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Sample records for severely undernourished weanling

  1. Triiodothyronine improves the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells in severely undernourished weanling mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filteau, S.M.; Perry, K.J.; Woodward, B.

    1987-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted in which weanling mice were fed a nutritionally complete diet either ad libitum or in restricted quantities such that they lost about 30% of their initial weight over a 14-day period. In Experiments 1 and 2, half the animals from each group received dietary triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) supplements. In Experiment 3, food-intake-restricted mice were fed graded levels of potassium iodide. Malnutrition reduced the number of nucleated cells per spleen, the number of splenic IgG plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10/sup 6/ cells, and the serum antibody titers against sheep red blood cells as determined by radioimmunoassay. T/sub 3/ supplements increased antibody titers, the number of nucleated cells per spleen, and both IgM and IgG PFC per 10/sup 6/ spleen cells in malnourished mice, but had no effect on well-nourished mice. The beneficial effect of T/sub 3/ was not a result of improved protein, energy, or iodine status in the malnourished mice.

  2. Green tea extract intake during lactation modified cardiac macrophage infiltration and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in weanling rats from undernourished mother during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, E; Kataoka, S; Mukai, Y; Sato, M; Sato, S

    2017-04-01

    Maternal dietary restriction is often associated with cardiovascular disease in offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation on macrophage infiltration, and activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and serine-threonine kinase Akt (Akt) in the hearts of weanlings exposed to maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed control (C) or low-protein diets (LP) throughout gestation. Following delivery, the dams received a control or a GTE-containing control diet during lactation: control diet during gestation and lactation (CC), low-protein diet during gestation and lactation (LPC), low-protein diet during gestation and 0.12% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPL), and low-protein diet during gestation and 0.24% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPH). The female offspring were sacrificed at day 22. Biochemical parameters in the plasma, macrophage infiltration, degree of fibrosis and expression levels of AMPK and Akt were examined. The plasma insulin level increased in LPH compared with LPC. Percentage of the fibrotic areas and the number of macrophages in LPC were higher than those in CC. Conversely, the fibrotic areas and the macrophage number in LPH were smaller (21 and 56%, respectively) than those in LPC. The levels of phosphorylated AMPK in LPL and LPH, and Akt in LPH were greater than those in LPC. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction may induce macrophage infiltration and the decrease of insulin levels. However, GTE intake during lactation may suppress macrophage infiltration and restore insulin secretion function via upregulation of AMPK and insulin signaling in weanlings.

  3. Undernourished Children and Milk Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas; Rytter, Maren H; Hother, Anne-Louise; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2016-03-01

    Lactose is an important energy source in young mammals, and in fully breast-fed human infants, it constitutes around 40% of the total daily energy intake. The role of lactose in feeding of undernourished infants and young children is not well described. A narrative review of the potential positive and negative effects of lactose in the treatment of undernourished children. Searches were conducted using PUBMED and Web of Science up to July 2015. Relevant references in the retrieved articles were included. Lactose may exhibit several health benefits in young children, including a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota and a positive effect on mineral absorption. Studies in piglets suggest there might also be a stimulating effect on growth, relative to other carbohydrates. Lactose intolerance is a potential concern for undernourished children. Most undernourished children seem to tolerate the currently recommended (low lactose level) therapeutic foods well. However, a subgroup of severely undernourished children with secondary lactase deficiency due to severe diarrhea or severe enteropathy may benefit from products with even more restricted lactose content. At limited extra costs, lactose or lactose-containing milk ingredients may have beneficial effects if added to food products for undernourished children. Lactose may be an overlooked beneficial nutrient for young and undernourished children. Research is needed to define the balance between beneficial and detrimental effects of lactose in undernourished children at different ages and with different degrees of diarrhea and intestinal integrity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Undernourished children and milk lactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per Torp

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactose is an important energy source in young mammals, and in fully breast-fed human infants, it constitutes around 40% of the total daily energy intake. The role of lactose in feeding of undernourished infants and young children is not well described. OBJECTIVE: A narrative review...... of the potential positive and negative effects of lactose in the treatment of undernourished children. METHODS: Searches were conducted using PUBMED and Web of Science up to July 2015. Relevant references in the retrieved articles were included. RESULTS: Lactose may exhibit several health benefits in young...... children, including a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota and a positive effect on mineral absorption. Studies in piglets suggest there might also be a stimulating effect on growth, relative to other carbohydrates. Lactose intolerance is a potential concern for undernourished children. Most...

  5. Sleep cycle studies in babies of undernourished mothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, V P; Katiyar, G. P.; Agarwal, K. N.; Das,T. K.; Dey, P K

    1980-01-01

    Polygraphic sleep cycle studies--comprising simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electro-oculogram (ECOG), phasic body activity and respiration--were performed on 19 term newborn babies born to severely undernourished mothers, and results compared with 19 healthy newborn babies. The sleep cycle in babies of undernourished mothers showed disorganisation during active rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and quiet nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The sleep...

  6. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molz, Patrícia [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Ellwanger, Joel Henrique [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Campos, Deivis de [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Prá, Daniel [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech, E-mail: silviafr@unisc.br [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters.

  7. Lawsonia intracellularis proliferative enteropathy in a weanling foal in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, S A; Collins, A M

    2004-12-01

    A 6-month-old Quarter Horse weanling filly was presented with lethargy, weight loss, inappetance, mild diarrhoea, marked ventral oedema and severe panhypoproteinaemia. Serum antibody titres for Lawsonia intracellularis were very high but PCR to detect faecal shedding of the organism was negative. Proliferative enteropathy due to L. intracellularis infection was diagnosed. After treatment for 4 weeks with oral erythromycin and rifampicin the filly made a complete recovery.

  8. Nutrition rehabilitation of undernourished children utilizing Spiruline and Misola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondi Daniela M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition constitutes a public health problem throughout the world and particularly in developing countries. Aims The objective of the study is to assess the impact of an elementary integrator composed of Spiruline (Spirulina platensis and Misola (millet, soja, peanut produced at the Centre Medical St Camille (CMSC of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on the nutritional status of undernourished children. Materials and methods 550 undernourished children of less than 5 years old were enrolled in this study, 455 showed severe marasma, 57 marasma of medium severity and 38 kwashiorkor plus marasma. We divided the children randomly into four groups: 170 were given Misola (731 ± 7 kcal/day, 170 were given Spiruline plus traditional meals (748 ± 6 kcal/day, 170 were given Spiruline plus Misola (767 ± 5 kcal/day. Forty children received only traditional meals (722 ± 8 kcal/day and functioned as the control group. The duration of this study was eight weeks. Results and Discussion Anthropometrics and haematological parameters allowed us to appreciate both the nutritional and biological evolution of these children. The rehabilitation with Spiruline plus Misola (this association gave an energy intake of 767 ± 5 kcal/day with a protein assumption of 33.3 ± 1.2 g a day, both greater than Misola or Spiruline alone, seems to correct weight loss more quickly. Conclusion Our results indicate that Misola, Spiruline plus traditional meals or Spiruline plus Misola are all a good food supplement for undernourished children, but the rehabilitation by Spiruline plus Misola seems synergically favour the nutrition rehabilitation better than the simple addition of protein and energy intake.

  9. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  10. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  11. The impact of public expenditure on undernourishment distribution in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Macías, Lidia; Palma-Solís, Marco; Zapata-Vázquez, Rita E

    2013-09-01

    The status of undernourishment in children under the age of five in Mexico is open to debate. Linked to poverty, underweight and stunting, the rates of undernourishment are reported to be diminishing, although poverty remains an incessant problem. This study was done to determine whether there is an association between public expenditure and underweight and stunting distribution in Mexico based on data from the 2006 health and population census and from macroeconomic, social, and demographic variables. We used principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables and analyze their behavior. Multiple regressions showed that underweight and stunting are significantly associated with the marginalization index, support from the Sistema Nacional para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (DIF) supplies and breakfast program, the gross domestic product per capita, and expenditure from the Opportunities program. Further, public expenditure aimed to combat undernourishment is inadequately oriented to address the needs of the poor.

  12. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scientists, donors, and Indian policymakers are puzzled why India has the highest percentage of undernourished children in the world. ... will feed into policy development through briefs, website content for the Institute of Development Studies, other online platforms, and the publication of an edited book and/or journal issue.

  13. Programming of intermediate metabolism in young lambs affected by late gestational maternal undernourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne Munch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tygesen, M P

    2007-01-01

    Effects of moderate maternal undernourishment during late gestation on the intermediary metabolism and maturational changes in young lambs were investigated. 20 twin-bearing sheep, bred to two different rams, were randomly allocated the last 6 wk of gestation to either a NORM diet [barley, protein......-old LOW lambs secreted less insulin during IGTT, released more NEFA, and tended to have lower leptin during fasting than NORM. Surprisingly, several metabolite and hormone responses during IGTT and fasting were greatly influenced by the paternal heritage. In conclusion, when lambs entered adolescence (19...

  14. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  15. Barriers to nutritional care for the undernourished hospitalised older people?

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Helene; Halvorsen, Kristin; Almendingen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives To identify what nurses experience as barriers to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished hospitalized elderly. Background Undernutrition occurs frequently among the hospitalised elderly and can result in a variety of negative consequences if not treated. Nevertheless, undernutrition is often unrecognised and undertreated. Nurses have a great responsibility for nutritional care, as this is part of the patient's basic needs. Exploring nurses' ex...

  16. Update on bacterial pneumonia in the foal and weanling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Sarah M; Cohen, Noah D

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a common cause of disease in both neonatal and weanling foals. The causal organism or organisms differ with the age of the foal, should be identified via microbiologic culture, and will ultimately dictate appropriate treatment. Initial treatment in neonates should be broad spectrum and bactericidal, whereas weanling age foals may receive more targeted treatment. The combination of a macrolide antibiotic and rifampin remains the gold standard for treatment of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia; however, resistance to these antimicrobials is a concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognition memory and DNA damage in undernourished young rats

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    PATRÍCIA MOLZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the recognition memory and the levels of DNA damage (blood and hippocampus in undernourished young Wistar rats. The experiment was conducted along 14-week with rodents divided in control group (CG, n=8 and undernourished group (UG, n=12 which was submitted to caloric restriction. Nutritional status for undernutrition was defined by Body Mass Index (BMI ≤0.45g/cm2 and by weighting the organs/tissue (liver, spleen, intestine, peritoneal fat, kidney and encephalon. The Novel Object Recognition Test assessed recognition memory and the Comet Assay evaluated the levels of DNA damage. Student t test, 2-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation analysis were used and the significance level was of p<0.05. The UG showed lower BMI and organ/tissue weights than CG (p<0.001. In short-term memory, the recognition rate was higher in the UG (p<0.05, only after 4 weeks. In the long-term memory, again recognition rate was higher in the UG than the CG, after 4 weeks (p<0.001 and 14 weeks (p<0.01. The UG showed decreased levels of DNA damage in the blood (p<0.01 and increased levels in the hippocampus (p<0.01. We concluded in this study that the undernutrition by caloric restriction did not cause impairment in recognition memory, however induced DNA damage in the hippocampus.

  18. Mothers prolong breastfeeding of undernourished children in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, K B; Simondon, F

    1998-06-01

    Breastfeeding, when prolonged beyond infancy, is a risk factor for low nutritional status in most cross-sectional samples from less developed countries. Therefore, it has been suggested that prolonged breastfeeding impairs growth. To test whether, on the contrary, breastfeeding is prolonged because the child is already undernourished, nutritional status prior to weaning was compared according to age at weaning. Precise dates of birth and weaning were collected weekly through continuous demographic surveillance in a rural area of Senegal. Weight and length at 9-10 months were measured during vaccination sessions (coverage: 78%) from 1989 to 1996. Eight infants weaned before 9 months were excluded, and the duration of breastfeeding of the remaining 4515 children was compared according to nutritional status at 9-10 months by survival analysis. Length-for-age during infancy was associated with duration of breastfeeding: the median duration was 25.0 months for z-scores 0 (P for trend <0.0001). Weight-for-length during infancy was also associated with duration of breastfeeding (P for trend <0.0001), though the differences among groups were smaller. The relationships remained at the same significance levels after adjustment for season of birth, mother's age, parity, height, occupation and education. Duration of breastfeeding is not determined by characteristics of the mothers only. Women prolong breastfeeding for undernourished children and reduce the duration for well-nourished children, probably because they are aware of the mortality risk following weaning.

  19. The Effect of Soaked Cassava Peels on Weanling Rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origin (meat, milk, egg and fish) because of its higher biological value than ... inclusion of cassava peel meal obtained from sun-dried water-soaked peels, from effect on growth when fed to weanling rabbits. Materials and Methods. Fresh cassava peels sufficient ... components of the gastrointestinal tract were taken using a ...

  20. Growth Performance and Nutrients Digestibility of Weanling Rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of sesame seed meal inclusion on the performance and apparent nutrient digestibility of weanling rabbits. Sixteen, (New Zealand White) rabbits of mixed sexes were used for the experiment. They were weighed and randomly allotted to four dietary ...

  1. Essential-fatty acid supply of weanling piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellingerhout, Anneke Beatrix

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on the essential-fatty acid supply of weanling piglets. Vertebrates require dietary sources of essential fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) and a-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) are considered the parent compounds of the

  2. Lawsonia intracellularis-associated proliferative enteritis in weanling foals in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wollenberg, L; Butler, C M; Houwers, D J; de Grootv, M W; Panhuijzen, H; van Maanen, C; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2011-08-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) is an emerging infectious enteric disease caused by the obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis. EPE was tentatively diagnosed in six weanling foals, aged between 5 and 7 months. Clinical signs included depression, anorexia, ventral oedema, and weight loss. Plasma biochemistry consistently revealed severe hypoproteinaemia. The ante-mortem diagnosis of EPE was based on clinical signs, hypoproteinaemia (6/6), the detection of moderate-to-high titres of L. intracellularis antibody (6/6), and severe thickening of the small intestinal wall on ultrasonography (2/2), or L. intracellularis detected in faeces by PCR (I/2). The first foal died despite treatment and at post-mortem examination the tentative diagnosis was EPE. Three foals from the same farm, which showed similar clinical symptoms were treated with azithromycin and rifampicin; two survived. Post-mortem examination of the foal that died confirmed the tentative clinical diagnosis of EPE on the basis of the lesions found and the detection of L. intracellularis--DNA in the ileum and jejunum. The fifth foal died despite intensive treatment and the post-mortem examination revealed lymphohistiocytic enteritis, typhlitis, and widespread thrombosis in several organs. The sixth foal recovered completely after treatment. This report confirms the presence of clinical L. intracellularis infection in weanling foals in the Netherlands and shows the difficulty in reaching a definitive ante-mortem diagnosis.

  3. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WEANLING PIGS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH CHLOROACETIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    N. AMAECHI; U. P. NJOKU

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chloroacetic acid on growth performance and heamatological parameters of weanling pigs. Thirty-six cross-bred weanling pigs (Landrace × Duroc) were allotted randomly to four treatment groups, with three replicates of three weanling pigs in each group. Control (T1) weanling pigs were given a standard basal diet; Treatment 2, 3 and 4 were diets of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percents levels of inclusion of chloroacetic acid respectively. After six weeks, blood and int...

  4. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Bonfim de Santana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the addition of sodium butyrate, plant extracts and nucleotides on weanling pig performance, digestive content pH, organ morphometry, and intestinal epithelial histology. A total of 90 piglets at 21 days of age and an average initial weight of 6.35±0.34kg were used. The piglets were distributed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments, six replicates, and three animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of the following: Control: basal diet without antibiotic; Antibiotic: basal diet with 40mg kg-1 colistin sulfate and Additive: 1000, 1500 and 2000mg kg-1 of a combination of sodium butyrate + plant extracts + nucleotides. The experiment lasted 35 days, at which time one animal was slaughtered to assess pH of the digestive contents, morphometry of the organs and histology of the intestinal epithelium. No differences were found (P>0.05 in the performance, pH of the digestive contents, morphometry of the organs or histology of the intestinal epithelium by the analysis of orthogonal polynomials or contrasts. The combination of sodium butyrate, plant extracts and nucleotides not improved the productive characteristics of weanling pigs.

  5. EVALUTION OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN WEANLING RATS: A REVIEW OF METHODS SUITABLE FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) guidelines for environmental agents require cognitive testing around the age of weaning as well as adulthood. There are challenges associated with testing weanling rodents that are not present with testing older subjects, including r...

  6. Corn-soy-blend fortified with phosphorus to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia in undernourished piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hother Nielsen, Anne-Louise; Lykke Jensen, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified...

  7. Barriers to nutritional care for the undernourished hospitalised elderly: perspectives of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Helene Dahl; Halvorsen, Kristin; Almendingen, Kari

    2015-03-01

    To identify what nurses experience as barriers to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished hospitalized elderly. Undernutrition occurs frequently among the hospitalised elderly and can result in a variety of negative consequences if not treated. Nevertheless, undernutrition is often unrecognised and undertreated. Nurses have a great responsibility for nutritional care, as this is part of the patient's basic needs. Exploring nurses' experiences of preventing and treating undernourishment among older patients in hospitals is therefore highly relevant. A focus group study was employed based on a hermeneutic phenomenological methodological approach. Four focus group interviews with totally 16 nurses working in one large university hospital in Norway were conducted in spring 2012. The nurses were recruited from seven somatic wards, all with a high proportion of older (≥70 years) inpatients. The data were analysed in the three interpretative contexts: self-understanding, a critical common-sense understanding and a theoretical understanding. We identified five themes that reflect barriers the nurses experience in relation to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished elderly: loneliness in nutritional care, a need for competence in nutritional care, low flexibility in food service practices, system failure in nutritional care and nutritional care is being ignored. The results imply that nutritional care at the university hospital has its limits within the hospital structure and organisation, but also regarding the nurses' competence. Moreover, the barriers revealed that the undernourished elderly are not identified and treated properly as stipulated in the recommendations in the national guidelines on the prevention and treatment of undernutrition. The barriers revealed in this study are valuable when considering improvements to nutritional care practices on hospital wards to enable undernourished older inpatients to be identified and

  8. Efficacy of an avirulent live vaccine against Lawsonia intracellularis in the prevention of proliferative enteropathy in experimentally infected weanling foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Mapes, Samantha M; Nogradi, Nora; Collier, Jessica R; Hill, Jackie A; Difrancesco, Melissa; White, Alexandria M; Akana, Nina K; Simonek, Greg; Gebhart, Connie J

    2012-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of an avirulent Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine in preventing proliferative enteropathy in weanling foals. 12 healthy weanling foals. Foals were randomly assigned to a vaccinated, nonvaccinated, or control group. Vaccinated foals received an avirulent porcine L intracellularis frozen-thawed vaccine intrarectally 60 and 30 days prior to experimental challenge. On day 1, vaccinated and nonvaccinated foals were challenged via nasogastric intubation with a virulent heterologous isolate of L intracellularis. Control foals were not challenged. Clinical observation and ultrasonographic evaluation of the small intestine were performed, and body weight, serum concentration of total solids, fecal excretion of L intracellularis, and seroconversion were measured for each foal until day 56. Diseased foals were treated with antimicrobials and supportive care. None of the 4 vaccinated foals developed clinical disease following challenge with virulent L intracellularis. Three of 4 nonvaccinated foals developed moderate to severe clinical signs compatible with proliferative enteropathy, hypoproteinemia, and thickened small intestinal loops. Vaccinated foals had significantly less fecal shedding of L intracellularis than nonvaccinated foals. Serologic responses between vaccinated and nonvaccinated foals after challenge were similar. Control foals remained clinically unaffected with no evidence of fecal shedding and seroconversion. Intrarectal administration of a commercial avirulent porcine vaccine against L intracellularis resulted in complete protection against proliferative enteropathy in the foals in this study and may also reduce environmental contamination with the organism on endemic farms.

  9. Phototherapy improves healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Meireles, Gyselle Cynthia Silva; de Barros Vieira, Alessandro Leonardo; Almeida, Darcy; Carvalho, Carolina Montagn; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2004-01-01

    A wound represents the interruption of the continuity of tissue that is followed by damage or cellular death. Wound healing occurs due to a competitive mechanism between the synthesis and lysis of collagen. Any factor that increases collagen lysis or reduces its synthesis may result in changes in the healing process, i.e., nutritional deficiencies. Phototherapies have been suggested as an effective method to improve wound healing. This study evaluated, histologically, the differences in the healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished rats following laser therapy or illumination by polarized light. Fifty nourished or undernourished Wistar rats had a standardized wound created on the dorsum and were divided into 6 subgroups: Group 1--Control (Standard diet; n=5); Group 2--Control (DBR; n=5); Group 3--Standard diet + laser therapy (lambda635nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40J/cm2, n=5); Group 4--Standard diet + Bioptron (lambda400-2000nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40 J/cm2, n=5); Group 5--DBR + laser therapy (lambda635nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40J/cm2, n=5); Group 6--DBR + Bioptron (lambda400-2000nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40 J/cm2, n=5). The first application of the treatment was carried out immediately after surgery and repeated every 24 h during 7 days. Specimens were routinely processed (wax, cut and stained with H&E and Picrosirius stain) and analyzed under light microscopy. Analysis included re-epithelization, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblastic proliferation. Picrosirius stained slides were used to perform descriptive analysis of the collagen fibers. The results showed the best results for nourished and undernourished groups treated with polarized light at a dose of 20J/cm2 and the undernourished groups irradiated with the laser light. It is concluded that the nutritional status influenced the progression of the healing process as well as the quality of the healed tissue and that the use of both modalities of phototherapy resulted in a positive biomodulatory effect in

  10. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ponazuril in weanling goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M

    2016-06-01

    Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Liver and serum soluble protein changes and pathomorphology in undernourished mice with acute Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Body, liver and spleen weights; histopathology of the liver, spleen and intestines; hepatic and serum soluble proteins changes were the parameters studied in undernourished Swiss albino mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni. Non-infected deficient animab had lower liver/body weight and spleen/body weight ratios as compared to the controls (22.60% casein group. Infected mice showed higher values regardless the type of diet. Undernourished infected subgroup showed a persistent exudative periovular reaction in the liver. Soluble hepatic proteins content and serum protein fractions appeared to be lower in the deficient infected mice. A significant difference was detected in the gammaglobulin fraction between infected and non-infected animals fed the control diet with higher values for the former. Our data suggest that the effects of malnutrition, per se, are sometimes more detrimental to the host than those due to Manson 's schistosomiasis.

  12. Using the Morris water maze to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Christopher D; Yang, Dongren; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have been indispensable for elucidating normal and pathological processes that influence learning and memory. A widely used method for assessing these cognitive processes in mice is the Morris water maze, a classic test for examining spatial learning and memory. However, Morris water maze studies with mice have principally been performed using adult animals, which preclude studies of critical neurodevelopmental periods when the cellular and molecular substrates of learning and memory are formed. While weanling rats have been successfully trained in the Morris water maze, there have been few attempts to test weanling mice in this behavioral paradigm even though mice offer significant experimental advantages because of the availability of many genetically modified strains. Here, we present experimental evidence that weanling mice can be trained in the Morris water maze beginning on postnatal day 24. Maze-trained weanling mice exhibit significant improvements in spatial learning over the training period and results of the probe trial indicate the development of spatial memory. There were no sex differences in the animals' performance in these tasks. In addition, molecular biomarkers of synaptic plasticity are upregulated in maze-trained mice at the transcript level. These findings demonstrate that the Morris water maze can be used to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice, providing a potentially powerful experimental approach for examining the influence of genes, environmental factors and their interactions on the development of learning and memory.

  13. Vitamin E and selenium plasma concentrations in weanling pigs under field conditions in Norwegian pig herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhoft Aksel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of α-tocopherol (vit E and selenium (Se has been shown to influence disease resistance in pigs, and may be important for the health of weanling pigs. Methods Plasma levels of both vit E and Se were followed in weanling pigs under field conditions in six Norwegian pig herds. Plasma vit E and Se were measured in 3 sows from each herd and 4 piglets in the litter of each sow at the day before weaning (day -1; and in the same piglets at days 4, 8 and 18 after weaning. Results Mean plasma vit E was 4.0 μg/ml in the sows and 2.6 μg/ml in the piglets at day -1, fell to 1.6 μg/ml in the weanling pigs at day 4, and remained low. Mean plasma Se was 0.22 μg/g in the sows and 0.08 μg/g in the piglets at day -1, rose to 0.10 μg/g in the weanlings at day 4, and continued rising. Conclusion The results suggest that vit E and Se supplementation to piglets and weanling pigs in Norway may still be suboptimal, but that levels of the two nutrients partially compensate for each other in the weaning period.

  14. Esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos experimentalmente subnutridos Mansoni schistosomiasis in experimentally undernourished mice

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    Luiz Augusto Magalhães

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Foram constituídos 4 grupos de Mus musculus "Swiss" da seguinte forma: 1 não infectados, normoprotéicos; 2 infectados, normoprotéicos; 3 não infectados, hipoprotéicos e 4 infectados, hipoprotéicos. Os animais foram sacrificados com 60 dias de infecção, aos 90 dias de idade. Verificou-se que os esquistossomos sofreram os efeitos da subnutrição do hospedeiro, principalmente os vermes machos, que além de terem seu desenvolvimento prejudicado, tiveram seu número reduzido aproximadamente pela metade. O número de granulomas foi menor nos roedores subnutridos e o tamanho da lesão foi reduzido. Houve acentuada leucopenia nos animais submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica, principalmente nos infectados subnutridos. A linfopenia e a eosinopenia acentuadas sugeriram que o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro foi afetado pela subnutrição. A taxa de mortalidade foi muito mais elevada nos animais infectados submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Concluiu-se que os camundongos subnutridos resistiram menos à infecção esquistossomótica apesar de terem apresentado menor número de lesões granulomatosas.Mansoni schistosomiasis was studied in mice fed on a low protein diet. Four groups of the Swiss breed Mus musculus were used in an experiment with two factors, each with two levels: 1-non-infected, normal diet; 2 - infected, normal diet ; 3 - non-infected, low protein diet; 4 - infected, low protein diet. The mice were killed for observation at age 90 days, after 60 days of infection, for those infected. It was found that the worms suffered the effects of malnutrition, mainly males, whose population count was cut by half, in addition to poor individual growth. The hepatic granuloma count was found to be smaller in the undernourished group; while the corresponding lesions were also generally smaller. There was a marked leukopenia in

  15. The clinical and anthropometric profile of undernourished children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally it has been estimated that stunting, severe wasting and intra-uterine growth restriction together accounted for 2.2 million deaths of children aged under 5.1 In developing countries the prevalence of malnutrition is high, with 1 out of 3 preschool children affected.2. Underlying causes of malnutrition as described in the ...

  16. Nutritional Status and Infectious Disease of Undernourished Children under five in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, from April to December 2012

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    Palomina Caesarea Nurhasanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition frequently occurs in children under five. If not treated, it will cause acute health effects and affect on cognitive development, social, physical work capacity and productivity. Undernutrition can be accompanied by the presence of infectious disease that can worsen the children’s nutritional status. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status and infectious disease of undernutrition children under five in Jatinangor Subdistrict. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out to 7 parents and undernourished children under five, in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor. It was conducted from April to December 2012. The inclusion criterias were undernourished children under five with a history of infectious disease in the previous year, and the parents were willing to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria were parents and/or the children who were not at home when the collection of the data was conducted.. Data collection was conducted using measurement of nutritional status, in depth interview and environmental observation. The data were presented in tables, figures and narration. Results: Three subjects with undernutrition (-3SD to -2SD and four subjects with severe undernutrition (<-3SD. Factors affecting poor nutritional status were weight loss, no significant weight gain, diet and eating habit, and onset of disease. Commonly occurred infectious diseases were common cold, diarrhea, fever and cough. Some factors affecting infectious diseases were family member transmission, immunization, and treatment behavior. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and infectious diseases contribute to undernutrition in children under five.

  17. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  18. Effect of cyadox on growth and nutrient digestibility in weanling pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laenette

    The effect of cyadox on growth and apparent digestibility of nutrients in weanling pigs was investigated. ... Introduction. It has been recorded that dietary antimicrobial agents can promote growth and improve efficiency of .... 6.25), ether extract, crude fibre, ash, calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in feed and faeces were.

  19. Effects of chronic inflammation on energy metabolism and growth performance in weanling piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon, H.K.; Han, I.K.; Gentry, J.L.; Parmentier, H.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a chronic inflammation (cell-mediated immune response) on energy metabolism and growth performance was assessed in weanling piglets. Twenty four barrows of 4 wk of age were assigned to one of two immunization treatments : Control group [CON: immunized with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant

  20. Effect of cyadox on growth and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cyadox on growth and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract, calcium, phosphorus and gross energy was significantly increased in the cyadox-fed pigs above the control. Inclusion of ...

  1. Immunization protected well nourished mice but not undernourished ones from lung injury in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection

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    da Cunha Maria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA has been frequently isolated from endotracheal and lung puncture aspirates in malnourished children with pneumonia. In this work we evaluated the susceptibility of undernourished BALB/c mice and its ability to mount a protective immunity against MRSA with emphasis on the lung involvement. Results BALB/c mice submitted to a 20% dietary restriction during 20 days presented a significant decrease in body weight, lymphocyte number and also atrophy in thymus and intestinal epithelium. Determination of bacterial load by the number of colony forming units (CFU indicated a similar susceptibility whereas the findings of Gram stain clearly suggested a higher amount of bacteria in the lungs of normal mice than in the undernourished ones. Immunization reduced bacterial growth in the lungs of normal mice but not in the undernourished ones. Histopathological analysis showed that inflammation appeared in the lungs from normal mice only after infection and that immunization prevented this pulmonary inflammatory process. On the other hand, undernourished mice presented lung inflammation even before infection. In addition, the degree of this inflammatory process did not change with infection or previous immunization. Conclusion Our results indicated that lung injury during MRSA infection is prevented by previous immunization in well nourished but not in undernourished mice.

  2. Corn-Soy-Blend Fortified with Phosphorus to Prevent Refeeding Hypophosphatemia in Undernourished Piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). Methods Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age...... in the CSB++ and CSB+/wp pigs were able to maintain their plasma phosphate at a similar level as before refeeding. Conclusion We conclude that fortification of CSB with only monocalcium-phosphate does not prevent hypophosphatemia. Dairy products like skim milk powder or whey permeate may represent relevant...

  3. The use of protein hydrolysate improves the protein intestinal absorption in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coutinho Eridan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients residing in endemic areas for schistosomiasis in Brazil are usually undernourished and when they develop the hepatosplenic clinical form of the disease should usually receive hospital care, many of them being in need of nutritional rehabilitation before specific treatment can be undertaken. In the mouse model, investigations carried out in our laboratory detected a reduced aminoacid uptake in undernourished animals which is aggravated by a superimposed infection with Schistosoma mansoni. However, in well-nourished infected mice no dysfunction occurs. In this study, we tried to improve the absorptive intestinal performance of undernourished mice infected with S. mansoni by feeding them with hydrolysed casein instead of whole casein. The values obtained for the coefficient of protein intestinal absorption (cpia among well-nourished mice were above 90% (either hydrolysed or whole protein. In undernourished infected mice, however, the cpia improved significantly after feeding them with hydrolysed casein, animals reaching values close to those obtained in well-nourished infected mice.

  4. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y

    2006-01-01

    Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.

  5. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  6. Diet affects nutrient digestibility, hematology, and serum chemistry of senior and weanling dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K S; Kuzmuk, K N; Schook, L B; Fahey, G C

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of age and diet on serum chemistry, hematology, and nutrient digestibility in healthy dogs. Twelve senior (11 yr old; six males and six females) and 12 weanling (age = 8 wk old; six males and six females) beagles were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) an animal product-based (APB) diet or 2) a plant product-based (PPB) diet. The APB diet was primarily composed of brewer's rice, chicken by-product meal, and poultry fat, whereas the primary ingredients of the PPB diet included corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and meat and bone meal. Dogs remained on experiment for 12 mo. A 4-d total fecal collection was performed to determine apparent macronutrient digestibilities after 3 and 10 mo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo on study. After 3 mo, dogs fed the APB diet had greater (P dogs fed the PPB diet. Senior dogs had greater DM (2.5 percentage units; P = 0.07) and OM (3 percentage units; P dogs. Dogs fed the PPB diet had a lower (P dogs fed the PPB diet had a lower (P dogs. Blood cholesterol, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, creatinine, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, sodium, chloride, and alanine transaminase were present in greater (P senior dogs, but weanling dogs had greater (P Senior dogs had greater (P dogs. Moreover, dogs fed the APB diet had greater (P dogs fed the PPB diet. Overall, although serum metabolite concentrations of weanlings were different from senior dogs at baseline, as weanlings matured into young adults, metabolite concentrations were similar to those of senior dogs. Diet had the largest effects on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Canine age and diet must be considered when interpreting experimental and clinical data.

  7. Influence of dietary methionine concentration on growth and nitrogen balance in weanling Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsco, K N; Coverdale, J A; Wickersham, T A; Shelton, J L

    2011-07-01

    Twenty-four Quarter Horse weanlings (120 ± 10 d) were blocked by age into 4 groups (n=6) for a 56-d trial to evaluate the influence of dietary Met concentration on growth and N balance. Weanling horses were housed by block and individually fed concentrates twice daily at 1.75% BW (as-fed basis). Weanling horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 concentrate treatments: basal (0.20 Met), basal + 0.03% Met (0.23 Met), basal + 0.07% Met (0.27 Met), and basal + 0.11% Met (0.31 Met). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained equal amounts of Lys and Thr. Coastal bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon) was individually fed at 0.75% BW (as-fed basis). Growth measurements, BW, rump fat, and plasma were obtained every 7 d. The final 4 d consisted of total collection of urine and feces. Feed, fecal, and urine samples were analyzed for N content, and N balance was calculated. Urine was analyzed for urea and ammonia concentrations. Plasma was analyzed for urea concentration. Grain, hay, and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrient composition. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. Linear, quadratic, and cubic effects were tested in the form of contrasts. There was no influence (P>0.25) of treatment on growth measurements, N balance, or urinary urea or ammonia. Intake of Lys and Thr did not differ (P>0.08) among treatments. Methionine intake increased as expected with increasing Met inclusion in the diet (Pdietary variable are necessary to better explain the Met requirements of weanling horses. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  8. Premature exfoliation of the teeth in a hypocalcemic undernourished African girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature exfoliation of the primary dentition is a rare phenomenon which may be associated with local disorders of the teeth and systemic diseases; however its association with hypocalcemia and malnutrition is uncommon. Nutritional rickets occurs mostly in developing countries despite some of these countries being sunny. Therefore, emphasis is now shifting toward the role of hypocalcemia as the predominant cause of nutritional rickets. Rickets is often described as a disease of growing bones; hence, it should ordinarily not be seen in malnourished children. This, however, has been refuted over the years. Therefore, a case of an undernourished hypocalcemic Nigerian child is reported who presented with premature exfoliation of the central lower incisors with delayed eruption of other primary dentition.

  9. Gestational Undernourishment Modifies the Composition of Skeletal Muscle Transverse Tubule Membranes and the Mechanical Properties of Muscles in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tonathiu Ramírez-Oseguera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Skeletal muscle (SM constitutes more than 40% of the body weight in adulthood. Transports dietary glucose mainly through the insulin-dependent glucose transporter (Glut-4 located in the Transverse tubule membrane system (TT. The TT development ends shortly after birth. The TT membrane hosts the proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and glucose uptake. Glycaemic regulation through movement is a key function of fully developed skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to characterize the effect of gestational undernourishment (GUN in rats GLUT-4 expression and on the protein/lipid content of the TT membranes. We also examined the effect of GUN on the mechanical properties of muscles as an indication of the metabolic condition of the SM at birth. Methods: Isolated TT membrane from SM of GUN rats were used to study lipid/protein content and protein stability by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of GUN on the SM mechanical properties was determined in isolated Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle. Results: We demonstrate that compared to control, GUN in the new-born produces; i decreases body weight; ii diminution in SM mass; iii decreases the formation of TT membranes; iv expresses TT membrane proteins with higher thermal stability. The TT membrane expression of GLUT-4 in GUN offspring was twice that of controls. The isolated EDL of GUN offspring was 20% stronger as measured by contractile force and more resistant to fatigue relative to controls. Conclusion; These results provide the first evidence of adaptive changes of the SM in new-borns exposed to severe gestational food restriction. The effects of GUN on muscle at birth are the first step toward detrimental SM metabolic function, contributing to the physiopathology of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  10. The survival prognosis of elderly undernourished inpatients admitted to the internal medical department of an emergency hospital as assessed using the nutritional screening, tool CONUT (for CONtrolling NUTritional status).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwano, Mototaka

    2017-01-01

    CONUT, a tool for "CONtrolling NUTritional status" assesses the nutritional status of a subject by taking into account their serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count. Elderly undernourished inpatients admitted to the internal medical department were divided into two groups, those who left the hospital and those who died in the hospital. The goal of this study was to analyze whether or not the CONUT score, serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count could predict the survival prognosis of elderly undernourished inpatients and to show the ratio of patients discharged with artificial hydration and nutrition (AHN). We divided elderly undernourished inpatients into two groups, those who left the hospital (229 patients) and those who died in the hospital (363 patients), and examined the serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count within 10 days before discharge or death. Based on the degree of undernutrition as determined by CONUT, we further classified the patients 4-into four levels of nutrition status, normal, light undernutrition, moderate undernutrition and severe undernutrition. In addition, based on the serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count, the patients were also classified 4-into four levels of nutrition status, and we calculated the ratio of AHN patients in the discharged group. On comparing the discharge and death groups according to the degree of undernutrition, serum albumin level, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count, significant differences were found between the groups of all nutrition statuses except moderate undernutrition. Furthermore, the patients with moderate undernutrition status demonstrated no statistically significant difference in both groups, except the serum albumin level. Among the discharged patients, the ratio of AHN was 37.0% in those with a normal nutrition status and more than 50% in the patients with

  11. Carrot juice ingestion attenuates high fructose-induced circulatory pro-inflammatory mediators in weanling Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pappu, Pranati; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, plays a vital role not only in energy homeostasis, but also in the development and/or progression of various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), via several factors and mechanisms, including inflammation. This study tested, whether carrot juice administration affected the adipose tissue development and its inflammatory status in a high fructose diet-induced rat model. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed either control or high fructose diet of AIN-93G composition with or without carrot juice ingestion for an 8 week period. Administration of carrot juice did not affect the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT), which was corroborated with unaltered expression of genes involved in adipogenic and lipogenic pathways. However, it significantly reduced the high fructose diet-induced elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) (P ≤ 0.05), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (P ≤ 0.01) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P ≤ 0.05) levels. Carrot juice administration attenuated the high fructose diet-induced elevation of levels of circulatory FFA and pro-inflammatory mediators; MCP1 and hsCRP without affecting the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; RPWAT. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Oral infection of weanling foals with an equine isolate of Lawsonia intracellularis, agent of equine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wattanaphansak, S; Mapes, S; Collier, J; Hill, J; Difrancesco, M; Gebhart, C

    2010-01-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) is an emerging disease of weanling foals. Describe clinical, hematologic, biochemical, serologic, molecular, and ultrasonographic findings in foals experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis. Eight foals. Recently weaned foals were assigned to either the challenge (n = 3), the sentinel (n = 3), or the control (n = 2) group. Foals were experimentally challenged via intragastric inoculation of 3 x 10(10)L. intracellularis organisms grown in culture. Each experimentally infected foal was housed with a sentinel foal in order to assess feco-oral transmission. All foals were monitored daily for the development of clinical abnormalities and were weighed once weekly for the duration of the study (90 days). Abdominal ultrasound examination was performed weekly. Feces were collected every other day for 60 days, then weekly for an additional 30 days for the quantitative molecular detection of L. intracellularis. Blood was collected weekly for hematologic, biochemical, and serologic analysis. Only challenged foals developed transient clinical signs of EPE consisting of anorexia, lethargy, fever, loose feces, and peripheral edema. Two challenged foals developed transient hypoalbuminemia. Fecal shedding of L. intracellularis was first detected in the challenged foals between days 12 and 18 postinoculation and lasted for 7-21 days. Seroconversion was documented in all challenged foals and in 1 sentinel foal. The remaining sentinel and control foals remained unaffected. Clinical EPE of variable severity was induced in all foals infected with L. intracellularis. Furthermore, L. intracellularis can be transmitted via the feco-oral route to susceptible herdmates.

  13. Liver and serum soluble protein changes and pathomorphology in undernourished mice with acute Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Body, liver and spleen weights; histopathology of the liver, spleen and intestines; hepatic and serum soluble proteins changes were the parameters studied in undernourished Swiss albino mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni. Non-infected deficient animab had lower liver/body weight and spleen/body weight ratios as compared to the controls (22.60% casein group. Infected mice showed higher values regardless the type of diet. Undernourished infected subgroup showed a persistent exudative periovular reaction in the liver. Soluble hepatic proteins content and serum protein fractions appeared to be lower in the deficient infected mice. A significant difference was detected in the gammaglobulin fraction between infected and non-infected animals fed the control diet with higher values for the former. Our data suggest that the effects of malnutrition, per se, are sometimes more detrimental to the host than those due to Manson 's schistosomiasis.No presente estudo os pesos corporal, hepático e esplénico; a morfologia patológica do fígado, baço e intestinos; e as modificações das proteínas solúveis hepáticas e séricas, foram os parâmetros investigados em camundongos albinos Suíços desnutridos e infectados com S. mansoni. Os animais desnutridos não infectados apresentaram relações fígado/peso corporal e baço! peso corporal com valores menores do que os animais controles (grupo caseina a 22,60%. Camundongos infectados mostraram esses índices mais elevados, independentemente do tipo de dieta. O subgrupo de camundongos desnutridos infectados apresentou, no fígado, reação periovular exsudativa persistente. O conteúdo de proteínas solúveis no fígado e no soro também mostrou-se reduzido nos camundongos infectados desnutridos. Diferença significativa foi detectada quanto às gamaglobulinas, comparando-se animais infectados com não infectados alimentados com a dieta controle II, valores mais altos ocorrendo no grupo dos

  14. Chronic undernourishment in school-aged children: itineraries of nutritional neglect and official programs in indigenous communities of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of different elements of the nutritional dynamics in a predominantly indigenous municipality in Guerrero, Mexico, we explore the relevance of the concept of itineraries of nutritional neglect in order to broaden the understanding of avoidable health damage. In the framework of a process of accompaniment of the Health Commission of the Regional Coordination of Community Authorities - Community Police, the following methodological strategies were applied throughout the year 2015: a a review of official programs by means of the analysis of technical documents and interviews with health personnel; b the compilation of local narratives from families of undernourished children through interviews and participatory observation; c the somatometric measurement of 151 children in three elementary schools. We highlight the technical and cultural inadequacy of official nutrition programs and the existence of different scales (individual, familial, community, state, structural and dimensions (economic, environmental, cultural, institutional, affective-emotional of neglect, materialized in high rates of chronic undernourishment.

  15. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder K A; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥ 60 (69.23 ± 8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression. Clinically, overall health that includes nutritional status, physical function, and depression level should be taken into consideration in the assessment and treatment of older adults residing at residential institutions.

  16. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanch A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity. In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices (LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined. Milk deprivation decreased LI by 50% in the esophagus (from 15 to 8.35% and small intestine (from 40 to 20% of 14-day-old rats. In 18-day-old rats, milk and food deprivation decreased LI in the esophagus (from 13 to 5% and in the distal segments of the small intestine (from 36-40 to 24-32%. In contrast, the LI of the epithelia of the esophagus (5% and of all small intestine segments (around 30% of 22-day-old rats were not modified by food deprivation. Crypt depth did not change after treatment (80 to 120 µm in 14- and 22-day-old rats, respectively. Villus height decreased in some small intestine segments of unfed 14- (from 400 to 300 µm and 18-day-old rats (from 480 to 360 µm. The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats. In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations

  17. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  18. Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bergeron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or without zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg and arginine (1% starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased reduced and total glutathione (GSH (reduced and total during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized GSH measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05. This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

  19. Tribasic copper chloride and copper sulfate as copper sources for weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Monegue, H J; Hall, D D; Orr, D E

    1998-01-01

    We conducted three 28-d experiments involving a total of 915 pigs to assess the relative efficacy of tribasic Cu chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl) and Cu sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H20) in diets for weanling pigs. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted at an experiment station (University of Kentucky), and Exp. 3 was conducted at a commercial feed company's swine research facilities (United Feeds, Inc.). The basal diet was a fortified corn-soybean meal-dried whey diet (1.25% lysine) with no antimicrobials in Exp. 1 or with carbadox (55 mg/kg) in Exp. 2 and 3. In Exp. 1, 135 pigs were weaned at 27 to 31 d and fed the basal diet without or with 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu chloride, or 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate from 7.9 to 17.7 kg BW. The 200 ppm level of Cu from Cu sulfate improved ADG (P sulfate from 8.9 to 20.8 kg BW. Addition of 200 ppm Cu improved ADG (P sulfate tended to increase liver Cu more than did Cu chloride in one experiment, but not in another experiment. The results indicate that tribasic Cu chloride is as effective as Cu sulfate in improving growth in weanling pigs.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of rats subjected to gestational undernourishment: implications for the developmental variations in metabolic traits.

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    Tiffany J Morris

    Full Text Available A link has been established between prenatal nutrition and the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life, a process referred to as developmental programming. It has been suggested that the trajectory of development is shifted by alterations in the maternal nutritional state leading to changes in developmental plasticity, in part underpinned by epigenetic changes in gene regulation. However, to date, only candidate gene approaches have been used to assess expression and molecular changes in the offspring of maternally undernourished animals. Furthermore, most work has focused on animals at an age where the programmed phenotype is already manifest and little is known about changes in gene expression in the offspring prior to development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Gene expression profiles of liver, retroperitoneal white adipose fat, and biceps femoris skeletal muscle tissue from young adult male rats (55 days old in which nutritional status had been manipulated in utero by maternal undernutrition (UN were compared to the profiles of offspring of ad libitum fed mothers serving as the control group (AD (8 offspring/group. The expression profiles were determined using the Illumina RatRef-12 BeadChip. No significant changes in expression were identified for skeletal muscle or white adipose tissue. However, studies of liver tissue showed 249 differentially expressed genes (143 up regulated, 106 down regulated. Although the animals at day 55 have yet to develop obesity they already show biochemical abnormalities and by day 110 express a phenotype characterized by increased adiposity and altered insulin sensitivity. An analysis of pathways affected suggests that intrauterine programming of UN animals to favor fat as an energy source results in mitochondrial dysfunction which initially affects the postnatal hepatic function and subsequently, via the resultant metabolic changes in other organs leads to the evolution

  1. Genotoxicity of Styrene–Acrylonitrile Trimer in Brain, Liver, and Blood Cells of Weanling F344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Cheryl A.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Witt, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    Styrene–acrylonitrile Trimer (SAN Trimer), a by-product in production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics, was identified at a Superfund site in Dover Township, NJ, where childhood cancer incidence rates were elevated for a period of several years. SAN Trimer was therefore tested by the National Toxicology Program in a 2-year perinatal carcinogenicity study in F344/N rats and a bacterial mutagenicity assay; both studies gave negative results. To further characterize its genotoxicity, SAN Trimer was subsequently evaluated in a combined micronucleus (MN)/Comet assay in juvenile male and female F344 rats. SAN Trimer (37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage once daily for 4 days. Micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood were determined by flow cytometry, and DNA damage in blood, liver, and brain cells was assessed using the Comet assay. Highly significant dose-related increases (P < 0.0001) in MN-RET were measured in both male and female rats administered SAN Trimer. The RET population was reduced in high dose male rats, suggesting chemical-related bone marrow toxicity. Results of the Comet assay showed significant, dose-related increases in DNA damage in brain cells of male (P < 0.0074) and female (P < 0.0001) rats; increased levels of DNA damage were also measured in liver cells and leukocytes of treated rats. Chemical-related cytotoxicity was not indicated in any of the tissues examined for DNA damage. The results of this subacute MN/Comet assay indicate induction of significant genetic damage in multiple tissues of weanling F344 male and female rats after oral exposure to SAN Trimer. PMID:22351108

  2. Genotoxicity of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer in brain, liver, and blood cells of weanling F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Chhabra, Rajendra S; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Witt, Kristine L

    2012-04-01

    Styrene-acrylonitrile Trimer (SAN Trimer), a by-product in production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics, was identified at a Superfund site in Dover Township, NJ, where childhood cancer incidence rates were elevated for a period of several years. SAN Trimer was therefore tested by the National Toxicology Program in a 2-year perinatal carcinogenicity study in F344/N rats and a bacterial mutagenicity assay; both studies gave negative results. To further characterize its genotoxicity, SAN Trimer was subsequently evaluated in a combined micronucleus (MN)/Comet assay in juvenile male and female F344 rats. SAN Trimer (37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage once daily for 4 days. Micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood were determined by flow cytometry, and DNA damage in blood, liver, and brain cells was assessed using the Comet assay. Highly significant dose-related increases (P < 0.0001) in MN-RET were measured in both male and female rats administered SAN Trimer. The RET population was reduced in high dose male rats, suggesting chemical-related bone marrow toxicity. Results of the Comet assay showed significant, dose-related increases in DNA damage in brain cells of male (P < 0.0074) and female (P < 0.0001) rats; increased levels of DNA damage were also measured in liver cells and leukocytes of treated rats. Chemical-related cytotoxicity was not indicated in any of the tissues examined for DNA damage. The results of this subacute MN/Comet assay indicate induction of significant genetic damage in multiple tissues of weanling F344 male and female rats after oral exposure to SAN Trimer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prenatally undernourished rats show increased preference for wheel running v. lever pressing for food in a choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Landon, Jason; Davison, Michael; Krägeloh, Christian U; Thompson, Nichola M; Triggs, Christopher M; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has a significant influence in establishing patterns of metabolism and postnatal behaviours in offspring, and therefore shapes their risk of developing disorders in later life. Although it is well established that a mismatch between food consumption and energy expenditure leads to obesity and metabolic dysregulation, little research has investigated the biological origin of such behaviour. We conducted the present experiments to investigate effects of early-life nutrition on preference between wheel running and lever pressing for food during adult life. To address this issue we employed a well-established experimental approach in the rat which has shown that offspring of mothers undernourished during pregnancy develop obesity and metabolic disorders when kept under standard laboratory conditions. Using this experimental approach, two studies were conducted where offspring of ad libitum-fed dams and dams undernourished throughout pregnancy were given the choice between wheel running and pressing a response lever for food. Across subsequent conditions, the rate at which the response lever provided food was varied from 0.22 to 6.0 (study 1) and 0.19 to 3.0 (study 2) pellets per min. Compared with the control group, offspring from dams undernourished during pregnancy showed a consistently greater preference for running over lever pressing for food throughout both experiments of the study. The results of the present study provide experimental evidence that a mother's nutrition during pregnancy can result in a long-term shift in her offspring's lifestyle choices that are relevant to obesity prevention. Such a shift, if endorsed, will have substantial and wide-ranging health consequences throughout the lifespan.

  4. Wealth and under-nourishment among married women in two impoverished nations: evidence from Burkina Faso and Congo Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2015-02-08

    Burkina Faso (BF) and Congo Democratic Republic (CDR) are among the top-ten poverty and hunger stricken countries globally. The influence of poverty and hunger on health is enormous. The objectives of the study are to; examine the association between poverty and nutritional status, it also identified socio-demographic and health related mediating factors that contribute to the relationship between poverty and poor nutritional status. The study focused on married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 years and utilized 2010 and 2007 DHS dataset from BF and CDR respectively. Mean age of the women in BF and CDR were 34.4 ± 9.3 and 34.7 ± 9.0 years respectively. About 19.4% and 18.4% of the poor were malnourished as against 7.7% and 9.7% of the rich women in BF and CDR respectively. Obesity and overweight were more prominent among the rich than the poor. Higher prevalence of under-nourish women was found among the older than the younger women in BF. In the countries, the prevalence of malnutrition was significantly higher among women; in the rural areas, with no formal education, anaemic and those who are not working. Multivariate analysis revealed that in the countries, the risk of under-nourishment was significantly higher among poor and middle class than the rich women despite controlling for confounding variables. Undernourished women were more common among the poor and those with no formal education. Programs that target nutrition of women of reproductive age should be strengthened in BF and CDR.

  5. Biomodulative effects of visible and IR laser light on the healing of cutaneous wounds of nourished and undernourished Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Meireles, Gyselle Cynthia Silva; Carvalho, Carolina Montagn; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated histologically the differences in the healing of cutaneous wounds on nourished or undernourished rats following laser phototherapy (LPT) (20 or 40 J/cm2). Wound healing occurs due to a competitive mechanism between the synthesis and lysis of collagen. Any factor that increases the lysis or reduces the synthesis of collagen may change the healing process. Nutritional deficiencies have a great effect on wound healing. Fifty nourished or undernourished Wistar rats had one standardized wound created on the dorsum and were divided into 10 subgroups: Control (standard diet); Control [Northeastern Brazilian basic diet (DBR)]; Standard diet+LPT (lambda635 nm; spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) 20 J/cm2); Standard diet+LPT (lambda635 nm; SAEF 40 J/cm2); Standard diet+LPT (lambda780 nm; SAEF 20 J/cm2); Standard diet+LPT (lambda780 nm; SAEF 40 J/cm2); DBR+LPT (lambda635 nm; SAEF 20 J/cm2); DBR+LPT (lambda635 nm; SAEF 40 J/cm2); DBR+LPT (lambda780 nm; SAEF 20 J/cm2); DBR+LPT (lambda780 nm; SAEF 40 J/cm2). The first application of the treatment was carried out immediately and repeated daily for seven days. The specimens were routinely processed to wax, cut, stained with H&E and Sirius Red stains, and analyzed using light microscopy. The analyses included re-epithelization, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblastic proliferation. Sirius Red stained slides were used to perform descriptive analyses of the collagen fibers. The results showed that LPT with lambda635 wavelength was more effective for the treatment of undernourished subjects, treated with either LPT with lambda730 nm with SAEF of 20 J/cm2 or lambda780 nm with SAEF of 40 J/cm2. Nutritional status influenced the progression of the healing process as well as the quality of the healed tissue. In addition, the use of both wavelengths resulted in a positive biomodulatory effect on both nourished and undernourished subjects.

  6. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DKA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Zahara A Manaf,2 Noor Aini M Yusoff,3 Nur A Muhammad,2 Mei Fang Phan,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Program, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Program, School of Health Care Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3ASIA Metropolitan University, Cheras, Malaysia Purpose: The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical ­performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions.Methods: Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63 years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test, biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels, and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered.Results: The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL, and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L. A significant

  7. Head growth of undernourished children in rural Nepal: association with demographics, health and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie C; Joshi, Neena; Lohani, Mahendra; Singh, Rupa; Bhatta, Nisha; Rogers, Beatrice; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Ghosh, Shibani; Mahato, Shubh; Singh, Padma; Webb, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Brain development in early childhood is a key determinant of later cognition, social achievement and educational success. Head circumference (HC) measurements are a simple method to assess brain growth, yet reports of these measurements are uncommon in nutritional surveys of undernourished children. To evaluate HC measurements in a population of rural Nepali children and relate these measurements to demographics, health and diet. An observational study of head growth was nested within a longitudinal evaluation of a livestock-based agricultural intervention in rural Nepal. Between 538 and 689 children (aged 6 months to 8 years) were measured (height, weight, HC) at each of six survey visits. A total of 3652 HC measurements were obtained. Results were converted to Z-scores (WHO Anthro). Mean head circumference Z-scores (HCZ) diminished progressively over the first 4 years of life; a decline of 30% occurred between 3 and 4 years of age (-1.73 to -2.45, P < 0.0001). Overall, 56% of HCZ were <-2. Gender-adjusted HCZ (but not other measurements) were significantly lower for girls than boys [mean (SD) -2.31 (1.0) vs -1.99 (0.094), P < 0.0001]; girls more often had microcephaly (61% vs 50%, P < 0.0001). For children <3 years of age, HCZ were better in those who had eaten two or more animal-source foods (ASFs) within the previous 24 h [-1.69 (.05) vs -2.08 (0.10), P = 0.001] than in those who had eaten none or only one; HCZ correlated with the number of ASFs consumed (P < 0.001). Regression analyses demonstrated that the main determinants of HCZ were age, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) and gender; 43% of the variance in HCZ in younger children was explained by WAZ and ASF consumption. HCs reflect brain size in young children; brain size is linked to cognitive function. Poor head growth represents another facet of the 'silent emergency' of child undernutrition. Routine HCZ assessments may contribute to better understanding of the links between poverty and

  8. Evidence of lateral gene transfer among strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in weanling horses with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velineni, Sridhar; Breathnach, Cormac C; Timoney, John F

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Sz) is a tonsillar commensal of healthy horses but with potential to opportunistically invade the lower respiratory tract. Sz is genetically variable and recombinogenic based on analysis of gene sequences including szp, szm and MLST data. Although a variety of serovars of the protective SzP are commonly harbored in the tonsils of the same horse, lower respiratory infections usually involve a single clone. Nevertheless, isolation of specific clones from epizootics of respiratory disease has been recently reported in horses and dogs in N. America, Europe and Asia. In this report, we provide evidence suggestive of lateral gene exchange and recombination between strains of Sz from cases of respiratory disease secondary to experimental equine herpes 1 virus infection in an isolated group of weanling horses and ponies. Nasal swabs of 13 of 18 weanlings with respiratory disease yielded mucoid colonies of Sz following culture. Comparison of arcC, nrdE, proS, spi, tdk, tpi and yqiL of these Sz revealed 3 Clades. Clade-1 (ST-212) and 2 (ST-24) were composed of 7 and 3 isolates, respectively. ST-24 and 212 differed in all 7 housekeeping as well as szp and szm alleles. Two isolates of Clade-1 were assigned to ST-308, a single locus variant of ST-212 that contained the proS-16 allele sequenced in ST-24. One isolate of ST-308 contained szm-2, the same allele sequenced in Clade 2 isolates; the other was positive for the szp-N2HV2 allele of Clade 2. These observations are consistent with gene transfer between Sz in the natural host and may explain formation of novel clones that invade the lower respiratory tract or cause epizootics of respiratory disease in dogs and horses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A dynamic system for delivering controlled bromine and chlorine vapor exposures to weanling swine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Thomas H; Perry, Mark R; Richter, William R; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Rogers, James; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S

    2014-06-01

    Assessing the hazards of accidental exposure to toxic industrial chemical (TIC) vapors and evaluating therapeutic compounds or treatment regimens require the development of appropriate animal models. The objective of this project was to develop an exposure system for delivering controlled vapor concentrations of TICs to the skin of anesthetized weanling pigs. Injury levels targeted for study were superficial dermal (SD) and deep dermal (DD) skin lesions as defined histopathologically. The exposure system was capable of simultaneously delivering chlorine or bromine vapor to four, 3-cm diameter exposure cups placed over skin between the axillary and inguinal areas of the ventral abdomen. Vapor concentrations were generated by mixing saturated bromine or chlorine vapor with either dried dilution air or nitrogen. Bromine exposure concentrations ranged from 6.5 × 10(-4) to 1.03 g/L, and exposure durations ranged from 1 to 45 min. A 7-min skin exposure to bromine vapors at 0.59 g/L was sufficient to produce SD injuries, while a 17-min exposure produced a DD injury. Chlorine exposure concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 g/L (saturated vapor concentration) for exposures ranging from 3 to 90 min. Saturated chlorine vapor challenges for up to 30 min did not induce significant dermal injuries, whereas saturated chlorine vapor with wetted material on the skin surface for 30-60 min induced SD injuries. DD chlorine injuries could not be induced with this system. The vapor exposure system described in this study provides a means for safely regulating, quantifying and delivering TIC vapors to the skin of weanling swine as a model to evaluate therapeutic treatments.

  10. [Effect of glutamine on small intestinal repair in weanling rats after chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zu-xiong; Ye, Li-yan; Zheng, Zhi-yong; Chen, Xin-min; Ren, Rong-na; Tong, Guo-yuan

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the nutrient effect of glutamine on small intestinal repair in weanling rats after chronic diarrhea. Forty 21-day-old wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (8 in each). Animal model of chronic diarrhea was induced by a lactose enriched diet in the weanling Wistar rat, normal control group was fed with a standard semipurified diet, and after 14 days the rats in both groups were killed to test the establishment of the model. After the establishment of the model, the other groups were fed with the standard semipurified diet to recover for 7 days, and were randomly divided into three groups: non-intervention group, glutamine (Gln)-intervention group and control group. Glutamine concentrations in blood was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Morphological changes including villus height and villus surface area of the jejunum were measured under a light microscope and electron microscope, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an index of cell proliferation was observed using immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. The diarrhea rate in model group was 100 percent, average diarrhea index was 1.16 +/- 0.06, but both diarrhea rate and average diarrhea index in control group were 0 (P 0.05). And compared with non-intervened group, except for body weight (P > 0.05), plasma glutamine, villus height, villus surface area and expression of PCNA were all significantly increased in Gln-intervened group. Chronic diarrhea can induce malnutrition and reduce the villus height, villus surface area, expression of PCNA and plasm glutamine concentration. Oral glutamine could improve the proliferation of crypt cell and promote repair of intestinal mucosa after chronic diarrhea.

  11. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  12. Oxidative stress in term small for gestational age neonates born to undernourished mothers: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee BD

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the status of oxidative stress in term small for gestational age (SGA newborn infants born to undernourished mothers by estimating levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, reduced glutathione, and serum malondialdehyde (MDA in cord blood and comparing them to healthy appropriate for gestational age (AGA controls. This was done in a case control design at a tertiary level teaching hospital. Methods We included 20 singleton healthy SGA newborn infants born between 38–40 weeks to undernourished mothers with a post-pregnancy weight Results The activity of MDA was increased (5.33 ± 0.72 vs 2.55 ± 0.22 nmol/mL; P vs. 786.8 ± 79.1 U/g Hb; P vs. 2.31 ± 0.20 U/g Hb; P vs 6.42 ± 0.23 Umol/g Hb, P P Conclusions Intrauterine malnutrition is associated with significant oxidative stress in small for gestational age neonates born at term to malnourished mothers.

  13. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs: differential expression of oxidative stress and DNA repair in liver and brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... damaged DNA were observed in this tissue. In the brain, the pattern was markedly different. Of the measured antioxidants, only ascorbate was significantly depleted (P ... incision repair (P = 0.014) were all increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P = 0.003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may...

  14. Effects of including raw or extruded field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in diets fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans H; Peters, Dean N; Kim, Beob G

    2010-07-01

    There is limited information about the response to field peas fed to weanling pigs. Two experiments were therefore conducted to investigate effects of including increasing levels of field peas in weanling pig diets. In Experiment 1, a reduction (linear, P raw field peas (0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 g kg(-1)) in diets fed from day 14 to 42 post weaning. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of raw field peas (0, 245 or 490 g kg(-1)) in the diets reduced (linear, P raw field peas. The response to extruded field peas was not different from that to raw field peas. Up to 360 g kg(-1) raw field peas may be included in nursery diets without negatively influencing pig growth performance provided that diets are balanced for indispensable amino acids. Results from this work do not support any advantage of extruding the field peas.

  15. Effects of two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes on the gastric mucosa in weanlings: alfalfa chaff versus alfalfa pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Vondran, Sarah; Venner, Monica; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information regarding the influence of alfalfa particle size on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes (alfalfa chaff vs alfalfa pellets) in comparison with grass hay on the gastric mucosa in weanling horses....

  16. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

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    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  17. Response to an Escherichia coli K88 oral challenge and productivity of weanling pigs receiving a dietary nucleotides supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanlin; Zhao, Pinyao; Lei, Yan; Li, Tianshui; Kim, InHo

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nucleotides, considered as antibiotics alternative, were shown to have positive effects on intestinal hyperaemia, systemic immunity, small-intestinal growth, and hepatic composition in pigs. However, there is no previous research on nucleotide supplementation in weanling pigs under an oral challenged E. coli K88. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides on weanling pig growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal score, and blood profile after being orally challenged with E. coli K88. In Exp. 1, a total of 140 weanling pigs [8.33 ± 0.33 kg of body weight (BW), 28-d old] were used in this 42-d feeding trial. Pigs were distributed into 1 of 4 treatments, 5 pigs/pen (3 barrows and 2 gilts) and 7 pens/treatment. Treatments were a control basal diet (CON) or the CON supplemented with 150 (R150), 220 (R220), or 275 (R275) mg/kg to give the three treatment diets. In Exp. 2, 28 weanling pigs (BW = 8.40 ± 0.22 kg, 28-d old) were distributed into 1 of 4 treatments to give 1 pig/pen and 7 pens/treatment in a 42-d feeding and challenge trial. Dietary treatments were the same as in Exp. 1. On d 14, all those pigs (BW = 13.3 ± 0.15 kg, 42-d old) were orally dosed with 1.5 mL suspension containing 10(10) cfu/mL of E. coli K88. Twenty four hours after challenge, blood and excreta samples were collected from each pigs for analysis. Fecal scores were measured on d 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the study. In Exp. 1, overall BW, average daily gain (ADG), gain/feed (G/F) ratio, and nutrient digestibilities were lower (P immune status, microbial balance, reduce diarrhea, and provide protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 infection in weanling pigs.

  18. Energy intake and growth of weanling horses in a cold loose housing system

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    E. AUTIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for information relating to the nutrition of horses in a cold environment is increasing with the popularity of loose housing of horses. This study examined the energy intake and growth of 10 weanling horses from November to March (22 weeks in a loose housing system (paddock and insulated sleeping hall with deep-litter bed. The horses were measured weekly for body condition and body weight, and the feeding was adjusted according to a horse’s body condition. Metabolizable energy (ME intake was compared to Finnish (MTT 2006 and Swedish (SLU 2004 nutrient requirements for 6–12-month-old horses. ME intake (75.5 ± 11.8 MJ d-1, mean ± SD was on average 24.6% above the requirements. The intake varied in a non-linear fashion in the course of the winter: y = 0.086x2 – 0.902x + 71.5, where x is weeks from November to March (p

  19. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

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    Li Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group, 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group. After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1, glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2 and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1 were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  20. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

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    E.A.L. da-Costa-Pinto

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  1. Three days of intermittent stretching after muscle disuse alters the proteins involved in force transmission in muscle fibers in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelo, M C S; Polizzelo, J C; Chesca, D; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent passive manual stretching on various proteins involved in force transmission in skeletal muscle. Female Wistar weanling rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: 2 control groups containing 21- and 30-day-old rats that received neither immobilization nor stretching, and 3 test groups that received 1) passive stretching over 3 days, 2) immobilization for 7 days and then passive stretching over 3 days, or 3) immobilization for 7 days. Maximal plantar flexion in the right hind limb was imposed, and the stretching protocol of 10 repetitions of 30 s stretches was applied. The soleus muscles were harvested and processed for HE and picrosirius staining; immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV, desmin, and vimentin; and immunofluorescence labeling of dystrophin and CD68. The numbers of desmin- and vimentin-positive cells were significantly decreased compared with those in the control following immobilization, regardless of whether stretching was applied (Pmuscles that had been previously immobilized, and the stretching protocol applied here did not mitigate the immobilization-induced muscle changes. Muscle disuse adversely affected several proteins involved in the transmission of forces between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, the 3-day rehabilitation period tested here did not provide sufficient time for the muscles to recover from the disuse maladaptations in animals undergoing postnatal development.

  2. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  3. Nanosize of zinc oxide and the effects on zinc digestibility, growth performances, immune response and serum parameters of weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Zhe; Huang, Jie-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Hao; Mao, Syuan-Yian; Fu, Chao-Ming; Lien, Tu-Fa

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of nanosize zinc on zinc digestibility, growth performances, immune response and serum parameters of weanling piglets. Ninety-six LYD weanling piglets were assigned to control, zinc oxide (ZnO), organic-Zn (Zn-methionine) and nanosize ZnO (nano-Zn) groups with four replicates. The zinc was at the 120 mg/kg level in the treatment group's diet, while the control group's was 80 mg/kg Zn. The experiment results indicated that the nano-Zn and organic-Zn groups had significantly higher Zn digestibility compared to the ZnO and control groups. For the immune response traits, the IgG level and goat red blood cells (GRBC) antibody titer were nano-Zn and organic-Zn>ZnO>control; in the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) challenge test result, nano-Zn>organic-Zn>ZnO>control; in regard to the γ-globulin level, nano-Zn and organic-Zn>ZnO and control, with significant difference between groups. In the serum parameters aspect, serum Zn concentration in nano-Zn and organic-Zn groups were higher than in the ZnO and control groups, serum growth hormone concentration was increased in the nano-Zn group than in the other groups. In conclusion, nanosize zinc oxide for dietary supplementation can increase zinc digestibility, serum growth hormone levels and carbonic anhydrase activity and enhance the immune response of weanling piglets. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Performance and intestinal health of weanling pigs fed with dietary nucleotides

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    Carla de Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported benefits to growth performance, intestinal histology and reduced diarrhea for pigs supplemented with nucleotide additive as a replacement to antimicrobial growth promoters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nucleotide levels on performance, occurrence of diarrhea, relative weight of organs, intestinal histology, and intestinal microbiota of weanling pigs. One hundred and sixty 21-d weaned pigs (6.43 ± 0.71 kg BW were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with five treatments, eight replications per treatment and four animals per pen (experimental unit. The treatments were basal diet with 120 ppm of chloro-hydroxyquinoline (antimicrobial, and basal diet with 0 (control, 100, 150, or 200 ppm of nucleotides. The average daily gain (ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain to feed ratio (G:F, and occurrence of diarrhea were calculated from day 1 to 14, day 14 to 34, and day 1 to 34 of the experiment. A day after the end of the experiment, one animal from each pen was slaughtered to evaluate the relative weight of organs, intestinal histology, and intestinal microbiota. From day 1-14 and day 14-34 of the experiment, performance was not affected by the treatments. For the total experimental period (day 1-34, increasing the dietary concentrations of nucleotides linearly improved the final body weight and average daily gain. Salmonella spp. was detected only in the control treatment, without affecting the other microorganisms. Pigs fed with antibiotic had a lower occurrence of diarrhea from day 1-14 compared to pigs fed with nucleotide treatments. Although increasing the occurrence of diarrhea in the first 14 days, dietary nucleotides added up to 200 ppm, improve the final body weight and average daily gain at 34 days post weaning. Nucleotides and antimicrobial not shown beneficial effects on organ weights, and intestinal histology of nursery pig, however, are able to decrease the

  5. The protective effect of omega-3 oil against the hepatotoxicity of cadmium chloride in adult and weanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Treefa F.; Aziz, Falah M.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of omega-3 oil against the toxic effect of cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the liver of male, dams and weanling rats from the histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical points of view. Thirty adult male and thirty adult female rats (dams) were used in the present work, divided randomly into five groups, six rats for each group and ten weanling male rats were chosen from each dam group. First group was considered as control group and given only standard diet and drinking water, second group was given (40 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The third group was given (60 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The fourth group was given (40 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet) and the fifth group was given (60 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet). All the above groups were left for 30 days for males and 42 days for the females) i.e. at the 21th day of the weanling rats birth). Both doses of CdCl2 have caused a lot of histological and ultrastructural alterations in the liver including high degeneration of hepatocytes. Electron microscope images showed thickening of mitochondrial membrane, variation in the size and shape of the mitochondria of the above cells and deposition of Cd particles in the lining of blood sinusoids. The hepatocytes of the weanling rats showed more ultrastructural changes especially the accumulation of lipid droplets. The immunohistochemical images of the mother liver showed a positive P53 reaction in the cells of the liver of CdCl2 treated rats especially those around the portal area. These reactions disappeared in the omega-3 plus CdCl2 groups. The present results suggested a protective role of omega-3 against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Using the Uganda National Panel Survey to analyze the effect of staple food consumption on undernourishment in Ugandan children

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    Michelle M. Amaral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015, documents that, since 1990, the number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa has increased by 33% even though it has fallen in all other world regions. Recognizing this, in 2011 the Government of Uganda implemented a 5-year Nutrition Action Plan. One important tenet of the Plan is to lessen malnutrition in young children by discouraging over-consumption of nutritionally deficient, but plentiful, staple foods, which it defines as a type of food insecurity. Methods We use a sample of 6101 observations on 3427 children age five or less compiled from three annual waves of the Uganda National Panel Survey to measure undernourishment. We also use the World Health Organization’s Child Growth Standards to create a binary variable indicating stunting and another indicating wasting for each child in each year. We then use random effects to estimate binary logistic regressions that show that greater staple food concentrations affect the probability of stunting and wasting. Results The estimated coefficients are used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR that estimate the effect of greater staple food concentration on the likelihood of stunting and the likelihood of wasting. Controlling for other relevant covariates, these odds ratios show that a greater proportion of staple foods in a child’s diet increases the likelihood of stunting (OR = 1.007, p = 0.005 as well as wasting (OR = 1.011, p = 0.034. Stunting is confirmed with subsamples of males only (OR = 1.006, p = 0.05 and females only (OR = 1.008, p = 0.027, suggesting that the finding is not gender specific. Another subsample of children aged 12 months or less, most of whom do not yet consume solid food, shows no statistically significant relationship, thus supporting the validity of the other findings. Conclusion Diets containing larger proportions of staple foods are associated with greater

  7. Association Between Body Weight at Weaning and Remodeling in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adult Mice With Undernourishment In Utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmura, Yukiko Kobayashi; Kanayama, Naohiro; Muramatsu, Keiko; Tamura, Naoaki; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Suganami, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in infancy considerably increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood especially among neonates born small. To investigate the mechanism involved, we developed an animal model of undernourishment in utero by maternal caloric restriction, in which the Z scores of body weight at weaning (19.5 days) positively correlated with parameters of obesity, metabolic disorders, and remodeling of subcutaneous adipose tissue, such as numbers of macrophages in adipose tissue, the ratio of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, estimated by gene expression of specific antigens, and the relative ratio of small adipocytes less than 30 μm in diameter, on a high-fat diet at 17 weeks of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible connection between infantile body weight and adipose tissue remodeling in obesity after undernourishment in utero. PMID:23296035

  8. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  9. Three days of intermittent stretching after muscle disuse alters the proteins involved in force transmission in muscle fibers in weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Gianelo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent passive manual stretching on various proteins involved in force transmission in skeletal muscle. Female Wistar weanling rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: 2 control groups containing 21- and 30-day-old rats that received neither immobilization nor stretching, and 3 test groups that received 1 passive stretching over 3 days, 2 immobilization for 7 days and then passive stretching over 3 days, or 3 immobilization for 7 days. Maximal plantar flexion in the right hind limb was imposed, and the stretching protocol of 10 repetitions of 30 s stretches was applied. The soleus muscles were harvested and processed for HE and picrosirius staining; immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV, desmin, and vimentin; and immunofluorescence labeling of dystrophin and CD68. The numbers of desmin- and vimentin-positive cells were significantly decreased compared with those in the control following immobilization, regardless of whether stretching was applied (P<0.05. In addition, the semi-quantitative analysis showed that collagen type I was increased and type IV was decreased in the immobilized animals, regardless of whether the stretching protocol was applied. In conclusion, the largest changes in response to stretching were observed in muscles that had been previously immobilized, and the stretching protocol applied here did not mitigate the immobilization-induced muscle changes. Muscle disuse adversely affected several proteins involved in the transmission of forces between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, the 3-day rehabilitation period tested here did not provide sufficient time for the muscles to recover from the disuse maladaptations in animals undergoing postnatal development.

  10. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme

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    Glenmer B. Tactacan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i control diet (corn-soy based with no supplemental protease (CON, and ii control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p0.05 was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05 apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen and decreased (p<0.05 NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05 in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient digestibility. Exogenous protease enzyme reduced fecal NH3 emission, thus, potentially serving as a tool in lowering noxious gas contribution of livestock production

  11. Effects of insoluble dietary fibre differing in lignin on performance, gut microbiology, and digestibility in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedle, Karl; Plitzner, Christian; Ettle, Thomas; Zhao, Lin; Domig, Konrad J; Windisch, Wilhelm

    2008-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of insoluble dietary fibre differing in lignin content on performance and parameters of gut microbiology in 48 weanling piglets (8.5 kg mean body weight) fed common diets ad libitum. Fibre sources tested were wheat bran (low lignin) and pollen from Chinese Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) as model of fibre rich in lignin, added to diets as follows: no addition (control), 3.0% wheat bran, 1.27% pine pollen and 2.55% pine pollen. In colonic chyme, bacterial colony counts remained unaffected by treatment, but ammonia contents were reduced by fibre additions (up to -38%). The effects on ammonia were best explained by added cellulose and lignin. Fibre additions reduced apparent (faecal) digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) up to -3.5 and -4.3% units with cellulose and lignin being the major determinants for changes in CP digestibility.

  12. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Yuuta; Sukegawa, Shin; Yamashita, Mai; Katsuda, Naoki; Tong, Bin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from musculus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregulated genes (EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7) in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clones selected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Landrace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identified genes except for the TTN was validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than the ATP5C1 colocalized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally, the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of the EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN genes and downregulation of the ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7 gene expression with increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  13. Effects of purified zearalenone on selected immunological and histopathologic measurements of spleen in post-weanling gilts

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    Peng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA on the lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR, interleukin-2 (IL-2, mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histopathologic changes of spleen in post-weanling gilts. A total of 20 crossbred piglets (Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc with an initial BW of 10.36 ± 1.21 kg (21 d of age were used in the study. Piglets were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. The results showed that LPR and IL-2 production of spleen decreased linearly (P < 0.05 as dietary ZEA increased. Splenic mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were linearly up-regulated (P < 0.05 as dietary ZEA increased. On the contrary, linear down-regulation (P < 0.05 of mRNA expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ was observed as dietary ZEA increased. Swelling splenocyte in 1.1 mg/kg ZEA treatments, atrophy of white pulp and swelling of red pulp in 2.0 and 3.2 mg/kg ZEA treatments were observed. The cytoplasmic edema in 1.1 mg/kg ZEA treatments, significant chromatin deformation in 2.0 mg/kg ZEA treatment and phagocytosis in 3.2 mg/kg ZEA treatment were observed. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce splenic damages and negatively affect immune function of spleen in post-weanling gilts.

  14. Seroprevalence study of Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) in Australian weanling horses using serotype-specific ERBV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Hartley, Carol A; Gilkerson, James R

    2013-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a major burden in the performance horse industry. Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) has been isolated from horses displaying clinical respiratory disease, and ERBV-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in 50-80% of horses in reported surveys. Current ERBV isolation and detection methods may underestimate the number of ERBV-positive animals and do not identify multiple serotype infections. The aim of the current study was to develop a serotyping ERBV antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and examine the seroprevalence of ERBV in a group of Australian weanling horses. ELISAs with high sensitivity and specificity were developed. The seroprevalence of ERBV in the weanling horses was high (74-86%); ERBV-3 antibodies were most prevalent (58-62%) and ERBV-2 antibodies were least prevalent (10-16%). Many horses were seropositive to 2 or more serotypes. All 3 serotypes of ERBV were detected, and concurrent positivity to multiple serotypes was common.

  15. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weipeng; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Ying, Zhixiong; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d. Thereafter, a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design was used. Each treatment consisted of eight replications with one piglet per replication. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a decreased ( P supplementation increased ( P supplemented diet exhibited increases ( P supplementation may exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in NBW and IUGR weanling piglets.

  16. Morphological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from nourished and undernourished mice: a comparative analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy

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    Neves Renata Heisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.

  17. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaisi, Kikuni; Nkuadiolandu, Adolphine Bedi; Kazadi Lukusa, Aimé; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly. PMID:27777589

  18. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  19. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

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    S. M. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1 (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i negative control (NC, ii positive control (PC, NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3 MCT, and iv MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1, 0.32% (phase 2 and 3 MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05 ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05 by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, immunoglobulin-G (IgG, lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05 by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05 and better FCR (p<0.05 than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05 by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05 energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G. In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks, but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  20. Effects of Acid LAC and Kem-Gest acid blends on growth performance and microbial shedding in weanling pigs.

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    Walsh, M C; Sholly, D M; Hinson, R B; Trapp, S A; Sutton, A L; Radcliffe, J S; Smith, J W; Richert, B T

    2007-02-01

    Weanling pigs with mean initial BW of 6.04 kg (Exp.1) and 5.65 kg (Exp. 2) and mean age at weaning of 18.2 d (Exp. 1) and 17.7 d (Exp. 2) were used in two 5-wk experiments (Exp. 1, n = 180; Exp. 2, n = 300) to evaluate the effects of an organic acid blend (Acid LAC, Kemin Americas Inc., Des Moines, IA) and an inorganic/organic acid blend (Kem-Gest, Kemin Americas Inc.) on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, the 5 dietary treatments were 1) negative control, 2) diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox, 3) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC, 4) diet 1 + 0.2% Kem-Gest, 5) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest. In Exp. 2, the 6 dietary treatments were diets 1 through 4 corresponding to Exp. 1, plus 5) sequence 1: 0.4% Acid LAC for 7 d followed by 0.2% Kem-Gest for 28 d, and 6) sequence 2: 0.2% Kem-Gest for 7 d followed by 0.4% Acid LAC for 28 d. Pigs were housed at 6 (Exp. 1) or 10 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed throughout the experiment in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, d 7 to 21, and d 21 to 35. In Exp. 1, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the dietary treatments at any time during the study. In Exp. 2, throughout the study, pigs fed carbadox (diet 2) and sequence 1 (diet 5) diets had the greatest ADG (d 0 to 35; 262, 294, 257, 257, 292, and 261 g/d, diets 1 through 6, respectively; P 0.10) at any sampling time. In Exp. 1, fecal E. coli concentrations for pigs fed the carbadox (P Gest on d 34, and the pigs fed the negative control diet tended (P Gest diets was similar to each other and to that of the carbadox-fed pigs. Adding the combination of 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest to nursery pig diets reduced ADFI and pig growth rate. In Exp. 2, pigs fed the acid sequence of Acid LAC-Kem-Gest had similar growth performance to pigs fed carbadox, and this novel dietary acid sequence may have merit as a replacement for antibiotics in the nursery phase.

  1. Vitamin E Supplementation to Sows and Effects on Fertility Rate and Subsequent Body Development of their Weanling Piglets

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    D. O. Umesiobi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E to sows on sow fertility and serum α-tocopherol, growth and physiological state of their weanling pigs. A total of 60 Large White gilts were randomly allotted to three groups (20 gilts per group from coitus to lactation phases over a two-parity period to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E on fecundity rates and litter size of sows. Each of the three dietary vitamin E treatment combinations involved 0, 40 or 70 IU/kg of dl- α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, and parity 1 and 2. Sow serum α-tocopherol and Selenium (Se were collected at 30 day post coitum, 99 day of gestation and 21 day lactation. Serum α-tocopherol and Se were collected from piglets at 1 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning age. Data relating to sow fecundity and litter size were also recorded. Results indicate that body weights and body weight gains of sows and their litters increased significantly (P < 0.01 by parity, increasing more from parities 1 to 2, mostly when dietary vitamin E was increased from 40 to 70 IU/kg diet. The highest number of total piglets and number of piglets born alive (12 ± 8.9 vs. 11 ± 0.1 were obtained at parity 2 when dietary vitamin E was increased to 70 IU/kg diet. There was an increase in weights of the piglets when dietary vitamin E was increased in sow’s diet. There was a dramatic increase in serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations following 40 and 70 IU/kg of vitamin E supplementation during the 30 and 99 day gestation and 21 day lactation periods as parity increased. Se concentrations were about 3 fold higher in the 70 IU/kg vitamin E supplemented group in parity 2 compared to the other groups. In both parities, female piglets had higher serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations at both 2 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning compared to the male piglets. Results from this study suggest that supplementing 70 IU/kg α-tocopheryl acetate in

  2. Effects of as fucoidan-rich algae on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and caecal microflora in weanling pigs

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    Yohan Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective In the present study, role of increasing levels of Ecklonia cava (seaweed supplementation in diets was investigated on growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD of nutrients, serum immunoglobulins, cecal microflora and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs. Methods A total of 200 weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; initial body weight 7.08±0.15 kg were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of body weight. There were 5 replicate pens in each treatment including 10 pigs of each. Treatments were divided by dietary Ecklonia cava supplementation levels (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, or 0.15% in growing-finishing diets. There were 2 diet formulation phases throughout the experiment. The pigs were offered the diets ad libitum for the entire period of experiment in meal form. Results The pigs fed with increasing dietary concentrations of Ecklonia cava had linear increase (p<0.05 in the overall average daily gain, however, there were no significant differences in gain to feed ratio, CTTAD of dry matter and crude protein at both phase I and phase II. Digestibility of gross energy was linearly improved (p<0.05 in phase II. At day 28, pigs fed Ecklonia cava had greater (linear, p<0.05 Lactobacillus spp., fewer Escherichia coli (E. coli spp. (linear, p<0.05 and a tendency to have fewer cecal Clostridium spp. (p = 0.077. The total anaerobic bacteria were not affected with supplementation of Ecklonia cava in diets. Polynomial contrasts analysis revealed that villus height of the ileum exhibited a linear increase (p<0.05 in response with the increase in the level of dietary Ecklonia cava. However, villus height of duodenum and jejunum, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio of different segments of the intestine were not affected. Conclusion The results suggest that Ecklonia cava had beneficial effects on the growth performance, cecal microflora, and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.

  3. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

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    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  4. [Severe hypophosphataemia after starting parenteral nutrition in a patient with an intestinal fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprano, J L; Bretón, I; Zugasti, A; Cuerda, C; Camblor, M; Pérez-Díaz, M D; García, P

    2004-01-01

    Hypophosphataemia is a complication that may appear in undernourished patients who are given nutrition by either enteral or parenteral means. It is associated with several clinical manifestations, including cardiological, neurological and haematological conditions of note, and may potentially be even life-threatening. It is therefore mandatory to ensure prevention and follow-up in those patients at risk of suffering this condition, taking into account the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with it.

  5. Transcriptional, translational, and physiological signatures of undernourished honey bees (Apis mellifera) suggest a role for hormonal factors in hypopharyngeal gland degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Meador, Charlotte A D; Snyder, Lucy A; Schwan, Melissa R; Maes, Patrick; Jones, Beryl M; Walton, Alexander; Anderson, Kirk E

    2016-02-01

    Honey bee colonies function as a superorganism, where facultatively sterile female workers perform various tasks that support the hive. Nurse workers undergo numerous anatomical and physiological changes in preparation for brood rearing, including the growth of hypopharyngeal glands (HGs). These glands produce the major protein fraction of a protein- and lipid-rich jelly used to sustain developing larvae. Pollen intake is positively correlated with HG growth, but growth in the first three days is similar regardless of diet, suggesting that initial growth is a pre-determined process while later HG development depends on nutrient availability during a critical window in early adulthood (>3 d). It is unclear whether the resultant size differences in nurse HG are simply due to growth arrest or active degradation of the tissue. To determine what processes cause such differences in HG size, we catalogued the differential expression of both gene transcripts and proteins in the HGs of 8 d old bees that were fed diets containing pollen or no pollen. 3438 genes and 367 proteins were differentially regulated due to nutrition. Of the genes and proteins differentially expressed, undernourished bees exhibited more gene and protein up-regulation compared to well-nourished bees, with the affected processes including salivary gland apoptosis, oogenesis, and hormone signaling. Protein secretion was virtually the only process up-regulated in well-nourished bees. Further assays demonstrated that inhibition of ultraspiracle, one component of the ecdysteroid receptor, in the fat body caused larger HGs. Undernourished bees also had higher acid phosphatase activity, a physiological marker of cell death, compared to well-nourished bees. These results support a connection between poor nutrition, hormonal signaling, and HG degradation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of dietary copper amount and source on copper metabolism and oxidative stress of weanling pigs in short-term feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Ashwell, M S; Fry, R S; Lloyd, K E; Flowers, W L; Spears, J W

    2015-06-01

    Forty-eight weanling barrows were used to determine the effects of amount and source of dietary Cu on Cu metabolism, oxidative stress in the duodenum, and VFA ratios in the cecum of weanling pigs in short-term feeding. At 21 d of age, newly weaned pigs were stratified by BW (7.03 ± 1.20 kg) and equally assigned to 1 of the following dietary treatments: 1) control (5 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4), 2) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4, or 3) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC). Pigs were housed 2 pigs per pen and were fed a complex diet until harvest on d 11 and 12. During harvest, bile and liver were obtained for mineral analysis, and liver samples were obtained for analysis of mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Digesta of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were collected for soluble Cu analysis. Mucosal scrapings of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were obtained for analysis of mucosal Cu concentration and mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Duodenal mucosal scrapings were also collected for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA). Pigs fed high Cu had markedly greater (P source. Compared with control pigs, those fed CuSO4 and TBCC had greater (P sources. The acetate:propionate ratio in cecal contents was much greater in pigs supplemented with 225 mg Cu/kg diet than in controls. When fed at 225 mg Cu/kg diet, TBCC may cause less oxidative stress in the duodenum than CuSO4. Feeding weanling pigs increased Cu resulted in modulation of duodenal and liver at the transcription level.

  7. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P animal proteins in diets for pigs.

  8. Effects of citrus pulp, fish by-product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyun Suk; Ingale, Santosh Laxman; Lee, Su Hyup; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kwon, Ill Kyong; Kim, Young Hwa; Chae, Byung Jo

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp, fish by-product, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. A total of 180 weaned piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of body weight (BW). There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, and 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass. The isocaloric and isoproteineous experimental diets were fed in mash form in two phases (d 0 ~ 14, phase I and d 15 ~ 28, phase II). Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio (G:F) in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p citrus pulp, fish by-product and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass has the potential to improve the feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

  9. Bacteriophage cocktail and multi-strain probiotics in the feed for weanling pigs: effects on intestine morphology and targeted intestinal coliforms and Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hosseindoust, A; Lee, S H; Choi, Y H; Kim, M J; Lee, J H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage cocktail, probiotics and a combination of these two supplements on performance and gut health of weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, 150 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of BW. The dietary treatments included a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail. Pigs fed 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage product had greater (Pcoliforms (ileum) and Clostridium spp. (ileum). In Experiment 2, 200 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to four treatments. Dietary treatments included basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 3.0 g/kg fermented probiotic product (P), 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail (B) and combination of 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail and 3.0 g/kg fermented probiotic product. Pigs fed bacteriophage cocktail diets had greater (Pcoliforms (ileum) Clostridium spp. (ileum and cecum). Probiotics significantly increased G : F, colonization of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum. At day 35, bacteriophage treatment group showed greater (P<0.05) villus height of the duodenum, but a deeper crypt in duodenum. The present results indicate that the bacteriophage cocktail had a potential to enhance the performance and gut health of weanling pigs, however their combination with probiotics did not show an interaction.

  10. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, D M D L; Liu, Y; Bruun, T S; Stein, H H

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Twenty-seven weanling barrows (9.29 ± 0.58 kg initial BW) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were randomly allotted to three 9 × 5 Youden squares with 9 pigs and five 7-d periods in each square. Seven cornstarch-based diets were prepared using each of the protein sources as the sole source of CP and AA. A N-free diet was prepared to calculate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, and this diet was fed to 2 groups of pigs, which resulted in a total of 9 dietary treatments. Results indicate that the SID of CP was greater ( soybean products, but the SID of total dispensable AA in ESBM-1 was greater ( soybean meal (SBM) products. The SID of most AA in RSE and the SID of all AA in FCM were less ( soybean products.

  11. Low transformation growth factor-β1 production and collagen synthesis correlate with the lack of hepatic periportal fibrosis development in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Andreia Ferreira Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Undernourished mice infected (UI submitted to low and long-lasting infections by Schistosoma mansoni are unable to develop the hepatic periportal fibrosis that is equivalent to Symmers’ fibrosis in humans. In this report, the effects of the host’s nutritional status on parasite (worm load, egg viability and maturation and host (growth curves, biology, collagen synthesis and characteristics of the immunological response were studied and these are considered as interdependent factors influencing the amount and distribution of fibrous tissue in hepatic periovular granulomas and portal spaces. The nutritional status of the host influenced the low body weight and low parasite burden detected in UI mice as well as the number, viability and maturation of released eggs. The reduced oviposition and increased number of degenerated or dead eggs were associated with low protein synthesis detected in deficient hosts, which likely induced the observed decrease in transformation growth factor (TGF-β1 and liver collagen. Despite the reduced number of mature eggs in UI mice, the activation of TGF-β1 and hepatic stellate cells occurred regardless of the unviability of most miracidia, due to stimulation by fibrogenic proteins and eggshell glycoproteins. However, changes in the repair mechanisms influenced by the nutritional status in deficient animals may account for the decreased liver collagen detected in the present study.

  12. Studies on the pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella choleraesuis var kunzendorf infection in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W M; Olander, H J; Thacker, H L

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-six 4-week-old pigs were randomly allotted to 4 groups: group 1--orally inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium; group 2--orally dosed with S choleraesuis; and groups 3 and 4, with surgically constructed intestinal loops--loops inoculated with either S typhimurium or S choleraesuis. One pig each from groups 1 and 2 was killed at 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after inoculation. One pig each from groups 3 and 4 was killed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after intestinal loop inoculation. Inoculation of S typhimurium resulted in acute enterocolitis of variable severity, whereas inoculation of S choleraesuis resulted initially in septicemia followed by formation of large necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the colonic mucosa. The most consistent systemic lesion of S choleraesuis infection was interstitial pneumonia and multifocal hepatic necrosis. Salmonella typhimurium and S choleraesuis were ultrastructurally within enterocytes of ligated ileal loops. Intracellular bacteria were morphologically intact, occurred free in the cytoplasm and membrane bound, and caused no detectable cytotoxic effect to the cell. Both S typhimurium and S choleraesuis penetrated the intestinal mucosa and were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes at 2 hours after inoculation.

  13. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater (P...... N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased (P canola meal increased. Serum concentrations of IgG were reduced if canola meal was included in the diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case...

  14. A Novel α-Hemolytic Streptococcus Species (Streptococcus azizii sp. nov.) Associated with Meningoencephalitis in Naïve Weanling C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Gillian C; Arbona, Rodolfo Ricart; Lepherd, Michelle; Monette, Sébastien; Toma, Aziz; Fox, James G; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Lipman, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    During 1 year, experimentally naïve C57BL/6NCrl weanlings born to timed-pregnant dams from a single vendor demonstrated markedly increased mortality associated with runting, abnormal gait, and decreased activity. Gram-positive, aerobic, α-hemolytic, coccoid bacteria were isolated from the meninges (n = 16), blood (n = 1), and kidneys (n = 1) of clinically affected weanlings (n = 15); from the uterus (n = 1), meninges (n = 1), and oral cavity (n = 2) of 3 dams; and from the meninges and oral cavity of a clinically affected 86-d-old mouse in the same colony. Multifocal, necrosuppurative meningoencephalitis and ventriculitis with intralesional gram-positive coccoid bacteria were present in all but 2 affected animals. The bacterium also was isolated from the oral cavity of an asymptomatic timed-pregnant dam (1 of 23) from the same vendor and from 8 mice at the vendor's facility. All isolates (n = 25) were identified by using 2 semiautomated rapid-identification systems, one of which consistently identified the causative bacterium as Aerococcus viridans 2 (n = 12) or 3 (n = 13), with probabilities of 55.7% to 98.3%. The bacterium did not grow in 6.5% NaCl at 10 °C, thus suggesting a Streptococcus species. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing of 4 isolates suggested S. hyointestinalis (probability, 93.4%) and S. gallinaceus (99.5%). Full 16S rRNA sequences for 3 isolates identified the bacterium as a novel Streptococcus species most closely related to S. acidominimus strain LGM (96.5%) and Streptococcus species strain Smarlab 3301444 (96.3%) and for which we propose the name S. azizii. PMID:26141443

  15. Neonatal Immunization with a Single IL-4/Antigen Dose Induces Increased Antibody Responses after Challenge Infection with Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1) at Weanling Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Perkins, Gillian; Babasyan, Susanna; Freer, Heather; Keggan, Alison; Goodman, Laura B; Glaser, Amy; Torsteinsdóttir, Sigurbjorg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Björnsdóttir, Sigríður

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. These vaccines typically target T-helper (Th) cell dependent B-cell activation. However, Th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. In contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (IL-4) producers. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete IL-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in B-cell activation and antibody production against EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC). Neonatal vaccination was performed by oral biotinylated IgE (IgE-bio) treatment at birth followed by intramuscular injection of a single dose of streptavidin-conjugated gC/IL-4 fusion protein (Sav-gC/IL-4) for crosslinking of receptor-bound IgE-bio (group 1). Neonates in group 2 received the intramuscular Sav-gC/IL-4 vaccine only. Group 3 remained non-vaccinated at birth. After vaccination, gC antibody production was not detectable. The ability of the vaccine to induce protection was evaluated by an EHV-1 challenge infection after weaning at 7 months of age. Groups 1 and 2 responded to EHV-1 infection with an earlier onset and overall significantly increased anti-gC serum antibody responses compared to control group 3. In addition, group 1 weanlings had a decreased initial fever peak after infection indicating partial protection from EHV-1 infection. This suggested that the neonatal vaccination induced a memory B-cell response at birth that was recalled at weanling age after EHV-1 challenge. In conclusion, early stimulation of neonatal immunity via the innate arm of the immune system can induce partial protection and increased antibody responses against EHV-1.

  16. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Productive performance of weanling piglets was improved by administration of a mixture of bacteriophages, targeted to control Coliforms and Clostridium spp. shedding in a challenging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseindoust, A R; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Choi, Y H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of bacteriophages in different environments on growth performance, digestibility, ileal and caecal microbiota, gut morphology and immunity of weanling pigs. Two hundred piglets were randomly assigned to four treatment groups with five replicate pens with 10 pigs per pen. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the response of weanling pigs to supplemental bacteriophages (0 and 1.0 g/kg of diet) in contaminated or hygienic environments. Bacteriophages supplementation did not affect average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain:feed in phases I and III; however, there was a significant improvement in ADG and gain:feed in phase II. The supplementation of bacteriophages increased the overall gain:feed of pigs. The overall result showed a greater ADG and ADFI in hygienic room. There were reductions in population of both ileal (p coliforms (p coliforms (p = 0.08). Total anaerobic bacteria was tended to decrease (p = 0.06) in contaminated environment. Jejunal villus height increased in pigs received bacteriophages, but they did not affect other morphological items. The interaction between bacteriophages and environment tended to be significant (p = 0.06) for ileal villus height and ileal villus height to crypt depth ratio. The overall faecal score was significantly greater in hygienic environment and bacteriophages groups. The present findings indicate that there is an interactive effect on feed efficiency between bacteriophages and contaminated environment. In addition, bacteriophages improve jejunum morphology, and intestinal microbiota of pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Neonatal Immunization with a Single IL-4/Antigen Dose Induces Increased Antibody Responses after Challenge Infection with Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1 at Weanling Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wagner

    Full Text Available Neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. These vaccines typically target T-helper (Th cell dependent B-cell activation. However, Th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. In contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (IL-4 producers. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete IL-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in B-cell activation and antibody production against EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC. Neonatal vaccination was performed by oral biotinylated IgE (IgE-bio treatment at birth followed by intramuscular injection of a single dose of streptavidin-conjugated gC/IL-4 fusion protein (Sav-gC/IL-4 for crosslinking of receptor-bound IgE-bio (group 1. Neonates in group 2 received the intramuscular Sav-gC/IL-4 vaccine only. Group 3 remained non-vaccinated at birth. After vaccination, gC antibody production was not detectable. The ability of the vaccine to induce protection was evaluated by an EHV-1 challenge infection after weaning at 7 months of age. Groups 1 and 2 responded to EHV-1 infection with an earlier onset and overall significantly increased anti-gC serum antibody responses compared to control group 3. In addition, group 1 weanlings had a decreased initial fever peak after infection indicating partial protection from EHV-1 infection. This suggested that the neonatal vaccination induced a memory B-cell response at birth that was recalled at weanling age after EHV-1 challenge. In conclusion, early stimulation of neonatal immunity via the innate arm of the immune system can induce partial protection and increased antibody responses against EHV-1.

  19. Successful treatment of severe complicated measles with non-specific transfer factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Argote, V E; Romero-Cabello, R; Hernández-Mendoza, L; Arista-Viveros, A; Rojo-Medina, J; Balseca-Olivera, F; Fierro, M; Gonzalez-Constandse, R

    1994-01-01

    Severe complicated measles has a high mortality rate and no specific treatment. Ten patients with complicated measles - 9 infants with respiratory failure and a 15 year old boy with encephalitis - received immunotherapy with Non-specific Transfer Factor (NTF). The patients had variable degrees of undernourishment and were severely ill when immunotherapy was started. 8/9 cases with respiratory failure were cured. One died of bronchoaspiration while recovering from the measles. The case with encephalitis showed no neurological sequelae two weeks after receiving the last dose of NTF. Treatment of complicated measles with NTF in these patients seemed very effective and deserves further trial.

  20. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.

  1. [Variation in serum nonesterified fatty acids during glucose tolerance test in undernourished patients with anorexia nervosa and in obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, F; Ghandour, M; Réville, P; de Laharpe, F; Thierry, R

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (0,33 g glucose per kg body weight) are performed in 11 self starved women suffering from anorexia nervosa, 10 obese and 8 normal women. They have no genetic or chemical diabetes and belong to the same age group. Plasma concentrations of immuno-reactive insuline (IRI) and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are determined during these tests. The basal concentrations of NEFA are very high in the obese patients. In the starved women the elevation of the basal plasma NEFA concentration is less striking and statistically not significant. The plasma level of NEFA is reduced in all subjects by hyperinsulinism secondary to hyperglycemia. This drop in NEFA concentration is significantly reduced in the obese patients and markedly inhibited in the starved women. This observation points toward an increased resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin in anorexia nervosa because, in these patients, the glucose load determines a normal increase in plasma IRI but the fall in plasma NEFA concentration is severely impaired.

  2. The effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women and child physical growth in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Briony; Buettner, Petra; Watt, Kerrianne; Clough, Alan; Brimblecombe, Julie; Judd, Jenni

    2015-10-01

    The beneficial effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent child growth is unclear and may depend upon the mother entering pregnancy adequately nourished or undernourished. Systematic reviews to-date have included studies from high-, middle- and low-income countries. However, the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation should not be generalised. This review assesses the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women from low- and middle-income countries on child growth. A systematic review of articles published in English (1970-2015) was conducted via MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Register and hand searching. Only peer-reviewed experimental studies analysing the effects of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women from low- and middle-income countries with measures of physical growth as the primary outcome were included. Two reviewers independently assessed full-text articles against inclusion criteria. Validity of eligible studies was ascertained using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP QAT). In total, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported on birthweight, five on birth length, three on birth head circumference, and one on longer-term growth. Standardised mean differences were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis. Balanced protein energy supplementation significantly improved birthweight (seven randomised controlled trials, n = 2367; d = 0.20, 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.38, P = 0.02). No significant benefit was observed on birth length or birth head circumference. Impact of intervention could not be determined for longer-term physical growth due to limited evidence. Additional research is required in low- and middle-income countries to identify impacts on longer-term infant growth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interactive effect of dietary protein and dried citrus pulp levels on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and hindgut fermentation of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, V V; Nuñez, A J C; Schinckel, A P; Alvarenga, P V A; Castelini, F R; Silva-Guillen, Y V; Thomaz, M C

    2017-01-01

    Weanling pigs ( = 108, 21 d of age, 5.82 ± 0.16 kg initial BW) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of CP (high- and low-CP diets) and dried citrus pulp (DCP; 0% and 7.5%) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and hindgut fermentation. Pigs were blocked by initial BW and allotted to 1 of 9 pens, each containing 3 pigs. The high-CP diets consisted of feeding 20% and 21% CP levels throughout phase 1 (0 to 14 d) and phase 2 (14 to 28 d), respectively. For the low-CP diets, CP levels were reduced by 4% units as compared with the high-CP diets in both phases. Crystalline AA were supplied to maintain an ideal AA pattern. Pig BW and pen feed disappearance were recorded weekly. On d 7 and 28 postweaning, 1 pig from each pen was euthanized for collection of small intestinal tissues and digesta from cecum and colon. There were no CP × DCP interactions for growth performance and gut morphology. Although the low-CP diet decreased ADG ( = 0.03) and G:F ( = 0.02) from d 21 to 28 postweaning, overall performance was unaffected by the treatments. On d 7 postweaning, pigs fed the low-CP diet tended to have increased ( = 0.09) crypt depth in the duodenum. Low-CP diets tended to increase ( = 0.06) crypt depth and reduce ( = 0.08) villus:crypt ratio in the jejunum on d 7. Dietary treatments did not affect ileal morphology. On d 7 postweaning, low-CP diets tended to reduce ( = 0.09) cecal total VFA, whereas dietary DCP inclusion tended to decrease ( = 0.07) colonic propionate. Including 7.5% DCP to the diet decreased ( < 0.05) colonic isovalerate and ammonia N concentrations on d 7 only for pigs fed the low-CP diet. On d 28 postweaning, DCP inclusion in low-CP diets decreased ( < 0.05) butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate concentrations in the cecum, as well as isovalerate, valerate, and ammonia N concentrations in the colon. Including 7.5% DCP to the diet increased ( < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio in

  4. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM

  5. Effector/memory T cells of the weanling mouse exhibit Type 2 cytokine polarization in vitro and in vivo in the advanced stages of acute energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevels, Tessa A M; Hillyer, Lyn M; Monk, Jennifer M; Fisher, Megan E; Woodward, Bill D

    2010-06-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the polarizing cytokine profile of the effector/memory T-cell compartment reflects the profound decline of cell-mediated inflammatory competence that characterizes acute prepubescent malnutrition. Weanling C57BL/6J mice were permitted free access to a complete purified diet, free access to an isocaloric low-protein diet or restricted intake of the complete diet for 14 days. First, interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma concentrations generated in vitro by splenic and nodal effector/memory T cells were assessed following exposure to plate-bound anti-CD3. Second, net systemic production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by the effector/memory T-cell compartment was assessed by the in vivo cytokine capture assay following anti-CD3 stimulation. In vitro stimulation generated less IFN-gamma (P=.002) but more IL-4 (P=.05) by T cells from the restricted-intake group relative to the age-matched control group. Similarly, in vivo stimulation generated low serum levels of antibody-captured IFN-gamma in the restricted-intake group vis-à-vis the age-matched control group (P=.01), while the IL-4 response was sustained (P=.39). By contrast, the 14-day low-protein model exhibited no change in T-cell cytokine signature either in vitro or in vivo. However, following extended consumption of the low-protein diet (26 days), carcass energy losses exceeded those of the 14-day protocol and serum levels of in vivo antibody-captured IFN-gamma were low after anti-CD3 challenge relative to the age-matched control group (P=.02), while levels of captured IL-4 remained unaffected (P=.07). Acute weanling malnutrition elicits a Type 2 polarizing cytokine character on the part of the effector/memory T-cell compartment, but only in the most advanced stages of energy decrement. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation of selenium-enriched probiotics on production performance and intestinal microbiota of weanling piglets raised under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C H; Wang, T; Regmi, N; Chen, X; Huang, K; Liao, S F

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of selenium-enriched probiotics (SeP) on production performance and intestinal microbiota of piglets raised under high ambient temperature. Forty-eight cross-bred weanling piglets (28 days old), randomly allotted into 12 pens (four piglets/pen) and four dietary treatments (three pens/treatment group), were fed ad libitum for 42 days a basal diet (Con) or the basal diet supplemented with probiotics (Pro), sodium selenite (ISe) or a SeP preparation. Blood and faecal samples were collected on days 0, 14, 28 and 42 post-treatment. The SeP group had higher final BW (p < 0.05), greater ADG (p < 0.05) and lower FCR (p < 0.01) than the Pro, ISe or Con group. The diarrhoea incidence rate of either SeP or Pro group was lower (p < 0.01) than the ISe or Con group. Blood Se concentration and GSH-Px activity were both higher (p < 0.01) in the SeP than in the Pro, ISe or Con group. On days 28 and 42, the serum concentrations of T3 were higher (p < 0.01) and T4 lower (p < 0.01) in the SeP than in the ISe group, and the T3 and T4 concentrations in the ISe group, in turn, were higher (p < 0.05) and lower (p < 0.01), respectively, than in the Pro or Con group. Also on days 28 and 42, the faecal counts of lactobacillus bacteria were higher (p < 0.01) while Escherichia coli lower (p < 0.01) in the SeP or Pro group as compared to the ISe or Con group. The results of RFLP showed that the faecal microbial flora in the SeP group changed the most (numerically) as compared to the Pro or ISe group. These results suggest that the SeP product may serve as a better alternative to antibiotics than the solo probiotics for using as a growth promoter for weanling piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  8. A low-protein diet combined with low-dose endotoxin leads to changes in glucose homeostasis in weanling rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Ackerley, Cameron; Koulajian, Khajag; Zhang, Ling; van Zutphen, Tim; van Dijk, Theo H.; Xiao, Changting; Giacca, Adria; Lewis, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe malnutrition is a leading cause of global childhood mortality, and infection and hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia are commonly present. The etiology behind the changes in glucose homeostasis is poorly understood. Here, we generated an animal model of severe malnutrition with and without

  9. Early-life lead exposure results in dose- and sex-specific effects on weight and epigenetic gene regulation in weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Christopher; Barks, Amanda; Liu, Kevin; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal data suggest that the development of adult chronic conditions is influenced by early-life exposure-induced changes to the epigenome. This study investigates the effects of perinatal lead (Pb) exposure on DNA methylation and bodyweight in weanling mice. Viable yellow agouti (A(vy)) mouse dams were exposed to 0, 2.1, 16 and 32 ppm Pb acetate before conception through weaning. Epigenetic effects were evaluated by scoring coat color of A(vy)/a offspring and quantitative bisulfite sequencing of two retrotransposon-driven (A(vy) and CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A particle element) and two imprinted (Igf2 and Igf2r) loci in tail DNA. Maternal blood Pb levels were below the limit of detection in controls, and 4.1, 25.1 and 32.1 µg/dl for each dose, respectively. Pb exposure was associated with a trend of increased wean bodyweight in males (p = 0.03) and altered coat color in A(vy)/a offspring. DNA methylation at A(vy) and the CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A-particle element was significantly different from controls following a cubic trend (p = 0.04; p = 0.01), with male-specific effects at the A(vy) locus. Imprinted genes did not shift in methylation across exposures. Dose- and sex-specific responses in bodyweight and DNA methylation indicate that Pb acts on the epigenome in a locus-specific fashion, dependent on the genomic feature hosting the CpG site of interest, and that sex is a factor in epigenetic response.

  10. Performance and energy metabolism in restrictively fed weanling pigs are not affected by feeding either fermented cereals or their end-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruininx, E M A M; Binnendijk, G P; Zandstra, T; Heetkamp, M J W; Van Der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J

    2010-12-01

    To study the effects of feeding fermented cereals or just fermentation end-products on performance and energy metabolism, 18 restrictedly fed groups of eight pigs each were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (i) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat; or (ii) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% fermented barley and wheat; or (iii) a liquid diet as C with the addition of some important fermentation end-products (FP; organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented F-diet. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and performance traits were measured during two consecutive periods (days 1-5 and days 6-14). There was a considerable increase in average dry matter intake that tended (p = 0.06) to be higher in the FP-group than in the other groups. Apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, nitrogen and energy during period 2 were not affected (p > 0.1). Averaged over both periods, none of the energy metabolism parameters were affected by the diets (p > 0.1). However, there were diet × period interactions for metabolizable energy-intake (p = 0.07), energy retention (p fermented cereals nor their fermentation end-products affected performance and energy metabolism traits in weanling pigs. Nevertheless, lower postprandial activity-related heat production by pigs given the fermented cereals suggest a stimulating effect of fermented cereals on short term satiety that was not seen in pigs given fermentation end-products only. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  12. Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Serrano, X; Hsieh, F H

    2017-03-01

    Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM. Ninety crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 5.98 kg were allotted to 9 treatment replications with a barrow and gilt per pen. For Exp. 2, ground corn was preconditioned with water (10.0% of corn weight), and SBM was preconditioned with water and soybean oil (each at 20.0% of SBM weight) before extrusion. Raw CWS were not preconditioned. The corn, SBM, CWS, corn-SBM blend, and corn-CWS blend were extruded at 113.0°C, 132.0°C, 132.0°C, 88.0°C, and 102°C, respectively, with a single-screw extruder. Transit time was 30 s. The 8 isocaloric treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with EX-corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, the EX-blend of corn-SBM, EX-CWS + corn, EX-CWS + EX-corn, and the EX-blend of corn-CWS. A total of 296 crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 6.56 kg were allotted to 10 treatment replications. Sex and pigs per pen (3 or 4) were equalized within replication. Results for both experiments indicate that single- or twin-screw extrusion of ground corn or SBM as individual ingredients or as corn-SBM blends in diets for weanling pigs did not improve 28-d growth performance. However, for Exp. 2 weanling pigs fed the diets with EX-CWS + corn and EX-CWS + EX-corn had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F, respectively, than pigs fed the corn-SBM control diet. The extrusion temperature of 102°C for the corn

  13. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (PDiet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (PDiet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (PDiet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved

  14. Beliefs and cultural values of the undernourished child's family Creencias y valores culturales de la familia del niño desnutrido Crenças e valores culturais da família da criança desnutrida

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    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the meanings of the mothers' participation in looking after their undernourished child. METHODS: An ethnographic approach was adopted, focusing on group dynamics within the family. RESULTS: Family influence in undernourished child care and the prevention of current and future practices related to the factors impede quality care. CONCLUSION: The cultural meanings that guide mothers, in terms of care, support, education and culture, are sustained by the social structure and have direct effects on the quality of people's life, as individuals and as social groups.OBJETIVO: Identificar y analizar el significado de la participación de las madres en el cuidado del niño desnutrido. MÉTODOS: Fue utilizado el abordaje etnográfico, focalizando en la dinámica de grupo dentro de la familia. RESULTADOS: Fue evidenciado que la familia influye en el cuidado al niño desnutrido y la prevención de las actuales y futuras prácticas relacionadas a los factores culturales que impiden la calidad del cuidado. CONCLUSIÓN: El significado que conduce la madre, en relación al cuidado y soporte, educación y cultura son sustentados por una estructura social y tiene efectos directos en la calidad de vida de las personas, como individuos y también como grupo social.OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar o significado da participação das mães no cuidado da criança desnutrida. MÉTODOS: Foi utilizada uma abordagem etnográfica, focalizando na dinâmica de grupo dentro da família. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciado que a família influencia no cuidado à criança desnutrida e a prevenção das atuais e futuras práticas relacionadas aos fatores culturais impedem a qualidade do cuidado. CONCLUSÃO: O significado que conduz a mãe, em relação ao cuidado e suporte, educação e cultura são sustentados por uma estrutura social e tem efeitos diretos na qualidade de vida das pessoas, como indivíduos e também como grupo social.

  15. Guía de atención integral al paciente desnutrido en el Servicio de Urgencias Guide of comprehensive care to undernourished patient at an emergency service

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    Lázaro Rodolfo Alfonso Novo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se define una estrategia secuencial de conductas con el niño desnutrido que acude al Servicio de Urgencia del policlínico o del hospital. Esta estrategia está basada en la necesidad de estandarizar la atención al paciente que es remitido por el Médico de Familia al escalón superior de atención de salud y que es recibido de inicio por un personal médico y paramédico en un servicio de urgencias. Se hace muy necesario elevar el conocimiento y el nivel de desempeño respecto a este tipo de paciente, cuyo seguimiento es en extremo importante, ya que de él depende en muchos casos el pronóstico de vida. La aplicación consecuente de esta atención integral asegura la buena evolución del paciente. Se concluye en que el desnutrido, por sus características muy especiales, necesita una atención de emergencia de elevada calidad que consiga la disminución del riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad.This paper described a sequential strategy of behaviours that should be followed in the case of an undernourished child that goes to the Emergency Service at the polyclinics or hospital. This strategy is based on the need of standardizing the care to a patient who has been referred by the family physician to the upper level of health care and initially received by a medical and paramedical staff in an emergency room. It is indispensable to raise the level of knowledge and performance in treating this kind of patient whose follow-up is extremely important, since most of the time life prognosis depends on it. The implementation of this comprehensive care assures the good course of recovery of the patient. It was concluded that the undernourished children, because of their very special characteristics, need a high quality care at the emergency service that leads to reduction in morbidity and mortality risks.

  16. Levedura hidrolisada como fonte de nucleotídeos para leitões recém-desmamados Hydrolyzed yeast as source of nucleotides for weanling pigs

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    C. Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de níveis de nucleotídeos em dietas para leitões recém-desmamados sobre o desempenho, a morfometria de órgãos e a histologia do epitélio intestinal. Foram utilizados 144 leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade e com peso médio inicial de 5,80 ± 0,16 kg em um experimento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis dietas, seis repetições por dieta e quatro animais por baia (unidade experimental. As dietas foram: Am (antimicrobiano _ dieta basal com inclusão de 40 ppm de sulfato de colistina, assim como dieta basal contendo 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 ppm de nucleotídeos. Ao final do experimento, foi abatido um animal de cada baia para coleta das amostras e avaliação da morfometria de órgãos e da histologia do epitélio intestinal. No período de 1 a 14 dias de experimentação, houve piora linear das características de desempenho e, no período total de 34 dias, redução linear do peso final dos animais com o aumento dos níveis de nucleotídeos na dieta. Os leitões alimentados com a dieta contendo colistina apresentaram maior comprimento do intestino delgado e menor relação altura de vilosidade:profundidade de cripta (AV:PC no duodeno em comparação àqueles que receberam nucleotídeos. Foram observados, também, aumento linear no peso relativo do baço e na relação AV:PC e redução linear da profundidade de cripta no duodeno dos animais com a adição de nucleotídeos na dieta. Assim, embora não tenha promovido melhora no desempenho, a adição de até 600 ppm de nucleotídeos em dietas complexas melhora a morfometria de órgãos e a histologia do epitélio intestinal de leitões recém-desmamados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of levels of nucleotides in diets for weanling pigs on performance, organs morphometry and histology of intestinal epithelium. One hundred and forty-four pigs weaned at 21 days of age and with 5.80 ± 0.16 kg initial live weight were

  17. Contribution of radioimmunological techniques on the management of undernourished children in Senegal; Apport des techniques radio-immunologiques pour une meilleure prise en charge de l'enfant malnutri au Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbodj, M.; Gassama, S.S.; Sow, H.T.; Ndoye, O.; Ndong, B. [Universite Cheikh-Anta-Diop, Lab. de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Faculte de Medecine, Dakar-Liberte (Senegal); Diarra, M. [Universite Cheikh-Anta-Diop, Lab. de Biophysique Pharmaceutique, Faculte de Pharmacie (Senegal); Sarr, M.; Diagne, I.; Diouf, S. [Universite Cheikh-Anta-Diop, Institut de Pediatrie Sociale, Dakar (Senegal)

    2007-08-15

    Malnutrition in children continues to be a major health burden in Senegal. The main objective of this study was to discuss the existence of a thyroid disease induced by the various deficiencies, among which iodine, in these children and to assess the effects of the treatment on the thyroid function. Materials and methods Sixty eight children divided in a random way in two groups according to the addition or not of marine algae Hypnea to the traditional nutritional supplementation were included in the study. To appreciate at the same time the nutritional and biological state and to follow the evolution under treatment, the anthropometric parameters were the ratios: weight/age, weight/size, and height/age. Radioimmunoassays of free T3, free T4 and immunoradiometric assays of TSH were carried out in undernourished children before and after supplementation enriched or not in algae. Other blood parameters were measured among them protides, magnesium, and hemoglobin. Results They showed two types of biological abnormalities: low T3 syndrome (8.6%), compensated functional hypothyroidism (9%). The treatment induced neither iodine overload, nor thyroid disease. Conclusion In the program of nutritional rehabilitation, the isotopic techniques allow us to establish the low prevalence (17.6%) of the disturbances of the thyroid function (low T3 syndrome and compensated functional hypothyroidism, thus providing the differential diagnosis), and to confirm the absence of any thyroid disease induced by the iodine supply of the marine algae Hypnea. (authors)

  18. Reduced expressions of calmodulin genes and protein and reduced ability of calmodulin to activate plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the brain of protein undernourished rats: modulatory roles of selenium and zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat; Adenuga, Gbenga A

    2016-03-01

    The roles of protein undernutrition as well as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) supplementation on the ability of calmodulin (CaM) to activate erythrocyte ghost membrane (EGM) Ca(2+)-ATPase and the calmodulin genes and protein expressions in rat's cortex and cerebellum were investigated. Rats on adequate protein diet and protein-undernourished (PU) rats were fed with diet containing 16% and 5% casein, respectively, for a period of 10 weeks. The rats were then supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15 and 227 mg l(-1), respectively, in drinking water for 3 weeks. The results obtained from the study showed significant reductions in synaptosomal plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity, Ca(2+)/CaM activated EGM Ca(2+) ATPase activity and calmodulin genes and protein expressions in PU rats. Se or Zn supplementation improved the ability of Ca(2+)/CaM to activate EGM Ca(2+)-ATPase and protein expressions. Se or Zn supplementation improved gene expression in the cerebellum but not in the cortex. Also, the activity of PMCA was significantly improved by Zn. In conclusion, it is postulated that Se and Zn might be beneficial antioxidants in protecting against neuronal dysfunction resulting from reduced level of calmodulin such as present in protein undernutrition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A.; Fain, Sean B.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A.; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Busse, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure–function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies. PMID:22095547

  20. Sever's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place on hard surfaces, such as track, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics. Sever's disease also can result from ... plate flat or high arch , which affects the angle of the heel within the foot, causing tightness ...

  1. Severe maternal undernutrition and post-weaning behavior of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Symeon, George K; Kominakis, Antonios P; Bizelis, Iosif A; Chadio, Stella E; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G

    2015-03-15

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the implications of severe maternal undernutrition on the post-weaning behavior of rabbits. Thirty two does were randomly assigned to four groups: the control group (C) that was fed 100% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements throughout pregnancy and lactation and the U1, U2 and U3 groups that were fed 50% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements between the 6th and the 19th day of pregnancy, between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy and between the 3rd and the 10th day of lactation, respectively. At the age of 50 and 65 days, behavior of rabbits in cages was recorded and rabbits were further subjected to an open-field test; a paradigm used as an indicator of fear and emotional distress. Significant differences were found between the U2 and the other experimental groups for the duration of eating and drinking, and duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors (Prabbits born from undernourished does between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy (Prabbits had greater values for locomotory and investigatory behaviors, and duration of eating and drinking compared to the females (Prabbits during the light period was observed (as expected), whereas an increase in duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors was observed during the first four and the last 4h of the light and dark periods, respectively (PRabbits born from the U1 and U2 group of does displayed increased rates of latency to leave the start position compared to the other groups during the implementation of the open-field test (Prabbits. It is concluded that severe maternal undernutrition (50% of the recommended maintenance requirements) especially between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy has significant effects on the exhibition of rabbits' post-weaning behavior, since the offspring from the U2 undernourished does were significantly less active compared to the other experimental groups. Copyright © 2015

  2. Cobre orgânico e inorgânico como promotores do crescimento de leitões recém-desmamados Organic and inorganic copper as growth promoters of weanling pigs

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    Isabel Alfonso Vieira Lima

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar altos níveis dietéticos de Cu orgânico e inorgânico, respectivamente, citrato cúprico (C6H4Cu2O7 e sulfato de Cu (CuSO4.5H2O como promotores do crescimento de leitões recém-desmamados, alimentados com dieta complexa. Foram utilizados 80 leitões mestiços (40 machos castrados e 40 fêmeas, com peso médio inicial 6,85 kg e 21 ± 2 dias de idade para testar cinco tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma dieta basal (controle de milho, farelo de soja, lactose, leite desnatado em pó e plasma suíno desidratado, ou a dieta basal suplementada com 200 ppm de Cu inorgânico (sulfato de Cu, ou 50, 100 e 150 ppm de Cu (citrato cúprico. A dieta basal foi suplementada com 2.500 ppm de Zn (ZnO, durante os primeiros 14 dias de período experimental. Os leitões foram alojados em 20 baias metálicas suspensas (1,50 x 1,20 m, que foram limpas, desinfetadas e mantidas sem uso por 90 dias antes do experimento. A ração e a água foram fornecidas à vontade durante todo o período experimental de 28 dias. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos completos casualizados com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições por tratamento e quatro leitões (dois machos castrados e duas fêmeas por baia (unidade experimental. Os altos níveis dietéticos de Cu não afetaram o ganho diário de peso, o consumo diário e a conversão alimentar dos leitões. Portanto, os altos níveis dietéticos de Cu orgânico (citrato cúprico e inorgânico (sulfato de Cu não mostraram qualquer efeito promotor do crescimento em leitões recém-desmamados, alimentados com dieta complexa numa creche limpa.An experiment was carried out to evaluate high dietary levels of organic and inorganic Cu, respectively, cupric citrate (C6H4Cu2O7 and Cu sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O as growth promoters of weanling pigs fed complex diet. Eighty crossbred weanling pigs (40 castrated males and 40 females, averaging 6.85 kg initial weight and 21 ± 2 days of age, were

  3. Amount and source of dietary copper affects small intestine morphology, duodenal lipid peroxidation, hepatic oxidative stress,and mRNA expression of hepatic copper regulatory proteins in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R S; Ashwell, M S; Lloyd, K E; O'Nan, A T; Flowers, W L; Stewart, K R; Spears, J W

    2012-09-01

    Thirty weanling, crossbred barrows (SUS SCROFA) were used to determine the effects of amount and source of dietary Cu on small intestinal morphology and lipid peroxidation, Cu metabolism, and mRNA expression of proteins involved in hepatic Cu homeostasis. At 21 d of age, pigs were stratified by BW (6.33 ± 0.23 kg) and allocated to 1 of the following dietary treatments: i) control (no supplemental Cu; 6.7 mg Cu/kg), ii) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from Cu sulfate (CuSO(4)), or iii) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC). Pigs were housed 2 pigs per pen and were fed a 3-phase diet regimen until d 35 or 36 of the study. During harvest, bile and liver were obtained for mineral analysis, and liver samples were also obtained for analysis of liver glutathione (GSH) and mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Segments of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were obtained for mucosal morphology, and duodenal mucosal scrapings were collected from all pigs for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA). Duodenal villus height was reduced in CuSO(4) pigs compared with control (P = 0.001) and TBCC (P = 0.03) pigs. Villus height in the proximal jejunum of CuSO(4) pigs was reduced (P = 0.03) compared with control pigs, but ileal villus height was not affected (P = 0.82) by treatment. Duodenal MDA concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in CuSO(4) pigs and tended to be greater (P = 0.10) in pigs supplemented with TBCC compared with control pigs. Liver Cu was greater (P = 0.01) in CuSO(4) vs. control pigs, and tended (P = 0.07) to be greater in TBCC pigs than control pigs. Bile Cu concentrations were greater (P stress in the duodenum than CuSO(4). Feeding weanling pigs increased Cu resulted in modulation of certain Cu transporters and chaperones at the transcription level.

  4. Effects of prefermented cereals or the end products of fermentation on growth and metabolism of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and on intestinal health of restrictedly fed weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruininx, E M A M; Koninkx, J F J G; Binnendijk, G P; Zandstra, T; Heetkamp, M J W; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the underlying mechanisms that explain the positive effects of prefermented cereals on in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) architecture and function, an in vitro experiment using a human small intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2) was performed. A range of dilutions (0% to 10%) of the supernatants of three liquid experimental diets, as well as Na-lactate were used in an in vitro experiment to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and mucosal integrity using Caco-2. The experimental diets contained, in addition to a protein rich basal diet (60%), (1) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat (ratio 3 : 1) or (2) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% prefermented barley and wheat or (3) C with the addition of the fermentation end-products (organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented diet (FP). For F, the mixture of barley and wheat was fermented at 35°C for 48 h. Parallel to the in vitro experiment, 18 groups of eight weanling pigs were assigned to one of the experimental diets during a 14-day in vivo experiment. Each group was fed restrictively. The results of the in vitro experiment showed that the lowest dose of both F- and FP-supernatants had no clear effects on the cell proliferation, but incubation with 5% and 10% of the F- and FP-supernatants decreased the cell numbers at day 19. DNA, RNA, protein and glycoprotein synthesis in differentiated Caco-2 cells were stimulated by incubation with the lower concentrations (0.5% to 2.5%) of F- and FP-supernatants whereas the higher concentrations (5% and 10%) had no effect. Both the F- and FP-supernatants decreased the specific sucrase-isomaltase activity in a dose-dependent manner, but the effects on the specific aminopeptidase activities were less clear. Mucosal integrity initially decreased after incubation with the highest F- and FP-supernatants and started to recover between 24 and 48 h. The results of the in vivo

  5. Compensatory lung growth: protein, DNA and RNA lung contents in undernourished trilobectomized rats Crescimento pulmonar compensatório: conteúdos pulmonares de proteína, DNA e RNA em ratos subnutridos trilobectomizados

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    Raul Lopes Ruiz Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate compensatory lung growth (CLG by lung contents of proteins, DNA, and RNA in undernourished young adult rats, submitted to pulmonary trilobectomy. METHODS: We used 137 male Wistar rats, randomly distributed into 9 groups; they were submitted to three treatments (control, thoracotomy, and trilobectomy, and sacrificed at three different times (7, 30, and 90 days. In trilobectomy we removed the right median, accessory, and caudal lobes. We studied lung proteins, DNA, and RNA contents. RESULTS: In the cranial lobe and left lung, protein content was higher in trilobectomized rats however there was insufficient CLG to make up for the loss. The increase of DNA in the cranial lobe and left lung of trilobectomized rats was sufficient to compensate for this loss, resulting in a similar content to controls. RNA content in trilobectomized rats, was higher in the cranial lobe and left lung, more efficient in the cranial lobe, but less than in the other groups. CONCLUSION: CLG occurred in trilobectomized rats, probably with cell hyperplasia and little hypertrophy, due to the large DNA compensation and small RNA compensation. This was markedly different to well-nourished animals, who had pronounced hypertrophy.OBJETIVO: demonstrar se ocorre crescimento pulmonar compensatório (CPC representado pelos conteúdos de proteínas, DNA e RNA no rato adulto jovem, subnutrido, submetido à trilobectomia pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos 137 ratos "Wistar", machos, distribuídos por sorteio, em 9 grupos, submetidos a três tratamentos (controle, toracotomia, trilobectomia, sacrificados em três momentos (7, 30 e 90 dias. Na trilobectomia foram extirpados os lobos médio, acessório e caudal direitos. Variáveis estudadas: conteúdos pulmonares de proteínas, DNA e RNA. RESULTADOS: No lobo cranial e pulmão esquerdo o conteúdo protéico foi maior nos trilobectomizados. Ocorreu CPC insuficiente para suprir a perda desta variável, sendo menor nos pulm

  6. Evaluation of the impact of a nutritional program for undernourished children in Brazil Avaliação do impacto de um programa de suplementação alimentar para crianças desnutridas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná S. Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness on child growth and body composition of a supplementary feeding program (Milk Supplement Program, a prospective, controlled study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. When entering the Program, children from 10 municipalities with the highest coverage rates in the Program (intervention group were compared to non-beneficiary children from 10 municipalities with the lowest coverage rates (control group. A total of 219 children aged 6-18 months were enrolled. At entry, both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, and nutritional status. There were frequent gaps in delivery of the supplement, no extra milk was provided to siblings less than 5 years of age, intra-household redistribution of milk was high, and maternal compliance with recommendations was low. Adjusted analyses by multilevel modelling showed average changes in weight, length, weight-age and length-age Z-scores, and % body water (deuterium method, at 6 months, of 1.53kg, 6.34cm, 0.33, 0.05, and 1.11% respectively among supplemented children as compared to 1.54kg, 6.5cm, 0.26, 0.07, and 4.10% among controls, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Thus, the Program failed to compensate for nutritional deficiencies in undernourished children in Northeast Brazil.Um estudo prospectivo, controlado foi realizado no Nordeste do Brasil para avaliar a efetividade de um programa de suplementação alimentar (Programa do Leite sobre crescimento infantil e composição corporal. Ao ingressar no programa, crianças de dez municípios com as maiores taxas de cobertura do programa (intervenção foram comparadas a crianças não-beneficiárias de dez municípios com as menores taxas de cobertura (controle. Um total de 219 crianças de 6-18 meses de idade foram arroladas. Ao entrar no estudo, ambos os grupos eram comparáveis quanto a sexo, idade e estado nutricional. Houve freqüentes falhas na entrega do suplemento, não foi fornecido leite para os

  7. Effects of a 3 strain -based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; McCann, J C; Loor, J J; Stein, H H

    2017-01-01

    Effects of a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, plasma tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), relative gene expression, and intestinal VFA concentrations in weanling pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets were evaluated. Two hundred pigs (initial BW: 6.31 ± 0.73 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 diet types [low-fiber (LF) or high-fiber (HF)] and 2 concentrations of DFM (0 or 60 g DFM/t of feed). The DFM contained 1.5 × 10 cfu/g and was obtained from Danisco Animal Nutrition-DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, UK. Phase 1 diets were fed for 2 wk post-weaning and phase 2 diets were fed over the following 29 d. Low fiber diets contained corn and soybean meal as main ingredients and HF diets contained corn, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles (7.5 and 15.0% in phase 1 and 2, respectively), and wheat middlings (10.0%). Pigs and feed were weighed at the start and at the end of each phase, and ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. At the conclusion of phase 2, blood was collected from 1 pig per pen and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed. Cecum and rectum contents were analyzed for VFA, and tissue samples were collected from the ileum, cecum, rectum, and liver to determine expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of VFA using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results indicated that feeding HF diets reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and ADG of pigs compared with feeding LF diets. Pigs fed DFM diets had improved ( ≤ 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed non-DFM diets. Pigs fed LF diets had greater ( ≤ 0.05) BW at the end of phase 2 compared with pigs fed HF diets. The concentration of VFA in rectum contents was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in pigs fed LF diets than in pigs fed HF diets. The expression of in the rectum of pigs fed HF diets was greater ( ≤ 0.05) than for pigs fed LF diets, and pigs fed DFM

  8. Extratos vegetais como alternativas aos antimicrobianos promotores de crescimento para leitões recém-desmamados Herbal extracts as alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Batista Costa

    2007-06-01

    promissora como promotor de crescimento de leitões recém-desmamados.The purpose of this study was to evaluate herbal extracts as alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for weanling pigs based on growth performance and organ weights. A 35-d randomized complete block design experiment was carried out to compare five treatments: control (C - basal diet; antimicrobial (A - basal diet supplemented with colistin + tiamulin (75 ppm of each; herbal extract - basal diet supplemented with 420 ppm of extracts of clove (Ec; oregano (Eo and clove + oregano (Ec + Eo, respectively. Herbal extracts consisted of essential oils of clove + eugenol and oregano + carvacrol. Eighty pigs sorted in eight replications per treatment, and two animals per experimental unit were used for growth performance evaluation. At the end of experimental period, one animal per pen from the first four blocks was slaughtered for organ morphometry evaluation. Specific contrasts of practical importance were tested. For 1-14 d of experimental period (24 to 38 days of age, pigs fed the antimicrobial supplemented diet showed better feed conversion rate (CA than the mean of those fed herbal extract treatments, while pigs fed Ec supplemented diet had better CA than those fed Eo. For the total period (24 to 59 days of age, pigs fed antimicrobial showed higher body weight at 59 days of age (P59 and average daily gain (GDP than the mean of those fed herbal extracts. Pigs fed Ec + Eo had higher P59 and GDP than the mean of those fed other herbal extract treatments. For the organ morphometry data, the antimicrobials provided a higher relative weight of kidneys compared to the mean of treatments with herbal extracts. Overall, antimicrobial agents provided the best growth performance of weanling pigs. Concerning to herbal extracts, the combination of clove and oregano provided growth performance close to that of pigs fed antimicrobials, showing that this combination can be a potential alternative as growth promoter for

  9. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  10. Desnutrición infantil, coeficiente de desarrollo y su relación con el medio ambiente: un estudio piloto Desnutrição infantil, coeficiente do desenvolvimento e sua relação com o meio ambiente: um estudo piloto Infant undernourishment, the development coefficient and its relation to the environment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Luz Alvarez

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiados los factores socioculturales que podrían estar influyendo en el desarrollo psicomotor normal del lactante desnutrido. La muestra consistió en 32 díadas madrelactante: 16 tenían CD normal (Grupo A y 16 CD bajo lo normal (Grupo B según el Test de Bailey aplicado a los lactantes recién ingresados a un Centro de Recuperación Nutricional. Los resultados muestran que había algunas diferencias en los antecedentes de los lactantes: Los lactantes del Grupo A eran producto de un embarazo deseado (pEstudam-se os fatores sócio-culturais que poderiam estar influenciando no desenvolvimento psicomotor normal do lactente desnutrido. A amostra consistiu de 32 pares mãe-criança: 16 com coeficiente de desenvolvimento (CD normal (grupo A e 16 com CD abaixo do normal (grupo B de acordo com o teste de Bailey aplicado a lactentes que ingressavam a um centro de recuperação nutricional. Havia diferenças nos antecedentes das crianças: os lactentes do grupo A eram fruto de gravidez desejada (p The socio-cultural factors that might be influencing the normal psychomotor development of the undernourished infant are studied. The sample consisted of 32 mother-infant dyads: 16 having normal DQ (Group A and 16 having a below normal DQ (Group B according to Bailey's Test applied to infants who entered a Nutritional Recuperation Center. Results showed that there were some differences in the infants' backgrounds: infants of Group A were the product of a wished-for pregnancy (p < .05, and were separated less from their mother's side (p < .007 than was the case in Group B. No differences were found in the socio-cultural and demographic background of the mothers. The infants' external environment was different in aspects observed within the neighborhood: there were fewer negative aspects in Group A than in Group B (p < .003 and more positive in Group A than in B (p < .001. The infant's internal environment as related to the mother was also different

  11. Mortality after Inpatient Treatment for Severe Pneumonia in Children: a Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngari, Moses M; Fegan, Greg; Mwangome, Martha K; Ngama, Mwanajuma J; Mturi, Neema; Scott, John Anthony Gerard; Bauni, Evasius; Nokes, David James; Berkley, James A

    2017-05-01

    Although pneumonia is a leading cause of inpatient mortality, deaths may also occur after discharge from hospital. However, prior studies have been small, in selected groups or did not fully evaluate risk factors, particularly malnutrition and HIV. We determined 1-year post-discharge mortality and risk factors among children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. A cohort study of children aged 1-59 months admitted to Kilifi County Hospital with severe pneumonia (2007-12). The primary outcome was death pneumonia, 1041 (25%) had severe acute malnutrition (SAM), 267 (6.4%) had a positive HIV antibody test, and 364 (8.7%) died in hospital. After discharge, 2279 KHDSS-resident children were followed up; 70 (3.1%) died during 2163 child-years: 32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 26, 41) deaths per 1000 child years. Post-discharge mortality was greater after admission for severe pneumonia than for other diagnoses, hazard ratio 2.5 (95% CI 1.2, 5.3). Malnutrition, HIV status, age and prolonged hospitalisation, but not signs of pneumonia severity, were associated with post-discharge mortality. Fifty-two per cent (95% CI 37%, 63%) of post-discharge deaths were attributable to low mid-upper arm circumference and 11% (95% CI 3.3%, 18%) to a positive HIV test. Admission with severe pneumonia is an important marker of vulnerability. Risk stratification and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying post-discharge mortality, especially for undernourished children, are needed to reduce mortality after treatment for pneumonia. © 2017 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Severe Aplastic Anemia (SAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Print this page My Cart Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease ... leukemia (ALL) Other diseases What is severe aplastic anemia (SAA)? SAA is a bone marrow disease. The ...

  13. Host selenium deficiency increases the severity of chronic inflammatory myopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-inoculated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ricardo M; Solana, Maria E; Levander, Orville A

    2002-06-01

    Weanling C3H/HeN mice were fed either a torula yeast-based diet deficient in selenium (Se) or the same diet supplemented with 0.2 ppm Se as sodium selenite. After 4 wk of feeding, the mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with the CA-I strain (clone K98) of Trypanosoma cruzi (TC). Before inoculation, mean serum Se levels were 430 versus 61 ng/ml in adequate and deficient mice, respectively. During the ascending phase of parasitemia, the Se-deficient mice exhibited significantly higher levels of parasites at 22-34 days postinfection (PI). However, no difference was found in the subsequent descending phase. As judged by visual examination at 2-mo-PI, some Se-deficient infected mice presented clinical signs of motor dysfunction. At 3-mo-PI, the end of the observation period, this chronic disease developed into a hind limb flaccid paralysis affecting 5 of 8 infected deficient mice. No signs of paralysis were seen in noninfected mice fed either diet or in infected mice fed the Se-adequate diet. At the histological level, both Se-adequate and Se-deficient infected mice showed mild myocarditis and moderate to severe myositis, with increasing intensity from 1- to 3-mo-PI in both groups. However, the severity of myositis was always more intense in the Se-deficient mice so that prominent areas of skeletal muscle replaced by fibrotic tissue were frequently observed. Thus, it can be concluded that Se deficiency in the murine host increases the severity of TC-induced myositis.

  14. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  16. Representações sociais da equipe de enfermagem sobre a criança desnutrida e sua família Representaciones sociales del equipo de enfermeros sobre el niño desnutrido y su familia Social representations of a nursing team about undernourished children and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Ciampone

    1999-07-01

    in nursing practice with the undernourished children and their families. Our objectives were: to understand the social representations of the nursing team about undernourished children and their families and to analyze how these representations can interfere in the process of taking care. Based on qualitative research principles, authors adopted the social representations theoretical method. For data collection and analysis, authors used the projective techniques and speech subject analysis, respectively. Results showed an innocent conception by nursing professionals, that reproduces in the practical field a strong moral code and hygienic habits to the family and it does not propitiate the formation of a critical conscience about their citizenship rights.

  17. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  18. FORMULASI BISKUIT DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus DAN ISOLAT PROTEIN KEDELAI (Glycine max SEBAGAI MAKANAN POTENSIAL UNTUK ANAK BALITA GIZI KURANG [Biscuit Formulation with Catfish Dumbo (Clarias gariepinus Flour and Soy (Glycine max Protein Isolates as a Potential Food for Undernourished Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a protein source important for enhancing nutritional status because it is categorized as high quality food. Fish flour is one of the fish product that has not been optimally utilized as food. The objective of this research was to produce biscuit formulated with Dumbo catfish (Clarias gariepinus flour and soy protein isolate, as a high protein food for undernourished under-five years old children. The purpose of soy protein isolate substitution was also to produce better biscuit texture. Fish flour was made separately from body and head part, and then was analyzed for its physical and chemical properties. Biscuits were formulated by substitution of fish flour and soy protein isolate with trial and error method. A selected formula was determined based on semi trained panelists preference. Acceptance of the biscuit made with the selected formula was examined by children and children’s mothers using hedonic test. The contribution of protein contained in biscuit on daily allowance was calculated for under-five year old children. Biscuits made by substitution of 3.5% of body fish flour, 1.5% of head fish flour, and 10% of soy protein isolate was the preferred formula. The chemical properties for biscuit of the accepted formula (F4 were as follows: 3.96% (wb of water content, 2.52% (db of ash content, 19.55% (db of protein content, 21.99% (db of fat content and 55.94% (db of carbohydrate content (by different. The biscuit contains 480 Kcals energy per 100 grams. The protein digestibility of the biscuit measured by enzymatic method was 89.34%. The formula fulfills 20% of children’s protein needed per day from four pieces of biscuit or equals to 50 grams of biscuit.

  19. Chronic transgenerational vitamin B12 deficiency of severe and moderate magnitudes modulates adiposity-probable underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Muralikrishna, Bojanapalli; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2017-05-06

    We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males. The offspring of control and severely deficient dams continued on the respective diets of their mothers. Few moderately deficient dams were rehabilitated to control diet from parturition and their pups were weaned to control diet. Also, some offspring born to moderately B12 deficient dams were weaned to control diet, while others continued on the same diet as their mothers. Various parameters were determined in the F1 offspring after 12 and 36 weeks of feeding. The results indicate that both severe and moderate maternal vitamin B12 restrictions were associated with accelerated catch-up growth, increased body fat percentage, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the F1 offspring. Inflammation, increased glucocorticoid and oxidative stress and poor antioxidant defence probably underlie these adverse effects. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning was beneficial in delaying the onset of the adverse outcomes in the offspring. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(3):400-414, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Management of severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichant, G; Dewandre, P Y; Foidart, J M; Brichant, J F

    2010-01-01

    Features of severe preeclampsia include severe proteinuric hypertension and symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction, hepatocellular injury, thrombocytopenia, oliguria, pulmonary oedema, cerebrovascular accident and severe intrauterine growth restriction. Women with severe preeclampsia must be hospitalized to confirm the diagnosis, to assess the severity of the disease, to monitor the progression of the disease and to try to stabilize the disease. Severe preeclampsia may be managed expectantly, in selected cases. The objective of expectant management in these patients is to improve neonatal outcome. Expectant management is based on antihypertensive treatment and prevention of end organ dysfunction. Antihypertensive treatment improves maternal outcome but has the potential to be deleterious for the foetus. Plasma volume expansion has been suggested for severe preeclampsia but trials failed to show any benefit. Magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsivant of choice to treat or prevent eclampsia when indicated. Antenatal corticosteroids are recommended in severely preeclamptic women with 26-34 weeks gestation. Timing of delivery is based upon gestational age, severity of preeclampsia, maternal and foetal risks.

  1. Management of severe malnutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmolalities, namely 333 and 419 mOsml/l and lactose contents of. 13 and 42 g/l respectively.15 The importance of lactose intolerance in severely malnourished children tends to be downplayed. Enteropathy is often a feature of severe malnutrition and is usually accompanied with clinically significant carbohydrate ...

  2. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  3. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children ... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  4. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  5. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  6. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...... of 11 urban families who have moved to the countryside and chosen to commute in order to dwell there....

  7. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia With Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks, Frank Martin; Stanesa, Maxine; Hegele, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Recurrent pancreatitis is a potentially fatal complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic defects and lifestyle risk factors may render this condition unresponsive to current treatments. OBSERVATIONS: We report this first case of long-term management of intractable near-fatal recurrent pancreatitis secondary to severe hypertriglyceridemia by a novel use of lomitapide, an inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, recently approved for treatment of familia...

  8. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Severe pancreatoduodenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A 30-year-old male involved in a traffic accident was brought to our hospital. He was in shock with a rigid abdomen, and a computed tomography scan showed severe pancreatoduodenal injury. He was successfully treated with damage control surgery consisting of peripancreatic packing at the initial surgery followed by a two-stage pancreaticoduodenectomy. The postoperative course was complicated by a hepatic abscess, but there were no pancreaticoduodenectomy-related complications. The patient was transferred to a local hospital on postoperative day 55. Three step strategy consisting of peripancreatic packing followed by a two-stage pancreaticoduodenectomy is an effective treatment strategy for severe pancreatoduodenal injury.

  10. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC38A1, and SLC38A2 expression, and by increased SLC38A4 expression, in labyrinth zones from the mid- and proximal-horns. In marked contrast to the labyrinth zone, the basal zone, which is the site of hormone production, did not show significant changes in any of these enzymes or transporters. These results suggest that dysregulation of the labyrinth zone GC "barrier", and more importantly decreased nutrient supply resulting from downregulation of some of the amino acid system A transporters, may contribute to suboptimal fetal growth under MUN.

  11. The Dynamics of Food Supply and Undernourishment in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of food supply status, transition rates, and the associated forces underpinning this dynamic process are analyzed and stylized by parametric and non-parametric measures. Economic and socio-demographic factors and unobserved regional heterogeneities determining the dynamics of food supply are ...

  12. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... into better nutrition for its people, particularly poor women and children. It aims to shape policies underlying the development of India's proposed National Food Security Act. As well, it will help restructure the public food distribution system and the delivery of social welfare programs that affect food and nutritional security.

  13. Severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency impairs lipid profile, induces adiposity and leads to adverse gestational outcome in female C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa eGhosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for four weeks, (a control AIN-76A diet, (b vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption or (c vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption. After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat % significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 hours of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  14. Multiculturalism and Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Luanna H.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the need for educators to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to help students with severe disabilities from mainstream groups to develop cross-cultural knowledge, values, and competencies. It outlines goals for multicultural understanding for educational researches, for teacher educators, and for school leaders and…

  15. Severe congenital neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tidwell et al1 demonstrate that mutations in the start codon (protein synthesis is initiated at the codon ATG) of neutrophil elastase (ELANE) result in the production of N-terminally truncated elastase, which mislocates to the nucleus and results in severe congenital neutr...... neutropenia (SCN)....

  16. The Severe Cardiorenal Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongartz, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the interactions between heart and kidneys in disease in a longitudinal and integrative fashion. We developed two different rat models of the Severe Cardiorenal Syndrome and studied the effects of different interventions on progression of cardiorenal failure and on

  17. Severe Snowstorm in Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Some snow isn't an unexpected occurrence in the mountainous terrain of the small country of Lesotho, a small, roughly circular country located between Free State Province and Eastern Cape Province in the Republic of South Africa. But over the weekend of July 20, 2002, a severe snow storm dumped several feet of snow in the Drakensbueg Mountains, and turned many parts of the country into disaster areas. According to news reports, at least 22 people died and many more were stranded in mountain towns and camping areas, often without fuel or electricity, or food and water. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on July 25, 2002. Credits: Image by Jesse Allen, based on data from the MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA-GSFC

  18. Severe childhood obesity matters

    OpenAIRE

    Slootweg, O.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and to social disadvantages later in life. Obesity is now the most common childhood disorder in the developed world, with severe obesity as the fastest-growing subcategory. In 2009, the prevalence of s...

  19. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of severe hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Catti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft, important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected.

  1. Effect of nutritonal therapy on Helicobacter pylori infections in severely malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Severe malnutrition young children has been a problem in Indonesia for many years. In recent years the condition may be increasing. Besides a lack of nutrition, H. pylori infection may contribute to this condition. Objective To determine if severely malnourished children have high rates of H. pylori infection, and to test if improving nutritional deficiency by drinking skimmed milk can reduce the number of H. pylori cases. Methods A total of 83 children aged 6 - 36 months with severe malnutrition (weight-for-age < -3 Z-scores, who were outpatients at the Nutrition Clinic in fugor served as subjects for this longitudinal study. Out of 83 children, 42 subjects (50% tested positively for H. pylori infection (Group P and 41 subjects  (49.4% tested negatively (Group NP. All subjects received the same nutritional intervention consisting  of medical care, 250 g of skimmed milk, and guidance concerning proper feeding and care of children at every clinic visit, for a duration of 6 months. Results The study revealed that after 6 months of nutritional intervention, the percentage of children suffering from diarrhea was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in Group P, while no significant change was demonstrated in Group NP. The nutritional intervention also demonstrated a noticeable effect on the incidence of H pylori infection, reducing the number of H. pylori infections by 29% in Group P. In Group Np, 100% of the children remained free of H. pylori infection after intervention. No new cases of H. pylori infection appeared in either group. An improvement in nutritional status was also observed: 23.8% of severely undernourished children in Group P and 3 4.1 % in Group NP improved after intervention. Conclusion Drinking skimmed milk twice daily, as well as parental counseling on proper feeding and child care, led to improved nutritional status of severely malnourished children. We also observed that skimmed (non-fat milk may have a role in

  2. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  3. Several crimes solved

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2007-01-01

    A member of a contractor's personnel suspected of having committed several thefts in and around Building 180 has recently been questioned by the French police. He was immediately tried by the court in Bourg-en-Bresse and sentenced to six months in prison, with a requirement to serve at least three months. His arrest was facilitated, among other things, by a video recording, fast and detailed statements to the CERN Fire Brigade and close collaboration between the members of the personnel concerned, the Reception and Access Control Service and the police. Several laptops and other items of electronic equipment were seized during a search of the culprit's home. A stolen digital camera has yet to be returned to its owner as he has not reported the theft to the CERN Fire Brigade and the police. The person concerned is therefore requested to go to the Gendarmerie in Saint-Genis-Pouilly with the necessary proof of ownership. In addition, the French authorities have informed CERN that the presumed authors of the a...

  4. [Severe edematous dermatomyositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussot, R; Wettlé, C; Le Coz, C; Cribier, B; Lipsker, D

    2016-03-01

    Edematous dermatomyositis is a rare entity with localized or generalized subcutaneous edema and only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. It is considered to be a severe form of dermatomyositis which needs quick therapeutic decision. We report 2 cases with difficult therapeutic decisions. Two patients aged 23 and 80 years were admitted in hospital for DM with typical cutaneous and muscular involvement without any sign of gravity and which have been treated by steroids: methylprednisolone bolus and prednisone. They both then developed severe edema of the upper limbs as well as worsening of the cutaneous and muscular symptoms with dysphagia. The addition of mycophenolate mofetil and intravenous immunoglobulin has permitted in the case of the first patient the disappearance of the cutaneous symptoms in particular the edema with restitution of the muscular force and withdrawal of the dysphagia and swallowing symptoms. The therapeutic failure for the second patient was due to a refusal of the treatment and a probable paraneoplastic context. Subcutaneous edema localized or generalized must not be confused with periorbital erythematous edema, classically observed in DM, nor with DM with mucinosis. Potential marker of gravity, it is often associated to important muscular weakness and dysphagia. In this case, an aggressive treatment associating corticosteroids, immunosuppressive therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeitos de extratos vegetais e antimicrobianos sobre a digestibilidade aparente, o desempenho, a morfometria dos órgãos e a histologia intestinal de leitões recém-desmamados Effects of herbal extracts and antimicrobials on apparent digestibility, performance, organs morphometry and intestinal histology of weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lotufo Oetting

    2006-08-01

    digestibility, performance, morphology and histology of weanling pigs. One hundred and twenty weaned pigs were used to compare five treatments: control - basal diet; antimicrobial - basal diet plus Zn bacitracina, olaquindox, and colistin (50 ppm of each; herbal extract A, B and C - basal diet plus 700 ppm, 1,400 ppm and 2,100 ppm of herbal extract, respectively, with 12 replications (pens of two pigs each per treatment in a 35-d randomized complete block design experiment. The herbal extract consisted of mixture of equal amounts of essential oils of thyme, clove, oregano, eugenol and carvacrol. In digestibility assay, 40 pigs (four replications per treatment were fed a diet with chromium oxide (marker method. On 35th day of experimental period, one animal of each experimental unit was slaughtered and samples were collected for analysis. The herbal extracts increased dietary DM apparent digestibility compared to control and antimicrobial treatments. The antimicrobial agents improved performance of weanling pigs during all phases of the experimental period compared to the other treatments. Pigs fed high dietary level of herbal extract showed better results for pig performance and other variables. The antimicrobial treatment improved the relative weights of intestinal tract and empty small intestine and improved ileum villus height and ileum villus height:crypt depth ratio of animals. However, more studies are necessary to evaluate which type of essential oil should be used and the best combination and inclusion level of herbal extract in the diet.

  6. Several Mediological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crăciun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several new perspectives on the contemporary civilization provided by means of a new discipline entitled “Mediology”. This new science that the French professor Regis Debray proposes presents the characteristics of the contemporary society in relation to models of some previous stages. This article proposes a critical perspective on the model proposed by Regis Debray as compared to other sources envisaging the analysis of the evolution of the cultural models in time, such as, for instance, the perspective proposed by Giambattista Vico on the evolution of the linguistic and cultural codes. The aim of the article is that of providing an integrated perspective, allowing a better understanding of the changes underlying the informational society.

  7. Efeitos da suplementação de alto nível de cobre e de biotina na dieta de suínos de 8 a 20 kg Effects of high level of copper and biotin supplementation in the diet of weanling pigs (8 - 20 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.M. Menten

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para investigar a necessidade de suplementação de biotina na dieta de leitões recém desmamados quando o cobre é utilizado como promotor de crescimento. Rações com níveis marginais de biotina (0,10 ppm, formuladas à base de trigo e farelo de soja, foram suplementadas ou não com 0,4 ppm de biotina (BIO e 250 ppm de cobre (COB e fornecidas a 168 leitões desmamados com 4 semanas de idade e peso médio de 7,8 kg. Os experimentos tiveram duração de 5 semanas. No experimento 1 houve uma interação BIO x COB (P 0,05. A suplementação conjunta de COB e BIO não melhorou o desempenho dos animais, em relação a sua suplementação individual.Two trials were carried out to investigate the need for supplemental biotin in the diet of weanling pigs when high dietary copper is used as growth promoter. Wheat - soybean meal based feeds, containing marginal levels of biotin (.10 ppm were supplemented or not with .4 ppm biotin (BIO and 250 ppm copper (COP. The diets were fed to 168 piglets weaned at 4 weeks of age with an average weight of 7.8 kg. The trials were conducted for 5 weeks. In trial 1 there was a BIO x COP interaction (P .05. The combination of supplemental BIO and COP did not result in further improvement in performance compared to the individual supplementation.

  8. Describing severe limb trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnez, Z M; Tyler, M P; Khan, U

    1999-06-01

    Seventy-nine severe limb injuries were retrospectively reviewed to compare the AO/ASIF and the Gustillo classifications. Specifically, the suitability of these classifications with respect to prognosis and management of these cases was compared. A healed and stable wound was the ultimate outcome measure. Surrogate outcome measures used were: the time to healing; the number of anaesthetics until the wounds were healed; and the number of operations until the wounds were healed. Any change in lifestyle following the injury was also assessed. The primary healing rates of the AO/ASIF groups showed significant (P Gustillo system, the primary healing rates did not show any differences between the groups. Also, differences in the other outcome measures were most pronounced when using the AO/ASIF system. Importantly, changes in lifestyle correlated with the injury score when using the AO/ASIF system (P Gustillo system was not applicable in 100% of cases. A modified AO/ASIF scoring system is proposed which provides a good predictor of outcome.

  9. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  10. Severe rosacea: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shirzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Rosacea can be extremely severe and disfiguring, and it can be misdiagnosed as the pathognomonic butterfly rash of LE. Demodex carriage in rosacea is consistent and may play a significant role in the severe forms.

  11. Efeitos de antimicrobianos, prebióticos, probióticos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal, a freqüência de diarréia e o desempenho de leitões recém-desmamados Effects of antimicrobials, prebiotics, probiotics and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiology, diarrhea incidence and performance of weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Utiyama

    2006-12-01

    extracts as alternatives to antimicrobial agents (as growth promoters on intestinal microbiology , diarrhea incidence, and on performance of weanling pigs. Two randomized complete block design experiments were carried out during 35 days to compare five treatments: control - basal diet; antimicrobial - basal diet plus Zn bacitracin and olaquindox (50 ppm of each; probiotic - basal diet plus 1,300 ppm of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; prebiotic - basal diet plus 3,000 ppm of mannanoligosaccharide; herbal extract - basal diet plus 500 ppm of herbal extract (garlic, clove, cinnamon, pepper, thyme, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol. In the Experiment 1, forty 21-d-weaned pigs were alloted to 20 suspended pens, each one with two pigs (one barrow and one gilt per pen (experimental unit and four replications per treatment. On 35th day of experimental period, one animal of each experimental unit was slaughtered to collect the content of the jejunum/ileum for microbiological analysis. In the Experiment 2, one hundred and twenty 21-d-weaned pigs composed 12 replications per treatment and two animals (one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit. Fecal score was daily evaluated to calculate diarrhea incidence. Treatment effect was observed neither on intestinal microbiology nor on diarrhea incidence. The antimicrobial agents improved average daily gain of weanling pigs, during 1-35 (+21.4% and 15-35 (+22% days of experimental periods, compared to pigs fed control diet. The probiotic and herbal extract did not improve piglet growth performance. The performance of piglets fed prebiotic was similar to those fed antimicrobials, during 1-14 days of experimental period. However, feed conversion was not improved.

  12. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity is associated with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seop Eom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a heterogeneous disorder, and various aspects of COPD may be associated with the severity of pneumonia in such patients. AIMS: We examined the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in a COPD population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study using a prospectively collected database of pneumonia patients who were admitted to our hospital through emergency department between 2008 and 2012. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and those with an immunocompromised status were excluded. RESULTS: Of 148 pneumonia patients with COPD for whom chest computed tomography (CT scans were available, 106 (71.6% and 42 (28.4% were classified as non-severe and severe pneumonia, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the severity of airflow limitation [odds ratio (OR, 2.751; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.074-7.050; P = 0.035] and the presence of emphysema on a chest CT scan (OR, 3.366; 95% CI, 1.104-10.265; P = 0.033 were independently associated with severe pneumonia in patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD including the airflow limitation grade and the presence of pulmonary emphysema were independently associated with the development of severe pneumonia.

  14. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  15. Severe anemia in Malawian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija S.; Faragher, E. Brian; Brabin, Bernard J.; Bates, Imelda; Cuevas, Luis E.; de Haan, Rob J.; Phiri, Ajib I.; Malange, Pelani; Khoka, Mirriam; Hulshof, Paul J. M.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; teo, Yik Y.; Rockett, Kirk A.; Richardson, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <5.0 g per deciliter) and

  16. Severe anemia in Malawian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, Job Cj; Phiri, Kamija S.; Faragher, E. Brian; Brabin, Bernard J.; Bates, Imelda; Cuevas, Luis E.; de Haan, Rob J.; Phiri, Ajib I.; Malange, Pelani; Khoka, Mirriam; Hulshof, Paul Jm; van Lieshout, Lisette; Beld, Marcel Ghm; teo, Yik Y.; Rockett, Kirk A.; Richardson, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele

    2016-01-01

    Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. We conducted a case-control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <5.0 g per deciliter) and 757 preschool

  17. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  18. Severe Neutropenia in Infectious Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, William P.; Harlan, John M.; Steinberg, Stephen E.

    1979-01-01

    Mild neutropenia is a well-known concomitant of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occurring in the first weeks of illness. However, severe neutropenia (less than 200 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per μl) is not generally regarded as a complication of infectious mononucleosis. Three patients were seen with severe neutropenia and EBV infection, and an additional eight cases were found in the literature. In two of the latter cases the neutropenia was fatal. In the 11 cases the severe neutropenia began 14 to 40 days after illness and usually lasted for three to seven days. At the time of severe neutropenia, studies of marrow specimens showed increased proportions of promyelocytes and myelocytes. Our data suggest that EBV infection is the proximate cause of the severe neutropenia in some patients with infectious mononucleosis and that in such cases close observation and early treatment of suspected superinfections is necessary. PMID:229647

  19. Obscure Severe Infrarenal Aortoiliac Stenosis With Severe Transient Lactic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapat Nantsupawat MD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old man presented with sudden onset of leg pain, right-sided weakness, aphasia, confusion, drooling, and severe lactic acidosis (15 mmol/L. He had normal peripheral pulses and demonstrated no pain, pallor, poikilothermia, paresthesia, or paralysis. Empiric antibiotics, aspirin, full-dose enoxaparin, and intravenous fluid were initiated. Lactic acid level decreased to 2.5 mmol/L. The patient was subsequently extubated and was alert and oriented with no complaints of leg or abdominal pain. Unexpectedly, the patient developed cardiac arrest, rebound severe lactic acidosis (8.13 mmol/L, and signs of acute limb ischemia. Emergent computed tomography of the aorta confirmed infrarenal aortoiliac thrombosis. Transient leg pain and transient severe lactic acidosis can be unusual presentations of severe infrarenal aortoiliac stenosis. When in doubt, vascular studies should be implemented without delay to identify this catastrophic diagnosis.

  20. Sorghum Extrusion Increases Bioavailability of Catechins in Weanling Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catechins and procyanidins are beneficial for human health; however, their bioavailability is low. The effect of food processing on catechin bioavailability from sources containing predominantly procyanidins has not been studied. The sumac sorghum mixture (50% whole grain + 50% bran) used in this st...

  1. Stress and recognition of humans in weanling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Irgang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating whether after weaning, piglets recognize persons that have handled them aversively during the lactation period, and whether such treatment intensifies the stress of weaning. Before weaning, five litters received aversive handling treatment involving an aggressive and intimidating voice; six litters were treated conventionally. After weaning, the piglets’ behavior was compared in a series of tests. Compared to day 10 after weaning, in the first two days after weaning higher frequencies of escape attempts, vocalizations, and standing and sitting, accompanied by a lower frequency of feeding (p<0.05, were observed in both treatments. The piglets handled aversively showed a higher frequency of escape attempts, walking, and interaction with other piglets (p<0.05. In a test carried out individually with the piglets of the aversive treatment, an unknown experimenter was able to approach the piglets closer than the aversive experimenter (p<0.001. In a further test, only 36 % of the piglets handled aversively approached the aversive experimenter spontaneously. In contrast, 61 % approached the unknown experimenter spontaneously (p < 0.02. In conclusion, at four to five weeks of age piglets can recognize a person that has handled them aversively during the lactation period. The behavior of piglets at weaning indicates that this management is a significant source of stress and that aversive handling treatment during lactation increases this effect.

  2. Plasma Calcium and Phosphorus In Weanling Pigs as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THe hypercalcemia induced by the ingestion of 3% C. diurnum in the CCD and TCD pigs is attributed to increased intestinal absorption of calcium and not bore resorption. The initial hyperphosphatemic response in TCD pigs is also believed to be due to increase absorption of phosphorus from the high phosphorus diet.

  3. Nitrogen balance and morphometric traits of weanling pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) were harvested, processed and subsequently referred to as Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). Proximate composition and amino acid analyses revealed that TDLM is a relative rich protein source at 20.6% crude protein (CP) content. Lysine, leucine and isoleucine were ...

  4. Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Piersma AH; Jong WH de; Waal EJ de; LPI; LEO; LGM

    A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation.

  5. Carcass and Slaughter Traits of Weanling Pigs Fed Graded Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing pigs were used to assess the slaughter and carcass characteristics, organs and primal cut yields when fed diets supplemented with processed leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) referred to as Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). A 63-day feeding trial was conducted with commercially available male ...

  6. Efeitos de antimicrobianos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal e a freqüência de diarréia em leitões recém-desmamados Effects of antimicrobials and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiology and diarrhea incidence in weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lotufo Oetting

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos envolvendo 120 leitões (21 aos 56 dias de idade para avaliar os efeitos de antimicrobianos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal (experimento 1 e a freqüência de diarréia em leitões (experimentos 1, 2 e 3. Os animais foram distribuídos em pares (um macho castrado e uma fêmea em 20 baias (unidade experimental, em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, composto pelos tratamentos: controle - ração basal; antimicrobiano ração basal com bacitracina de zinco, olaquindox e colistina (50 ppm de cada; extrato vegetal A, B e C - ração basal com 700, 1.400 e 2.100 ppm de extrato vegetal, respectivamente. O extrato vegetal continha óleo essencial de cravo, tomilho, orégano, eugenol e carvacrol. Ao final do experimento 1, foi sacrificado um animal por unidade experimental e coletadas amostras do raspado do intestino delgado para a análise microbiológica. Não foram encontradas diferenças na análise microbiológica. A frequência de diarréia dos animais que receberam antimicrobianos foi inferior à observada nos tratamentos controle e com extratos vegetais no período de 1 a 35 dias de experimentação. Portanto, apesar de não terem sido detectadas diferenças na microbiota, os antimicrobianos foram efetivos no controle da diarréia.Two experiments with a total of 120 weanling pigs (21 to 56 d of age were conducted to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiota (experiment 1 and on fecal score (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Pigs were allotted in pairs (pens with a barrow and a female to a randomized complete block design 12 replications of five treatments. Treatments consisted of: control - basal diet; antimicrobial - basal diet plus Zn bacitracin, olaquindox, and colistin (50 ppm of each; herbal extract A, B and C - basal diet plus 700 ppm, 1,400 ppm and 2,100 ppm of herbal extract, respectively. The herbal extract consisted of a mixture of

  7. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  8. Severe Rosacea: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Ebrahim; Bagheri, Abbas; Abdizadeh, Mojtaba Fattahi; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of severe rosacea with ocular involvement. A 28-year-old female patient presented with extensive facial and ocular eruptions. She had a history of treatment with oral prednisolone due to the clinical diagnosis of lupus erythematosus (LE), which had resulted in transient improvement of the lesions, but was followed by exacerbation of the lesions. With the clinical diagnosis of severe oculofacial rosacea, she was successfully treated with oral doxycycline, steroid eye drops, and ocular lubricants. Histopathological features of skin biopsy were consistent with rosacea in the context of infection with Demodexfolliculorum. After four years, a relapse of the oculofacial lesions occurred, for which retreatment with oral tetracycline, steroid eye drops, and ocular lubricants was administered. Rosacea can be extremely severe and disfiguring, and it can be misdiagnosed as the pathognomonic butterfly rash of LE. Demodex carriage in rosacea is consistent and may play a significant role in the severe forms.

  9. Runway incursion severity risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    Runway incursions are defined as the unauthorized presence of a vehicle, pedestrian, or aircraft on a runway. Identifying situations or conditions in which runway incursions are more likely to be severe can suggest policy implications and areas for f...

  10. Severe obesity: the neglected epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kral, John G; Kava, Ruth A; Catalano, Patrick M; Moore, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    Severe obesity (SO) is increasing faster than obesity in adults and in children. Because it is associated with numerous comorbidities, SO accounts for more health care expenditures than any other medical condition...

  11. Severe ASR damaged concrete bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Barbosa, Ricardo; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and University of Southern Denmark (SDU) have conducted several full-scale experiments with severe ASR deteriorated bridges. This paper presents few and preliminary results from both the shear tests and the measuring of the material properties. The shear test...... show that the shear capacity is almost unaffected of ASR despite significant reduction in compressive concrete strength. Furthermore, measurements show a significant tensile reinforcement strain developed due to ASR expansion....

  12. The effectiveness of interventions to treat severe acute malnutrition in young children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, J; Hartwell, D; Harris, P; Mendes, D; Clegg, A J; Takeda, A

    2012-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a person's body fat and wasting of their skeletal muscle. Many of those affected are already undernourished and are often susceptible to disease. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable as they require extra nutrition for growth and development, have comparatively limited energy reserves and depend on others. Undernutrition can have drastic and wide-ranging consequences for the child's development and survival in the short and long term. Despite efforts made to treat SAM through different interventions and programmes, it continues to cause unacceptably high levels of mortality and morbidity. Uncertainty remains as to the most effective methods to treat severe acute malnutrition in young children. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to treat infants and children aged children with SAM who were human immunodeficiency virus sero-positive, and no good-quality or adequately reported studies assessed treatments for SAM among infants Children with acute diarrhoea benefited from the use of hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution (H-ORS) compared with the standard World Health Organization-oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS). WHO-ORS was not significantly different from rehydration solution for malnutrition (ReSoMal), but the safety of ReSoMal was uncertain. A rice-based ORS was more beneficial than glucose-based ORSs, and provision of zinc plus a WHO-ORS had a favourable impact on diarrhoea and need for ORS. Comparisons of different diets in children with persistent diarrhoea produced conflicting findings. For treating infection, comparison of amoxicillin with ceftriaxone during inpatient therapy, and routine provision of antibiotics for 7 days versus no antibiotics during outpatient therapy of uncomplicated SAM, found that neither had a significant effect on recovery at the end of follow-up. No evidence mapped to the next three

  13. Factors associated with severe malaria among children below ten years in Mutasa and Nyanga districts, Zimbabwe, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsigiri-Murewanhema, Faith; Mafaune, Patron Trish; Shambira, Gerald; Juru, Tsitsi; Bangure, Donewell; Mungati, More; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    having a mother as a caregiver [aOR=0.23, 95% CI=0.09, 0.76] were independently protective of severe malaria. Being undernourished [Odds Ratio (OR)=10.13, 95% CI=1.04, 98.49] and being female [OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.08, 0.96] were associated with mortality owing to severe malaria. Factors associated with severe malaria and mortality owing to severe malaria identified in this study are consistent with other studies. Caregiver healthcare seeking behaviours, patient related factors and health system related factors are important determinants of severe malaria among children. There is need for regular health education campaigns emphasizing on malaria prevention, signs and symptoms and benefits of seeking medical care immediately for sick children.

  14. Pancreatic dysfunction in severe obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, A; Greenhalgh, L; Newbury-Ecob, R; Crowne, E; Shield, J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate pancreatic function in children attending an obesity clinic.
METHODS—Thirty six children (of which 34 were white) with severe obesity of prepubertal onset (body mass index more than +2 SDS) were reviewed clinically and dysmorphologically, with assessment of pancreatic function.
RESULTS—Eight had dysmorphic features and 13 had learning difficulties. Four of 17 prepubertal children had hyperinsulinaemia and seven had hyperproinsulinaemia. All 19 pubertal children had hyperinsulinaemia, 14 had hyperproinsulinaemia, and one had type II diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS—Metabolic abnormalities predictive of type II diabetes occur in severely obese white children.

 PMID:11207179

  15. Bioimpedance in Severely Malnourished Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma Nigatu, Tsinuel

    Worldwide severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects millions of children and considerably contributes to under-five mortality, mainly in low-income settings. Among children with SAM, deaths occur largely in those with oedema and during early phase of treatment often aggravated by infection. Treatme...

  16. Severe anemia in Malawian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folate deficiency, sickle cell disease, and laboratory signs of an abnormal inflammatory response were uncommon. Iron deficiency was not prevalent in case patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.60) and was negatively associated with bacteremia. Malaria was associated with severe anemia in the urban site ...

  17. Several topics in complex variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on three articles in the field of Several Complex Variables. The first article, which is joint work with M. El Kadiri, defines and studies the concept of maximality for plurifinely plurisubharmonic functions. Its main result is that a finite plurifinely plurisubharmonic function

  18. Nigel: A Severe Auditory Dyslexic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, Gill

    1976-01-01

    Reported is the case study of a boy with severe auditory dyslexia who received remedial treatment from the age of four and progressed through courses at a technical college and a 3-year apprenticeship course in mechanics by the age of eighteen. (IM)

  19. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Global pattern of SARS epidemic · Slide 5 · SARS – clinical features ... SARS virus · SARS – Koch´Postulates proved. SARS – virus jumps species · How infectious is SARS virus · SARS – Global Distribution- 10th July 2003.

  20. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  1. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaans, Sarah C; Duhachek-Stapelman, Amy L; Russell, Robert T; Lisco, Steven J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children aged 1 to 21 years. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury. Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution, and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system after severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of trauma-induced coagulopathy that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma.

  2. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  3. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  6. Accidental hypothermia in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Severe isoniazid related sideroblastic anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Piso, Rein Jan; Kriz, Kveti; Desax, Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Isoniazid induced sideroblastic anemia is a rare event. We report case of a 45 year old Caucasian women with development of severe anaemia 4 month after introduction of Isoniazid as part of Tuberculosis treatment. While haemoglobin fell to 47 g/L and erythrocyte count to 1.5 G/L, reticulocytes were very low (reticulocyte production index of 0.48), but bone marrow aspirate showed an accelerated erythropoiesis with ringsideroblasts. Anaemia rapidly resolved after cessation of Isoniazid. We post...

  8. [Severe depression : concomitant somatic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottencin, O

    2009-12-01

    The association of somatic disease with a depressive disorder is not uncommon and affects 25% of general hospital inpatient populations. Although not well incorporated into management it is a source of mutual worsening of the two diseases. Several questions arise with this association. Firstly, it is essential to establish whether the depressive disorder is primary or secondary as these situations occasionally involve different (and even opposite) diagnostic and treatment approaches. It is then important to establish whether or not the disorder is adaptatory in nature : although an adaptatory problem does not have the same impact as depression on somatic outcome, it can progress to endogenous depression. Finally it is essential to identify the extent of suicidal risk, which is not only due to the depression but more to the feeling of despair (which is common in patients suffering from severe somatic illness). We will then examine the severity of these interlinked depressions in terms of the diagnostic difficulties (from confusion of symptoms to considering them to be unimportant). We shall then describe all of the consequences of the somatic disease on the prognosis of the depression and vice versa. Finally we will examine the question of severity from the perspective of the most widely studied associated diseases. Whilst the presence of an incapacitating somatic disease is a risk factor for depression in these vulnerable people, depression associated with the different major somatic diseases is a poor prognostic indicator. Somatic co-morbidities are still underestimated and are a factor responsible for chronic progression, deterioration and increased risk of suicide. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kyle J; Doshi, Mitesh R; Holzhausen, Jenna M; Natavio, Allycia; Cadiz, Megan; Winegardner, Jim E

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with alcohol dependence experience alcohol withdrawal. Severe alcohol withdrawal is characterized by seizures and/or delirium tremens, often refractory to standard doses of benzodiazepines, and requires aggressive treatment. This review aims to summarize the literature pertaining to the pharmacotherapy of severe alcohol withdrawal. PubMed (January 1960 to October 2015) was searched using the search termsalcohol withdrawal, delirium tremens, intensive care, andrefractory Supplemental references were generated through review of identified literature citations. Available English language articles assessing pharmacotherapy options for adult patients with severe alcohol withdrawal were included. A PubMed search yielded 739 articles for evaluation, of which 27 were included. The number of randomized controlled trials was limited, so many of these are retrospective analyses and case reports. Benzodiazepines remain the treatment of choice, with diazepam having the most favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Protocolized escalation of benzodiazepines as an alternative to a symptom-triggered approach may decrease the need for mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. Propofol is appropriate for patients refractory to benzodiazepines; however, the roles of phenobarbital, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine remain unclear. Severe alcohol withdrawal is not clearly defined, and limited data regarding management are available. Protocolized administration of benzodiazepines, in combination with phenobarbital, may reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and lead to shorter ICU stays. Propofol is a viable alternative for patients refractory to benzodiazepines; however, the role of other agents remains unclear. Randomized, prospective studies are needed to clearly define effective treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Pancreatic dysfunction in severe obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, A; Greenhalgh, L; Newbury-Ecob, R; Crowne, E; Shield, J.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate pancreatic function in children attending an obesity clinic.
METHODS—Thirty six children (of which 34 were white) with severe obesity of prepubertal onset (body mass index more than +2 SDS) were reviewed clinically and dysmorphologically, with assessment of pancreatic function.
RESULTS—Eight had dysmorphic features and 13 had learning difficulties. Four of 17 prepubertal children had hyperinsulinaemia and seven had hyperproinsulinaemia. All 19 pubertal...

  11. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  12. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  13. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praznik Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or other organ systems. The severe form of the disease occurs in 10-20% of cases, and usually requires prolonged hospitalization due to a frequent local and systemic complications. Additionally, considerable mortality despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, makes this disease a serious health problem nowadays. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of randomized controlled trials to determine differences in the efficiency between standard methods of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis and new treatment ways in terms of decreased mortality. Search of the 'Medline' database of original scientific papers and systematic review articles was made, using a combination of the following keywords: acute pancreatitis, treatment, mortality. In total 914 papers were found, published in the last 13 years; 14 of 64 randomized controlled clinical trials met the selection criteria and were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 16 papers, the conservative treatment was related to 11, which includes some of the new treatment methods, while the effects of new methods of treatment have been the subject of research in the four studies. Combined endoscopic and surgical treatment was applied in only one study. The largest sample of 290 patients was included in the study with platelet activation factor antagonist, while the smallest sample of 22 patients was used in the study that compared total parenteral with enteral nutrition. Continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitors in combination with antibiotics, intravenous supplementation of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide and the early, high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration showed the best results in the treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Also, the use of low molecular weight heparin and enteral nutrition significantly reduced mortality.

  14. Management of severe perioperative bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Afshari, Arash; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    and stabilisation of the macro- and microcirculations in order to optimise the patient's tolerance to bleeding. Third, targeted procoagulant interventions to reduce the amount of bleeding, morbidity, mortality and costs. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject......The aims of severe perioperative bleeding management are three-fold. First, preoperative identification by anamesis and laboratory testing of those patients for whom the perioperative bleeding risk may be increased. Second, implementation of strategies for correcting preoperative anaemia...

  15. [Myocarditis in severe typhoid fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, A N; Antukh, E A; Parkhomenko, Iu G; Makanin, M A

    2005-01-01

    The article explains the development of toxic infective myocarditis and, in many cases, pancarditis, in patients with severe typhoid fever (TF) with lethal outcome. The authors present the most frequently found symptoms and ECG signs, the main histological features and possibilities of clinical diagnostics of myocarditis. The latter is of special importance, because a significant number of patients do not have typical clinical presentation. The work is based on the data from 109 autopsy records and 42 case histories as well as the results of morphological study of the heart in archive samples received from 47 military men who died of TF.

  16. Severe isoniazid related sideroblastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Jan Piso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid induced sideroblastic anemia is a rare event. We report case of a 45 year old Caucasian women with development of severe anaemia 4 month after introduction of Isoniazid as part of Tuberculosis treatment. While haemoglobin fell to 47 g/L and erythrocyte count to 1.5 G/L, reticulocytes were very low (reticulocyte production index of 0.48, but bone marrow aspirate showed an accelerated erythropoiesis with ringsideroblasts. Anaemia rapidly resolved after cessation of Isoniazid. We postulate an Isoniazid induced inhibition of the δ-Amino-levulinat-synthase resulting in marked depletion of heam synthesis.

  17. Severe isoniazid related sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piso, Rein Jan; Kriz, Kveti; Desax, Marie-Claire

    2011-01-13

    Isoniazid induced sideroblastic anemia is a rare event. We report case of a 45 year old Caucasian women with development of severe anaemia 4 month after introduction of Isoniazid as part of Tuberculosis treatment. While haemoglobin fell to 47 g/L and erythrocyte count to 1.5 G/L, reticulocytes were very low (reticulocyte production index of 0.48), but bone marrow aspirate showed an accelerated erythropoiesis with ringsideroblasts. Anaemia rapidly resolved after cessation of Isoniazid. We postulate an Isoniazid induced inhibition of the δ-Amino-levulinat-synthase resulting in marked depletion of heam synthesis.

  18. SEVERAL MEASURES OF BUDGETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Dan Morar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Budget policy for the funding and sometimes care about the public sector, certain actions and utilities on the private sector within limits set by the strategies, tactics and operational deciyiile promoted executive. Phenomenon budget includes both revenues and expenditure side edge contained in the public budget. Often, perhaps excessive zeal in translating domain-specific phrases are even officially speak about "fiscal policy measures", with reference to all areas of the budget, containing and thus the budget expenditure. Budgetary policy has several specific policy budget subdomains like Cookie fiscal policy, budget expenditure allocation Polti, policy and public loans.

  19. Severe hyponatremia associated with escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI therapy with only limited cases of escitalopram as the causative drug. We report the case of a 54-year-old hypertensive female who was admitted to the hospital with seizure episode and subsequently diagnosed to have severe hyponatremia due to SSRI-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH with the cause attributed to the short history of intake of escitalopram for depression. All SSRIs, including escitalopram, can cause SIADH and should be used with caution in the depressive patients with regular monitoring of electrolytes, especially in the elderly.

  20. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  1. Prognosis of severe head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, A; Farina, M L; Vecchi, G; Rossanda, M; Marrubini, M B

    1982-12-01

    The authors have analyzed retrospectively a series of 288 consecutive patients with severe head injury observed between January, 1977, and May, 1980. Seventy-three patients were excluded as not being compatible with those of the International Data Bank. The remaining 215 patients complied with the definition of coma given by Jennett. All patients, after appropriate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, diagnostic measures, and, when required, surgical treatment, were managed in the Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit with endotracheal intubation, controlled hyperventilation, mild dehydration, dexamethasone in standard doses, and sedation. The mortality rate was 39.5%. Of the survivors, 59.2% made a good recovery, 18.4% remained moderately disabled, 6.1% were severely disabled, and 1.5% were in a persistent vegetative state. The most reliable predictive criteria were: absence of brain-stem reflexes, neurological status, abnormal motor patterns, arterial hypotension, and presence of mass lesions. It is concluded that no sign has an absolute prognostic value when considered independently of its time course.

  2. The vver severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

  3. Thalidomide-induced severe hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanje, A James; Shamp, Jennifer L; Thomas, Fred B; Meis, Greg M

    2006-07-01

    Thalidomide is a relatively safe and efficacious form of therapy in the treatment of advanced, refractory multiple myeloma. Hepatotoxicity is listed as an extremely rare adverse effect associated with its use. We describe a 76-year-old woman with multiple myeloma who was treated with dexamethasone and thalidomide. By week 6 of therapy, she had developed acute increases in her aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to more than 50 times the upper limit of normal. Her liver function test results had been within the normal ranges before and immediately after the start of therapy, and the patient had no known history of underlying liver disease. A liver biopsy specimen demonstrated evidence of acute injury with chronic changes of underlying steatosis and bridging fibrosis due to previously undiagnosed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Immediately after discontinuing thalidomide, her liver function test results began trending downward. Seven days later, her AST and ALT levels had improved to 86 and 165 U/L, respectively. This case and a limited number of other reports demonstrate severe hepatotoxicity as a rare but potentially serious adverse effect of thalidomide therapy. With the expanding use of thalidomide as a therapeutic agent, clinicians must recognize severe hepatotoxicity as a potential complication. Whether patients with preexisting liver disease are at increased risk when receiving thalidomide remains to be seen.

  4. Lectures on several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gauthier, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides a concise, accessible snapshot of key topics in several complex variables, including the Cauchy Integral Formula, sequences of holomorphic functions, plurisubharmonic functions, the Dirichlet problem, and meromorphic functions.  Based on a course given at Université de Montréal, this brief introduction covers areas of contemporary importance that are not mentioned in most treatments of the subject, such as modular forms, which are essential for Wiles' theorem and the unification of quantum theory and general relativity.   Also covered is the Riemann manifold of a function, which generalizes the Riemann surface of a function of a single complex variable and is a topic that is well-known in one complex variable, but rarely treated in several variables.  Many details, which are intentionally left out, as well as many theorems are stated as problems, providing students with carefully structured instructive exercises.   Prerequisites for use of this book are functions of one complex ...

  5. Lethal triad in severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherren, P B; Hussey, J; Martin, R; Kundishora, T; Parker, M; Emerson, B

    2014-12-01

    Hypothermia, acidaemia and coagulopathy in trauma is associated with significant mortality. This study aimed to identify the incidence of the lethal triad in major burns, and describe demographics and outcomes. Patients admitted during a 71 month period with a total body surface area burn (TBSA)≥30% were identified. A structured review of a prospective database was conducted. The lethal triad was defined as a combination of coagulopathy (International normalised ratio>1.2), hypothermia (temperature≤35.5°C) and acidaemia (pH≤7.25). Fifteen of 117 patients fulfilled the criteria for the lethal triad on admission. Lethal triad patients had a higher median (IQR) abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) (12 (9-13) vs. 8.5 (6-10), p=0.001), mean (SD) TBSA burn (59.2% (18.7) vs. 47.9% (18.1), p=0.027), mean (SD) age (46 (22.6) vs. 33 (28.3) years, p=0.033), and had a higher incidence of inhalational injury (p0.05). The lethal triad was associated with increased mortality (66.7% vs. 13.7%, plethal triad was not shown to be a predictor of mortality (p>0.05). Burn patients with the lethal triad have a high mortality rate which reflects the severity of the injury sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe anemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Macić Džanković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia refers to a hemoglobin or hematocrit level lower than the age-adjusted reference range in healthy children and adults. Anemia is not a specifi c disease entity but is a condition caused by various underlying pathologic processes. The clinical effects of anemia depend on its duration and severity. When a precipitous drop in the hemoglobin or hematocrit level occurs (eg, due to massive bleeding, the clinical presentation is typically dramatic and can be fatal if the patient is not immediately treated. Even then, mortality risk is very high. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman with clinical symptoms and laboratory confirmation of severe anemia with level of hemoglobin 24 g/l, and hematocrit 0.08. Anemia was a sign of malignoma of the stomach, later patohistologicaly verifi ed gastric adenocarcinoma. Aim of management is to prevent tissue hypoxia by maintaining an adequate circulating volume and oxiform capacity. However, as shown in this case, the very rapid correction of anemia and the circulatory volume does not decrease the risk of fatal outcome

  7. Common paths to ASD severity and PTSD severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz

    Numerous studies have identified risk factors for acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. However, little is known about possible common pathways to the development of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests that a c......Numerous studies have identified risk factors for acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. However, little is known about possible common pathways to the development of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests...... that a common pathway to ASD and PTSD may lie in peritraumatic responses and cognitions. Using structural equation modeling we examined the role of three peritraumatic factors (tonic immobility, panic and dissociation) and three cognitive factors (anxiety sensitivity, negative cognitions about the world......, and negative cognitions about self ) on the development of ASD and PTSD severity in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims (N = 450). Peritraumatic panic, anxiety sensitivity, and negative cognitions about self were found to be significant common risk factors, whereas peritraumatic dissociation...

  8. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies...... three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...

  9. Severe mitral regurgitation after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarín, Alberto; Cianciulli, Tomás F; Saccheri, María C; Lax, Jorge A; Simonetti, Mario E; Zappi, Andrea; Laguens, Rubén P

    2014-02-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old patient with a history of gynecological neoplasia and a pulmonary metastasis, who in 1996 underwent chemotherapy and mediastinal radiotherapy followed by cancer remission. Ten years later she presented with heart failure and her Doppler echocardiogram showed severe mitral regurgitation with pulmonary hypertension. In 2011, she underwent a mitral valve replacement with a biological prosthesis and the pathology exam revealed valve damage consistent with radiotherapy-induced changes. This unusual mechanism of mitral regurgitation can be demonstrated clearly by echocardiography and should be disseminated among cardiology physicians and in patients who have survived for long periods after radiotherapy, it is important to remember that cardiac complications may indeed occur, and the treating physician is responsible for detecting them. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Severe Urticaria Following Erythromycin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anada S. Prasad

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Enythromycin is believed to cause no serlous reactions after large doses, nausea, rarely vomiting and occasionally abdominal pain and diarrhea may occur, (Herrell, 1954. According to' Kagan and Faller (1955 no allergic reaction to' erythromycin has been reported. Phlebitis and thrombosis have been observed, (Shoe maker & Yow, 1954. In a report by Solomon and Johnson, (1955 toxic reactions were recorded as being uncommon. In a large series of cases, only one patient had a rash, another had fever possibly due to the drug, nne had nausea and vomiting and 4 had loose bowel movements while under therapy. Among the 122 patients treated with erythromcin, therapy was stopped owing to side effects in only one. My patient had severe urticaria within 24 hours of beginning therapy with erythromycin and a positive skin test was observed. It was believed to be an allergic reaction caused by the drug.

  11. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  12. Bioimpedance in Severely Malnourished Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma Nigatu, Tsinuel

    Worldwide severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects millions of children and considerably contributes to under-five mortality, mainly in low-income settings. Among children with SAM, deaths occur largely in those with oedema and during early phase of treatment often aggravated by infection. Treatment...... outcome could be improved by enhancing monitoring of body hydration (the proportion of water in tissues) during treatment. We studied 351children between 0.5 and 14 years admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital with SAM. We recorded weight, height and grade of oedema. Further we measured...... bioimpedance which is the resistance of the body to an imperceptible current of electricity and in healthy individuals this method is used to estimate total body water. Finally we estimated amount of total body water (TBW) using deuterium dilution method on a subset of 35 children. There were two important...

  13. Intravenous labetalol in severe hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Palu, C.; Pessina, A. C.; Semplicini, A.; Hlede, M.; Morandin, F.; Palatini, P.; Sperti, G.; Rossi, G. P.

    1982-01-01

    1 Labetalol was administered by intravenous infusion or by the combination of intravenous bolus injection plus infusion to 15 patients with severe essential hypertension and to one with phaeochromocytoma. 2 With the infusion alone the reduction of arterial pressure was slow to develop and limited in degree, but with the combination of the bolus injection plus the infusion the reduction in pressure was more prompt, more pronounced and longer lasting. Apart from an uncomplicated syncopal attack in one patient, no serious side — effects were encountered. 3 Subsequent treatment with oral labetalol usually required the addition of a diuretic to control the blood pressure probably due to sodium and fluid retention during treatment with labetalol alone. PMID:7093106

  14. PTSD after severe vehicular crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; Read, Kathleen M; Kufera, Joseph A

    2009-10-01

    To describe predictors of PTSD after motor vehicle crashes (MVC). MVC patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months post-injury. Interviews included information about behavioral factors, circumstances around the crash, recovery and PTSD screening. PTSD was defined as the development of 3 or more of 7 PTSD symptoms. Association of risk factors with PTSD development at 6 and 12 months was analyzed using contingency tables. Multiple regression models were built for the prediction of PTSD. 367 and 317 patients completed the 6 and 12 month interviews respectively. PTSD developed in 27.5 % (n=101) and 24.3 % (n=77) of the population at 6 and 12 months respectively. PTSD occurred more frequently among females, those with a previous history of depression, violent injury, or other traumatic events, and those whose crashes involved a fatality. Those who were culpable for the crash, agedevelop PTSD at 6 months. Occupant position, education, marital status, alcohol problems, injury severity, heart rate, and blood alcohol + status did not show any significant association with PTSD. In the multiple logistic regression, female gender, history of depression, culpability, prior violent injury, and a fatality in the crash were associated with PTSD at 6 months. Only prior violent injury, and a death in same crash were predictors at one year. PTSD occurs frequently after MVCs. Female gender, prior violent injury, death of another occupant and history of depression are associated with PTSD development.

  15. Guidelines for severe uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Serrano, Carolina; Melero Moreno, Carlos; Almonacid Sánchez, Carlos; Perpiñá Tordera, Miguel; Picado Valles, César; Martínez Moragón, Eva; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Soto Campos, José Gregorio; Urrutia Landa, Isabel; García Hernández, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication, 9 years ago, of the latest SEPAR (Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery) Guidelines on Difficult-to-Control Asthma (DCA), much progress has been made in the understanding of asthmatic disease. These new data need to be reviewed, analyzed and incorporated into the guidelines according to their level of evidence and recommendation. Recently, consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) addressing this issue have been published. In these guidelines, specific mention will be made of what the previous DCA guidelines defined as "true difficult-to-control asthma". This is asthma that remains uncontrolled after diagnosis and a systematic evaluation to rule out factors unrelated to the disease itself that lead to poor control ("false difficult-to-control asthma"), and despite an appropriate treatment strategy (Spanish Guidelines for the Management of Asthma [GEMA] steps 5 and 6): severe uncontrolled asthma. In this respect, the guidelines propose a revised definition, an attempt to classify the various manifestations of this type of asthma, a proposal for a stepwise diagnostic procedure, and phenotype-targeted treatment. A specific section has also been included on DCA in childhood, aimed at assisting healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  17. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  18. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of disease severity, activity, control and responsiveness to treatment are linked but different. Severity refers to the loss of function of the organs induced by the disease process or to the occurrence of severe acute exacerbations. Severity may vary over time and needs regular follow-u...

  19. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  20. Insights into disease severity in adult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated and associated several new insights into disease severity in adult asthma. First we identified several clusters of adult-onset asthma and in addition to this we showed that severe disease is mostly associated with persistent eosinophilia and ENT disease. Also we showed

  1. Impact of a probiotic fermented milk in the gut ecosystem and in the systemic immunity using a non-severe protein-energy-malnutrition model in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmuega Esteban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition affects the immune response, causing a decrease of defence mechanisms and making the host more susceptible to infections. Probiotics can reconstitute the intestinal mucosa and stimulate local and systemic immunity. The aim of this work was evaluate the effects of a probiotic fermented milk as a complement of a re-nutrition diet, on the recovery of the intestinal barrier, and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a murine model of non-severe protein-energy-malnutrition. Its potential protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection was also analyzed. Methods Mice were undernourished and divided into 3 groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition (milk, probiotic fermented milk or its bacterial free supernatant and compared to well-nourished and malnourished mice. They were sacrificed previous to the re-nutrition and 5 days post re-nutrition. The phagocytic activity of macrophages from spleen and peritoneum and the changes in the intestinal histology and microbiota were evaluated. Different immune cell populations and cytokine productions were analyzed in the small intestine tissues. The effect of the re-nutrition supplements on the systemic immunity using OVA antigen and against an infection with S. Typhimurium was also studied. Results Probiotic fermented milk was the most effective re-nutrition diet that improved the intestinal microbiota. Its administration also increased the number of IgA+ cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The production of different cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12 by these cells and the phagocytic activity in peritoneum and spleen was also increased. This re-nutrition diet also stimulated the systemic immune response against OVA antigen which was diminished after the malnutrition period and also improved the host response against S. Typhimurium, decreasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria to the liver and the spleen. The

  2. Clinical severity and prognosis of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, M; Agner, T; Blands, J

    2009-01-01

    to identify factors associated with severe disease and a poor prognosis. METHODS: Study participants were 799 patients with HE from nine dermatological clinics in Denmark. Severity assessment of the HE was done at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI...

  3. 16 CFR 310.9 - Severability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability. 310.9 Section 310.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE § 310.9 Severability. The provisions of this Rule are separate and severable from one another. If any...

  4. Severe Disabilities. ERIC Digest #311. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines the term "severe disabilities"; lists some typical behavioral characteristics of individuals with severe disabilities, such as self-mutilation and lack of self-care skills; and outlines the educational implications of severe disabilities. The digest stresses the need for a multidisciplinary approach to education; the…

  5. Surviving severe traumatic brain injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from...... severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark...

  6. Reporting Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe potential factors influencing reporting of severe hypoglycemia in adult patients with type 1 diabetes and to analyze their effect on reported rates of severe hypoglycemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Reported rates of severe hypoglycemia defined as need for third party...... by partners report higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. There is a large variation between studies reporting incidence and prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes, mainly explained by definition of severity, methods of reporting, and patient selection. These findings call...... hypoglycemia are 0.02-0.5 events per patient-year and 1-29%, respectively. When subjects with recurrent severe hypoglycemia in the past or suffering from impaired hypoglycemia awareness are excluded from participation in studies, lower rates are reported. Studies applying anonymous reporting or reporting...

  7. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward characterization and definition of fibromyalgia severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Yating

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no standard criteria for defining or assessing severity of fibromyalgia (FM as a condition as fibromyalgia is associated with multiple symptom domains. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether patient self-reported severity of FM is associated with severity of pain and sleep interference and the presence of core co-morbidities. Methods We recruited individuals ≥ 18 years of age with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of FM ≥ 3 months and a current pain rating >2 on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS. Patients completed a questionnaire by mail in which they self-rated their FM severity (very mild, mild, moderate, and severe, their current pain severity and extent of sleep interference (NRS; mild, 0-3; moderate, 4-6, severe, 7-10, and provided information (yes/no on the presence of core comorbidities (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep problems, back pain, neck pain and medication use for FM. The core symptoms of FM were stratified to assist with patient characterization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to explore the relationship between self-reported FM severity and continuous variables (pain severity and sleep interference, and Mantel-Haenszel chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the trend in the proportions of patients reporting use of medications and core symptoms of FM by severity of FM. To complement patient-reported FM severity and to understand physicians' perspectives, a survey was performed among 28 physician specialists (rheumatology, neurology, anesthesiology/pain management, family practice, internal medicine, and psychiatry to determine what they assessed when evaluating FM severity in clinical practice. Results The population (N = 129 of FM patients was predominantly female (89.1%, with a mean age of 49.4 ± 11.0 years, and 81.4% reported duration ≥ 2 years. Self-reported FM severity was moderate/severe in 86.0% of patients; mean current pain score was 6.40 ± 2.19 (moderate

  9. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  10. Characteristics of undernourished older medical patients and the identification of predictors for undernutrition status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisinger Miruna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups. Methods The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF. Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers. Results Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education Conclusion Our study indicates that low food consumption as well as poor appetite and chewing problems are associated with the development of malnutrition. Given the critical importance of nutritional status in the hospitalized elderly, further intervention trials are required to determine the best intervention strategies to overcome these problems.

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: The Reference Therapy for Undernourished Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Samaras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD combines the deleterious effects of chronic hypoxia, chronic inflammation, insulin-resistance, increased energy expenditure, muscle wasting, and exercise deconditioning. As for other chronic disorders, loss of fat-free mass decreased survival. The preservation of muscle mass and function, through the protection of the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, is an important challenge in the management of COPD patients. As the prevalence of the disease is increasing and the medical advances make COPD patients live longer, the prevalence of COPD-associated nutritional disorders is expected to increase in future decades. Androgenopenia is observed in 40% of COPD patients. Due to the stimulating effects of androgens on muscle anabolism, androgenopenia favors loss of muscle mass. Studies have shown that androgen substitution could improve muscle mass in COPD patients, but alone, was insufficient to improve lung function. Two multicentric randomized clinical trials have shown that the association of androgen therapy with physical exercise and oral nutritional supplements containing omega-3 polyinsaturated fatty acids, during at least three months, is associated with an improved clinical outcome and survival. These approaches are optimized in the field of pulmonary rehabilitation which is the reference therapy of COPD-associated undernutrition.

  12. Beneficial effect of cyproheptadine on body mass index in undernourished children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Fallahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-12-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH) is a first-generation antihistamine which is used as an appetite stimulant. This study was designed to identify the role of CH therapy on weight gain, linear growth and body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled. The present randomized, double-blinded controlled trial included 77 evaluable patients, aged 24-64 months with undernutrition. The patients were randomized to receive cyproheptadine with multivitamin, or multivitamin over a period of four weeks. The weight, height and body mass index were measured at the baseline, four weeks after intervention and four weeks after discontinuation. A significant higher body mass index was observed among CH-treated patients after 8 weeks intervention with cyproheptadine compared with the control group (P<0.041). Mean weight gain after eight weeks was 0.11 kg in the control group and 0.60 kg in the CH group. There were no significant differences in changes of weight and height velocity across the study between CH-treated and control group at the end of study. In our study, cyproheptadine promotes increase in body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition after four weeks treatment.

  13. Evaluation of the impact of a nutritional program for undernourished children in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Coitinho, Denise C; Haisma, Hinke; Valle, Neiva C J; Valente, Gicele

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness on child growth and body composition of a supplementary feeding program (Milk Supplement Program), a prospective, controlled study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. When entering the Program, children from 10 municipalities with the highest coverage rates in the Program

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Several Fullerene Polyadducts

    OpenAIRE

    Knutson, Nicholas Scott

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of several types of fullerene polyadducts including: 6,9,12,15,18-pentakisorgano-1-hydro[60]fullerenes, 6,9,12,15-tetrakisorgano[60]fullerenes, and 1,4-bisbenzyl[60]fullerenes as well as the performance of several in photovoltaic devices. Several of these projects are collaborations with material scientists and some are original research projects.

  15. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Gupta; Seema Ahmed; Lemuel Shaffer; Paula Cavens; Josef Blankstein

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term an...

  16. Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Khavjou, Olga A; Thompson, Hope; Trogdon, Justin G; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Dietz, William

    2012-01-01

    .... However, evidence suggests that obesity prevalence may be leveling off. This study presents estimates of adult obesity and severe obesity prevalence through 2030 based on nonlinear regression models...

  17. Preserved Visual Language Identification Despite Severe Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marie; Ptak, Radek; Schnider, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Patients with letter-by-letter alexia may have residual access to lexical or semantic representations of words despite severely impaired overt word recognition (reading). Here, we report a multilingual patient with severe letter-by-letter alexia who rapidly identified the language of written words and sentences in French and English while he had…

  18. Tarsorrhaphy as Treatment for Severe Conjunctival Oedema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oedema of the conjunctiva which may follow trauma, severe conjunctivitis, parasitic infestation or thyrotrophic exophthalmos presents a problem to the ophthalmologist because of protracted period of regression. In the past, using only drugs, it took over a period of 3 months for cases of severe conjunctival ...

  19. 6 CFR 27.125 - Severability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability. 27.125 Section 27.125 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS General § 27.125 Severability. If a court finds any portion of this Part to have been promulgated...

  20. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  1. Personality dimensions and service failure severity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    as severe. The contention of this research is that consumers' personality dimensions affect perceived service failure severity. Personality. 1Personality relates to emotion and cognition (Jani & Han 2015: 50) and therefore impacts on consumers' behaviour towards and interaction with service providers (De. Oliveira et al.

  2. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  3. The hand eczema severity index (HECSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Skoet, R; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for a standardized clinical grading system for a more objective and accurate assessment of the severity of hand eczema (HE). OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a scoring system called the hand eczema severity index (HECSI) designed for clinical assessment of HE. METHODS...

  4. Severe hypothyroidism masquerading as renal impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Kvetny, J

    1996-01-01

    A case of severe hypothyroidism in a 51-year old male is presented. The patient was especially complaining of weakness, stiffness and moderate pain in the proximal muscle groups together with rhinorrhea and nasal stenosis. Because of severely elevated S-creatine-kinase combined with reduced...

  5. Nutrition of Children with Severely Handicapping Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    Nutritional needs of severely handicapped children are examined as they are affected by specific handicapping conditions, medications commonly used with severely handicapped children, special diets, and behavior influences. The potential for interaction among these factors is discussed, and six guidelines are provided to help ensure improved…

  6. Premenstrual Syndrome: Prevalence, Pattern and Severity Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a statistically significant association between severity of symptoms and treatment between the age of respondents and use of oral contraceptive pills with severity of symptoms. Conclusion: PMS is a very common but poorly understood condition in our environment. More local studies are advocated on this subject ...

  7. Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2018-01-01

    In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,

  8. Prevalence of exchange blood transfusion in severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exchange blood transfusion (EBT) is carried out for the treatment of conditions presenting with severe hyperbilirubinaemia and anaemia, such as ABO incompatibility, sepsis, prematurity and birth trauma among others. While it is fast being abandoned as treatment modality for severe neonatal jaundice in the ...

  9. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance...... d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky index... this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the ongoing importance of conventional infectious diseases among severe morbid events occurring in patients on ART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity...

  10. Hand eczema severity and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E; Brandao, Francisco M

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hand eczema is a chronic disease with negative impact on quality of life (QoL). In this study, QoL in hand eczema patients is assessed and related to age, sex, severity, and diagnostic subgroups. Methods: A total of 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch...... test clinics participated in the study. Data on QoL were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Severity was assessed by a scoring system (Hand Eczema Severity Index, HECSI) as well as frequency of eruptions and sick leave due to hand eczema...... was found for hand eczema severity and age (P eczema severity...

  11. Oxidative stress in children with severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaria, Nidhi; Mohanty, C; Das, B K; Mishra, S P; Prasad, Rajniti

    2012-04-01

    Fifty cases of severe malaria were studied for their oxidant and antioxidant status. Severe anemia (54%) was the most common presentation followed by hyperpyrexia, cerebral malaria and jaundice. Plasma malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, nitrite, ascorbic acid and copper levels were significantly raised in cases as compared with controls (p children with severe malaria (p < 0.001). Plasma zinc was increased in cases but difference is not statistically significant. Significantly decreased level of nitrites and increased value of glutathione was found in patients with hemoglobinuria and jaundice, respectively. The significantly elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels reflect the increased oxidative stress, whereas decreased levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase point toward utilization of the antioxidants in severe malaria. Thus, changes in oxidants and antioxidants observed suggest the production of reactive oxygen species and their possible role in pathogenesis of severe malaria.

  12. Severe hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Natasha; Ahmed, Seema; Shaffer, Lemuel; Cavens, Paula; Blankstein, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term and was successfully treated with postpartum therapeutic plasma exchange. Patient also developed several other complications related to her substantial hypertriglyceridemia including preeclampsia, chylous ascites, retinal detachment, pleural effusion, and chronic pericarditis. This patient had no previous family or personal history of lipid abnormality and had four successful prior pregnancies without developing gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Such a severe hypertriglyceridemia is usually seen in patients with familial chylomicronemia syndromes where hypertriglyceridemia is exacerbated by the pregnancy, leading to fatal complications such as acute pancreatitis.

  13. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term and was successfully treated with postpartum therapeutic plasma exchange. Patient also developed several other complications related to her substantial hypertriglyceridemia including preeclampsia, chylous ascites, retinal detachment, pleural effusion, and chronic pericarditis. This patient had no previous family or personal history of lipid abnormality and had four successful prior pregnancies without developing gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Such a severe hypertriglyceridemia is usually seen in patients with familial chylomicronemia syndromes where hypertriglyceridemia is exacerbated by the pregnancy, leading to fatal complications such as acute pancreatitis.

  14. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Associated with Severity of Alopecia Areata

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hye Rin

    2017-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata is the most common cause of localized, nonscarring alopecia. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding clinical features and epidemiology of alopecia areata in Korean patients, and its clinical course and treatment response rates are unpredictable. Objective This study strived to investigate the differences in clinical profiles according to disease severity and to determine risk factors for severe alopecia areata. Methods A total of 1,137 patients from 2006 to 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were subdivided into two groups: mild-to-moderate and severe alopecia areata. The groups were compared on the basis of age of onset, duration, sex, family history, comorbid disorders including autoimmune diseases, nail changes, and laboratory test results. Results Eight hundred eighty-three patients were in the mild-to-moderate alopecia areata group and 254 patients were in the severe group. Average onset age was 30.77±17.66 years and 30.60±16.75 years in the mild-to-moderate and severe groups, respectively. Disease duration was statistically longer in the severe group. Male sex, nail changes, and thyroid diseases were more common in the severe group. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atopic dermatitis, and family history did not differ between groups. Of the serologic values, only alkaline phosphatase was considerably differing between groups. Male sex, presence of nail changes, and disease duration greater than one year were identified as significant risk factors for severe alopecia areata. Conclusion This is the largest case analysis in Korean patients with alopecia areata. Clinical profiles stratified by disease severity warrant further study. PMID:28966512

  16. Function theory of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2001-01-01

    The theory of several complex variables can be studied from several different perspectives. In this book, Steven Krantz approaches the subject from the point of view of a classical analyst, emphasizing its function-theoretic aspects. He has taken particular care to write the book with the student in mind, with uniformly extensive and helpful explanations, numerous examples, and plentiful exercises of varying difficulty. In the spirit of a student-oriented text, Krantz begins with an introduction to the subject, including an insightful comparison of analysis of several complex variables with th

  17. Restorative management of severely ankylosed primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Pontes, Alessandra Silva; Brito, Maria Hellen Sâmia Fortes; de Deus Moura, Lucia; de Deus Moura de Lima, Marina; de Melo Simplício, Alexandre Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Severe dentoalveolar ankylosis is an etiological factor for malocclusion. When infraocclusion occurs early, it progresses with time, leading to severe consequences in young children because of compensatory supra-eruption of the antagonist tooth and mesialization of adjacent teeth. Early diagnosis allows for interception of the problem and may prevent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of infraocclusion of primary mandibular second molars that were diagnosed early and were treated with composite resin crowns. The use of indirect composite restorations for ankylosed teeth is a good option for primary teeth with a moderate/ severe degree of ankylosis.

  18. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women

  19. severe organophosphate poisoning with delayed cholinergic crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE REPORT. SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING WITH DELAYED. CHOLINERGIC CRISIS, INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME AND. ORGANOPHOSPHATE. INDUCED. DELAYED. POLYNEUROPATHY ON SUCCESSION. Aklilu Azazh. ABSTRACT. Organophosphate compounds are the organic ...

  20. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.

  1. Thromboelastography in patients with severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the association between consecutively measured thromboelastographic (TEG) tracings and outcome in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: Multicentre prospective observational study in a subgroup of the Scandinavian Starch for Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock (6S) Trial (NCT00962156......) comparing hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.42 vs. Ringer's acetate for fluid resuscitation in severe sepsis. TEG (standard and functional fibrinogen) was measured consecutively for 5 days, and clinical data including bleeding and death was retrieved from the trial database. Statistical analyses included Cox...... bleeding [HR 2.43 (1.16-5.07)] and possibly explained the excess bleeding with HES in the 6S trial. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of patients with severe sepsis, progressive hypocoagulability defined by TEG variables was associated with increased risk of death and increased risk of bleeding....

  2. Learning about Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding ...

  3. Posterior Urethral Valves with Severe Unilateral Vesicoureteral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-10

    Aug 10, 2004 ... urinary catheter drainage, with no pedal oedema. There ... In patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV), severe unilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one ... evaluation of urinary tract infection (UTI), voiding dysfunction, or ...

  4. Selected Geomagnetic Measurements From Several Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — More than 17 million selected magnetic observations from several orbiting low-altitude satellites are contained in this digital collection. Except for MAGSAT, all...

  5. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  6. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Han Y; Warman, Roberto; Suh, Edward H; Cheng, Anny Ms

    2016-01-01

    To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG). Observational case report. A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation. Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months. Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides.

  7. Severe hyponatraemia during sepsis and marijuana addiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catalano, Concetta; Seck, Sidy; Enia, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .... He was a long-term user of marijuana. The association between severe recurrent hyponatraemia during sepsis and marijuana addiction might not be casual, since experimental data show that vasopressin release induced by sepsis is modulated...

  8. Severe shoulder tendinopathy associated with levofloxacin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eyer-Silva, Walter de Araujo; Netto, Henrique de Barros Pinto; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Neves-Motta, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    .... The case of a 63-year-old previously asymptomatic female patient who developed severe left shoulder tendinopathy after surreptitiously doubling the prescribed dose of levofloxacin for the treatment...

  9. Phenotype-Driven Therapeutics in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opina, Maria Theresa D; Moore, Wendy C

    2017-02-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of asthma treatment using a step-up approach with incremental dosing and additional controller medications in order to achieve symptom control and prevent exacerbations. While most patients respond well to this treatment approach, some patients remain refractory despite high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting β-agonist. The problem lies in the heterogeneity of severe asthma, which is further supported by the emergence of severe asthma phenotypes. This heterogeneity contributes to the variability in treatment response. Randomized controlled trials involving add-on therapies in poorly controlled asthma have challenged the idea of a "one size fits all" approach targeting specific phenotypes in their subject selection. This review discusses severe asthma phenotypes from unbiased clustering approaches and the most recent scientific evidence on novel treatments to provide a guide in personalizing severe asthma treatment.

  10. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Levy, Michael B; Shaw, Jeffrey L; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  11. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  12. Severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Jenni; Schultz, David M.

    This study summarizes the current severe thunderstorm warning and forecast operations in different European National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMSs), and, in doing so, suggests ways for countries developing their own warning service to learn from experiences in other countries, as well as from the warning operations in the United States of America, the longest-lived severe thunderstorm warning operations in the world. This study is based on a questionnaire sent to 39 European NHMSs of which thirty-three (85%) responded. Currently, many European NHMSs are actively developing their severe thunderstorm forecast process and warning services with 26 (79%) of respondent countries issuing severe thunderstorm warnings and 8 (24%) issuing tornado warnings. Both warning criteria and methodologies used in the warning process vary from country to country. Lead-times range from 30 min to 96 h, indicating a range of different warning philosophies for each country. Major challenges toward improving the warning operations include obtaining observations of severe weather for real-time forecasting and post-event verification, educating forecasters, and having access to state-of-the-art forecaster workstations. An additional challenge is in communicating anticipated or ongoing severe thunderstorms, both internationally between NHMSs and nationally with media and emergency authorities.

  13. [Obesity and the severity of asthma crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussoffara, L; Boudawara, N; Touil, I; El Fahem, N; Sakka, M; Knani, J

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammatory processes, which could influence the airway inflammation that is found in patients with asthma. Obesity may thus have a role in the development of asthma. However, the role of obesity in the severity of acute asthma has not been well described. We performed a retrospective study, which included 77 patients hospitalized for acute asthma. Two groups of patients were formed according to their body mass index (BMI): group 1 consisting of 59 patients with a BMI inferior to 30 kg/m(2) and group 2 consisting of 18 patients with a BMI superior or equal to 30 kg/m(2). These two groups were compared according to demographic factors, clinical features and the spirometric severity of asthma. The mean age was 43 ± 17.4 years with a sex-ratio 0.57 (28 men/49 women). Thirty-one percent of these patients had a severe asthma attack requiring hospitalization in intensive care in four patients with the use of mechanical ventilation in two patients. The comparison between obese and non-obese patients did not show a significant difference in the severity of asthma. Although a contribution of obesity to the manifestation and severity of asthma is commonly recognized, the present data to not confirm the impact of obesity on the severity of acute attacks. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants' and interviewers' vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery.

  15. Personality pathology recorded by severity: national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Coid, Jeremy; Tyrer, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Current classifications of personality disorders do not classify severity despite clinical practice favouring such descriptions. To assess whether an existing measure of severity of personality disorder predicted clinical pathology and societal dysfunction in a community sample. UK national epidemiological study in which personality status was measured using the screening version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and reclassified to five levels using a modified severity index. Associations between levels of severity of personality pathology and social, demographic and clinical variables were measured. Of 8391 individuals interviewed and their personality status assessed, only a minority (n = 1933, 23%) had no personality pathology. The results supported the hypothesis. More severe personality pathology was associated incrementally with younger age, childhood institutional care, expulsion from school, contacts with the criminal justice system, economic inactivity, more Axis I pathology and greater service contact (primary care and secondary care, all Phandicap was noted among people with even low levels of personality pathology. No differences contradicted the main hypothesis. A simple reconstruction of the existing classification of personality disorder is a good predictor of social dysfunction and supports the development of severity measures as a critical requirement in both DSM-V and ICD-11 classifications.

  16. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  17. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  18. Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Charles A; Payne, S Houston; Seiler, John G

    2016-11-01

    This article reports a series of severe permanent brachial plexus injuries in American football players. The authors describe the mechanisms of injury and outcomes from a more contemporary treatment approach in the form of nerve transfer tailored to the specific injuries sustained. Three cases of nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury in American football players are discussed in detail. Two of these patients regained functional use of the extremity, but 1 patient with a particularly severe injury did not regain significant function. Brachial plexus injuries are found along a spectrum of brachial plexus stretch or contusion that includes the injuries known as "stingers." Early identification of these severe brachial plexus injuries allows for optimal outcomes with timely treatment. Diagnosis of the place of a given injury along this spectrum is difficult and requires a combination of imaging studies, nerve conduction studies, and close monitoring of physical examination findings over time. Although certain patients may be at higher risk for stingers, there is no evidence to suggest that this correlates with a higher risk of severe brachial plexus injury. Unfortunately, no equipment or strengthening program has been shown to provide a protective effect against these severe injuries. Patients with more severe injuries likely have less likelihood of functional recovery. In these patients, nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury offers the best possibility of meaningful recovery without significant morbidity. [ Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1188-e1192.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Optimal management of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitbon, O; Simonneau, G

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, awareness among the medical profession of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) being a treatable disease has increased. Despite this, approximately one-fifth of newly diagnosed patients are classified as being in the most severely compromised functional class (i.e. New York Health Association/World Health Organization functional class (NYHA/WHO FC) IV). The prognosis for patients in NYHA/WHO FC IV is poor, with 3-yr survival being around 40%, even with treatment. Poor prognosis coupled with severe functional impairment means it is vital that these patients receive optimal treatment. There are also subgroups of patients, who, although classified as NYHA/WHO FC III, may actually be severely haemodynamically compromised and at risk of rapid deterioration. Such subgroups include patients with PAH associated with systemic sclerosis or certain heritable mutations. These patients should be considered as being at the more severe end of the disease spectrum. In this article we will discuss the optimal management of patients with severe PAH. This includes newly emerging evidence from small-scale, open-label studies that use upfront combination therapy with intravenous epoprostenol plus oral PAH-specific drugs. We also review treatment strategies that may offer clinical benefits to patients with more severe PAH.

  20. The Role of Allergy in Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The classification of asthma to identify forms which have different contributing causes is useful for all cases in which the disease requires regular treatment, but it is essential for the management of severe asthma. Many forms of the disease can occur, and complex mixtures are not uncommon; here we artificially separated the cases into four groups: i) inhalant allergy, ii) fungal sensitization with or without colonization (including ABPA); iii) severe sinusitis with or without aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and iv) non-inflammatory cases, including those associated with severe obesity and vocal cord dysfunction (VCD). The reason for focusing on these groups is because they illustrate how much the specific management depends upon correct classification. Inhalant allergy can present as chronically severe asthma. However, severe attacks of asthma requiring hospital admission can occur in cases which are generally only mild or moderate. The best recognized and probably the most common cause of these acute episodes is acute infection with a rhinovirus. Recent evidence suggests that high titer IgE, particularly to dust mite, correlates to exacerbations of asthma related to rhinovirus infection. While it is well recognized that the fungus Aspergillus can colonize the lungs and cause severe disease, it is less well recognized that those cases may not have full criteria for diagnosis of ABPA or may involve other fungi. Identifying fungal cases is important, because treatment with imidazole antifungals can provide significant benefit. Taken together, specific treatment using allergen avoidance, immunotherapy, anti-IgE, or antifungal treatment is an important part of the successful management of severe asthma, and each of these requires correctly identifying specific sensitization. PMID:22515388

  1. Correlates of illness severity in infectious mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odame, John; Robinson, Joan; Khodai-Booran, Nasser; Yeung, Simon; Mazzulli, Tony; Stephens, Derek; Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and laboratory correlates of illness severity among infants, children and youth with infectious mononucleosis (IM). METHODS: Study subjects with confirmed IM were prospectively enrolled. Illness severity was assessed at baseline and at six weeks using a scoring tool. Peripheral blood viral loads served as a measure of viral burden. RESULTS: Among 32 children and young adults with IM, the median age was 16 years (range two to 24 years). The predominant clinical findings were lymphadenopathy (23 of 32 [72%]), pharyngitis (16 of 32 [50%]), fever (nine of 32 [28%]) and splenomegaly (six of 32 [19%]). With respect to symptoms or signs that persisted to at least six weeks after illness onset, the predominant complaint was lymphadenopathy in 35% of subjects available for reassessment. Deranged liver function tests were present at presentation in up to 44% of subjects. Patients with the highest viral loads at presentation had significantly higher illness severity scores associated with fatigue (P=0.02). Other than the scores associated with fatigue, viral load values were not significantly correlated with the illness severity scores at baseline and at six weeks. CONCLUSION: In IM, viral loads are not necessarily correlated with illness severity, with the exception of fatigue. EBV-related hepatitis is common in IM, confirming the status of this virus as a relatively common cause of transient hepatitis in children and youth. This entity is not necessarily a marker of disease severity. PMID:25371691

  2. Factors predicting severe childhood obesity in kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, G; Lin, H

    2013-01-01

    Severe obesity has increased >300% in US children since 1976, and is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and high adult obesity rates. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of severe obesity in kindergarteners. Multivariable logistic regression and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) were used to identify prenatal/pregnancy, infant, and early childhood predictors of severe kindergarten obesity (body mass index (BMI) 99th percentile) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal study that followed children from birth through kindergarten. For the 6800 children, the severe kindergarten obesity prevalence was 5.7%, with higher adjusted odds for crossing the 85th percentile of BMI at 2 years old (odds ratio (OR), 8.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.1-15.7), preschool age (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 4.9-12.8) and 9 months old (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6); maternal severe obesity (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9-5.8) and gestational diabetes (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.5); drinking tea or coffee between meals/before bedtime at 2 years old (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.5); Latino (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7) and multiracial (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.8) race/ethnicity; and drinking sugary beverages at kindergarten age at least weekly (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7). Ever-attending center-based daycare (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9), eating fruit at least weekly at kindergarten age (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and maternal history of a prior newborn birth weight 4000 g (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.02-0.6) were associated with reduced odds of severe obesity. RPA identified low severe obesity prevalence (1.9%) for non-85th BMI-percentile preschool crossers and high severe obesity (56-80%) for predictor clusters which included crossing the 85th BMI percentile at earlier ages, low parental education, specific maternal age cutoffs, preschooler bedtime rules, and outside walking/play frequency for 9-month-olds. Certain parental, prenatal

  3. Regression of severe tricuspid regurgitation after mitral balloon valvotomy for severe mitral stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eid Fawzy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Regression of significant TR after successful MBV in patients with severe mitral stenosis was observed in patients who had severe pulmonary hypertension. This improvement in TR occurred even in the presence of organic tricuspid valve disease.

  4. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heuy Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Sang Baek; Park, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Jung; Park, Lae Joon; Hu, Hoh; Hong, Sung Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author).

  5. Balance control and knee osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Jeong, Yong Seol; Yun, Jee-Sang; Hwang, Dae Gyu; Jung, Pil Kyo; Choi, Seong He

    2011-10-01

    To investigate balance control according to the severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical tests and Tetra-ataxiometric posturography (Tetrax®). A total 80 patients with primary knee OA classified according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and 40 age-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Of those with OA, 39 patients had mild OA (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade 1, 2) and the other 41 had moderate to severe OA (KL grade 3, 4). The postural control capabilities of the subjects were assessed using the timed up and go test (TUG), Berg balance scale (BBS), and Tetrax®, which utilizes two paired force plates to measure vertical pressure fluctuations over both heels and forefeet. The subjects were checked for their stability index (ST), Fourier index, weight distribution index (WDI), and synchronization index (SI) in eight positions using Tetrax®. Patients with moderate to severe OA exhibited significantly higher stability indices in all positions than patients with mild OA. The Fourier index was also higher in patients with moderate to severe OA than in patients with mild OA. However, the weight distribution index and synchronization of both heels and forefeet were not significantly different in the three groups. These findings suggest that patients with moderate to severe OA have more deficits in balance control than those with mild disease. Therefore, evaluation of balance control and education aimed at preventing falls would be useful to patients with knee OA.

  6. Characterization of severe action myoclonus in sialidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canafoglia, Laura; Franceschetti, Silvana; Uziel, Graziella; Ciano, Claudia; Scaioli, Vidmer; Guerrini, Renzo; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio

    2011-03-01

    To asses the characteristics of severe action myoclonus in three patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) due to sialidosis. We assessed EEG-EMG coherence, relative power (RP) and bandwidth (BW) of the EMG-peak associated with myoclonus; we also evaluated somatosensory evoked potentials and long-loop reflexes (LLRs). We compared the findings with those obtained in ten Unverricht-Lundborg (UL) patients. The presentation of sialidosis included macular cherry-red spot, skeletal malformation and polyneuropathy in the infantile form and optic atrophy in the juvenile form. From its onset in adolescence myoclonus rapidly worsened, quickly leading to severe disability. In sialidosis patients, the EMG-peak was characterised by higher RP (psialidosis and UL patients, the coherence values and the RP of the EMG-peak were directly correlated with the severity of the myoclonus; while BW values were inversely correlated. All these measures showed extreme values in sialidosis patients. In the sialidosis patients, the strongly rhythmic recurrence of the jerks reflected on LLR, which included multiple components. Subtle differences indicate an especially high level of cortical motor synchronization in the sialidosis patients, which may account for their particularly severe motor impairment. Neurophysiological indexes indicating high EEG-EMG synchronization parallels the severity of the myoclonus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kiss-induced severe anaphylactic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković-Marković Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion is the principal route for food allergens to trigger allergic reaction in atopic persons. However, in some highly sensitive patients severe symptoms may develop upon skin contact and by inhalation. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild facial urticaria and angioedema to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Outline of Cases. We describe cases of severe anaphylactic reactions by skin contact, induced by kissing in five children with prior history of severe anaphylaxis caused by food ingestion. These cases were found to have the medical history of IgE mediated food allergy, a very high total and specific serum IgE level and very strong family history of allergy. Conclusion. The presence of tiny particles of food on the kisser's lips was sufficient to trigger an anaphylactic reaction in sensitized children with prior history of severe allergic reaction caused by ingestion of food. Allergic reaction provoked with food allergens by skin contact can be a risk factor for generalized reactions. Therefore, extreme care has to be taken in avoiding kissing allergic children after eating foods to which they are highly allergic. Considering that kissing can be a cause of severe danger for the food allergic patient, such persons should inform their partners about the risk factor for causing their food hypersensitivity.

  8. Vitamin D deficiency and severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Audrey H; Mahboub, Bassam; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D has received tremendous amount of attention recently due to the ever-increasing reports of association between vitamin D deficiency and a wide range of conditions, from cancer to fertility to longevity. The fascination of disease association with vitamin D deficiency comes from the relatively easy solution to overcome such a risk factor, that is, either by increase in sun exposure and/or diet supplementation. Many reviews have been written on a protective role of vitamin D in asthma and related morbidities; here, we will summarize the epidemiological evidence supporting a role of vitamin D against hallmark features of severe asthma, such as airway remodeling and asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, we discuss data from in vitro and in vivo studies which provide insights on the potential mechanisms of how vitamin D may protect against severe asthma pathogenesis and how vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of severe asthma. Approximately 5-15% of asthmatic individuals suffer from the more severe forms of disease in spite of aggressive therapies and they are more likely to have irreversible airflow obstruction associated with airway remodeling. At present drugs commonly used to control asthma symptoms, such as corticosteroids, do not significantly reverse or reduce remodeling in the airways. Hence, if vitamin D plays a protective role against the development of severe asthma, then the most effective therapy may simply be a healthy dose of sunshine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Severe hypertriglyceridemia-related acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Morozzi, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. In some cases, inborn errors of metabolism such as lipoprotein lipase deficiency, apoprotein C-II deficiency, and familial hypertriglyceridemia have been reported as causes of severe hypertriglyceridemia. More often, severe hypertriglyceridemia describes various clinical conditions characterized by high plasma levels of triglycerides (>1000 mg/dL), chylomicron remnants, or intermediate density lipoprotein like particles, and/or chylomicrons. International guidelines on the management of acute pancreatitis are currently available. Standard therapeutic measures are based on the use of lipid-lowering agents (fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, niacin, Ω-3 fatty acids), low molecular weight heparin, and insulin in diabetic patients. However, when standard medical therapies have failed, non-pharmacological approaches based upon the removal of triglycerides with therapeutic plasma exchange can also provide benefit to patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Plasma exchange could be very helpful in reducing triglycerides levels during the acute phase of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis, and in the prevention of recurrence. The current evidence on management of acute pancreatitis and severe hypertriglyceridemia, focusing on symptoms, treatment and potential complications is reviewed herein. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  10. Severe asthma: emergency care patient driven solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karen; Corrigan, Chris; Punshon, Geoffrey; Leary, Alison

    2017-08-14

    Purpose Patients with severe asthma were choosing not to use the emergency department (ED) in extremis and were self-medicating when experiencing severe asthma, putting their lives at risk. This local issue reflected a nationwide situation. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the reasons behind patients' reluctance to attend ED and to consider practical solutions in a structured way. Design/methodology/approach Systems thinking (soft systems methodology) was used to examine the issues resulting in this reluctance to attend the ED. Once this tame (well-defined) problem was revealed, a potential solution was developed in co-production with patients. Findings Patients feared attending the ED and felt vulnerable while in the ED for several reasons. This appeared to be a well-defined and solvable problem. The solution proposed was an asthma patient passport (APP), which increased patient's confidence in their ability to communicate their needs while in severe distress. The APP decreases (from 12 to 5 steps) the work patients had to do to achieve care. The APP project is currently being evaluated. Practical implications The APP should be offered to all people with severe asthma. Originality/value By revisiting systems thinking and identifying problems, a solution was identified. Although methods such as soft systems methodology have limitations when used in wicked (difficult or impossible to resolve) problems, such methods still have merit in tame problems and were applicable in this case to fully understand the issues, and to design practical solutions.

  11. Occurrence and severity of agitated behavior after severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth Wolffbrandt, Mia; Poulsen, Ingrid; Engberg, Aase W

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence and severity of agitation in patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), to identify predictors of agitation and to study interrater reliability for a translated version of the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS).......To investigate the occurrence and severity of agitation in patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), to identify predictors of agitation and to study interrater reliability for a translated version of the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS)....

  12. Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D. J.; McGrath, M. T.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1980-09-01

    Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity changes were established with the CRASH computer program. A substantial number of the remaining cases were reconstructable with other methods. Procedures were developed to estimate velocity changes in two car accidents in which the damage to 484 additional accidents from the pre-April 1978 NCSS file were reconstructed to the point of having velocity change estimates for the vehicles involved.

  13. Severe metabolic alkalosis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, M; Slovis, C M

    1988-04-01

    A case of severe metabolic alkalosis (MA) resulting from ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is presented. On admission to the emergency department, the patient was alert and stable with an initial examination that was remarkable only for carpopedal spasm. Shortly thereafter, the patient had a sudden, unexpected cardiopulmonary arrest. Following resuscitation, without administration of sodium bicarbonate, the arterial blood gas revealed a pH of 7.73, pO2 of 51 mm Hg, and pCO2 of 52 mm Hg. After admission to the intensive care unit, the patient's MA was corrected using IV 0.25 N hydrochloric acid. The patient remained comatose as a result of severe anoxic encephalopathy and died two weeks after admission. We believe this is the first reported case of severe MA resulting in sudden cardiopulmonary arrest in a previously ambulatory patient.

  14. Severe odontogenic infection: An emergency. Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisosto-Jara, Claudia; Diaz-Ricouz, Camilo; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2017-01-01

    Odontogenic infections (OI) are a major reason for consultation in dental practice. They affect people of all ages, and most of them respond well to current medical and surgical treatments. However, some OI can spread to vital and deep structures, overcome the host immune system - especially in diabetic, immunocompromised or weakened patients - and even prove fatal. Ludwig’s angina is a severe form of diffuse cellulitis that can have an acute onset and spread very rapidly, bilaterally affecting areas of the head and neck, and may prove life threatening. A case of severe dental infection is presented in which emphasis is placed on the importance of airway maintenance, followed by surgical decompression under adequate antibiotic coverage. Key words:Ludwig’s angina, severe odontogenic infection, surgical decompression, dental infection. PMID:28210456

  15. Harmonic and complex analysis in several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Authored by a ranking authority in harmonic analysis of several complex variables, this book embodies a state-of-the-art entrée at the intersection of two important fields of research: complex analysis and harmonic analysis. Written with the graduate student in mind, it is assumed that the reader has familiarity with the basics of complex analysis of one and several complex variables as well as with real and functional analysis. The monograph is largely self-contained and develops the harmonic analysis of several complex variables from the first principles. The text includes copious examples, explanations, an exhaustive bibliography for further reading, and figures that illustrate the geometric nature of the subject. Each chapter ends with an exercise set. Additionally, each chapter begins with a prologue, introducing the reader to the subject matter that follows; capsules presented in each section give perspective and a spirited launch to the segment; preludes help put ideas into context. Mathematicians and...

  16. Eating disorder severity and functional impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to examine duration of illness and body mass index as possible moderators of the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment, as well as psychological distress as a possible mediator of this relationship. Methods: The study included 159 patients...... diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder or eating disorder not otherwise specified. Regression analysis was applied to assess the effect of the hypothesized moderators and mediators. Eating disorder severity was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, functional impairment...... impairment; the relationship was strongest for patients with a shorter duration of illness. Psychological distress partly mediated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment. Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between psychological distress...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P

  18. Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K. C. L.; Hedlin, G.; Bush, A.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary assessm......Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi...... in our current knowledge in all these steps are highlighted, and recommendations for current clinical practice and future research are made. The lack of good data and the heterogeneity of problematic severe asthma still limit our ability to optimise the management on an individual basis in this small...

  19. Perceived crime severity and biological kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinsey, V L; Lalumière, M L; Querée, M; McNaughton, J K

    1999-12-01

    Two predictions concerning the perceived severity of crimes can be derived from evolutionary theory. The first, arising from the theory of inclusive fitness, is that crimes in general should be viewed as more serious to the degree that the victim is genetically related to the perpetrator. The second, arising from the deleterious effects of inbreeding depression, is that heterosexual sexual coercion should be perceived as more serious the closer the genetic relationship of victim and perpetrator, particularly when the victim is a female of fertile age. Two hundred and thirty university students estimated the magnitude of the severity of brief crime descriptions in three separate studies. In the first two, the biological kinship of victim and perpetrator was varied, and in the third, the hypothetical genetic relatedness of the subject and the fictitious victim was varied. All three studies found the linear relationships between biological kinship and perceived crime severity predicted by theory.

  20. Effect of Allergic Diseases on Keratoconus Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Zarrinbakhsh, Parviz; Bakhshi, Anahita

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the association between keratoconus (KC) and allergic diseases. In a prospective age- and sex-matched case--control study clinical data of 885 KC patients and 1526 controls were evaluated regarding the presence of various allergic diseases. Severity of KC and ophthalmic parameters of KC patients were compared between KC patients with and without allergic diseases. The prevalence of allergic diseases was significantly higher in KC patients. KC patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) or allergic conjunctivitis (AC) had significantly thinner and steeper corneas in comparison with non-allergic KC patients. Only VKC and AC were significantly associated with KC severity. Patients with VKC or AC were at increased risk of KC. They had more severe KC and should be closely followed up and intensively treated.

  1. Current management of severe dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tau Hong; Lee, Linda Kay; Lye, David Chien; Leo, Yee Sin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally a disease mainly affecting the pediatric population, dengue burden has increased significantly in recent decades and adults with severe disease may become more common. There is currently no effective anti-viral agent available for the treatment of dengue and supportive care is the mainstay of management. Areas covered: We present a review of current literature on dengue severity classification systems and the management of severe dengue in adults. In particular, emphasis was placed on organ impairment in dengue and management of elderly individuals with multiple medical problems. Expert commentary: There is an urgent need to search for an effective anti-viral agent to treat infected individuals. The commercial availability of a dengue vaccine in older children has provided optimism in reducing the disease burden but long term efficacy and safety are unknown. The results from phase III trials of two new candidate vaccines are eagerly awaited.

  2. [Social skills training in severe mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gühne, Uta; Weinmann, Stefan; Arnold, Katrin; Becker, Thomas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2014-05-01

    To report about several approaches of social skills training and to evaluate the efficacy and key success factors in severely mentally ill adults. Systematic electronic literature search for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and assessment of the evidence. A variety of models for skills training have been designed and evaluated. In addition to the "basic" model and a "problem-solving" model of training there are complex programs consisting of several modules and specific approaches aimed to improve cognitive functioning or job related skills. Across all approaches, social skills training shows advantages in terms of raised social competence. Social skills training should be offered as a targeted treatment taking into account individual patient characteristics, impairments and needs. It is essential to deliver skills training within a comprehensive care concept combined with other elements focusing on generalization into the community setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Factors influencing severity of peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaby, Martin; Karring, Eva; Schou, Søren; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the influence of potential risk factors, primarily smoking and a prior history of periodontitis, on the severity of peri-implantitis in patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis. Among 98 patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one or several implants with peri-implant marginal bone loss ≥2 mm concomitant with bleeding and/or pus on probing. Information about health status, smoking habits, reason for tooth loss, and performed implant treatment were obtained from the patient charts and interviews. Moreover, a detailed extra- and intraoral examination was performed, including intraoral radiographs of all implants. Risk factors were evaluated by a two-way anova at patient level. Smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were significant risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the presence of both smoking and a prior history of periodontitis did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two factors alone. Poor marginal fit of the suprastructure and extensive gingival imitations on implant-supported fixed full prostheses may also be potential risk factors. The study indicated that smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were important risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis, while concomitant presence of these two risk factors did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two risk factors alone. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are important in patients with a prior history of periodontitis and in smokers to minimize the risk of advanced peri-implantitis in conjunction with focus on known risk factors, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment and a systematic maintenance care program. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  5. Idiopathic Polyhydramnios: Severity and Perinatal Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Samantha L; Beamon, Carmen J; Chescheir, Nancy C; Stamilio, David

    2016-06-01

    Objective To estimate the association between the severity of idiopathic polyhydramnios and adverse outcomes. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of deliveries at one hospital from 2000 to 2012 with an amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurement ≥24 + 0 weeks' gestation. Pregnancies complicated by diabetes, multiples, or fetal anomalies were excluded. Exposure was the degree of polyhydramnios: normal (AFI 5-24 cm), mild (≥ 24-30 cm), and moderate-severe (> 30 cm). Primary outcomes were perinatal mortality, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and postpartum hemorrhage. Results There were 10,536 pregnancies: 10,188 with a normal AFI, 274 mild (78.74%), and 74 moderate-severe polyhydramnios (21.26%). Adverse outcomes were increased with idiopathic polyhydramnios: NICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77-4.99), postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 15.81, 95% CI 7.82-31.96), macrosomia (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 2.61-4.47), low 5-minute Apgar score (AOR 2.60, 95% CI 1.57-4.30), and cesarean (AOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.74-2.69). There were increasing odds of macrosomia (mild: AOR 3.19, 95% CI 2.36-4.32; moderate-severe: AOR 4.44, 95% CI 2.53-7.79) and low 5-minute Apgar score (mild: AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.23-4.08; moderate-severe: AOR 3.93, 95% CI 1.62-9.55) with increasing severity of polyhydramnios. Conclusion Idiopathic polyhydramnios is independently associated with increased risks of morbidity. There appears to be a dose-response relationship for neonatal macrosomia and low 5-minute Apgar score risks. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackus, M; Van de Loo, A J A E; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Van Neer, R H P; Wang, X; Nguyen, T T; Brookhuis, K A; Garssen, J; Verster, J C

    2017-03-01

    Congeners are substances, other than ethanol, that are produced during fermentation. Previous research found that the consumption of congener-rich drinks contributes to the severity of alcohol hangover. Methanol is such a congener that has been related to alcohol hangover. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers (22 females, 14 males), aged 18-30 years old, participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day (no alcohol consumed the previous day). N = 18 of them had regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claimed to be hangover-immune (hangover-immune group). Overall hangover severity was assessed, and that of 23 individual hangover symptoms. Urine methanol concentrations on the hangover and control days were compared, and correlated to hangover (symptom) severity. Urine methanol concentration was significantly higher on hangover days compared to control days (p = 0.0001). No significant differences in urine methanol concentration were found between the hangover group and hangover-immune group. However, urine methanol concentration did not significantly correlate with overall hangover severity (r = -0.011, p = 0.948), nor with any of the individual hangover symptoms. These findings were observed also when analyzing the data separately for the hangover-immune group. In the hangover group, a significant correlation with urine methanol concentration was found only with vomiting (r = 0.489, p = 0.037). No significant correlation was observed between urine methanol concentration and hangover severity, nor with individual core hangover symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychiatric aspects of severe brain injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Zaitsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art of Russian neuropsychiatry and priority developments in different psychopathological syndromes in severe brain injuries are assessed. Many cognitive and emotional impairments are explained in terms of the idea on the organization of psychic activity over time. It is emphasized that to achieve the premorbid levels of an interhemispheric interaction and functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres affords psychic activity recovery. The experience in investigating, classifying, and treating various mental disorders occurring after severe brain injuries is generalized. The basic principles of psychopharmacotherapy and rehabilitation of victims are stated.

  8. Analytic functions of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gunning, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The theory of analytic functions of several complex variables enjoyed a period of remarkable development in the middle part of the twentieth century. After initial successes by Poincaré and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the theory encountered obstacles that prevented it from growing quickly into an analogue of the theory for functions of one complex variable. Beginning in the 1930s, initially through the work of Oka, then H. Cartan, and continuing with the work of Grauert, Remmert, and others, new tools were introduced into the theory of several complex variables that resol

  9. Levofloxacin and Tobramycin for Severe Bacterial Keratouveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorinti, Massimo; Colao, Lorena; Gilardi, Marta; Cecere, Michela; Salotti, Alessandra; Pesci, Francesca Romana

    2016-10-01

    To report on clinical features and outcome of severe bacterial keratouveitis. Twenty patients with severe bacterial keratouveitis treated with topical tobramycin and levofloxacin and oral levofloxacin were included. Main outcome measures were ulcers location, bacterial isolates, risk factors, visual prognosis. Centrally located ulcer/abscess was present in 65% of patients. Contact lens (CL) wear was the most common risk factor (70%). Bacterial isolates were observed in 58% of patients, none resistant to tobramycin and levofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 47% of positive cases and in 64% of CL wearers. After therapy, the mean visual acuity improved significantly (p levofloxacin and oral levofloxacin are effective in the treatment of bacterial keratouveitis.

  10. Severe gastrointestinal burn with hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Araz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadvertantly or purposely, an oral intake of corrosive substances may cause life-threatening problems. Early admission to the hospital, clinical and endoscopic evaluation, and early surgery when required, may reduce morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient, who had attempted suicide, by drinking about 800 mL of 25% hydrochloric acid, and who had severe intra-abdominal damage. The aim of this report is to state the fact that a good outcome is possible in severe burns caused by oral intake of corrosive substances, when fast, multidisciplinary, and appropriate management is provided on time.

  11. Therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA report synthesises systematically randomized controlled studies (RCT on the therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris which were published between 1999 and 2004; it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and thus updates the English HTA report by Griffiths et al. [1]. The major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost effectiveness with relevance for Germany. Results: The major conclusions from the results of medical RCT on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris are: Oral fumarates are effective in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris. However, fumarates quiet frequently cause moderate side effects. Cyclosporine and methotrexate are both effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis vulgaris. Both substances have a different spectrum of side effects which may limit the individual applicability. Acetritin is only moderately effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis of the plaque type. Calcipotriol or UV-radiation used at the same time can increase the clinical effectiveness of acetritin. Systemic PUVA, balneo-PUVA and UVB therapy are all effective for the treatment of severe psoriasis. The combination of UV therapy with vitamin D3 analogues or with topical steroids is more effective than the treatment with UV radiation alone. Saltwater baths increase the effectiveness of UVB therapy. No RCT on the therapeutical effects of topical tar or of dithranol in combination with UV therapy have been published so far. A continuous therapy with PUVA should not be applied due to its proven photocarcinogenicity. Three substances from the group of biologicals (Efalizumab, Etanercept, and Infliximab are now available in Europe and a further substance (Alefacept is available in the USA for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. All biologicals have been

  12. Development of a severity score for CRPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harden, R.N.; Bruehl, S.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Birklein, F.; Marinus, J.; Maihofner, C.; Lubenow, T.; Buvanendran, A.; Mackey, S.; Graciosa, J.; Mogilevski, M.; Ramsden, C.; Schlereth, T.; Chont, M.; Vatine, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a dichotomous (yes/no) categorization necessary for clinical decision-making. However, such dichotomous diagnostic categories do not convey an individual's subtle and temporal gradations in severity of the condition, and have poor

  13. Development of a severity score for CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Bruehl, Stephen; Perez, Roberto S G M; Birklein, Frank; Marinus, Johan; Maihofner, Christian; Lubenow, Timothy; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Mackey, Sean; Graciosa, Joseph; Mogilevski, Mila; Ramsden, Christopher; Schlereth, Tanja; Chont, Melissa; Vatine, Jean-Jacques

    2010-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a dichotomous (yes/no) categorization necessary for clinical decision-making. However, such dichotomous diagnostic categories do not convey an individual's subtle and temporal gradations in severity of the condition, and have poor statistical power when used as an outcome measure in research. This study evaluated the validity and potential utility of a continuous type score to index severity of CRPS. Psychometric and medical evaluations were conducted in 114 CRPS patients and 41 non-CRPS neuropathic pain patients. Based on the presence/absence of 17 clinically-assessed signs and symptoms of CRPS, an overall CRPS Severity Score (CSS) was derived. The CSS discriminated well between CRPS and non-CRPS patients (pCRPS diagnoses using both IASP diagnostic criteria (Eta=0.69) and proposed revised criteria (Eta=0.77-0.88). Higher CSS was associated with significantly higher clinical pain intensity, distress, and functional impairments, as well as greater bilateral temperature asymmetry and thermal perception abnormalities (p'sCRPS, and support its validity as an index of CRPS severity. Its utility as an outcome measure in research studies is also suggested, with potential statistical advantages over dichotomous diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Severity of Occlusal Disharmonies in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the severity of malocclusion and dental esthetic problems in untreated Down syndrome (DS and untreated non-Down syndrome children age 8–14 years old using the PAR and ICON Indices. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study evaluated pretreatment study models, intraoral photographs, and panoramic radiographs of 30 Down syndrome and two groups of 30 non-Down syndrome patients (private practice and university clinic age 8–14 years. The models were scored via PAR and ICON Indices, and descriptive characteristics such as Angle classification, missing or impacted teeth, crossbites, open bites, and other dental anomalies were recorded. Results. The DS group had significantly greater PAR and ICON scores, as well as 10 times more missing teeth than the non-DS group. The DS group possessed predominantly Class III malocclusions, with the presence of both anterior and posterior crossbites in a majority of the patients. The non-DS group had mostly Class I or II malocclusion with markedly fewer missing teeth and crossbites. The DS group also had more severe malocclusions based upon occlusal traits such as open bite and type of malocclusion. Conclusion. The DS group had very severe malocclusions, while the control group from the university clinic had more severe malocclusions than a control group from a private practice.

  15. Nutritional Considerations for Severely Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    Children and adults with severe disabilities may have nutritional problems due to the effects of the primary disability (including such syndromes as phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and Hurler's Disease), effects related to medications (including anticonvulsants, tranquilizers, and laxatives), effects of food preferences (restrictive food…

  16. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  17. Genetics of Asthma Susceptibility and Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Li, Xingnan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    This article summarizes major findings in genome-wide studies of asthma susceptibility and severity. Two large meta-analyses identified four chromosomal regions which were consistently associated with development of asthma. Genes that are associated with asthma subphenotypes such as lung function,

  18. Prevalence and Severity of Depression among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To highlight the prevalence and severity of depression among undergraduate students in public and private ... private universities in Karachi, Pakistan completed Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire to appraise the ..... factors related to the genetic and environment variables. CONCLUSION.

  19. GERD: Can Certain Medications Increase Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase severity? I've heard that some medications can aggravate the symptoms of GERD. Can you tell me more? Answers from Michael F. Picco, M.D. Certain medications and dietary supplements can irritate the lining of your esophagus, causing heartburn ...

  20. Implantology and the severely resorbed edentulous mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingsma, C.; Vissink, A.; Meijer, H.J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.

    Patients with a severely resorbed edentulous mandible often suffer from problems with the lower denture. These problems include: insufficient retention of the lower denture, intolerance to loading by the mucosa, pain, difficulties with eating and speech, loss of soft-tissue support, and altered

  1. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Loo, Aurora; Mackus, Marlou; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; Brookhuis, Karel; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claim to be hangover immune (hangover-immune group). On each test day at 9.30 am, urine samples were collected. Participants rated their overall hangover severity on a scale from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme), as well as 18 individual hangover symptoms. Urine ethanol concentration was significantly higher on the hangover day when compared to the control day (p = 0.006). On the hangover day, urine ethanol concentration was significantly lower in the hangover-immune group when compared to the hangover group (p = 0.027). In the hangover-immune group, none of the correlations of urine ethanol concentration with individual hangover symptoms was significant. In contrast, in the hangover group, significant correlations were found with a variety of hangover symptoms, including nausea, concentration problems, sleepiness, weakness, apathy, sweating, stomach pain, thirst, heart racing, anxiety, and sleep problems. Urine ethanol levels are significantly associated with the presence and severity of several hangover symptoms.

  2. Spontaneous peripheral gangrene following severe cerebral malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She gave a history of sudden onset of a severe febrile illness during July 1998, nine weeks prior to her arrival in Addis Ababa. She had attended her local local Health Centre where she had been admitted and treated for cerebral malaria. Unfortunately, no records of the laboratory findings or treatment given were available.

  3. Outcomes following prehospital airway management in severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcomes following prehospital airway management in severe traumatic brain injury. ... Patients were categorised by their method of airway management: rapid sequence intubation (RSI), sedation-assisted intubation, failed intubation, basic airway management, and intubated without drugs. Good outcomes were defined by ...

  4. Convex trace functions of several variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2002-01-01

    We prove that the function (x1,...,xk)¿Tr(f(x1,...,xk)), defined on k-tuples of symmetric matrices of order (n1,...,nk) in the domain of f, is convex for any convex function f of k variables. The matrix f(x1,...,xk) is defined by the functional calculus for functions of several variables...

  5. Severe Hyponatremia due to Phlegmonous Trismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with dysphagia and trismus associated with lower jaw inflammation due to phlegmon who developed severe hyponatremia from water intoxication due to excessive water intake after diaphoresis caused by abnormally hot weather. A 63-year-old woman presented with severe swelling of the floor of the mouth and trismus. As she had spasms and numbness of the extremities and restlessness and water intoxication caused by excessive water intake was suspected, she was hospitalized for the treatment of inflammation and electrolyte disorder. Although swelling of the floor of the mouth subsided over time after antimicrobial therapy, vomiting, diarrhea, and numbness of the extremities continued. On day 5 of hospitalization, severe vomiting and diarrhea recurred, and serum sodium levels decreased to 108 mEq/L. Decrease in water intake is essential in the treatment of hyponatremia. However, in patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea who can swallow only liquids because of hot weather and eating disorder, the risk of sodium depletion is high. It is important to restore electrolyte balance and fluid volume through supplementation with sodium, chlorine, potassium, and glucose among others, the reduction of intravenous fluid volume, and diuresis in order to correct the sodium level slowly.

  6. Severe Hyponatremia due to Phlegmonous Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Tomio; Ohkubo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient with dysphagia and trismus associated with lower jaw inflammation due to phlegmon who developed severe hyponatremia from water intoxication due to excessive water intake after diaphoresis caused by abnormally hot weather. A 63-year-old woman presented with severe swelling of the floor of the mouth and trismus. As she had spasms and numbness of the extremities and restlessness and water intoxication caused by excessive water intake was suspected, she was hospitalized for the treatment of inflammation and electrolyte disorder. Although swelling of the floor of the mouth subsided over time after antimicrobial therapy, vomiting, diarrhea, and numbness of the extremities continued. On day 5 of hospitalization, severe vomiting and diarrhea recurred, and serum sodium levels decreased to 108 mEq/L. Decrease in water intake is essential in the treatment of hyponatremia. However, in patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea who can swallow only liquids because of hot weather and eating disorder, the risk of sodium depletion is high. It is important to restore electrolyte balance and fluid volume through supplementation with sodium, chlorine, potassium, and glucose among others, the reduction of intravenous fluid volume, and diuresis in order to correct the sodium level slowly.

  7. prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... was to determine the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: A .... ammonium persulfate method which was suggested and approved by. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (21). This involves the spectrophotometric analysis (measuring the absorbance) of a reaction medium, which utilizes.

  8. Association between severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is quite high and its prevalence is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of COPD severity according to the ATS criteria with their spirometric measurements in patients admitted to emergency ward. Materials and Methods: In this ...

  9. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  10. Psychosocial factors predicting severity of depression among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Depression as major psychological sequelea of the HIV/AIDS infection has continued to attract investigation. With few studies in Nigeria, it is unclear whether levels of perceived stigma, sexual risk behaviors, and anticipated discrimination are differentially associated with severity of depression.

  11. Using Image Processing to Determine Emphysema Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alexander; Sadun, Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Currently X-rays and computerized tomography (CT) scans are used to detect emphysema, but other tests are required to accurately quantify the amount of lung that has been affected by the disease. These images clearly show if a patient has emphysema, but are unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it presents as subtle, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to use these CT scans to accurately diagnose and determine emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing several different analyses of CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. In addition to analyzing the original CT data, this process will convert the data to one and two bit images and will then examine the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than the currently utilized methods, which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in the air passages of the lung.

  12. Problems in severe bilateral urinary tract anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1989-01-01

    function. There were two deaths. Five children have severe and two a moderate reduction of renal function; twenty good renal function. There were ten nephrectomies and four heminephrectomies. Seven patients had a temporary and eight a permanent urinary diversion. However, four of the latter were later...

  13. A validated photonumeric cellulite severity scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, D M; Dal'forno, T; Hexsel, C L

    2009-05-01

    With recent advances in the treatment of cellulite and localized fat, a comprehensive objective method of measuring cellulite can be potentially useful, especially since important morphological aspects of cellulite are not part of the current classification. Objective To develop and to validate a new photonumeric cellulite severity. Based on standardized photographs of 55 patients with cellulite, five key morphological aspects of cellulite were identified. A new photonumeric severity scale was developed and validated. The five key morphological features of cellulite were identified and included the number of depressions, depth of depressions, clinical appearance of evident raised lesions, and presence of flaccidity and the grade of cellulite. Each item was graded from 0 to 3, allowing final classification of cellulite as mild, moderate, and severe. Results for validation of the scale are statistically significant (P 0.7; correlation item-total > 0.7, with the exception of the right buttock; intraclass correlation coefficients 0.881-0.922; Cronbach's alpha 0.851-0.989 and factor analysis 68-76%. The proposed photonumeric scale is a consistent, comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible tool for the standardized and objective assessment of the severity of cellulite. Conflicts of interest The authors hereby affirm that neither the manuscript nor any part of it has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere.

  14. Cyclosporine treatment of severe Hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marianne D; Zauli, Stefania; Bettoli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an overlooked but common disease severely affecting both genders. HS is generally perceived as difficult to treat and although a number of treatments are available, the need for more effective treatment is apparent. Objectives: Cyclosporine A (CsA) has...

  15. Disease severity scoring systems in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Bilaç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoring systems have been developed to interpret the disease severity objectively by evaluating the parameters of the disease. Body surface area, visual analogue scale, and physician global assessment are the most frequently used scoring systems for evaluating the clinical severity of the dermatological diseases. Apart from these scoring systems, many specific scoring systems for many dermatological diseases, including acne (acne vulgaris, acne scars, alopecia (androgenetic alopecia, tractional alopecia, bullous diseases (autoimmune bullous diseases, toxic epidermal necrolysis, dermatitis (atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, hidradenitis suppurativa, hirsutismus, connective tissue diseases (dermatomyositis, skin involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (LE, discoid LE, scleroderma, lichen planoplaris, mastocytosis, melanocytic lesions, melasma, onychomycosis, oral lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, nail psoriasis, sarcoidosis, urticaria, and vitiligo, have also been developed. Disease severity scoring methods are ever more extensively used in the field of dermatology for clinical practice to form an opinion about the prognosis by determining the disease severity; to decide on the most suitable treatment modality for the patient; to evaluate the efficacy of the applied medication; and to compare the efficiency of different treatment methods in clinical studies.

  16. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can

  17. Newborn screening for severe primary immunodeficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borte, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are congenital disorders of immune competence, which are mainly characterized by a pathological susceptibility to infection. This is often accompanied by severe recurrent infections with drug-resistant, long progressions. In addition, there are associated immune regulation disorders, which may manifest themselves in granuloma formation, autoimmunity, recurrent fever, eczema, lymphoproliferation and chronic intestinal inflammation. More than 240 ...

  18. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in MIDDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this task was to upgrade the severe weather database from the previous phase by adding weather observations from the years 2004 - 2009, re-analyze the data to determine the important parameters, make adjustments to the index weights depending on the analysis results, and update the MIDDS GUI. The added data increased the period of record from 15 to 21 years. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. Four of the stability indices showed increased severe weather predication. The Total Threat Score (TTS) of the previous work was verified for the warm season of 2009 with very good skill. The TTS Probability of Detection (POD) was 88% and the False alarm rate (FAR) of 8%. Based on the results of the analyses, the MIDDS Severe Weather Worksheet GUI was updated to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters and synoptic-scale dynamics.

  19. Therapy for Severe Gestoses in Incomplete Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Pavlova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve pregnancy outcomes in severe gestosis. Subjects and methods: Sixty-five women with incomplete pregnancy in presence of severe gestosis were examined and the status of 65 neonatal babies was evaluated in the early neonatal period. The women were allocated into 3 groups: 1 19 pregnant women were urgently operated on for severe admission condition (preeclampsia; 2 22 pregnant women received standard therapy for gestosis; 3 24 had standard therapy for gestosis in combination with 6% solution of the hydroxyethyl starch Stabisol®. Results. During gestosis therapy, pregnancy prolongation was 4.5±1.2 bed/days in Group 2 and averaged 7.6±1.6 bed/days in Group 3. The rate of neonatal referral to an intensive care unit was 63.1, 50.0, and 37.5% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Referral to a neonatal pathology unit at the second stage of nursing was required in 100, 77.2, and 62.5% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Conclusion. The use of 6% solution of the hydroxyethyl starch Stabisol® in complex therapy for gestosis in incomplete pregnancy prolongs pregnancy, accelerates rehabilitation in puerperas, prevents respiratory distress syndrome in full measure, and improves the neonatal adaptation period and perinatal outcomes as a whole. Key words: severe gestosis, incomplete pregnancy, 6% solution of Stabisol®.

  20. Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-24

    Dec 24, 2013 ... Case Study: Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe anaemia in early infancy. 85. 2014 Volume 19 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Although anaemia is a common finding in adults with hypothyroidism, there is a general paucity of studies on anaemia in infants with congenital ...

  1. Minimizing the postoperative complications of severe hypospadias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The aim of this study was to decrease complication rates in proximal hypospadias surgery. Methods A simple method of stenting using a polypropylene stent has been developed for the most severe form of hypospadias during the period from January 2008 to January 2011 in the Department of Pediatric ...

  2. Severe Organophosphate Poisoning with Delayed Cholinergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... junction and Autonomic Synapses is clinically important. After exposure these agents cause acute and sub acute manifestations depending on the type and severity of the agents like Acute Cholinergic Manifestations, Intermediate Syndrome with Nicotinic features and Delayed Central Nervous System Complications.

  3. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin HY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Han Y Yin,1–3 Roberto Warman,2,4 Edward H Suh,2 Anny MS Cheng2,3 1Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, 3Ocular Surface Center, Miami, 4Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG.Design: Observational case report.Observations: A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation.Results: Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months.Conclusion: Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides. Keywords: hypertriglyceride, infant, lipemia retinalis, lipoprotein lipase gene

  4. Simultaneous inspection of several product characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.R.J.; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider 100% inspection of a product of which several characteristics have to satisfy given specification limits. A 100% inspection procedure may be necessary to bring the percentage of nonconforming items down to a level acceptable for the consumer. If one can observe the actual

  5. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  6. Golimumab for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Anne S.; Berends, Sophie E.; Mathôt, Ron A.; D'Haens, Geert R.; Löwenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Golimumab (GLM) is a subcutaneously administered human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent that has been approved by the regulatory authorities for the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2013. Areas covered: Maintained clinical remission rates up to 50% have been shown in

  7. Several applications of Cartwright-Field's inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Minculete, Nicuşor; Furuichi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present several applications of Cartwright-Field's inequality. Among these we found Young's inequality, Bernoulli's inequality, the inequality between the weighted power means, H\\"{o}lder's inequality and Cauchy's inequality. We give also two applications related to arithmetic functions and to operator inequalities.

  8. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375804277; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  9. Severe sepsis and septic shock [author's reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angus, Derek C.; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-01-01

    To the Editor: We would like to address two potentially confusing issues concerning venous oxygen saturation (Svo(2)) as presented in Table 1 of the review by Angus and van der Poll (Aug. 29 issue).(1) First, Table 1 suggests that Svo(2) is raised in sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.

  10. Severe sepsis secondary to emphysematous cystitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Gargouri

    tures to septic shock. Herein, we present a new case of EC in a patient who presented with severe sepsis in the absence of known risk factors. The patient was also found to have two vesical calculi and a horseshoe kidney. E-mail address: gargourimourad@yahoo.fr (M.M. Gargouri). Peer review under responsibility of Pan ...

  11. Weight management for children with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    In areas where weight management services are not established, an integrated approach is required to sustain results. This article in Primary Health Care suggests using a stepped care approach using a model such as SHINE (Self, Help, Independence, Nutrition and Exercise). This model can be used to provide a holistic and integrative care pathway for children and young people with severe obesity.

  12. Measuring Severity and Change in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Eugene; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes the State of Mind (SOM) Questionnaire, which measures severity and change of clinical state in anorexia nervosa. A study of 42 anorexia patients and 4 control groups showed a strong correlation between depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the Anorexia Scale, which comprise the SOM. (JAC)

  13. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  14. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotink, Mark J.; Benders, Manon J.; Lavrijsen, Selma W.; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Hulzebos, Christian V.; Dijk, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SH) is partly attributed to nonhospitalized perinatal care. The Netherlands have a high frequency of home births and nonhospitalized perinatal care, and the incidence of SH is unknown. Objective: To assess the effects of home births

  15. Prevalence, severity and factors associated with peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of ever having a foot ulcer was significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.03 – 6.49, p = 0.042). Conclusion: DPN occurs in 1 in 4 of newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Mulago hospital. Two thirds of these patients had moderate to severe neuropathy. DPN was independently ...

  16. Prolonged surveillance of dexfenfluramine in severe obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-two obese patients entered a placebo-controlled, double-blind 1-year study on dexfenfluramine, a serotonergic anorectic drug. Obesity was severe (mean body mass index 38.4 kg/m2), and of early onset and long duration. A mean of 8 attempts to lose weight was undertaken. After randomisation to 1

  17. Hypereosinophilic syndrome with severe hypokalaemia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder.It is defined as eosinophilia of greater than1.5x109 /L persisting for at least 6 months or death before 6 months without an identifiable cause and with eosinophil-mediated organ dysfunction.We present a rare case of hypereosinophilic syndrome with severe ...

  18. Vocational Evaluation of Severely Disabled Deaf Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Douglas

    Research and practice in deafness rehabilitation show that evaluation services for severely disabled deaf clients can best be provided within a "total adjustment environment" which incorporates a number of special program considerations associated with the evaluation of deaf clients. Four of these considerations are (1) a rehabilitation…

  19. Movement of chromosomes with severed kinetochore microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Arthur; Johansen, Kristen M; Johansen, Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    Experiments dating from 1966 and thereafter showed that anaphase chromosomes continued to move poleward after their kinetochore microtubules were severed by ultraviolet microbeam irradiation. These observations were initially met with scepticism as they contradicted the prevailing view that kinetochore fibre microtubules pulled chromosomes to the pole. However, recent experiments using visible light laser microbeam irradiations have corroborated these earlier experiments as anaphase chromosomes again were shown to move poleward after their kinetochore microtubules were severed. Thus, multiple independent studies using different techniques have shown that chromosomes can indeed move poleward without direct microtubule connections to the pole, with only a kinetochore 'stub' of microtubules. An issue not yet settled is: what propels the disconnected chromosome? There are two not necessarily mutually exclusive proposals in the literature: (1) chromosome movement is propelled by the kinetochore stub interacting with non-kinetochore microtubules and (2) chromosome movement is propelled by a spindle matrix acting on the stub. In this review, we summarise the data indicating that chromosomes can move with severed kinetochore microtubules and we discuss proposed mechanisms for chromosome movement with severed kinetochore microtubules.

  20. CT findings in severe thoracic sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebicque, Anne-Sophie; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Moulahi, Hassen; Brauner, Michel W. [UFR Bobigny, Department of Radiology, Federation MARTHA and EA 2363, Bobigny Cedex (France); Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique [UFR Bobigny, Department of Pneumology, Federation MARTHA and EA 2363, Bobigny Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    Severe thoracic sarcoidosis includes manifestations with significant clinical and functional impairment and a risk of mortality. Severe thoracic sarcoidosis can take on various clinical presentations and is associated with increased morbidity. The purpose of this article was to describe the CT findings in severe thoracic sarcoidosis and to explain some of their mechanisms. Subacute respiratory insufficiency is a rare and early complication due to a high profusion of pulmonary lesions. Chronic respiratory insufficiency due to pulmonary fibrosis is a frequent and late complication. Three main CT patterns are identified: bronchial distortion, honeycombing and linear opacities. CT can be helpful in diagnosing some mechanisms of central airway obstruction such as bronchial distortion due to pulmonary fibrosis or an extrinsic bronchial compression by enlarged lymph nodes. An intrinsic narrowing of the bronchial wall by endobronchial granulomatous lesions may be suggested by CT when it shows evidence of bronchial mural thickening. Pulmonary hypertension usually occurs in patients with end-stage pulmonary disease and is related to fibrotic destruction of the distal capillary bed and to the resultant chronic hypoxemia. Several other mechanisms may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension including extrinsic compression of major pulmonary arteries by enlarged lymph nodes and secondary pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Aspergilloma colonization of a cavity is the main cause of hemoptysis in sarcoidosis. Other rare causes are bronchiesctasis, necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis, semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, erosion of a pulmonary artery due to a necrotic sarcoidosis lesion, necrosis of parenchymal sarcoidosis lesions and specific endobronchial macroscopic lesions. (orig.)

  1. Global Strain in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbæk, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2012-01-01

    Score, history with ischemic heart disease and ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: -In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis undergoing AVR reduced GLS provides important prognostic information beyond standard risk factors. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier...

  2. Protein metabolism in severe childhood malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major clinical syndromes of severe childhood malnutrition (SCM) are marasmus (non-oedematous SCM), kwashiorkor and marasmic-kwashiorkor (oedematous SCM). Whereas treatment of marasmus is straightforward and the associated mortality is low, kwashiorkor and marasmic-kwashiorkor are difficult to tr...

  3. and the severity of peptic ulcer disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the correlation study was performed between CSE expression ... Aim:The expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was determined, and correlated with the severity of gastric ulcer disease. Methods: One hundred and .... hydrogen sulfide against oxidative stress in rat gastric mucosal epithelium. Toxicology ...

  4. 16 CFR 437.3 - Severability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the business opportunity. 16. Statistical information concerning the number of business... CONCERNING BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES § 437.3 Severability. If any provision of this part or its application to..., municipality, or other local government with respect to business opportunity practices, except to the extent...

  5. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert T.; Lisco, Steven J.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children from the age 1 year to 21 years old. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system following severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of TIC that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507

  6. Determination of coagulopathy complicating severe preeclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia frequently complicates eclampsia more than severe preeclampsia at platelet count levels below 80000 cell/µl. This level is discriminatory for biochemical coagulopathy, and it should prompt coagulation studies and warrant clinical vigilance. Key words: Coagulopathy; eclampsia; platelet ...

  7. Prognostic Factors in Severe Chagasic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sandra de Araújo; Rassi, Salvador; Freitas, Elis Marra da Madeira; Gutierrez, Natália da Silva; Boaventura, Fabiana Miranda; Sampaio, Larissa Pereira da Costa; Silva, João Bastista Masson

    2017-03-01

    Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years.

  8. Determinants of severe periodontal disease among diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with severe periodontal disease among diabetic patients. Design: Cross sectional study. Study subjects and methods: Diabetes mellitus patients visiting their regularly scheduled medical review at NCH Diabetic clinic participated in the study. Data collection was ...

  9. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF UNCOMPLICATED AND SEVERE MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease.  The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu, dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal.

  10. Severe pentasomide Armillifer armillatus infestation complicated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... including laboratory results and radiographic /computed tomography images. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage with organ dysfunction can be seen with severe A. armillatus infestation. Thus, there is a need for regular health education regarding the risk of A. armillatus infestation for individuals who consume snake meat ...

  11. Severe obesity is a risk factor for severe obstructive sleep apnea in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomittipong, Kanokporn; Chierakul, Nitipatana; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon; Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai; Susiva, Chakraphan; Mahoran, Khunphon; Tangchityongsiva, Suwat

    2011-11-01

    To determine the association between degree of obesity and severity of OSA in Thai children The present retrospective study recruited obese children aged 3 to 15 years who had habitual snoring and underwent polysomnography (PSG) between January 2009 and June 2010. Obesity was defined as percentage of ideal weight for height (%W/H) > or = 120 and was classified as mild (%W/H of 120-139), moderate (140-159), severe (160-199) and morbid (> or = 200). OSA was classified as severe (AHI > or = 10) and non-severe (AHI obese children, the mean age was 9.92 +/- 3.42 years of which 60.3% were boys. The mean +/- SD of BMI was 28.38 +/- 5.99 kg/m2 and %W/H +/- SD was 162.63 +/- 26 26. Gender age, height, weight and BMI were not significantly different between severe and non-severe OSA groups. However, the %W/H of the severe OSA group (171.38% +/- 29.54%) was significantly greater than the non-severe group (157.19% +/- 22.68%) (p = 0.02). Severe to morbid obesity (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.06-7.42; p = 0.038) and enlarged tonsils at least 3+ (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.22-8.81; p = 0.018) were the risk factors for severe OSA. Severe to morbid obesity was a predicting factor for severe OSA. These results suggested that severely obese children with snoring should have early recognition for severe OSA, which is highly contributing to multiple sequalae.

  12. Alexithymia Is Associated with Tinnitus Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wielopolski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAlexithymia is considered to be a personality trait with a tendency to express psychological distress in somatic rather than emotional form and, therefore, may play a vital role in somatization. Although, such a propensity can be found in patients suffering from tinnitus, the relationship between alexithymic characteristics and the subjective experience of tinnitus severity remains yet unclear. Our aim was to evaluate which alexithymic characteristics are linked to the subjective experience of tinnitus symptomatology.MethodsWe evaluated tinnitus severity (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI, alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20, and depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI in 207 outpatients with tinnitus. Correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses were calculated in order to investigate the relationship between alexithymic characteristics, tinnitus severity, and depression.ResultsHighly significant positive correlations were found between THI total score and TAS-20 total score as well as BDI score. Regarding the TAS-20 subscales, multiple regression analyses showed that only the TAS-20 subscale “difficulty in identifying feelings” (DIF and the BDI significantly predicted the subjective experience of tinnitus severity. Regarding the THI subscales, only higher scores of the THI subscale “functional” demonstrated an independent moderate association with higher scores for DIF.ConclusionWe found an independent association between the subjective experience of tinnitus severity and alexithymic characteristics, particularly with regard to limitations in the fields of mental, social, and physical functioning because of tinnitus and the difficulty of identifying feelings facet of alexithymia. These findings are conducive to a better understanding of affect regulation that may be important for the psychological adaptation of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  13. Severe Childhood Autism: The Family Lived Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette Gorlin, Jocelyn; McAlpine, Cynthia Peden; Garwick, Ann; Wieling, Elizabeth

    This research examined the experiences of families living with a child with severe autism. There is limited literature on the experiences of families when a child has severe autism as distinct from milder autism and includes the voices of multiple family members. Van Manen's phenomenological approach was used for data collection and analysis. This approach allowed for the use of innovative data sources, including unstructured individual and family interviews, observations, and family lifelines (a pictorial, temporal picture with comments of the families lives). This study included 29 interviews with 22 participants from 11 families. All data were creatively triangulated and interpreted. Six essential themes were identified. First, families experienced autism as mysterious and complex because it is an invisible and unpredictable condition with diagnostic challenges. Second, families described severe autism behaviors that often caused self-injury, harm to others and damaged homes. Third, profound communication deficits resulted in isolation between the family and child. Fourth, families discussed the unrelenting stress from lack of sleep, managing the child's developmental delays, coordinating and financing services, and concern for the child's future. Fifth, families described consequences of isolation from friends, school, the public, and health providers. Sixth, families portrayed their need for compassionate support and formed 'hybrid families' (nuclear, extended families and friends) to gain support. Study results can be utilized to educate nurses/other providers about the unique needs of families with children with severe autism and could influence health care policies to improve the care for families caring for children with severe autism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperative prediction of severe postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, C J; Visser, K; Moen, J; Bonsel, G J; Grobbee, D E; Moons, K G M

    2003-10-01

    We developed and validated a prediction rule for the occurrence of early postoperative severe pain in surgical inpatients, using predictors that can be easily documented in a preoperative setting. A cohort of surgical inpatients (n=1416) undergoing various procedures except cardiac surgery and intracranial neurosurgery in a University Hospital were studied. Preoperatively the following predictors were collected: age, gender, type of scheduled surgery, expected incision size, blood pressure, heart rate, Quetelet index, the presence and severity of preoperative pain, health-related quality of life the (SF-36), Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). The outcome was the presence of severe postoperative pain (defined as Numeric Rating Scale > or =8) within the first hour postoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression in combination with bootstrapping techniques (as a method for internal validation) was used to derive a stable prediction model. Independent predictors of severe postoperative pain were younger age, female gender, level of preoperative pain, incision size and type of surgery. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.74). Adding APAIS scores (measures of preoperative anxiety and need for information), but not STAI, provided a slightly better model (ROC area 0.73). The reliability of this extended model was good (Hosmer and Lemeshow test p-value 0.78). We have demonstrated that severe postoperative pain early after awakening from general anesthesia can be predicted with a scoring rule, using a small set of variables that can be easily obtained from all patients at the preoperative visit. Before this internally validated preoperative prediction rule can be applied in clinical practice to support anticipatory pain management, external validation in other clinical settings is necessary.

  15. Designing a Pediatric Severe Sepsis Screening Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSepanski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We sought to create a screening tool with improved predictive value for pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock that can be incorporated into the electronic medical record and actively screen all patients arriving at a pediatric Emergency Department (ED. Gold standard severe sepsis cases were identified using a combination of coded discharge diagnosis and physician chart review from 7,402 children who visited a pediatric ED over two months. The tool’s identification of severe sepsis was initially based on International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis (ICCPS parameters that were refined by an iterative, virtual process that allowed us to propose successive changes in sepsis detection parameters in order to optimize the tool’s predictive value based on receiver operating curve (ROC characteristics. Age-specific normal and abnormal values for heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RR were empirically derived from 143,603 children seen in a second pediatric ED over three years. Univariate analyses were performed for each measure in the tool to assess its association with severe sepsis and to characterize it as an early or late indicator of severe sepsis. A split-sample was used to validate the final, optimized tool. The final tool incorporated age-specific thresholds for abnormal HR and RR and employed a linear temperature correction for each category. The final tool’s positive predictive value was 48.7%, a significant, nearly three-fold improvement over the original ICCPS tool. False positive Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS identifications were nearly six-fold lower.

  16. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

  17. Social networking for adolescents with severe haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, K; Holland, M; Carrington, S

    2012-05-01

    Access to modern treatments allows adolescents with haemophilia to manage their haemophilia at home, with improved treatment outcomes and quality of life, but has reduced peer support and the potential for experiential learning from older peers. Social networking, aided by modern communication technologies, may offer health benefits through peer support. We sought to assess whether or not disease-specific social networking could benefit adolescents with severe haