Jung; Park, Sun Young; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Hea Rim; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

    2014-09-01

    Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up.

  2. Prevalence, source and severity of work-related injuries among "foreign" construction workers in a large Malaysian organisation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerguine, Haroun; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2018-02-02

    Malaysian construction sector is regarded as critical in the field of health because of the high rates of accidents and fatalities. This research aimed to determine the prevalence, sources and severity of injuries and its association with commitment to safety among foreign construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 foreign construction workers from six construction projects of a large organization in Malaysia, using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to assess work-related injuries and safety commitment. The collected data was analysed by SPSS 22.0 using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The prevalence of work-related injuries in a one year period was 22.6%, where most of the injuries were of moderate severity (39.7%) and falls from heights represented the main source (31.5%). The majority of the foreign construction workers had perceived between moderate and high safety commitment, which was significantly associated with work-related injuries. The results also showed a significant association of work-related injuries with the company\\'s interest in Safety and Health, Safety and Health training, and safety equipment. Thus, the implementation of new procedures and providing relevant trainings and safety equipment; will lead to a decrease in injury rates in construction sites.

  3. The prevalence and factors for cancer screening behavior among people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong.

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    Phoenix Kit Han Mo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Screening is useful in reducing cancer incidence and mortality. People with severe mental illness (PSMI are vulnerable to cancer as they are exposed to higher levels of cancer risks. Little is known about PSMI's cancer screening behavior and associated factors. The present study examined the utilization of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening among PSMI in Hong Kong and to identify factors associated with their screening behaviors. METHOD: 591 PSMI from community mental health services completed a cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: The percentage of cancer screening behavior among those who met the criteria for particular screening recommendation was as follows: 20.8% for mammography; 36.5% for clinical breast examination (CBE; 40.5% for pap-smear test; 12.8% for prostate examination; and 21.6% for colorectal cancer screening. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that marital status was a significant factor for mammography, CBE, and pap-smear test; belief that cancer can be healed if found early was a significant factor for pap-smear test and colorectal screening; belief that one can have cancer without having symptoms was a significant factor for CBE and pap-smear test; belief that one will have a higher risk if a family member has had cancer was a significant factor for CBE; and self-efficacy was a significant factor for CBE and pap-smear test behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer screening utilization among PSMI in Hong Kong is low. Beliefs about cancer and self-efficacy are associated with cancer screening behavior. Health care professionals should improve the knowledge and remove the misconceptions about cancer among PSMI; self-efficacy should also be promoted.

  4. Prospective evaluation of the prevalence and severity of fatigue in patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical external beam radiotherapy and neoadjuvant hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Pauline T; Berthelet, Eric; Lee, Junella C; Petersen, Ross; Lim, Jan T W; Gaul, Catherine A; Pai, Howard; Blood, Paul; Ludgate, Charles M

    2006-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the prevalence and severity of fatigue and its impact on quality of life (QOL) during and after radical external beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Twenty-eight men with prostate cancer undergoing RT over 6-8 consecutive weeks were prospectively accrued. The Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), a validated fatigue assessment tool, was administered at five time points: baseline (week 1), middle of RT (week 3-4), end of RT (last week of RT), and follow-up (median 6.5 weeks after RT). The BFI contained nine questions, each using 0-10 ratings to quantify fatigue severity and interference with six QOL domains. The prevalence of moderate-severe fatigue was plotted as a function of time. Mean sum and subscale scores at each time point were compared to baseline scores using Wilcoxon tests. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between fatigue scores and age, tumor and treatment characteristics. The median age was 69 years (range 57-84), Gleason score 7 (range 6-10), and presenting PSA 9.0 ng/mL (range 2.5 ng/mL-103.0 ng/mL). Patients were treated once daily to a median dose of 74 Gy (range 60 Gy-78 Gy) over a median of 37 fractions (range 30-39). Hormone therapy was used in all patients (median duration 12.2 months). The prevalence of moderate-severe present fatigue increased from 7% at baseline to 8% at mid-RT and 32% at RT completion. Compared to baseline (mean score 11.5), fatigue increased significantly mid-RT (mean score 14.6, p = 0.03) and peaked at the end of RT (mean score 23.5, p = 0.001). Fatigue significantly interfered with walking ability, normal work, daily chores, and enjoyment of life only at the end of RT. After RT completion, fatigue improved but remained higher compared to baseline at 6.5 weeks of follow-up (mean score 15.0, p = 0.02). On linear regression analysis, age, Gleason score, PSA, T-stage, hormone therapy duration, RT dose and fractions were not significantly associated with mean fatigue

  5. Prevalência e gravidade de asma brônquica em adultos obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica Prevalence and severity of asthma in obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery

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    Saulo Maia Davila Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de asma em um grupo de adultos obesos, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica e avaliar a gravidade da asma neste grupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 363 pacientes obesos adultos (índice de massa corpórea > 35 kg/m² avaliados por um médico pneumologista, utilizando a avaliação clínica como instrumento diagnóstico de asma. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos (asma e controle. Os pacientes com asma foram classificados conforme a gravidade da doença. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de asma na população de obesos estudada foi de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,5-22,4. Essa prevalência nas mulheres e nos homens foi de 20,4% (IC95%: 16,2-24,5 e 13,7% (IC95%: 10,1-17,2, respectivamente. Havia sintomas de asma nos últimos doze meses em 8,0% (IC95%: 5,2-10,7, e houve manifestação inicial dos sintomas de asma na infância/adolescência em 17,4% (IC95%: 13,5-21,3. No grupo asma, asma intermitente estava presente em 29 pacientes (43,3%; asma persistente leve, em 7 (10,4%; asma moderada, em 25 (37,3%; e asma persistente grave, em 6 (9,0%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de asma neste grupo de adultos obesos, utilizando-se a avaliação clínica como critério diagnóstico, mostrou-se elevada, com predomínio no sexo feminino e com manifestação inicial dos sintomas de asma na infância/adolescência. A gravidade da asma neste grupo de obesos adultos esteve entre os valores médios estimados para a população geral, com uma maior proporção de asma intermitente, asma persistente leve e asma persistente moderadaOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma in a group of obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the severity of asthma in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 363 obese adults (body mass index > 35 kg/m² evaluated by a pulmonologist, using clinical evaluation as a

  6. Prevalencia y severidad de la violencia contra mujeres embarazadas, México Prevalence and severity of domestic violence among pregnant women, Mexico

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    Roberto Castro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar si el embarazo es un factor de riesgo o un factor de protección frente a la violencia doméstica y comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la violencia que sufren las mujeres embarazadas antes y durante el embarazo. MÉTODOS: Encuesta realizada a una muestra de 468 mujeres atendidas en consulta prenatal en su tercer trimestre de embarazo por los servicios de la Secretaría de Salud del estado de Morelos (México. Se exploró violencia emocional, física y sexual. Se construyó un índice para valorar la severidad. Se identificaron las variables más asociadas a la violencia durante el embarazo. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia total no cambió significativamente antes y durante el embarazo (32%. La prevalencia de cada uno de los tres tipos de violencia se mantuvo asimismo sin cambios. El 27% de las mujeres que tuvieron violencia durante el embarazo no la tuvieron antes del mismo; una proporción equivalente tuvieron violencia antes del embarazo pero no durante el mismo. La severidad de la violencia emocional se incrementó significativamente durante el embarazo (en comparación con el año previo, mientras que la severidad de la violencia física disminuyó. Variables asociadas a la violencia durante el embarazo: violencia en la infancia de la pareja; ; que la mujer haya presenciado violencia en casa durante su infancia; y violencia en el año previo al embarazo. Se presentan diversos escenarios de riesgo útiles para los prestadores de servicios. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia emocional durante el embarazo predomina por encima de la violencia fisica y sexual. Diferenciarlas contribuye a esclarecer la complejidad del fenómeno.OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. METHODS: There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at

  7. Importance of Aspergillus spp. isolation in Acute exacerbations of severe COPD: prevalence, factors and follow-up: the FUNGI-COPD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are often associated with infectious agents, some of which may be non-usual, including Aspergillus spp. However, the importance of Aspergillus spp. in the clinical management of AECOPD still remains unclear. Objectives The aims of the study were to analyze the prevalence and risk factors associated with Aspergillus spp. isolation in AECOPD, and to investigate the associated clinical outcomes during a 1-year follow-up period. Methods Patients presenting with an AECOPD requiring hospitalization were prospectively included from four hospitals across Spain. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected at admission and during the follow-up period (1, 6 and 12 months after discharge), and re-admissions and mortality data collected during the follow-up. Results A total of 240 patients with severe AECOPD were included. Valid sputum samples were obtained in 144 (58%) patients, and in this group, the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. isolation was 16.6% on admission and 14.1% at one-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic-regression showed that AECOPD in the previous year (OR 12.35; 95% CI, 1.9-29.1; p Aspergillus spp. isolation. Conclusions The main risk factors for Aspergillus spp. isolation were AECOPD in the previous year and concomitant isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, although Aspergillus spp. is often isolated in sputum samples from patients with AECOPD, the pathogenic and clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:24517318

  8. Hope Matters: Developing and Validating a Measure of Future Expectations Among Young Women in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa (HPTN 068).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Hill, Lauren; Maman, Suzanne; DeVellis, Robert; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2017-07-01

    Hope is a future expectancy characterized by an individual's perception that a desirable future outcome can be achieved. Though scales exist to measure hope, they may have limited relevance in low resource, high HIV prevalence settings. We developed and validated a hope scale among young women living in rural South Africa. We conducted formative interviews to identify the key elements of hope. Using items developed from these interviews, we administered the hope scale to 2533 young women enrolled in an HIV-prevention trial. Women endorsed scale items highly and the scale proved to be unidimensional in the sample. Hope scores were significantly correlated with hypothesized psycholosocial correlates with the exception of life stressors. Overall, our hope measure was found to have excellent reliability and to show encouraging preliminary indications of validity in this population. This study presents a promising measure to assess hope among young women in South Africa.

  9. Low prevalence of collateral cerebral circulation in the circle of Willis in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis and recent ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badacz, Rafał; Przewłocki, Tadeusz; Karch, Izabela; Pieniążek, Piotr; Rosławiecka, Agnieszka; Mleczko, Szymon; Brzychczy, Andrzej; Trystuła, Mariusz; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The circle of Willis is thought to play a key role in development of collateral flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). To assess flow in the circle of Willis in patients with recent ischemic stroke (IS). The study included 371 patients, 102 symptomatic with severe ICAS and recent IS (within the last 3 months) (group I) and 269 asymptomatic with severe ICAS (group II). Flow in the middle (MCA), anterior (ACA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries and pattern of the cross-flow through anterior (ACoA) and posterior (PCoA) communicating arteries were assessed with transcranial color-coded Doppler ultrasonography (TCCD). The ACoA or PCoA was less prevalent in group I than in group II (54% vs. 78%, p PCoA and higher PSV in the MCA and ACA were associated with significant risk reduction of IS (RR = 0.28 (95% CI = 0.16-0.49, p PCoA seem to play a key role in the evaluation of IS risk in subjects with severe ICAS.

  10. Extraintestinal manifestations were common in children with coeliac disease and were more prevalent in patients with more severe clinical and histological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Samuli; Kivelä, Laura; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle

    2018-03-22

    This study investigated the prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) in paediatric coeliac disease and their associations with other disease features. Researchers at the University of Tampere, Finland, compared EIM in 511 children diagnosed with coeliac disease from 2003 to 2014 and 180 diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorders from 2007 to 2013. Disease severity and dietary responses were also compared between coeliac children diagnosed by screening (n = 146) or because of EIM (n = 116) or gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 249). Coeliac patients had more EIM (62%) than those with functional disorders (33%). The most common EIM in coeliac children were poor growth (27%) and anaemia (18%). Children with coeliac disease often showed fatigue (8%) and symptoms affecting the skin (15%), nervous system (9%) and joints (6%). Coeliac patients with EIM as their main clinical presentation had more severe symptoms and histological damage at diagnosis than those with gastrointestinal presentation and screen-detected cases. The subgroups did not differ with regard to other clinical and laboratory parameters and dietary adherence. Concomitant EIM were also common in children diagnosed because of gastrointestinal presentation (60%) and by screening (37%). EIM were common in coeliac disease and associated with more severe clinical and histological presentation. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association of previous severe low birth weight with adverse perinatal outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy among HIV-prevalent urban African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Ahmed, Yusuf; Stoner, Marie C D; Vwalika, Bellington; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the association between severity of prior low birth weight (LBW) delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes in the subsequent delivery among an HIV-prevalent urban African population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 41 109 women who had undergone two deliveries in Lusaka, Zambia, between February 1, 2006, and May 31, 2013. The relationship between prior LBW delivery (<2500 g) and a composite measure of adverse perinatal outcome in the second pregnancy was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Women with prior LBW delivery (n=4259) had an increased risk of LBW in the second delivery versus those without prior LBW delivery (n=37 642). Such risk correlated with the severity of first delivery LBW. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-4.09) for a birth weight of 1000-1499 g, 3.05 (95% CI 2.42-3.86) for a birth weight of 1500-1999 g, and 2.02 (95% CI 1.81-2.27) for a birth weight of 2000-2499 g. Previous LBW delivery also increased the risk of adverse perinatal outcome, with an AOR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7). Severe prior LBW delivery conferred substantial risk for adverse perinatal outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Investigation of dietary supplements prevalence as complementary therapy: Comparison between hospitalized psoriasis patients and non-psoriasis patients, correlation with disease severity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Rastin, Maryam; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari

    2017-08-01

    Psoriasis patients are often displeased with traditional medical treatments and they may self-prescribe dietary supplements as an alternative or complementary treatments. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-medication of dietary supplements among psoriasis and non-psoriasis cases and its impact on disease severity and quality of life. This case-control study evaluated 252 records of psoriasis patients and 245 non-psoriasis cases. Dietary supplementation over last 30days and characteristics, including age, age at onset of disease, co-morbidities, smoking and education were recorded. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and dermatology quality of life index (DLQI) were calculated. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant level. This study consisted 138 psoriasis (females; 54) and 138 non-psoriasis cases (females; 50), aged between 21 and 91 years. Among psoriasis patients, 72% reported using at least one of dietary supplements, which was different from non-psoriasis cases (25.36%, P=0.01). Multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVM) were the most frequent used dietary supplements (26.81%) and the most common reasons for the consumption of these supplements were to maintain and improve health. The consumption of folic acid (21.73%), omega-3 fatty acids or fish oil (10.14%), herbs (12.31%) and vitamin E (1.44%) had the most frequencies after MVM. No significant differences in PASI and DLQI were found among patients with consumption of different supplements (P>0.05). There was non-significant and negative correlation between education and use of supplements (P=0.21, r=-0.02). Self-medicating of MVM over last 30days was prevalent among studied psoriasis patients. They took dietary supplements in order to improve and maintain their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Post traumatic stress disorder in the wake of heart disease: Prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    0-38% across studies. Studies thatincluded control groups showed that cardiac patients were at a significantly increased risk of developingPTSD. Risk factors included gender, personality, and low social support. Possible mechanisms comprisedelevations in heart rate and blood pressure, and lack......Background There is increasing recognition that patients following a cardiac event may be at riskof developing PTSD. The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease witha particular focus on prevalence and risk factors. Potential pathogenic pathways that may link...... of adherence with lifestyle changes and medication.Conclusions Subgroups of patients with established heart disease are at risk of developing PTSD following acardiac event. Although few studies have looked at the impact of PTSD on prognosis, preliminary evidencesuggests that PTSD may increase the risk of major...

  14. Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance Use Disorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future Inpatient Mental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padyab, Mojgan; Armelius, Bengt-Åke; Armelius, Kerstin; Nyström, Siv; Blom, Björn; Grönlund, Ann-Sofie; Lundgren, Lena

    2018-04-23

    In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for substance use disorder with the ASI used nine years of the National Patient Register and examined whether clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). ASI composite scores and interviewer severity rating were used to measure clients' problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, employment, alcohol, drug use, health, and legal) at baseline. A stepwise regression method was used to assess the relative importance of ASI composite scores, MHD hospitalization two years prior to baseline, age, and gender for MHD hospitalization seven years post-baseline. Almost two-thirds of the individuals (63%) were hospitalized at least once for MHD in the seven years post-baseline. At the multivariable level, MHD hospitalization prior to baseline was the strongest predictor of future MHD hospitalization, followed by ASI composite scores for drug use, employment, mental health and, last, male gender. A key finding is that higher ASI composite scores for drug use and mental health are predictors of future need for MHD treatment. Future studies will replicate this effort with a national population of individuals with substance use disorder.

  15. Response of beryllium to severe thermal shocks -simulation of disruption and vertical displacement events in future thermonuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Roedig, M.; Schuster, A. [Association Euratom-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Merola, M.; Qian, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium will play an important role for plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices such as ITER. In particular for the first wall beryllium will be used with an armor thickness of several millimeters. However, during plasma instabilities they will experience severe thermal shocks. Here plasma disruptions with deposited energy densities of several ten MJm{sup -2} are the most essential damaging mechanism. However, a signifant fraction of the incident energy will be absorbed by a dense cloud of ablation vapor, hence reducing the effective energy density at the beryllium surface to values in the order of 10 MJm{sup -2}. To investigate the material response to all these plasma instabilities thermal shock tests on small scale test coupons (disruption effects) and on actively cooled divertor modules (VDEs) have been performed in the electron beam test facility JUDITH at ITER relevant surface heat loads. These tests have been performed on different bulk beryllium grades and on plasma sprayed coatings; the influence of pulse duration, power density, and temperature effects has been investigated experimentally. Detailed in-situ diagnostics (for beam characterization, optical pyrometry etc.) and post mortem analyses (profilometry, metallography, optical and electron microscopy) have been applied to quantify the resulting material damage. 1D- and 2D models have developed to verify the experimental results obtained in the electron beam simulation experiments. (J.P.N.)

  16. Prevalence, characteristics and severity of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children from the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Brankica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Molar-incisor hypomnineralization (MIH is relatively common developmental anomaly characterized by hypomineralized enamel defects in the first permanent molars and incisors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children aged eight and 10 years who live in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Methods. The study included 712 respondents, 289 of whom aged eight (40.6% and 423 of whom aged 10 years (59.4%. Criteria according to Weerheijm were used for diagnosis of hypomineralization and the severity of changes was determined. Results. The frequency of hypomineralized changes in the first permanent molars and incisors of the examined children in this area was 12.2%. It was lower in children aged eight years (10.7% compared to those aged 10 (13.2%. Demarcated enamel opacity was more common in younger children, whereas both atypical restoration and tooth extraction due to hypomineralization were more common in older children. Mild form is more common in children aged eight years, whereas both severe form and severe form with extracted teeth are more common in children aged 10 years. The results indicate that the first permanent molars were most commonly affected by MIH changes. Conclusion. The percentage of the respondents with MIH changes in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, which is 12.2%, is not negligible and points to the necessity of early diagnosis in order to prevent and reduce the complications of the condition by timely prevention and treatment.

  17. A study on the prevalence of depression and the severity of depression in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a semi-urban Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishekl; Batra, Sakshi; Prasad, Rajendra; Verma, Anand; Jilani, Abdul Q; Kant, Surya

    2018-03-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the few respiratory diseases which is associated with a number of comorbidities. Psychiatric disease like depression is a very important comorbidity of COPD because it decreases the feeling of wellbeing in the patient and also interferes with the compliance with medication thereby increasing the risk of hospitalization in the COPD patient. A cross-sectional study was done for two years in the department of pulmonary medicine at Era's Lucknow medical college and hospital, Lucknow. A total of 150 patients were enrolled for the study after a clinico-radiological screening for the diagnosis confirmed on spirometry. After the confirmation of the diagnosis of COPD in these patients, they were screened for depression using the PHQ-9 scale in our department of pulmonary medicine. The confirmation of the diagnosis of depression was done according to the ICD-10 guidelines for depression and the severity of depression was graded using HAM-D scale in the department of psychiatry at our institute. The most common age group enrolled in the study was 51-60 years of age (40.67%). One hundred and fifteen patients (76.7%) of the enrolled patients were smokers while the remaining 35 patients (23.3%) were non-smokers. Depression was found to be present in 46 out of the total 150 patients in the study. Thus, the prevalence of depression in our study was 30.67%. Depression was seen in COPD groups B,C and D. Out of the 46 patients of COPD with depression,18 had mild depression (39.13%), 26 had moderate depression (56.52%) and 2 had severe depression (4.35%). Hence, depression of all grades (i.e., mild, moderate and severe depression) is seen in COPD groups B, C and D.

  18. High prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Laura G; Lee, Iris; Sammel, Mary D; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-05-01

    Do women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with control women, and do these symptoms correlate with age, BMI, testosterone, hirsutism or insulin resistance (IR)? Women with PCOS have significantly increased odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of obesity, and the symptoms are weakly associated with age, BMI, elevated testosterone, hirsutism and IR. Previous studies have reported that women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of mild depressive and anxiety symptoms or an increase in mean depression and anxiety scores, although these scores are usually within the normal range. Thus, it is therefore not clear whether these findings are clinically significant. The prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, which require follow-up and would benefit from treatment, is not known in this population. A comprehensive systematic review (SR) was performed up to January 2016 and included 30 cross-sectional studies, representing 3050 subjects with PCOS and 3858 controls, from 10 different countries. The meta-analysis (MA) on depressive symptoms included 18 studies and the MA on anxiety symptoms included 9 studies. A separate SR identified 15 studies for the meta-regression examining the associations with PCOS-related symptoms or comorbidities. All studies included adult women with PCOS, defined by the National Institutes of Health or Rotterdam criteria, and a control group without PCOS. Ovid, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane were searched up to January 2016. Included studies used a validated screening tool to compare the prevalence or mean scores of depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. Random effects MA was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Sensitivity analyses of methodological characteristics and a meta-regression of the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) to evaluate

  19. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD, were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%, hypercalcemia (5.4%, hypophosphatemia (2.8%, hyperphosphatemia (55.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%, secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%, and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%. 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5% patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016, a higher iPTH (P = 0.001 a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004. The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001, creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001, and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001 and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001, age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002, and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  20. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Samitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes.

  1. The prevalence and severity of non-carious cervical lesions in a group of patients attending a university hospital in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W A J; Marchan, S; Rafeek, R N

    2008-02-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are often encountered in clinical practice and their aetiology attributed to toothbrush abrasion, erosion and tooth flexure. This paper aims to determine the prevalence and severity of NCCLs in a sample of patients attending a university clinic in Trinidad and to investigate the relationship with medical and dental histories, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and occlusion. Data were collected via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Odds ratios were used to determine the association of the presence of lesions and the factors examined. One hundred and fifty-six patients with a mean age of 40.6 years were examined of whom 62.2% had one or more NCCLs. Forty five per cent of the lesions were sensitive to compressed air. Younger age groups had a significantly lower correlation with the presence of NCCLs than older age groups. Other significant factors included patients who reported heartburn, gastric reflux, headaches, bruxism, sensitive teeth and swimming or had a history of broken restorations in the last year. There was also significant correlation of NCCLs in patients who brushed more than once a day or used a medium or hard toothbrush. Patients with vegetarian diets and those who reported consuming citrus fruits, soft drinks, alcohol, yoghurt and vitamin C drinks were associated with the presence of lesions. Significant associations were also found in patients with group function, faceting, clicking joints or those who wore occlusal splints.

  2. Prevalence of supporting limb laminitis in a UK equine practice and referral hospital setting between 2005 and 2013: implications for future epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C E; Newton, J R; Bathe, A P; Payne, R J

    2015-01-17

    The electronic patient records of all equine patients of Rossdales Equine Practice between January 1, 2005 and November 1, 2013 were reviewed to determine the number of cases of supporting limb laminitis (SLL) in a large equine practice and referral hospital setting in the UK and to discuss the implications for future epidemiological studies. The clinical notes were searched electronically for a combination of 'laminitis AND (contralateral OR supporting OR overload OR weight bearing)'. The prevalence of SLL within each identified denominator population and the corresponding 95% CI were calculated. SLL developed in nine horses, one donkey and one pony. Thoroughbreds were the most commonly affected breed (72.7 per cent, CI 46.4 to 99.1 per cent), aged 2-14 years (median six years), and only mares (n=9) and stallions (n=2) were represented. SLL was not restricted to horses that were non-weightbearing lame, it developed within 4-100 days after injury (median 14.5 days) and occurred most commonly in a forelimb (54.6 per cent, CI 25.1 to 84.0 per cent). During the same time frame, a total of 65,327 horses were registered with Rossdales Equine Practice, resulting in an overall practice prevalence of SLL of 0.02 per cent (CI 0.01 to 0.03 per cent). Future epidemiological studies to investigate risk factors for SLL prevention will, therefore, be a logistical challenge. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Tolerance of allogromiid Foraminifera to severely elevated carbon dioxide concentrations: Implications to future ecosystem functioning and paleoceanographic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Joan M.; Mollo-Christensen, Elizabeth; Eisenkolb, Nadine; Starczak, Victoria R.

    2009-02-01

    control treatment. Incubation in 200 000 ppm CO 2 also resulted in reproduction by some individuals. Results suggest that certain Foraminifera are able to tolerate deep-sea CO 2 sequestration and perhaps thrive as a result of elevated pCO 2 that is predicted for the next few centuries, in a high-pCO 2 world. Thus, allogromiid foraminiferal "blooms" may result from climate change. Furthermore, because allogromiids consume a variety of prey, it is likely that they will be major players in ecosystem dynamics of future coastal sedimentary environments.

  4. The MentDis_ICF65+study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Sylke; Haerter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausin, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of me...

  5. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  6. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  7. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population : a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Krol, B.; Blankenstein, N.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the

  8. Both Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Signs of Pancreatic Inflammation Are Prevalent in Children with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition: An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Rosalie H.; Meyer, Sophie L.; Stehmann, Tijs A.; Bourdon, Céline; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether pancreatic function is impaired in children with severe acute malnutrition, is different between edematous vs nonedematous malnutrition, and improves by nutritional rehabilitation. Study design We followed 89 children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to Queen

  9. Both Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Signs of Pancreatic Inflammation Are Prevalent in Children with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition : An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Rosalie H.; Meyer, Sophie L.; Stehmann, Tijs A.; Bourdon, Celine; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.

    Objectives To assess whether pancreatic function is impaired in children with severe acute malnutrition, is different between edematous vs nonedematous malnutrition, and improves by nutritional rehabilitation. Study design We followed 89 children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to Queen

  10. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County, Hebei Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5527 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and twenty-seven individuals were enumerated and 5051 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.05% (53/5051) and 3.46% (175/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.48% (75/5051) and 7.94% (401/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 897.27, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 30.32, P = 0.000), illiterate (trend χ(2) = 83.20, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness. Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  11. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng-qin; Zhao, Jia-liang; Li, Ping-hua; Ellwein, Leon b; Song, Sheng-fang; Li, Fu-liang; Wang, Ting-gang; Ren, Yi-ming; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan of Chongqing City, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5663 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Yongchuan District. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands six hundreds and sixty-three individuals were enumerated and 5390 persons were examined, the response rate was 95.18%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.12% (114/5390) and 5.40% (291/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.49% (134/5390) and 10.71% (577/5390) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 951.32, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 33.35, P = 0.000) and illiterate (trend χ(2) equals; 141.32, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence

  12. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  13. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  14. Futuring for Future Ready Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Miguel A.

    2018-01-01

    Futurists and foresight professionals offer several guiding principles for thinking about the future. These principles can help people to think about the future and become more powerful players in shaping the preferred futures they want for themselves and their communities. The principles also fit in well as strategies to support the Future Ready…

  15. Concordance of opinions between patients and physicians and their relationship with symptomatic control and future risk in patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Lessmann, Astrid; Plaza, Vicente; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Fernández-Sánchez, Toni; Sastre, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Differences between the opinions of patients and physicians on the impact of asthma are common. We hypothesised that patient-physician discordance may negatively affect asthma outcome. A total of 2902 patients (61% women, mean age 47 years) with moderate-severe asthma and 231 physicians participated in a prospective study. At the baseline visit, data on demographics, clinical variables, degree of asthma control according to the Asthma Control Test (ACT), basic spirometry and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were collected and an ad hoc questionnaire was completed that allowed the degree of concordance between doctors and patients to be assessed. A scheduled telephone call after 3 months was used to elicit the ACT score and the future risk of asthma. At the final visit at 6 months, the following data were recorded: ACT score, spirometry, HADS score and an ad hoc questionnaire to assess the agreement between the doctor and the patient. Changes in study variables according to patient-physician concordance or discordance were analysed. The rate of patient-physician discordance was 27.2%, with overestimation of disease impact by the physician in 12.3% and underestimation in 14.9%. Patient-physician opinion discordance, particularly in the case of physicians underestimating the impact of asthma, showed worse results with statistically significant differences in ACT score, a higher percentage of patients with poor asthma control and lower HADS scores. The need for hospital and emergency department admissions was also higher. Patient-physician opinion discordance may be contributing to lower symptomatic control and increased future risk, with a higher impact when physicians underestimate the impact of asthma on their patients.

  16. The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool revised for adolescents (PSST-A): prevalence of severe PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Meir; Peer, Miki; Palova, Eva; Freeman, Ellen W; Macdougall, Mary; Soares, Claudio N

    2011-02-01

    The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was modified for use in adolescents and piloted in 578 girls at three international sites. Nearly one third (29.6%) reported experiencing severe PMS or PMDD, with irritability being the most commonly reported symptom. Rates of menstrual-related pain were high, particularly in those with severe PMS or PMDD. Severe PMS and PMDD present with similar rates and symptoms in adolescents as in adults, and the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool modified for adolescents is a fast, reliable tool to screen for these syndromes in adolescents.

  17. PREVALENCE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE PULMONARY OEDEMA IN SEVERE PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ECLAMPSIA CASES IN TRIBAL POPULATION OF SOUTH RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Brig. Pradeep Kuma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pulmonary oedema in severe pregnancy-induced hypertension is a life threatening complication with high maternal mortality, particularly in tribal population of South Rajasthan. METHODS Thirteen cases which occurred in the duration of two and half years were analysed through medical records and findings were recorded. RESULTS Maximum cases 10(76.92% were in less than 20 years of age. 12 (92.30% cases were nulliparous. Out of 13 cases of PIH, pulmonary oedema developed in 5 (38.46% cases of eclampsia and 8 (61.54% cases of severe pregnancy-induced hypertension. 10 (76.92%cases were 28 to 30 weeks of gestation and 3 (23.08% were 31 to 34 weeks of gestation. 8 (61.54% cases were severely anaemic. 12 (92.30% were unbooked cases. CONCLUSION Regular antenatal checkups, early diagnosis, prompt treatment of hypertension and pulmonary oedema and termination of pregnancy is required to prevent maternal death.

  18. Effectiveness and response predictors of omalizumab in a severe allergic asthma population with a high prevalence of comorbidities: the Australian Xolair Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P G; Reddel, H; McDonald, V M; Marks, G; Jenkins, C; Gillman, A; Upham, J; Sutherland, M; Rimmer, J; Thien, F; Katsoulotos, G P; Cook, M; Yang, I; Katelaris, C; Bowler, S; Langton, D; Robinson, P; Wright, C; Yozghatlian, V; Burgess, S; Sivakumaran, P; Jaffe, A; Bowden, J; Wark, P A B; Yan, K Y; Kritikos, V; Peters, M; Hew, M; Aminazad, A; Bint, M; Guo, M

    2016-09-01

    Severe asthma is a high impact disease. Omalizumab targets the allergic inflammatory pathway; however, effectiveness data in a population with significant comorbidities are limited. To describe severe allergic asthma, omalizumab treatment outcomes and predictors of response among the Australian Xolair Registry participants. A web-based post-marketing surveillance registry was established to characterise the use, effectiveness and adverse effects of omalizumab (Xolair) for severe allergic asthma. Participants (n = 192) (mean age 51 years, 118 female) with severe allergic asthma from 21 clinics in Australia were assessed, and 180 received omalizumab therapy. They had poor asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire, ACQ-5, mean score 3.56) and significant quality of life impairment (Asthma-related Quality of Life Questionnaire score 3.57), and 52% were using daily oral corticosteroid (OCS). Overall, 95% had one or more comorbidities (rhinitis 48%, obesity 45%, cardiovascular disease 23%). The omalizumab responder rate, assessed by an improvement of at least 0.5 in ACQ-5, was high at 83%. OCS use was significantly reduced. The response in participants with comorbid obesity and cardiovascular disease was similar to those without these conditions. Baseline ACQ-5 ≥ 2.0 (P = 0.002) and older age (P = 0.05) predicted the magnitude of change in ACQ-5 in response to omalizumab. Drug-related adverse events included anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4), headache (n = 2) and chest pains (n = 1). Australian patients with severe allergic asthma report a high disease burden and have extensive comorbidity. Symptomatic response to omalizumab was high despite significant comorbid disease. Omalizumab is an effective targeted therapy for severe allergic asthma with comorbidity in a real-life setting. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. The Prevalence and Severity of Burnout among Physiotherapists in an Arabian Setting and the Influence of Organizational Factors: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Imam, Dalia Muhammed; Al-Sobayel, Hana Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Burnout has been shown to be present in different health professions, but the prevalence among physiotherapists working in an Arabian setting has not been established. [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the burnout levels of physiotherapists working in Saudi Arabia and the association of burnout with work and organization-related factors. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted at government hospitals in Saudi Arabia. One hundred and nineteen Saudi physiotherapists were included. They electronically completed a questionnaire that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Areas of Worklife Survey. [Results] Participants showed a moderate degree of burnout as reflected by mean scores of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The majority of participants demonstrated moderate to high burnout levels across the three subscales. A significant association was found between the exhaustion subscale and the subspecialty in which participants worked. A strong association was found between workload and exhaustion subscale scores. [Conclusion] This study was the first to explore burnout and related factors among physiotherapists in an Arabian setting. A moderate degree of burnout and associations of burnout with work and organizational factors were found. The findings may help human resource planning and managing the physiotherapy services. PMID:25202179

  20. [Study of the prevalence of severe mental disorder in the penitentiaries Puerto I, II and III of Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz): new strategies of psychiatric care in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Basallote, N; Navarro-Repiso, C

    2012-02-01

    In recent years it has been observed that there is a high level of severe mental disorder within the Spanish prison system. A one year descriptive and transversal study of the psychiatric health care demand in the prisons Puerto I, II and III of Puerto de Santa Maria (Cádiz). Of the 128 patients studied, the psychiatric diagnostics with highest prevalence were personality disorders (F60-69) at 35.16%, the next group was psychosis (F20-29) at 25.78%, and in third place mental and behaviour disorders due to use of psychotropic substances (F10-19) at 16.41%. 46.09% suffered conditions which are categorised as severe mental disorders. This study confirms the high levels of severe mental disorder in prisons located in the area of the Puerto Real Hospital. We are making efforts to improve on psychiatric health care provided to these patients by working closely with the Prison system.

  1. Stress in police officers: a study of the origins, prevalence and severity of stress-related symptoms within a county police force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P A; Gibbs, A C C

    2003-06-01

    High levels of stress-related illness are causing concern across industry. Against a background of impending legislative moves to try to improve this situation, there is a need to identify key work-related stressors. Police work tends to be regarded as inherently stressful because of the personal risk of exposure to confrontation and violence and the day-to-day involvement in a variety of traumatic incidents. As a result, high levels of stress-related symptoms might be expected in this population. To examine the sources of stress-related symptoms within police officers and measure the prevalence of significant associated mental ill-health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a population of 1206 police officers was performed to assess levels of strain associated with a series of potential home and work related stressors. Participants were then split into low and high scoring groups on the basis of a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) threshold score in order to identify those stressors most associated with mental ill-health effects. Occupational stressors ranking most highly within the population were not specific to policing, but to organizational issues such as the demands of work impinging upon home life, lack of consultation and communication, lack of control over workload, inadequate support and excess workload in general. The high scoring group constituted 41% of the population and differed significantly from those with low scores in perception of all stressors, ranking both personal and occupational stressors more highly, and from personality constraints appeared significantly more 'stress-prone'. A significant association between gender and mental ill-health was found, with females more likely to score more highly on the GHQ than males. This study confirms previous findings of organizational culture and workload as the key issues in officer stress. Given that the degree of symptomatology appears to be worsening, management action is required. Further

  2. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Bessen, Debra E; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F

    2010-04-01

    One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections (GABHS) in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Consecutive ratings of tic, OC, and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a 2-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  4. A prospective study of the prevalence of tuberculosis and bacteraemia in Bangladeshi children with severe malnutrition and pneumonia including an evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain.We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital.405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4% children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396 of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16% additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24-94 and 92% (95% CI: 87-95 respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital.TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes.

  5. Prevalence and Severity of Off-Centering During Diagnostic CT: Observations From 57,621 CT scans of the Chest, Abdomen, and/or Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Akintayo, Oladunni O; Alexander, Lauren F; Neill, Rebecca; Krupinksi, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xiangyang; Mittal, Pardeep K; Small, William C; Moreno, Courtney C

    2018-02-23

    To determine distances between patient centroid and gantry isocenter during CT imaging of the chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis, and to evaluate differences based on patient gender, scan region, patient position, and gantry aperture. A water phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom were imaged in the centered position in the CT gantry and at several off-centered positions. Additionally, data from 57,621 adult chest, abdomen, and/or pelvic CT acquisitions were evaluated. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using the centroid-to-isocenter data as the dependent variable and the other parameters as independent variables. The majority of patient acquisitions (83.7% (48271/57621)) were performed with the patient's centroid positioned below isocenter (mean 1.7 cm below isocenter (SD 1.8 cm); range 12.1 cm below to 7.8 cm above isocenter). Off-centering in the x-axis was less severe (mean 0.01 cm left of isocenter (SD 1.6 cm)). Distance between centroid and isocenter in the y-axis did not differ as a function of sex but did differ based on scan region, patient position, and gantry aperture. Off-centering is common during CT imaging and has been previously demonstrated to impact dose and image quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the prevalence and severity of the pathological process in patients with acnes with the use of in vivo fuorescence diagnostics

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    Katkova I.O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aims. The present research aimed the study of the fuorescence of endogenous porphyrins of the skin in patients with acne. Material and methods. 20 patients with acne of 1 – 2 degrees of severity were selected. The main research methodology was a selective colorimetry of tissues with using an electronic photographic devices. The research was led with the use of multiple flters. Image areas were synthesized with high fuorescence, and then a combination of these areas with the source image was produced. The images were processed in ImageJ. Results. The examined patients has revealed intensive red glow in the feld of acne-elements before treatment. After the work with an orange flter pictures were more informative. The study suggests that the chosen method for identifcation of quantitative composition of P. acne appears to be noninvasive and highly effcient.

  7. Prevalence and impact of diffuse axonal injury in patients with moderate and severe head injury: a cohort study of early magnetic resonance imaging findings and 1-year outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandsen, Toril; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Solheim, Ole; Strand, Ingrid Haavde; Folvik, Mari; Vik, Anne

    2010-09-01

    In this prospective cohort study the authors examined patients with moderate to severe head injuries using MR imaging in the early phase. The objective was to explore the occurrence of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and determine whether DAI was related to level of consciousness and patient outcome. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (age range 5-65 years) with traumatic brain injury, who survived the acute phase, and who had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3-13 were admitted between October 2004 and August 2008. Of these 159 patients, 106 were examined using MR imaging within 4 weeks postinjury. Patients were classified into 1 of 3 stages of DAI: Stage 1, in which lesions were confined to the lobar white matter; Stage 2, in which there were callosal lesions; and Stage 3, in which lesions occurred in the dorsolateral brainstem. The outcome measure used 12 months postinjury was the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Diffuse axonal injury was detected in 72% of the patients and a combination of DAI and contusions or hematomas was found in 50%. The GCS score was significantly lower in patients with "pure DAI" (median GCS Score 9) than in patients without DAI (median GCS Score 12; p GOSE score of 7, and patients without DAI had a median GOSE score of 8 (p = 0.10). Outcome was better in patients with DAI Stage 1 (median GOSE Score 8) and DAI Stage 2 (median GOSE Score 7.5) than in patients with DAI Stage 3 (median GOSE Score 4; p < 0.001). Thus, in patients without any brainstem injury, there was no difference in good recovery between patients with DAI (67%) and patients without DAI (66%). Diffuse axonal injury was found in almost three-quarters of the patients with moderate and severe head injury who survived the acute phase. Diffuse axonal injury influenced the level of consciousness, and only in patients with DAI was GCS score related to outcome. Finally, DAI was a negative prognostic sign only when located in the brainstem.

  8. Prevalence and severity of gingivitis in school students aged 6-11 years in Tafelah Governorate, South Jordan: results of the survey executed by National Woman's Health Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Rania; Khlaifat, Feryal; Smadi, Leena; Azab, Reem; Abdalmohdi, Asma

    2015-11-09

    A cross-sectional census was conducted on 994 public school students aged 6-11 years living in 3 different parts of Tafeleh Governorate-South of Jordan, to determine the prevalence, and severity of gingivitis and to evaluate the oral hygiene habits among them as a part a survey executed by National Woman's Health Care Center. All students were examined for gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI), information about oral hygiene habits was recorded. Only 29.8 % had healthy gingiva, 38.5 % had mild gingivitis, 31.4 % had moderate gingivitis, and 0.3 % had severe gingivitis. The difference between both genders was not statistically significant P > 0.05. 36.8 % of the examined students never brushed their teeth. Average gingival index (GI) and average plaque index (PI) were 0.77 and 0.61 respectively. Fair oral hygiene with mild to moderate gingivitis is highly prevalent among Tafelah school children. This study indicated that oral health status among schoolchildren in Tafelah is poor and needs to be improved. Long-term school based oral health education programme is highly recommended.

  9. The Burden and Clinical Presentation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Adults With Severe Respiratory Illness in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Setting, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, Stefano; Dreyer, Andries; Dawood, Halima; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil A.; Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Adam L.; Wolter, Nicole; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Haffejee, Sumayya; Treurnicht, Florette; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ismail, Nazir; Cohen, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the burden and clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with severe respiratory illness (SRI) has important implications for anticipating treatment requirements. Methods Hospitalized patients aged ≥15 years with SRI at 2 public teaching hospitals in periurban areas in 2 provinces (Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province and Tshepong Hospital in Klerksdorp, North West Province) were enrolled prospectively from 2012 to 2014. Tuberculosis testing included smear microscopy, culture, or Xpert MTB/Rif. Results We enrolled 2486 individuals with SRI. Of these, 2097 (84%) were tested for tuberculosis, 593 (28%) were positive. Tuberculosis detection rate was 18% (133 of 729) in individuals with acute (≤14 days) presentation and 34% (460 of 1368) in those with chronic (>14 days) presentation. Among laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis cases, those with acute presentation were less likely to present with cough (88% [117 of 133] vs 97% [447 of 460]; ajusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1–0.5), night sweats (57% [75 of 132] vs 73% [337 of 459]; aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3–0.7), or be started on tuberculosis treatment on admission (63% [78 of 124] vs 81% [344 of 423]; aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3–0.7), but they were more likely to be coinfected with pneumococcus (13% [16 of 124] vs 6% [26 of 411]; aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–5.3) than patients with chronic presentation. Annual incidence of acute and chronic tuberculosis-associated SRI per 100000 population was 28 (95% CI = 22–39) and 116 (95% CI = 104–128), respectively. Conclusions In this setting, tuberculosis, including acute presentation, is common in patients hospitalized with SRI. PMID:28852676

  10. The Burden and Clinical Presentation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Adults With Severe Respiratory Illness in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Setting, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaza, Sibongile; Tempia, Stefano; Dreyer, Andries; Dawood, Halima; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil A; Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Adam L; Wolter, Nicole; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Haffejee, Sumayya; Treurnicht, Florette; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ismail, Nazir; Cohen, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the burden and clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with severe respiratory illness (SRI) has important implications for anticipating treatment requirements. Hospitalized patients aged ≥15 years with SRI at 2 public teaching hospitals in periurban areas in 2 provinces (Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province and Tshepong Hospital in Klerksdorp, North West Province) were enrolled prospectively from 2012 to 2014. Tuberculosis testing included smear microscopy, culture, or Xpert MTB/Rif. We enrolled 2486 individuals with SRI. Of these, 2097 (84%) were tested for tuberculosis, 593 (28%) were positive. Tuberculosis detection rate was 18% (133 of 729) in individuals with acute (≤14 days) presentation and 34% (460 of 1368) in those with chronic (>14 days) presentation. Among laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis cases, those with acute presentation were less likely to present with cough (88% [117 of 133] vs 97% [447 of 460]; ajusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5), night sweats (57% [75 of 132] vs 73% [337 of 459]; aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.7), or be started on tuberculosis treatment on admission (63% [78 of 124] vs 81% [344 of 423]; aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.7), but they were more likely to be coinfected with pneumococcus (13% [16 of 124] vs 6% [26 of 411]; aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-5.3) than patients with chronic presentation. Annual incidence of acute and chronic tuberculosis-associated SRI per 100000 population was 28 (95% CI = 22-39) and 116 (95% CI = 104-128), respectively. In this setting, tuberculosis, including acute presentation, is common in patients hospitalized with SRI.

  11. Child-Oral impacts on daily performances: A socio dental approach to assess prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in South Indian school children of Bangalore city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological well-being of children and their families. Oral health and dental treatment may have an impact on eating, speaking and appearance, thereby affecting quality of life. Thus, there has been a greater focus on the measurement of quality of life as a complement to the clinical measures. Objective: The aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in south Indian school children using Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index as a measure of oral health related quality of life. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among the six government, and six private school children aged 11-12 years, of Karnataka, South India randomly selected as cluster, and all their 563 children were invited to participate. A cross culturally adapted and validated oral health-related quality of life measure; Child-OIDP was used to assess oral impacts. Results: The common perceived oral health problems were tooth ache reported by 342 children, a sensitive tooth reported by 230 children, tooth decay - hole in the tooth reported by 226 children. Eating was the most common performance affected (68.3%. The severity of impacts was high for eating and cleaning mouth and low for the study and social contact performances. Conclusion: The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life of school children of Karnataka aged 11-12 years. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating. Toothache, a sensitive tooth, tooth decay and bleeding gums contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.

  12. The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Sylke; Härter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Siegert, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2013-02-18

    The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of

  13. Veterinary practice and occupational health. An epidemiological study of several professional groups of Dutch veterinarians. I. General physical examination and prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R; Blaauw, P J; de Vries, M; van Gulick, P J; Smithuis, O L; Gerrits, R P; Tielen, M J

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied in 102 Dutch veterinarians, subdivided into five professional groups (predominantly working with either swine, cattle, poultry, companion animals, or as a non-practitioner). The mean age of the participants was 43 years; 6 participants were females. Twenty-two per cent of the participants were overweight, and relatively more non-practitioners than practitioners were overweight. Approximately 23% of the vets reported complaints of prolonged fatigue. The data suggest a relationship between complaints of prolonged fatigue and a more than average number of daily working hours. Only a small proportion of vets were sensitized against several allergens. There were no significant differences in prevalence of distinct lung function disorders or bronchial hyperreactivity between professional groups. It is hypothesized that the respiratory complaints (chronic coughing, chronic phlegm production, stuffed nose, sneezing) reported by the vets predominantly working in swine and/or poultry practice could be caused by irritation and/or inflammation of the first part of the trachea-bronchial tree that has no measurable and permanent consequences for changes in lung function or increased bronchial hyperreactivity. The results of a skin test against allergens and determination of allergen-specific IgE in blood indicated that the respiratory complaints were probably not related to allergy against the panel of allergens tested.

  14. Prevalence and Severity of Depression among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undergraduate Students in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross. Sectional Study ... questionnaire to appraise the presence and extent of depression among the participants. Their socio- ..... and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global burden of disease ...

  15. Prevalence, severity and factors associated with peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6.5%, ii). A fasting plasma ... clinical diagnosis (e.g., a patient in a hyperglycemic crisis or with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia and a ... Vibration sense was elicited using a 128 Hz turning fork at the hallux of the big toe. Pain perception was.

  16. Prevalence, incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with pooled and specific severe mental illness: a large-scale meta-analysis of 3,211,768 patients and 113,383,368 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Solmi, Marco; Veronese, Nicola; Bortolato, Beatrice; Rosson, Stella; Santonastaso, Paolo; Thapa-Chhetri, Nita; Fornaro, Michele; Gallicchio, Davide; Collantoni, Enrico; Pigato, Giorgio; Favaro, Angela; Monaco, Francesco; Kohler, Cristiano; Vancampfort, Davy; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-06-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) - schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder - appear at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a comprehensive meta-analysis is lacking. We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and incidence of CVD; coronary heart disease; stroke, transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular disease; congestive heart failure; peripheral vascular disease; and CVD-related death in SMI patients (N=3,211,768) versus controls (N=113,383,368) (92 studies). The pooled CVD prevalence in SMI patients (mean age 50 years) was 9.9% (95% CI: 7.4-13.3). Adjusting for a median of seven confounders, patients had significantly higher odds of CVD versus controls in cross-sectional studies (odds ratio, OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.27-1.83; 11 studies), and higher odds of coronary heart disease (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.47-1.55) and cerebrovascular disease (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.21-1.66). People with major depressive disorder were at increased risk for coronary heart disease, while those with schizophrenia were at increased risk for coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and congestive heart failure. Cumulative CVD incidence in SMI patients was 3.6% (95% CI: 2.7-5.3) during a median follow-up of 8.4 years (range 1.8-30.0). Adjusting for a median of six confounders, SMI patients had significantly higher CVD incidence than controls in longitudinal studies (hazard ratio, HR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.60-1.98; 31 studies). The incidence was also higher for coronary heart disease (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.30-1.82), cerebrovascular disease (HR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.14), congestive heart failure (HR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.64-2.70), and CVD-related death (HR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.53-2.24). People with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were all at increased risk of CVD-related death versus controls. CVD incidence increased with antipsychotic use (p=0.008), higher body mass index (p=0.008) and higher baseline CVD prevalence (p=0.03) in

  17. The role of influenza, RSV and other common respiratory viruses in severe acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness in a population with a high HIV sero-prevalence, South Africa 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Marthi A; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Moyes, Jocelyn; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Seleka, Mpho; Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette; Cohen, Cheryl; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-02-01

    Viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections may be the cause of illness or asymptomatic shedding. To estimate the attributable fraction (AF) and the detection rate attributable to illness for each of the different respiratory viruses We compared the prevalence of 10 common respiratory viruses (influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus 1-3; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and enterovirus) in both HIV positive and negative patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and control subjects who did not report any febrile, respiratory or gastrointestinal illness during 2012-2015 in South Africa. We enrolled 1959 SARI, 3784 ILI and 1793 controls with a HIV sero-prevalence of 26%, 30% and 43%, respectively. Influenza virus (AF: 86.3%; 95%CI: 77.7-91.6%), hMPV (AF: 85.6%; 95%CI: 72.0-92.6%), and RSV (AF: 83.7%; 95%CI: 77.5-88.2%) infections were associated with severe disease., while rhinovirus (AF: 46.9%; 95%CI: 37.6-56.5%) and adenovirus (AF: 36.4%; 95%CI: 20.6-49.0%) were only moderately associated. Influenza, RSV and hMPV can be considered pathogens if detected in ILI and SARI while rhinovirus and adenovirus were commonly identified in controls suggesting that they may cause only a proportion of clinical disease observed in positive patients. Nonetheless, they may be important contributors to disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Level Is an Independent Predictor of the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and of Future Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eapen, Danny J; Manocha, Pankaj; Ghasemzedah, Nima

    2014-01-01

    (PPPPP...-statistic for a model based on traditional risk factors was improved from 0.72 to 0.74 (P=0.008) with the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of plasma suPAR are associated with the presence and severity of CAD and are independent predictors of death and MI in patients with suspected or known CAD....

  19. Geotechnical characterization through in situ and laboratory tests of several geological formations present in the route of the Future Fix Connection between Spain and Morocco through Gibraltar Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucho Martinez, A.; Diez Torres, J. A.; Muniz Menendez, M.; Cano Linares, H.; Ruiz Fonticiella, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    CEDEX and SECEGSA (Sociedad Española para la Comunicación Fija a través del Estrecho de Gibraltar), Have been collaborating since a few decades ago to study different technical aspects related to the Fix Connection through the Gibraltar Strait, mainly in relation to the geological and geotechnical properties of the different formations present in the route. In order to do so, many studies of geotechnical characterization of materials, in situ and laboratory testing campaigns have been carried out. Furthermore, they have participated in some Expertise Committees carrying out some advice work related to studies performed by other organizations. This paper presents a brief description of the most relevant aspects of the main geological and geotechnical studies performed related to this Project of the Future Fix Connection and obtained through the study of SECEGSAs extensive data base. Moreover, it includes a synopsis of the geotechnical characterization carried out through in situ and laboratory tests on different Miocene and Eocene formations from the Algeciras Unit, present in the route of the future Fix Connection between Spain and gibraltar through the Gibraltar Strait. (Author)

  20. The impact of different diagnostic criteria on PTSD prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias; Spindler, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD have undergone several changes in the last two decades. This may in part explain the great variance in PTSD prevalence found in existing research. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of different diagnostic criteria and different combinations...... of criteria on PTSD prevalence. A sample of 242 Danish social work students (M =29.2 years) completed a list of potentially traumatizing events, major life events and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A considerable difference in PTSD prevalence as a result of different diagnostic criteria of PTSD was found....... Future meta-analyses and reviews of PTSD prevalence must take into account the impact of changing criteria on prevalence. Clinicians also need to address this issue when assessing PTSD...

  1. Prevalence and reasons for intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine as an adjunct to future visits to a medical doctor for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Stub, Trine; Musial, Frauke; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Lillenes, Ola; Norheim, Arne Johan

    2018-03-27

    Intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has previously only been researched in small, possibly biased, samples. There seems to be a lack of scientific information regarding healthy individual's attitudes and presumed use of CAM. The aim of this study is to describe prevalence and characteristics of participants who intend to see a CAM provider compared to participants who intend to see a medical doctor (MD) only when suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and in the need of treatment. Further to describe differences between the groups regarding expected reasons for CAM use and expected skills of CAM providers. The survey was conducted in January 2016 as part of the "TNS Gallup Health policy Barometer". In total, 1728 individuals aged 16-92 years participated in the study, constituting an overall response rate of 47%. The survey included questions regarding opinions and attitudes towards health, health services and health politics in Norway. The majority of the participants (90.2%) would see a MD only if they were suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and were in the need of treatment. Men over the age of 60 with a university education tended to see a MD only. Only 9.8% of all respondents would in addition visit a CAM provider. Being an intentional user of a MD + CAM provider was associated with being a woman under the age of 60. The respondents believed that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in CAM. They also believed that individuals seeing a CAM provider have poor health and are driven by the hope of being cured. Further, that they have heard that others have good experience with such treatment. Intentional use of CAM is associated with positive attitudes, trustworthiness, and presumed positive experiences in the CAM-patient-setting. Intentional CAM users also have the impression that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in alternative

  2. Impact of five tobacco endgame strategies on future smoking prevalence, population health and health system costs: two modelling studies to inform the tobacco endgame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Cleghorn, Christine L; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Cobiac, Linda J; Nghiem, Nhung; Blakely, Tony

    2018-05-01

    There is growing international interest in advancing 'the tobacco endgame'. We use New Zealand (Smokefree goal for 2025) as a case study to model the impacts on smoking prevalence (SP), health gains (quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) and cost savings of (1) 10% annual tobacco tax increases, (2) a tobacco-free generation (TFG), (3) a substantial outlet reduction strategy, (4) a sinking lid on tobacco supply and (5) a combination of 1, 2 and 3. Two models were used: (1) a dynamic population forecasting model for SP and (2) a closed cohort (population alive in 2011) multistate life table model (including 16 tobacco-related diseases) for health gains and costs. All selected tobacco endgame strategies were associated with reductions in SP by 2025, down from 34.7%/14.1% for Māori (indigenous population)/non-Māori in 2011 to 16.0%/6.8% for tax increases; 11.2%/5.6% for the TFG; 17.8%/7.3% for the outlet reduction; 0% for the sinking lid; and 9.3%/4.8% for the combined strategy. Major health gains accrued over the remainder of the 2011 population's lives ranging from 28 900 QALYs (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI)): 16 500 to 48 200; outlet reduction) to 282 000 QALYs (95%UI: 189 000 to 405 000; sinking lid) compared with business-as-usual (3% discounting). The timing of health gain and cost savings greatly differed for the various strategies (with accumulated health gain peaking in 2040 for the sinking lid and 2070 for the TFG). Implementing endgame strategies is needed to achieve tobacco endgame targets and reduce inequalities in smoking. Given such strategies are new, modelling studies provide provisional information on what approaches may be best. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The Euratom-Rosatom ERCOSAM-SAMARA projects on containment thermal-hydraulics of current and future LWRs for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, D.; Guentay, S.; Andreani, M.; Tkatschenko, I.; Brinster, J.; Dabbene, F.; Kelm, S.; Allelein, H. J.; Visser, D. C.; Benz, S.; Jordan, T.; Liang, Z.; Porcheron, E.; Malet, J.; Bentaib, A.; Kiselev, A.; Yudina, T.; Filippov, A.; Khizbullin, A.; Kamnev, M.; Zaytsev, A.; Loukianov, A.

    2012-01-01

    During a postulated severe accident with core degradation, hydrogen would form in the reactor pressure vessel mainly due to high temperatures zirconium-steam reaction and flow together with steam into the containment where it will mix with the containment atmosphere (steam-air). The hydrogen transport into the containment is a safety concern because it can lead to explosive mixtures through the associated phenomena of condensation, mixing and stratification. The ERCOSAM and SAMARA projects, co-financed by the European Union and the Russia, include various experiments addressing accident scenarios scaled down from existing plant calculations to different thermal-hydraulics facilities (TOSQAN, MISTRA, PANDA, SPOT). The tests sequences aim to investigate hydrogen concentration build-up and stratification during a postulated accident and the effect of the activation of Severe Accident Management systems (SAMs), e.g. sprays, coolers and Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiners (PARs). Analytical activities, performed by the project participants, are an essential component of the projects, as they aim to improve and validate various computational methods. They accompany the projects in the various phases; plant calculations, scaling to generic containment and to the different facilities, planning pre-test and post-test simulations are performed. Code benchmark activities on the basis of conceptual near full scale HYMIX facility will finally provide a further opportunity to evaluate the applicability of the various methods to the study of scaling issues. (authors)

  4. The effect of exercise training in adults with multiple sclerosis with severe mobility disability: A systematic review and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Pilutti, Lara A

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence for the benefits of exercise training in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these benefits have primarily been established in individuals with mild-to-moderate disability (i.e., Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] scores 1.0-5.5), rather than among those with significant mobility impairment. Further, the approaches to exercise training that have been effective in persons with mild-to-moderate MS disability may not be physically accessible for individuals with mobility limitations. Therefore, there is a demand for an evidence-base on the benefits of physically accessible exercise training approaches for managing disability in people with MS with mobility impairment. To conduct a systematic review of the current literature pertaining to exercise training in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) with severe mobility disability. Four electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OvidMEDLINE, and PsychINFO) were searched for relevant articles published up until October 2016. The review focused on English-language studies that examined the effect of exercise training in people with MS with severe mobility disability, characterized as the need for assistance in ambulation or EDSS score ≥ 6.0. The inclusion criteria involved full-text articles that: (i) included participants with a diagnosis of MS; (ii) included primarily participants with a reported EDSS score ≥ 6.0 and/or definitively described disability consistent with this level of neurological impairment; and (iii) implemented a prospective, structured exercise intervention. Data were analyzed using a descriptive approach and summarized by exercise training modality (conventional or adapted exercise training), and by outcome (disability, physical fitness, physical function, and symptoms and participation). Initially, 1164 articles were identified and after removal of duplicates, 530 articles remained. In total, 512 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria. 19 articles were

  5. Prevalência de estreptococos do grupo mutans em crianças de 12 a 31 meses de idade e sua associação com a freqüência e severidade de cárie dental Prevalence of mutans streptococci in 12-31-month-old children and its association with frequency and severity of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira MATTOS-GRANER

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os níveis salivares de estreptococos do grupo mutans (GM e a prevalência de cárie dental em 142 crianças, de 12 a 31 meses de idade, da cidade de Piracicaba - SP. Ao exame clínico, foram diagnosticadas as lesões de cárie iniciais (mancha branca e cavitadas de todas as superfícies dentárias. GM foram detectados em 80,3% (n = 114 das crianças estudadas, sendo que 21,8% (n = 31 delas apresentavam altos níveis salivares desses microrganismos. Os níveis salivares de GM foram dependentes do número de dentes irrompidos na cavidade bucal (c2 = 19,03; p c2 = 28,67; p The prevalence of mutans streptococci (MS was evaluated in samples of unstimulated saliva from 142 12-31-month-old children. Initial and manifest caries of all teeth surfaces were recorded. Mutans streptococci were detected in 80.3% (n = 114 of the studied children, and 21.8% of all children (n = 31 presented high levels of these microorganisms. The salivary levels of mutans streptococci depended on the number of erupted teeth (c2 = 19.03; p c2 = 28.67; p < 0.001. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the salivary levels of these microorganisms and the number of caries lesions which was higher when initial caries were considered (r = 0.537; p < 0.001. These data show a high prevalence of mutans streptococci in children with 12 to 31 months of age and its positive association with the frequency and severity of dental caries.

  6. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illness and possibly to death. Numerous studies demonstrate that mental distress of caregivers are two times compared to general populations. Despite it was not uncommon to observe manifestations of caregivers' mental distress, yet there was no study on this area. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among the caregivers of persons with severe mental illness in the out patients unit of Amanuel Hospital, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 31, 2013 at Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique with "k" interval of 13 was employed to withdraw a total of 423 participants from study population. Five psychiatric nurses carried out interview by using standardized and validated Self Reported Questionnaire (SRQ 20). Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. This study revealed that the overall prevalence of mental distress was found to be 221(56.7 %). The factors like missed social support, two or more times admission of patient, care giving for psychotic patient, being farmer and being female were found to be predictors for mental distress of caregivers with this [AOR 95 % CI = 9.523(5.002, 18.132)], 3.293(1.474, 3.3560), 2.007(1.109, 3.634), 2.245(1.129, 4.463) and 3.170(1.843, 5.454)] respectively. In this respect the study observed that there was a higher level of mental distress experienced by caregivers of

  7. Use of multi-sensor active fire detections to map fires in the United States: the future of monitoring trends in burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Coan, Michael; Howard, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to utilize satellite-based MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES fire detections from the Hazard Monitoring System (HMS) to identify undocumented fires in Florida and improve the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) mapping process has yielded promising results. This method was augmented using regression tree models to identify burned/not-burned pixels (BnB) in every Landsat scene (1984–2012) in Worldwide Referencing System 2 Path/Rows 16/40, 17/39, and 1839. The burned area delineations were combined with the HMS detections to create burned area polygons attributed with their date of fire detection. Within our study area, we processed 88,000 HMS points (2003–2012) and 1,800 Landsat scenes to identify approximately 300,000 burned area polygons. Six percent of these burned area polygons were larger than the 500-acre MTBS minimum size threshold. From this study, we conclude that the process can significantly improve understanding of fire occurrence and improve the efficiency and timeliness of assessing its impacts upon the landscape.

  8. Suggestion of ways to analyze future energy needs and possibilities to cover them in participating countries - working plan for next several years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Situation in works in two directions AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and INPRO IAEA Collaborative Projects CZE1 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the 21st century' is described and together with existing lifetimes of nuclear power station in long time concept several tasks are formulated, which will have to be solved to keep concept of closed fuel cycle and balance of primary fossil fuel and its substitution from another primary resource - mainly nuclear. Study of series of prepared long time energy perspectives shows that it is frequently separated electricity from other energy forms and that there are not taken into account limitations arising from reduction of fossil resources and probable reduction of their supply on the market. In connection with such feature, expected during the next decade, to be able to prepare more responsible forecast we need supported information from economical and transport branches - some of them are formulated - as was possible by the author study. It is astonishing like all our countries suppose that supply of external fossil primary resources will be not only stable but slightly growing during the next decades, without study of the market and supply possibilities. (author)

  9. Prevalência e severidade de gengivite em escolares de 7 a 14 anos: condições locais associadas ao sangramento à sondagem Prevalence and severity of gingivitis among scholars (7-14 years: local conditions associated to bleeding on probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chambrone

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi coletar dados sobre a prevalência e severidade de gengivite em uma amostra de crianças em idade escolar, bem como sua relação com possíveis fatores de risco locais. Duzentos e seis indivíduos foram examinados, sendo 107 meninos e 99 meninas, com idades entre 7 e 14 anos; foram coletados dados referentes ao índice de placa (IP, índice gengival (IG e profundidade clínica de sondagem (PCS. Entre os parâmetros clínicos observados, as médias referentes a PCS, IP e IG encontradas foram de 1,58 + 0,46, 1,12 + 0,49 e 0,89 + 0,32, respectivamente. Noventa e cinco indivíduos (46,1% apresentaram um quadro de gengivite leve e 111 (53,9%, de gengivite moderada. No geral, os indivíduos do sexo masculino apresentaram estatisticamente maior quantidade de placa bacteriana e maior inflamação do tecido gengival que indivíduos do sexo feminino. A presença de inflamação gengival foi encontrada em todos os indivíduos examinados. A severidade de inflamação nos dentes permanentes esteve diretamente relacionada à quantidade de placa e ao sangramento à sondagem.The objective of this study was to collect data about the prevalence and severity of gingivitis in a sample of scholars, as well as its relationship with possible local risk factors. Two hundred and six subjects were examined, 107 male and 99 female, with age ranging from 7 to 14 years, where data from their Plaque Index (IP, Gingival Index (IG, and Clinical Probing Depth (PCS were collected. Among all the clinical parameters observed, the mean values found referent to PCS, IP and IG were 1.58 + 0.46, 1.12 + 0.49 and 0.89 + 0.32, respectively. Ninety five subjects (46.1% presented a diagnostic of slight gingivitis and 111 (53.9% of moderate gingivitis. Overall, male subjects presented statistically more dental plaque and more gingival inflammation than female subjects. Clinical signs of gingival inflammation were found in all the examined subjects. Gingivitis

  10. Future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Topics presented concerning the future developments in risk analysis are: safety goals, US severe accident policy, code developments, research programs, analyses and operation action, linking with the deterministic analyses. Principle consideration in risk is defined as protection of both general population, and nearby residents. The principal goal should be consistent with risk of other man-caused activities, the cost benefit after minimum safety levels are achieved, and proportional to benefits to be gained

  11. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women

  12. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use...... the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  13. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  14. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  15. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    a different future for both parents and children. Thus, the approach to PMTO as a technology of the future indicates its expected prevalence in the future and its attempt to reach in to the future becoming of the child. The technology’s involvement of the relatives and its orientation towards shaping......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  16. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  17. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  18. Energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides fifteen of the futures industry's leading authorities with broader background in both theory and practice of energy futures trading in this updated text. The authors review the history of the futures market and the fundamentals of trading, hedging, and technical analysis; then they update you with the newest trends in energy futures trading - natural gas futures, options, regulations, and new information services. The appendices outline examples of possible contracts and their construction

  19. Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agweyu, Ambrose; Kibore, Minnie; Digolo, Lina; Kosgei, Caroline; Maina, Virginia; Mugane, Samson; Muma, Sarah; Wachira, John; Waiyego, Mary; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya. We followed up children aged 2-59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (SP) and very severe pneumonia (VSP) for up to 5 days for TF using two definitions: (i) documentation of pre-defined clinical signs resulting in change of treatment (ii) primary clinician's decision to change treatment with or without documentation of the same pre-defined clinical signs. We enrolled 385 children. The risk of TF varied between 1.8% (95% CI 0.4-5.1) and 12.4% (95% CI 7.9-18.4) for SP and 21.4% (95% CI 15.9-27) and 39.3% (95% CI 32.5-46.4) for VSP depending on the definition applied. Higher rates were associated with early changes in therapy by clinician in the absence of an obvious clinical rationale. Non-adherence to treatment guidelines was observed for 70/169 (41.4%) and 67/201 (33.3%) of children with SP and VSP, respectively. Among children with SP, adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with the presence of wheeze on initial assessment (P = 0.02), while clinician non-adherence to guideline-recommended treatments for VSP tended to occur in children with altered consciousness (P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching to account for imbalance in the distribution of baseline clinical characteristics among children with VSP revealed no difference in TF between those treated with the guideline-recommended regimen vs. more costly broad-spectrum alternatives [risk difference 0.37 (95% CI -0.84 to 0.51)]. Before revising current pneumonia case management guidelines, standardised definitions of TF and appropriate studies of treatment effectiveness of alternative regimens are required. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Psychometric properties of the OHIP-14 and prevalence and severity of oral health impacts in a rural riverine population in Amazonas State, Brazil Avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 e da prevalência dos impactos da saúde bucal, em população rural ribeirinha no Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cohen-Carneiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: (1 test the psychometric properties of OHIP-14 in a rural population; and (2 compare the oral health impacts in two riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon that were living at different distances from an urban center. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study in a consecutive sample (n = 126. The validity was assessed through the association of OHIP with clinical and subjective variables, which showed a more significant association with: pain, caries, need of extraction or endodontic treatment; than with tooth loss, periodontal disease or need of prostheses. The stability and internal consistency were good (ICC = 0.97; Cronbach's α = 0.89. The prevalence of oral impacts was greater in the community far from the urban center [70.3 (59.9-80.7] than in the community closer to it [44.3 (30.7-57.7], and in women [66.7 (56.0-77.3] in comparison with men [49.1 (35.3-62.7]. The OHIP-14 adapted to rural populations in Amazonas State was valid, reproducible, and consistent. There was high prevalence of impacts, especially for riverine communities that lived far from urban centers.Os objetivos do trabalho foram: (1 testar as propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 em população rural e (2 comparar os impactos da saúde bucal em duas comunidades ribeirinhas amazônicas, com diferentes distâncias do centro urbano. Os dados foram obtidos de uma amostra consecutiva de pacientes (n = 126 em estudo de corte transversal. A validade do instrumento foi testada pela associação do OHIP com variáveis clínicas e subjetivas, sendo mais significativa para as variáveis: dor, cárie, necessidade de extração e de endodontia que para perda dentária, doença periodontal e necessidade de prótese. Estabilidade e consistência interna foram boas (CCI = 0,97; α Cronbach = 0,89. A prevalência de impactos foi maior na comunidade mais distante do centro urbano [70,3 (59,9-80,7] que na mais próxima [44,3 (30,7-57,7], e nas

  1. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  2. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agweyu, Ambrose; Kibore, Minnie; Digolo, Lina; Kosgei, Caroline; Maina, Virginia; Mugane, Samson; Muma, Sarah; Wachira, John; Waiyego, Mary; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya. Methods We followed up children aged 2–59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (SP) and very severe pneumonia (VSP) for up to 5 days for TF using two definitions: (i) documentation of pre-defined clinical signs resulting in change of treatment (ii) primary clinician's decision to change treatment with or without documentation of the same pre-defined clinical signs. Results We enrolled 385 children. The risk of TF varied between 1.8% (95% CI 0.4–5.1) and 12.4% (95% CI 7.9–18.4) for SP and 21.4% (95% CI 15.9–27) and 39.3% (95% CI 32.5–46.4) for VSP depending on the definition applied. Higher rates were associated with early changes in therapy by clinician in the absence of an obvious clinical rationale. Non-adherence to treatment guidelines was observed for 70/169 (41.4%) and 67/201 (33.3%) of children with SP and VSP, respectively. Among children with SP, adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with the presence of wheeze on initial assessment (P = 0.02), while clinician non-adherence to guideline-recommended treatments for VSP tended to occur in children with altered consciousness (P grupos en la distribución de las características clínicas de base de los niños con NMS, se observó que no existían diferencias en FT entre aquellos tratados con el régimen recomendado por las guías versus alternativas más costosas de amplio espectro (diferencias de riesgo 0.37 (IC 95% -0.84 a 0.51). Conclusión Antes de revisar las actuales guías de manejo de casos de neumonía, se requieren definiciones estandarizadas de FT y estudios apropiados de la efectividad del tratamiento de regímenes alternativos. PMID:25130866

  4. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  5. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-03-05

    Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.

  6. Evidence that psychotic symptoms are prevalent in disorders of anxiety and depression, impacting on illness onset, risk, and severity--implications for diagnosis and ultra-high risk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigman, Johanna T W; van Nierop, Martine; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ullrich; van Os, Jim

    2012-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that there are clear lines of demarcation between anxiety and depressive disorders on the one hand and psychosis on the other. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this principle may be in need of updating. Depressive and/or anxiety disorders, with no previous history of psychotic disorder, were examined for the presence of psychotic symptoms in a representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology study; n = 3021). Associations and consequences of psychotic symptomatology in the course of these disorders were examined in terms of demographic distribution, illness severity, onset of service use, and risk factors. Around 27% of those with disorders of anxiety and depression displayed one or more psychotic symptoms, vs 14% in those without these disorders (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.89-2.66, P illness course (P symptoms (P illness behavior (P illness (P disorders of anxiety and depression is common and a functionally and etiologically highly relevant feature, reinforcing the view that psychopathology is represented by a network or overlapping and reciprocally impacting dimensional liabilities.

  7. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability. PMID:22908997

  8. Severe Obesity Decreasing in Children in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharofa, Roohi Y; Klein, Jillian A; Khoury, Philip; Siegel, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity rates appear to be leveling off. Studies not looking at severe obesity may be masking a rightward shift in the distribution of body mass indexes. Our objective was to provide current prevalence rates and examine trends in overweight, obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity for youth in Cincinnati, Ohio. We performed a retrospective chart review of children 2 to 18 years old seen at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014. Data from 217 037 BMIs were obtained; 35.2% of children were found to have an elevated BMI. Prevalence rates were highest in older, Hispanic, and Medicaid-insured children. The only significant trend over the 3-year period was a downward shift in class 3 obesity ( P = .02), contrary to national findings. Further studies assessing which clinical/community efforts have led to this downward trend will be essential to target future resources and facilitate continued progress.

  9. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO d...

  10. Preparing for the future today: The findings of the NEA RK and M initiative for the short term (This period covers several decades and likely more than 100 years. The actual duration will vary across national programmes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Jantine

    2015-01-01

    The NEA initiative on Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations is an initiative that expresses, supports and aims to answer to an evolution in long-term radioactive waste management (RWM) thinking over the past decades. In the earlier days, the vision seems to have been that waste management ends with the closure of disposal sites. Oversight after closure was not an issue that was studied, (tacitly) assuming safe oblivion of geological repositories, or that archives, markers and other similar tools would suffice, e.g. to avoid human intrusion and/or to understand the nature of the underground facility. Today, it is recognised that oversight should take place for as long as practicable. The new vision includes the preservation of information to be used by future generations. In this paper we want to highlight that such a vision shift with regard to the future requires an accompanying shift with regard to present thinking and practices. To this aim, we will outline some of the studies undertaken within the RK and M initiative that substantiate this finding that the future starts today, and offer suggestions to support its concretization. societal oversight as long as practicable, we should acknowledge the fact that RK and M loss takes place rapidly if it is not acted upon in a conscious and ongoing manner that involves various actors and does more than dumping records into archives. The success of RK and M preservation cannot be judged today by whether they will last for one or ten thousand years. Instead, it lies in establishing and maintaining awareness of the need and responsibility for RK and M preservation in the minds of regulators, operators, stakeholders and, especially in the longer term, the local and regional authorities and general public. Therefore, we should not only think about future activities, but act upon the idea that the long term starts today, and that RK and M preservation needs to be prepared for in the present, while the

  11. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  13. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  14. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To .... metacarpal fractures contributing mostly to the prolonged recovery ... to recover from TBIs/hypoxia. This follows .... gear and the legality of knee and elbow strikes to.

  15. Prevalence and severity of pterygium among commercial motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pterygium is common among outdoor workers who are daily exposed to sunlight and dust due to repeated conjunctival /corneal drying and microtrauma especially in the tropics. Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are outdoor workers who spend the greater part of the day outdoors under the intense heat and ...

  16. The prevalence and severity of mental illnesses handled by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of 387 respondents, 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Of the diagnosable current mental illnesses, 29.7% were Psychosis; 5.4% Major depressive episode; 5.6% Anxiety disorders; 3.6% mixed. Anxiety-Depression; and 3.9% Suicidality. In terms of ...

  17. Skin diseases: prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General

  18. Prevalence and severity of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of cervical cancer relies on the detection and treatment of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL), a premalignant disease stage. Worldwide there are overwhelming reports associating SIL and HIV infection, however in Tanzania such reports are limited. A cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study was ...

  19. Pain symptoms in patients with severe cerebral palsy: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patterns, ambulation, leisure and mood. Therefore, it is ... caregivers and assessment instruments to detect pain [12]. ... useful tool for the classification of pain in adults. [13,14]. ..... and metabolism in children and adolescents with moderate to ...

  20. Prevalence and severity of domestic violence among pregnant women, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Roberto; Ruíz, Agustín

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar si el embarazo es un factor de riesgo o un factor de protección frente a la violencia doméstica y comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la violencia que sufren las mujeres embarazadas antes y durante el embarazo. MÉTODOS: Encuesta realizada a una muestra de 468 mujeres atendidas en consulta prenatal en su tercer trimestre de embarazo por los servicios de la Secretaría de Salud del estado de Morelos (México). Se exploró violencia emocional, física y sexual. Se construyó ...

  1. Futures Brokerages Face uncertain Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2005 was a quiet year for China's futures market.After four new trading products, including cotton, fuel oil and corn, were launched on the market in 2004, the development of the market seemed to stagnate. The trade value of the futures market totaled 13.4 trillion yuan (US$ 1.67 trillion) in 2005, down 8.5 percent year-on-year. Although the decrease is quite small and the trade value was still the second highest in the market's history, the majority of futures brokerage firms were running in the red. In some areas, up to 80 percent of futures companies made losses.

  2. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  3. PREVALENCE OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICANS AND AFRICANS IN THE DIASPORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, E D

    2016-01-01

    There have been several publications on population or community prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from various countries and races but few reports are from Africa on Africans. A review on the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in Africans and other races. The current literature on prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia co-existing with prostate cancer in Africans and other races is reviewed. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prevalence in Ghana is responsible for 60% acute retention of urine and 28.6% of haematuria. Worldwide prevalence of BPH varies from 20 - 62% in men over 50 years and this includes USA, UK, Japan and Ghana. Reports from South Africa indicate prevalence of over 50% in adult males of 60 years. BPH co-existing with PC - Reports from USA, UK and Japan and Ghana reveal moderate association of BPH and PC. The co-existence of PC in patients being treated for BPH is 3 - 20% Prostate Cancer prevalence - There is high prevalence in USA, Scandinavian Countries, African Americans (AA) and Caribbean blacks. Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago have reported high prevalence of 6 -10% in men aged 50 years and above but others reported low prevalence in Africans from Africa. The low reporting from Africa of 10 - 40:100,000 is attributable to under reporting, absence of PSA screening/testing, lack of reliable cancer registries and poor medical facilities. Economic Costs of BPH and PC: BPH in the USA national direct costs are estimated at U$4Billion and individual costs of US$1536 annually. In Ghana, individual costs for BPH medications range from US$300 - 550 per year and cost for simple prostatectomy/TURP is estimated at US$1100. For prostate cancer, individual direct costs from Europe range from 6,575 - 12,000 euros, £2818.00 UK and over U$12,000 - 20,000 in USA per annum. In Ghana, individual direct costs ranges, for radical prostatectomy and

  4. Severe asthma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciznar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma are clinically, physiologically and biologically a heterogeneous group. About half of children referred for medical examination for severe asthma have true severe, therapy resistant asthma. The rest of referred patients have difficult to treat asthma. Symptoms persist mostly due to drug non-compliance, inappropriate inhalation technique, persistent environmental exposures or co-morbid conditions. Compared with adults have children more frequently atopic form of severe asthma. This is associated with eosinophilia in peripheral blood and sensitization to inhaled allergens. The IgE levels are high. Therapy of co-morbidities and improvement of treatment compliance lead in most cases to full asthma control. Proportion of children will benefit from biologics like anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, administered by subcutaneous injections in 2 to 4 week intervals. By this therapy it is not only possible to suppress symptoms, but also decrease the total steroid dose and the risk of adverse effects associated with its long-term administration. By achieving a full asthma control we lower future risk of exacerbations and probably improve long-term prognosis of disease, frequently persisting for the rest of life. (author)

  5. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  6. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  7. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  8. Future Savvy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Adam

    There's no shortage of predictions available to organizations looking to anticipate and profit from future events or trends. Apparently helpful forecasts are ubiquitous in everyday communications such as newspapers and business magazines, and in specialized sources such as government and think......-tank forecasts, consultant reports, and stock-market guides. These resources are crucial, but they are also of very mixed quality. How can decision-makers know which predictions to take seriously, which to be wary of, and which to throw out entirely? Future Savvy provides analytical filters to judging predictive...... systematic "forecast filtering" to reveal strengths and weakness in the predictions they face. Future Savvy empowers both business and policy/government decision-makers to use forecasts wisely and so improve their judgment in anticipating opportunities, avoiding threats, and managing uncertainty....

  9. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  10. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  11. LOS ALAMOS: Hadron future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, David J.

    1992-01-01

    At a Workshop on the Future of Hadron Facilities, held on 15-16 August at Los Alamos National Laboratory, several speakers pointed out that the US physics community carrying out fixed target experiments with hadron beam had not been as successful with funding as it deserved. To rectify this, they said, the community should be better organized and present a more united front

  12. LOS ALAMOS: Hadron future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, David J.

    1992-11-15

    At a Workshop on the Future of Hadron Facilities, held on 15-16 August at Los Alamos National Laboratory, several speakers pointed out that the US physics community carrying out fixed target experiments with hadron beam had not been as successful with funding as it deserved. To rectify this, they said, the community should be better organized and present a more united front.

  13. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  14. Bitcoin futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Søren Bundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Med introduktionen af et futures-marked er Bitcoin-eksponering blevet tilgængelig for en bredere gruppe af investorer, som hidtil ikke har kunnet eller villet tilgå det underliggende marked for Bitcoin. Artiklen finder, at kontrakterne umiddelbart favoriserer spekulanter på bekostning af hedgers og...

  15. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, CHD risk, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Cinzia; Gallagher, John

    2006-01-01

    An increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a condition characterized by the concomitant presence of several abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (with or without glucose intolerance or diabetes), microalbuminuria, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory states. Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome indicate that this condition is now common and likely to increase dramatically over the coming decades, in parallel with greater rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are already present in obese children and adolescents. Thus, identifying and treating all affected individuals promptly and optimally are critical to ensure that this potentially challenging healthcare burden is minimized. Here, we review the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, and CHD risk. Although changes in lifestyle are fundamental to reducing many of the CHD risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, pharmacologic interventions also play an important role. Retrospective subanalyses of the effects of statins on coronary event rates and lipid levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome included in clinical trials indicate that these agents are beneficial in correcting the extensive lipid abnormalities that are frequently present in these individuals. However, the optimal management of metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia will depend on the outcomes of future prospective clinical trials. This review examines the underlying causes and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its impact on CHD morbidity and mortality and discusses the role of statins in optimizing its management.

  16. Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2018-01-01

    In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,

  17. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  18. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  19. Current concepts of severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raundhal, Mahesh; Oriss, Timothy B.; Ray, Prabir; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The term asthma encompasses a disease spectrum with mild to very severe disease phenotypes whose traditional common characteristic is reversible airflow limitation. Unlike milder disease, severe asthma is poorly controlled by the current standard of care. Ongoing studies using advanced molecular and immunological tools along with improved clinical classification show that severe asthma does not identify a specific patient phenotype, but rather includes patients with constant medical needs, whose pathobiologic and clinical characteristics vary widely. Accordingly, in recent clinical trials, therapies guided by specific patient characteristics have had better outcomes than previous therapies directed to any subject with a diagnosis of severe asthma. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the full scope of this disease that hinder the development of effective treatments for all severe asthmatics. In this Review, we discuss our current state of knowledge regarding severe asthma, highlighting different molecular and immunological pathways that can be targeted for future therapeutic development. PMID:27367183

  20. Component processes underlying future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Ortoleva, Claudia; Jumentier, Sabrina; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and questionnaires measuring various component processes that have been hypothesized to support future thinking (i.e., executive processes, visual-spatial processing, relational memory processing, self-consciousness, and time perspective). The main results showed that executive processes were correlated with various measures of future thinking, whereas visual-spatial processing abilities and time perspective were specifically related to the number of sensory descriptions reported when specific future events were imagined. Furthermore, individual differences in self-consciousness predicted the subjective feeling of experiencing the imagined future events. These results suggest that future thinking involves a collection of processes that are related to different facets of future-event representation.

  1. Future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Croce, A.

    1991-01-01

    According to George Woodwell, founder of the Woods Hole Research Center, due the combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and accelerated respiration, the net annual increase of carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, to the 750 billion tonnes already present in the earth's atmosphere, is in the order of 3 to 5 billion tonnes. Around the world, scientists, investigating the probable effects of this increase on the earth's future climate, are now formulating coupled air and ocean current models which take account of water temperature and salinity dependent carbon dioxide exchange mechanisms acting between the atmosphere and deep layers of ocean waters

  2. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  3. Future Directions for Hypothermia following Severe Traumatic Brian Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Annie W; Hinson, Holly E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health care problem on both individual and public health levels. As a major cause of death and disability in the United States, it is associated with a significant economic and public health burden. Although the evidence to support the use of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest is well established, its use in treating TBI remains controversial. Hypothermia has the potential to mitigate some of the destructive processes that occur as part of secondary brain injury after TBI. Hypothermia can be helpful in lowering intracranial pressure, for example, but its influence on functional outcome is unclear. There is insufficient evidence to support the broad use of prophylactic hypothermia for neuroprotection after TBI. Investigators are beginning to more carefully select patients for temperature modulating therapies, in a more personalized approach. Examples include targeting immunomodulation and scaling hypothermia to achieve metabolic targets. This review will summarize the clinical evidence for the use of hypothermia to limit secondary brain injury following acute TBI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.; Hetherington, C.

    1997-01-01

    Issues regarding future development by oil and gas companies in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were discussed. It was suggested in the Berger report that Northern development should be under the control of the people whose lives and economy are being changed. Aboriginal people are now much more sophisticated politically, and have a better understanding of what is involved. Most of them would like the financial benefits from development, but the development would have to be on their terms. Most people involved with Arctic oil exploration feel that there is enough oil in the Arctic to warrant production. (Reserves in the Beaufort Sea are estimated at two billion barrels of good quality oil). If development were to continue, there exist two methods of transportation to move the oil to market. Gulf, Imperial Oil and Panarctic favour the use of pipelines, whereas Dome Petroleum Ltd. favours the use of ice-breaking tankers. In each case the favored option seems to depend upon the location of the company's leases, the capital and operating costs, and the potential environmental impacts. Undoubtedly, any future development will be guided by the scientific information and technical expertise of oil industry pioneers of the 1960s and the 1970s, and the wisdom gained from the experiences of the many participants whose views and insights are recorded in this book

  5. Prevalencia de ceguera y limitación visual severa, en personas mayores de 50 años de Ciudad de La Habana Prevalence of blindness and severe visual shortage in over 50 years-old adults in the City of Havana province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Cabrera Martínez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por la población mayor de 50 años perteneciente a Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre junio de 2004 a junio del 2005. Para la determinación del tamaño de la muestra se asumió como universo los 633 396 habitantes mayores de 50 años de Ciudad Habana, con una estimación de la prevalencia esperada de 4,0 %, un error aceptable del 3 % y un efecto de diseño de 70 %. Se efectuó un muestreo sistemático por conglomerados y se determinó como muestra 2 760 habitantes de Ciudad de La Habana, representada por 46 cluster de 60 individuos cada uno. Se definió como ceguera la agudeza visual con corrección, inferior a 20/400 y la deficiencia visual grave como la agudeza visual con corrección >20/400 y The universe of a cross-sectional descriptive study, which was carried out from June 2004 to June 2005, was made up of people aged over 50 years, who lived in the City of Havana. In order to determine the sample size, 633 396 over 50 years-old inhabitants were taken as the universe of study, with an expected prevalence estimation of 4.0 %, an allowable error of 3 % and a design effect of 70 %. On the basis of these data, systematic cluster sampling was made to determine a sample of 2 760 inhabitants from the City of Havana, represented by 46 clusters of 60 subjects each. Blindness was defined as corrected visual acuity lower than 20/400 and severe visual shortage as corrected visual acuity >20/400 and <20/200 in the best eye and with the best available correction. An inter-observer variation to reduce errors for this reason was also made. The study coverage was 98.4 % of the selected sample. The blindness prevalence by sex was 2.4 %. Prevalence of bilateral blind persons by age increases from 2.6 % at 50 years to 15,2 % at 80 years and over. The most important causes of bilateral blindness were cataract (50 %, glaucoma (26 % and diabetic

  6. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  7. The future of medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidment, A. D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The organisers of this conference have kindly provided me with the forum to look forward and examine the future of medical imaging. My view of the future is informed by my own research directions; thus, I illustrate my vision of the future with results from my own research, and from the research that has motivated me over the last few years. As such, the results presented are specific to the field of breast imaging; however, I believe that the trends presented have general applicability, and hope that this discourse will motivate new research. My vision of the future can be summarised in accordance with three broad trends: (1) increased prevalence of low-dose tomographic X-ray imaging; (2) continuing advances in functional and molecular X-ray imaging; and (3) novel image-based bio-marker discovery. (authors)

  8. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and associated factors in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Emma C; Ariana, Proochista; Penny, Mary E; Frost, Melanie; Plugge, Emma

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.

  9. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and associated factors in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Preston

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.

  10. The Future of Learning Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    this article describes Harvard University’s learning institute, which focuses on several fundamental issues on the future of learning. Specific focus is given to the effect og globalising, digitalising and brain research on learning and education.......this article describes Harvard University’s learning institute, which focuses on several fundamental issues on the future of learning. Specific focus is given to the effect og globalising, digitalising and brain research on learning and education....

  11. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  12. Prevalence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  13. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  14. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Owen, Toby; Becker, Luann; Blank, Jen; Brucato, John; Colangeli, Luigi; Derenne, Sylvie; Dutrey, Anne; Despois, Didier; Lazcano, Antonio; Robert, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space mi...

  15. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can

  16. Severe aortic stenosis: diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.A. van Geldorp (Martijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDegenerative aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries. The prevalence of severe aortic stenosis increases with age from 1% in people below 65 years of age to nearly 6% in people over the age of 85. Since the population life expectancy continues to

  17. Determinants of severe periodontal disease among diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with severe periodontal disease among diabetic patients. Design: Cross sectional study. Study subjects and methods: Diabetes mellitus patients visiting their regularly scheduled medical review at NCH Diabetic clinic participated in the study. Data collection was ...

  18. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan G O Neill

    Full Text Available Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3, periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3 and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1. Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9, the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6 and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3. Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001, obesity (P = 0.006 and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033, and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002, overgrown nails (P = 0.004, degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005, obesity (P = 0.001 and lipoma (P = 0.003. These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information

  19. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported

  20. Severe Aplastic Anemia (SAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Print this page My Cart Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease ... leukemia (ALL) Other diseases What is severe aplastic anemia (SAA)? SAA is a bone marrow disease. The ...

  1. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  2. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Mulcahy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  3. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with anthropometric failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Under nutrition is a problem of severe magnitude in low income countries like Nigeria. Adolescent school children might also be vulnerable. The dearth of data hinders planning of school health and nutrition programmes for school children. Objective: To determine the prevalence of stunting, thinness; vitamin A ...

  5. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  6. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  7. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years......: These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization....

  8. Empirical measures vs. perceived gambling severity among youth: why adolescent problem gamblers fail to seek treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoon, Karen; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2003-07-01

    A comparison of empirical measures and perceived gambling severity among youth was conducted. Participants (N=980), mean age of 18.6 years, completed several widely accepted measures of pathological gambling [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Juveniles (DSM-IV-J), South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), and Gambler's Anonymous 20 Questions (GA 20)] and a questionnaire assessing gambling behavior. Findings revealed that while the DSM-IV-J, SOGS-RA, and GA 20 identified between 3.4% and 5.8% of participants as probable pathological gamblers, only 1.1% of individuals classified themselves as such. Further, 3.3% of the population reported that they considered themselves problem gamblers and 66% reported being social gamblers. It appears as though either youth are grossly underestimating the severity of their gambling problems or the gambling screens are overestimating prevalence rates. The clinical implications and future directions for research are considered.

  9. The future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Particle accelerator development must rank as one of the major scientific achievements of the twentieth century. Progress in computing methods, engineering design techniques and advances in material science have all contributed to today's highly-developed, precision technology where small versatile machines are used for a wide range of applications. The accelerator community has opportunities to expand the range of applications in industry and medicine, particularly by increasing beam intensities. In some cases, the required 'technology-step' improvements can be achieved by employing existing materials and present day techniques. In the competitive commercial world of radiopharmaceuticals, the trend is to employ higher intensity accelerators for lower-cost production of isotopes and to operate these machines under increasingly more stringent radiological controls. Several accelerator manufacturers are developing higher current machines in the range 500 to 1000 microamps, demanding production targets better suited to handling heat production. One company, IBA in Belgium, has already supplied 2 mA, 18 MeV positive-ion cyclotrons with internal targetry for the commercial production of a new therapeutic isotope, palladium-103, for cancer brachytherapy. In Canada, EBCO Industries together with TRIUMF have announced the development of 1000 microamp extraction from their existing 30 MeV cyclotron. The isotope production industry is a major opportunity for accelerator technology. Historically, material-testing reactors have always provided low-cost isotopes to the industry and to medical companies; however many of these reactors are reaching the end of their lives and are not being replaced. Diminishing research in nuclear power generation and fuel testing, combined with the dilemma on waste disposal, has made fission-based reactors less attractive. High intensity accelerators with appropriate targetry could be constructed to produce the necessary neutron

  10. Reporting Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe potential factors influencing reporting of severe hypoglycemia in adult patients with type 1 diabetes and to analyze their effect on reported rates of severe hypoglycemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Reported rates of severe hypoglycemia defined as need for third party...... by partners report higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. There is a large variation between studies reporting incidence and prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes, mainly explained by definition of severity, methods of reporting, and patient selection. These findings call...... hypoglycemia are 0.02-0.5 events per patient-year and 1-29%, respectively. When subjects with recurrent severe hypoglycemia in the past or suffering from impaired hypoglycemia awareness are excluded from participation in studies, lower rates are reported. Studies applying anonymous reporting or reporting...

  11. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The Prevalence of Depression among patients and its detection by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Little information is available on the prevalence of depression in Malawi in primary health care settings and yet there is increased number of cases of depression presenting at tertiary level in severe form. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression among patients and its detection ...

  14. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 12 months prevalence of LBP prior to the study, severity of LBP, history of LBP, causative factors and management of LBP and its effect on filling stations attendant's activities and activities of daily living. It was adapted from a previous study Titled Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Traffic Warden in Lagos state. The data ...

  15. Improving estimates of the burden of severe acute malnutrition and predictions of caseload for programs treating severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulti, Assaye; Briend, André; Dale, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The burden of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is estimated using unadjusted prevalence estimates. SAM is an acute condition and many children with SAM will either recover or die within a few weeks. Estimating SAM burden using unadjusted prevalence estimates results in significant...

  16. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  17. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the firs...

  18. The Future of Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jeff; Emerick, Jill; Saxena, Harshita

    2016-03-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Refractory coeliac disease in a country with a high prevalence of clinically-diagnosed coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilus, T; Kaukinen, K; Virta, L J; Huhtala, H; Mäki, M; Kurppa, K; Heikkinen, M; Heikura, M; Hirsi, E; Jantunen, K; Moilanen, V; Nielsen, C; Puhto, M; Pölkki, H; Vihriälä, I; Collin, P

    2014-02-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is thought to be a rare disorder, but the accurate prevalence is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence of and the risk factors for developing RCD in a Finnish population where the clinical detection rate of coeliac disease is high. The study involved 11 hospital districts in Finland where the number of treated RCD patients (n = 44), clinically diagnosed coeliac disease patients (n = 12 243) and adult inhabitants (n = 1.7 million) was known. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis of coeliac disease between the RCD patients and patients with uncomplicated disease were compared. The prevalence of RCD was 0.31% among diagnosed coeliac disease patients and 0.002% in the general population. Of the enrolled 44 RCD patients, 68% had type I and 23% type II; in 9% the type was undetermined. Comparing 886 patients with uncomplicated coeliac disease with these 44 patients that developed RCD later in life, the latter were significantly older (median 56 vs 44 years, P coeliac disease. Patients with evolving RCD had more severe symptoms at the diagnosis of coeliac disease, including weight loss in 36% (vs. 16%, P = 0.001) and diarrhoea in 54% (vs. 38%, P = 0.050). Refractory coeliac disease is very rare in the general population. Patients of male gender, older age, severe symptoms or seronegativity at the diagnosis of coeliac disease are at risk of future refractory coeliac disease and should be followed up carefully. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. Keywords: victimization, violence, severe mental illness, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  1. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  2. Prevalence of Concomitant Onchocerciasis-Malaria Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012 to April 2014 to ascertain the prevalence of onchocerciasis-malaria co-infec on. Four hundred and ... features with ophthalmic signs often presen ng several years .... breeding of both Simulium damnosum and Anopheles mosquitoes ...

  3. Severe anemia in Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calis, Job Cj; Phiri, Kamija S; Faragher, E Brian; Brabin, Bernard J; Bates, Imelda; Cuevas, Luis E; de Haan, Rob J; Phiri, Ajib I; Malange, Pelani; Khoka, Mirriam; Hulshof, Paul Jm; van Lieshout, Lisette; Beld, Marcel Ghm; Teo, Yik Y; Rockett, Kirk A; Richardson, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Molyneux, Malcolm E; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele

    2016-09-01

    Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. We conducted a case-control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <5.0 g per deciliter) and 757 preschool children without severe anemia in urban and rural settings in Malawi. Causal factors previously associated with severe anemia were studied. The data were examined by multivariate analysis and structural equation modeling. Bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 10.9), malaria (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.3), hookworm (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.0 to 11.8), human immunodeficiency virus infection (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8), the G6PD -202/-376 genetic disorder (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.4), vitamin A deficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.8), and vitamin B 12 deficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.6) were associated with severe anemia. Folate deficiency, sickle cell disease, and laboratory signs of an abnormal inflammatory response were uncommon. Iron deficiency was not prevalent in case patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.60) and was negatively associated with bacteremia. Malaria was associated with severe anemia in the urban site (with seasonal transmission) but not in the rural site (where malaria was holoendemic). Seventy-six percent of hookworm infections were found in children under 2 years of age. There are multiple causes of severe anemia in Malawian preschool children, but folate and iron deficiencies are not prominent among them. Even in the presence of malaria parasites, additional or alternative causes of severe anemia should be considered.

  4. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  5. Congenital Anorectal Malformation Severity Does Not Predict Severity of Congenital Heart Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jara E.; Liem, Eryn T.; Elzenga, Nynke J.; Molenbuur, Bouwe; Trzpis, Monika; Broens, Paul M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in patients with mild or severe congenital anorectal malformations (CARMs), and whether all patients with CARM need pediatric cardiology screening. Study design We included 129 patients with CARM born between 2004 and 2013, and

  6. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  7. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness.

  8. The School of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Describes The Walt Disney Company's K-12 school of the future design that was developed from combining the hands-on knowledge of a school district and the curriculum expertise of a teaching university. Several illustrations and a basic floor plan are provided. (GR)

  9. Participatory Prototyping for Future Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Waart; C.J.P.M. Bont; I.J. Mulder

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  10. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; De Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  11. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  12. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  13. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  14. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  15. Childhood intermittent and persistent rhinitis prevalence and climate and vegetation: a global ecologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Elaine; Butland, Barbara K; Ross Anderson, H; Carlsten, Chris; Strachan, David P; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The effect of climate change and its effects on vegetation growth, and consequently on rhinitis, are uncertain. To examine between- and within-country associations of climate measures and the normalized difference vegetation index with intermittent and persistent rhinitis symptoms in a global context. Questionnaire data from 6- to 7-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds were collected in phase 3 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Associations of intermittent (>1 symptom report but not for 2 consecutive months) and persistent (symptoms for ≥2 consecutive months) rhinitis symptom prevalences with temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, and the normalized difference vegetation index were assessed in linear mixed-effects regression models adjusted for gross national income and population density. The mean difference in prevalence per 100 children (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per interquartile range increase of exposure is reported. The country-level intermittent symptom prevalence was associated with several country-level climatic measures, including the country-level mean monthly temperature (6.09 °C; 95% CI, 2.06-10.11°C per 10.4 °C), precipitation (3.10 mm; 95% CI, 0.46-5.73 mm; per 67.0 mm), and vapor pressure (6.21 hPa; 95% CI, 2.17-10.24 hPa; per 10.4 hPa) among 13- to 14-year-olds (222 center in 94 countries). The center-level persistent symptom prevalence was positively associated with several center-level climatic measures. Associations with climate were also found for the 6- to 7-year-olds (132 center in 57 countries). Several between- and within-country spatial associations between climatic factors and intermittent and persistent rhinitis symptom prevalences were observed. These results provide suggestive evidence that climate (and future changes in climate) may influence rhinitis symptom prevalence. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  17. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  18. Severe physical punishment and mental health problems in an economically disadvantaged population of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre; do Nascimento, Rosimeire; Duarte, Cristiane Seixas

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of severe physical punishment of children/adolescents in a low-income community, and to examine child mental health problems as a potential correlate. This study is a Brazilian cross-sectional pilot study of the World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments. A probabilistic sample of clusters including all eligible households (women aged 15-49 years, son/daughter branding, beating, or threatening with weapon. Three groups of potential correlates were examined: child/adolescent (age, gender, physical/mental health); mother (education, unemployment, physical/mental health, harsh physical punishment in childhood, marital violence); father (unemployment, drunkenness). Severe marital violence was defined as kicking, hitting, beating or use of /threat to use a weapon. The following standardized questionnaires were applied by trained interviewers: World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments Core Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist, Self-Report Questionnaire. Outcome prevalence was 10.1%. Final logistic regression models identified two correlates: maternal harsh physical punishment in childhood (total sample, OR = 5.3, p = 0.047), and child/adolescent mental health problems (sub-sample aged 4-17 years, n = 67, OR = 9.1, p = 0.017). Severe physical punishment of children/adolescents is frequent in the studied community. The victims have a higher probability of becoming future perpetrators. When intrafamilial violence occurs, child/adolescent mental health may be compromised.

  19. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Singh, R.; Zuk, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Papapanou, P.N.; Desvarieux, M.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  20. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  1. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  2. Present and future association between obesity and hypogonadism in Italian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Boddi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and it is nowadays considered a real public health problem. Obesity is associated with co-morbidities like cardiovascular diseases (CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, furthermore visceral obesity can be related to low testosterone (T plasma levels. The link between obesity and hypogonadism (HG is complex and not completely clarified. Current guidelines suggest that screening for HG should be done in subjects with obesity and T2DM. The aim of this evaluation is to assess the estimated actual and future prevalence of obesity and related co-morbidities, in particular HG, in the Italian general population. Materials and Methods: The Strategyst Consulting Inc. recently completed an epidemiology forecast model for several countries, looking at HG and CV/Metabolic Disease, based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data collected between 1999-2010. Data from NHANES survey were used to evaluate the Italian estimated prevalence of obesity and HG. Results: Results show that obesity estimated prevalence will increase in 2030 also in Italy. In addition, also the prevalence of obese CVD and T2DM subjects will increase too. Even Italian HG prevalence is estimated to increase in the next two decades, irrespective of T threshold considered (< 8, 10 and 12 nmol/L. In obese CVD subjects the relative risk (RR of developing HG (T < 8 nmol/L is four times greater than in not-CVD obese subjects (RR = 4.1, 3.1 and 1.9 accordingly to the aforementioned T thresholds for defining HG. Accordingly, the estimated percentage of hypogonadal obese CVD and T2DM subjects will rise in 2030. Conclusions: The Strategyst epidemiology forecast model has allowed to assess the current and future prevalence of obesity and its relative co-morbidities like HG in Italy. Data emerged from this evaluation suggest that obesity and HG prevalence will increase in Italian population and confirm the complex link

  3. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa may change its population prevalence and prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, Linda; Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans W; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The definition of anorexia nervosa was revised for the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). We examined the impact of these changes on the prevalence and prognosis of anorexia nervosa. In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women (N = 2825) underwent a 2-stage screening for eating disorders at mean age 24. Fifty-five women fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime anorexia nervosa. When we recoded the interviews using DSM-5 criteria, we detected 37 new cases. We contrasted new DSM-5 vs. DSM-IV cases to assess their clinical characteristics and prognosis. We also estimated lifetime prevalences and incidences and tested the association of minimum BMI with prognosis. We observed a 60% increase in the lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa using the new diagnostic boundaries, from 2.2% to 3.6%. The new cases had a later age of onset (18.8 y vs. 16.5, p = 0.002), higher minimum BMI (16.9 vs. 15.5 kg/m(2), p = 0.0004), a shorter duration of illness (one year vs. three years, p = 0.002), and a higher 5-year probability or recovery (81% vs. 67%, p = 0.002). Minimum BMI was not associated with prognosis. It therefore appears that the substantial increase in prevalence of anorexia nervosa is offset by a more benign course of illness in new cases. Increased diagnostic heterogeneity underscores the need for reliable indicators of disease severity. Our findings indicate that BMI may not be an ideal severity marker, but should be complemented by prognostically informative criteria. Future studies should focus on identifying such factors in prospective settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quillfeldt Petra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies.

  5. A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2005-05-01

    %-90% quantile was 1.8 (0.9-6.4. When sites were grouped by economic status, prevalence estimates from "least developed" countries were significantly lower than those from both "emerging" and "developed" sites (p = 0.04. Studies that scored higher on a quality score had significantly higher prevalence estimates (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wealth of data about the prevalence of schizophrenia. These gradients, and the variability found in prevalence estimate distributions, can provide direction for future hypothesis-driven research.

  6. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  7. Prevalence of asthma in regional Victorian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C F; Bishop, J; Dalton, M; Caust, J; Nolan, T M; Olinsky, A; Phelan, P D

    1992-06-15

    To determine whether the high prevalence of reported asthma in Melbourne schoolchildren is seen in rural Victoria. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was distributed to children to be completed by parents and returned to the school. Results were compared with a previous Melbourne study. Two hundred and twenty-seven government and non-government primary schools in five rural regions of Victoria: coast, wheatbelt, riverland, highland and Latrobe valley. All children enrolled in grade 2 were invited to join the study. Parents completed questionnaires for 4661 children after 4886 questionnaires were distributed (response rate, 95%). History of wheeze in the past 12 months. The overall prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was 23.6%. There was a significant difference overall in this rate across the five rural areas and Melbourne, with the Latrobe Valley (26.2%) and highland areas (25.0%) having the highest rate, and the wheatbelt the lowest (19.6%). The spectrum of severity of asthma was similarly distributed across rural regions, although severe episodes were significantly more frequently reported by parents from rural areas than by parents in Melbourne. The reported use of bronchodilators and diagnosis of asthma showed a similar pattern of variation to that of the 12-month prevalence of wheeze. The prevalence of asthma in 7-year-old children is similar for rural Victoria as a whole compared with Melbourne, but there is variability in asthma prevalence in individual rural areas which is difficult to account for in terms of known environmental precipitants.

  8. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  9. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  10. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  11. Regional variation in asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Aguirre-Camposano, Viviana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the distribution pattern of asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children aged 13-14 years. A randomized, cross-sectional and multicentric study on the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms (lifetime asthma, current wheezing, and frequent sleep disturbance by wheezing) was conducted in 165,917 schoolchildren from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries, as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), Phase Three. The prevalence of lifetime asthma prevalence ranged from 1.2% to 33.1%, whereas current wheezing went from 3.9% to 30.8% and frequent sleep disturbance from 0.6% to 6.1%. An important proportion of centers (55%) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms over 15%. There was no significant correlation between asthma symptom prevalence and latitude, altitude, or tropical setting. At country level, the prevalence of asthma was not associated with gross national income (GNI), proportion of population under the poverty line, or ancestry. This study suggests that ecological interactions, probably typical for each locality, may be the main determinants for the large variability of asthma prevalence in Latin America. The high prevalence of asthma symptoms found in children living in areas with low socioeconomic development would challenge the protective role against asthma of factors related to low hygiene and poverty; contrarily, in this region they would act as risk factors.

  12. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  14. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA), and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of southwestern USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asthma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9%) to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8) higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  15. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan; Zhou, Pengcheng; Wen, Ximao; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Xun; Guo, Yanhong; Meng, Li; Gong, Ruie; Feng, Li; Fu, Chenchao; Wu, Anhua

    2016-03-01

    In China, several measures have been adopted to decrease unnecessary antimicrobial overuse since 2010. This study aimed to identify characteristics of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals after implementing these measures and to explore additional targets for future antimicrobial stewardship. In 2012, point prevalence surveys conducted in Chinese hospitals included inpatients who were admitted for at least 24 hours. Details regarding infection, antimicrobial use, and bacterial cultures were recorded. A survey of 786,028 inpatients in 1,313 hospitals included prevalence of health care-associated (3.22%) and community-acquired infections (22.52%); antimicrobial use prevalence (AUP, 38.39%); bacterial culture rate (BCR, 40.16%); and proportions of administration of a single antimicrobial (75.33%), therapeutic (23.16%), prophylactic (11.99%), and therapeutic plus prophylactic (3.24%) AUP rates. Prophylactic AUP rates of hospitals with AUP rates for surgical patients with classes I, II, and III wounds were 45.19%, 68.18%, and 68.47%, respectively. Prophylactic AUP rates for surgical patients decreased with increasing hospital bed numbers. These indices varied among different hospital departments. More efforts are needed toward small hospitals, prophylactic antimicrobial use for surgical patients, and departments with low BCRs to optimize the clinical antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and characterization of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and toxigenic Clostridium difficile in a Taipei emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dar-Der; Huang, I-Hsiu; Lai, Chao-Chih; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Lin, Wei-Chen

    2017-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) and toxin-encoding Clostridium difficile (TXCD) are associated with gastroenteritis. Routine anaerobic blood culture for recovery of these anaerobic pathogens is not used for the detection of their toxins, especially for toxin-variant TXCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of the genotypes of these anaerobes in patients with acute diarrheal illnesses. The data and samples of 513 patients with gastroenteritis were collected in a Taipei emergency department from March 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009. Nonenterotoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) and ETBF and the toxin genotypes of TXCD were detected by molecular methods. The prevalence rates of NTBF, ETBF, and TXCD infections were 33.14%, 1.56%, and 2.34%, respectively. ETBF infections often occurred in the elderly (average age = 67.13 years) and during the cold, dry winters. TXCD infections were widely distributed in age and often occurred in the warm, wet springs and summers. The symptoms of ETBF-infected patients were significantly more severe than those of NTBF-infected patients. This study identified and analyzed the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of these anaerobic infections. Future epidemiologic and clinical studies are needed to understand the role of ETBF and TXCD in human gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Social validity in single-case research: A systematic literature review of prevalence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Melinda R; Chung, Moon Y; Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W

    2018-03-01

    Single-case research (SCR) has been a valuable methodology in special education research. Montrose Wolf (1978), an early pioneer in single-case methodology, coined the term "social validity" to refer to the social importance of the goals selected, the acceptability of procedures employed, and the effectiveness of the outcomes produced in applied investigations. Since 1978, many contributors to SCR have included social validity as a feature of their articles and several authors have examined the prevalence and role of social validity in SCR. We systematically reviewed all SCR published in six highly-ranked special education journals from 2005 to 2016 to establish the prevalence of social validity assessments and to evaluate their scientific rigor. We found relatively low, but stable prevalence with only 28 publications addressing all three factors of the social validity construct (i.e., goals, procedures, outcomes). We conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific rigor of these 28 publications. Social validity remains an understudied construct in SCR, and the scientific rigor of social validity assessments is often lacking. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gambling disorder, DSM-5 criteria and symptom severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gambling disorder (GD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition whose severity is typically defined by the number of DSM-5 criteria met out of a maximum of nine. The relationships between the levels of gambling severity, thus defined, and other measures of psychopathology and everyday...

  19. Light water reactor severe accident seminar. Seminar presentation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The topics covered in this manual on LWR severe accidents were: Evolution of Source Term Definition and Analysis, Current Position on Severe Accident Phenomena, Current Position on Fission Product Behavior, Overview of Software Models Used in Severe Accident Analysis, Overview of Plant Specific Source Terms and Their Impact on Risk, Current Applications of Severe Accident Analysis, and Future plans

  20. Light water reactor severe accident seminar. Seminar presentation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The topics covered in this manual on LWR severe accidents were: Evolution of Source Term Definition and Analysis, Current Position on Severe Accident Phenomena, Current Position on Fission Product Behavior, Overview of Software Models Used in Severe Accident Analysis, Overview of Plant Specific Source Terms and Their Impact on Risk, Current Applications of Severe Accident Analysis, and Future plans.

  1. Pregnancy-associated severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines the contemporary knowledge and uncertainties about the burden of pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS), and its manifestations, management, and outcomes. There are relatively sparse data on PASS, related in part to infrequent reports and varying use of terminology and case definitions. PASS remains rare, although its incidence appears to be rapidly rising in some high-resource countries, affecting especially women with limited resources, minorities, and those with chronic illness. High level of clinician vigilance and rapid initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, coupled with effective systemic support for organ dysfunction and correction of occult and overt hypoperfusion are the keys to limit adverse outcomes. However, timely diagnosis and provision of effective care remain a challenge, with reported prevalent delay in recognition and delivery of time-sensitive care interventions among maternal decedents. The mortality rate of PASS has been rising and its case fatality, although relatively low, has remained unchanged, in contrast to the outcome gains in the general population. The long-term sequelae of PASS remain unknown. The relatively limited contemporary data on PASS suggest a rising public health hazard in the obstetric population in high-resource countries, with ongoing challenges in assuring consistent provision of time-sensitive care.

  2. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  3. Prevalence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in term neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The kidney is the most damaged organ in asphyxiated full-term infants. The severity of its damage is correlated with the severity of neurological damage. We determined the prevalence of perinatal asphyxia-associated acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study including 60 ...

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminthiasis among School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitosis among school children in four woredas of Jimma zone surrounding Gilgel gibe hydraulic dam and serve as a base line data to help evaluate health promoting activities for the future and monitor those already delivered to the ...

  5. Prevalencia y gravedad de las periodontopatías en adultos jóvenes del municipio Artemisa en relación con la práctica del tabaquismo Prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in young adults of Artemisa municipality in relation to smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Miguel Traviesas Herrera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Las periodontopatías inmunoinflamatorias crónicas son una de las enfermedades que más prevalecen en la actualidad. Asociadas a estas se encuentra como factor de riesgo el tabaquismo. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal en adultos jóvenes fumadores comprendidos entre 15 y 29 años que acudieron al Servicio de Estomatología del P.P.U. (Policlínico “Adrián Sansarico”, del municipio Artemisa desde septiembre 2005 hasta febrero 2006, con la finalidad de identificar la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal. Se agruparon los individuos atendiendo a la edad, estado periodontal y cantidad de cigarrillos que consumen diariamente. Se llevó a cabo la realización de una encuesta y el examen bucal a todos los que aprobaron formar parte de la muestra; se aplicó el índice periodontal de Russell revisado por la OMS. Existe un comportamiento similar en los registros de fumadores y no fumadores en nuestra muestra. La prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal es del 100 % en los examinados fumadores, no así en la población no fumadora. En nuestro estudio pudimos determinar que la intensidad del tabaquismo aumenta a medida que se incrementa la edad de los examinados, así como que el estado periodontal de los fumadores se deteriora en correspondencia con la intensidad de esta práctica. El estado periodontal de los fumadores está más comprometido en los fumadores con respecto a los no fumadores.Chronic immuno-inflammatory periodontal diseases are one of nowadays more prevalent diseases. Associated to above is the smoking as risk factor. A cross, descriptive and observational study was conducted in smokers young adults aged 15-29, seen in Stomatology Emergency (“Adrián Sansarico” Polyclinic in Artemisa municipality from September 2005 to February 2006, to identify prevalence of periodontal disease. By age, periodontal status, cigarettes smoked a day subjects were grouped. A survey and a oral examination were

  6. The Future Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2015-01-01

    /value – The original contribution is in demonstrating how plural futures and the singular future co-exist in practice. Thus, an eclipse of the future by futures can only ever be partial. For “futures” to be conceptually potent, “the future” must be at least provisionally believable and occasionally useful. Otherwise......, if “the future” were so preposterous an idea, then “futures” would cease to be a critical alternative to it. Futures needs the future; they are relationally bound together in a multiplicity. This paper considers what such a logical reality implies for a field that distances itself from the future and self......). Multiplicity, as a post-ANT sensibility, helps one make sense of the empirical materials. This paper examines the possibility that rather than being alternatives to one another, plural futures and the singular future might co-exist in practice, and, thus, constitute a multiplicity. Design...

  7. Severe congenital neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tidwell et al1 demonstrate that mutations in the start codon (protein synthesis is initiated at the codon ATG) of neutrophil elastase (ELANE) result in the production of N-terminally truncated elastase, which mislocates to the nucleus and results in severe congenital neutr...... neutropenia (SCN)....

  8. Prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi children: A community-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mouzan, Mohammed; Foster, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    There is no published information on the prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence data.The prevalence of nutritional indicators in the form of underweight, stunting, and wasting in a national sample of children younger than 5 years of age was calculated using the new WHO standards as reference. Calculations were performed using the corresponding WHO software. The prevalence of moderate and severe underweight, wasting and stunting, was defined as the proportion of children whose weight for age, weight for height, and height for age were below -2 and -3 standard deviation scores, respectively.The number of children younger than 5 years of age was 15 516 and 50.5% were boys. The prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was 6.9% and 1.3%, respectively. The prevalence of moderate and severe wasting was 9.8% and 2.9%, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of moderate and severe stunting was 10.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The prevalence was lower in girls for all indicators. Comparison of the prevalence of nutritional indicators in selected countries demonstrates large disparity with an intermediate position for Saudi Arabia.This report establishes the national prevalence of malnutrition among Saudi children. Compared to data from other countries, these prevalence rates are still higher than other countries with less economic resources, indicating that more efforts are needed to improve the nutritional status of children (Author).

  9. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  10. Magical Formulae for Market Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Markets are often portrayed as being organized by way of rationalized knowledge, objective reasoning, and the fluctuations of demand and supply. In parallel, and often mixed with this modality of knowledge, magical beliefs and practices are prevalent. Business leaders, management consultants......, and financial advisors are often savvy in the art of creatively blending the ‘objective facts’ of markets with magical formulae, rites, and imaginaries of the future. This article looks at the World Economic Forum's yearly Davos meeting as a large-scale ritual that engages senior executives of global...... corporations, top-level politicians, and civil society leaders to contribute to the overall aim of ‘improving the world’. The Davos gathering has become a vital part of the business calendar, just as much for the intensity of its networking as for the declarations of action from the speakers’ podiums...

  11. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Yoshihara

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The asthma prevalence in Mongolian children was higher than that in the world and Asia–Pacific countries reported by ISAAC. The higher prevalence was probably attributable to households' (especially mothers smoking in draft-free houses designed for the cold area and severe air-pollution due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in Mongolia. Smoking prohibition in the mother (including family members and a reduction of exposure to air pollutants are urgently needed to prevent developing childhood asthma.

  12. [Management of severe alcoholic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Verena; Tilg, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Severe alcoholic hepatitis is still associated with high mortality and presence of liver failure manifested by jaundice, coagulopathy and encephalopathy is a poor prognostic indicator. The management of these patients includes at first hand several supportive measures as treatment of alcohol withdrawal, administration of fluid and vitamins and admission to an intensive care unit in the unstable patient. Glucocorticoids have been since decades the most intensively studied therapy in alcoholic hepatitis and are effective in certain subgroups. Indication for such a therapy is usually defined on a Maddrey Discriminant Function > 32. The Lille score at day 7 is used to decide whether corticosteroid therapy should be stopped or continued for a 1 month course. Nutritional supplementation is also likely to be beneficial. The main progress in better understanding its pathophysiology has come from cytokine studies. Various proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) or interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been proposed to play a role in this disease. This advancement has recently led to pilot studies investigating anti-TNF drugs such as pentoxifylline, infliximab (anti-TNF antibody) or etanercept in the treatment of this disease. These studies revealed besides for pentoxifylline rather negative results. Despite this fact, targeting of certain cytokines such as IL-1 remains an attractive treatment concept for this devastating disorder in the future.

  13. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  14. Cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in severely obese children and adolescents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkes, Sabine; Renders, Carry M; Bosmans, Judith E; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; Seidell, Jacob C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents is increasing. However, little is known about cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life of children with severe obesity.Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the demographic characteristics and the prevalence of

  15. The development of youth-onset severe obesity in urban US girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. McTigue

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely.

  16. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch...... test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  17. Serum 25-hyroxyvitamin D levels and tic severity in Chinese children with tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Hua; Shan, Ling; Wang, Bing; Du, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Da; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2018-05-31

    The aim of this study is to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] levels in children with tic disorders and to explore the relationship between serum 25(OH)D level and tic severity. Children (n = 179, 31 females, 148 males, mean age at diagnosis: 8.0 ± 2.7 years old, age ranged from 3 to 14.5 years old) who were diagnosed with a tic disorder were enrolled as case group, 189 healthy children were recruited as control group. Serum level of 25(OH)D of each child was measured by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) was used to assess tic severity. Mean serum level of 25(OH)D in the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The serum 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with tic severity after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). This study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in children with tic disorders, and there was a negative correlation between the serum 25(OH)D level and tic severity. In the future, large sample size studies are urgently needed to further clarify this correlation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... and in the nose in all cases, and between visits in 90% of cases. Ten different CC types were identified, no association with severity was found, and toxin-producing strains were not found more frequently in patients with HE than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus was present on hands in almost half...

  19. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  1. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercise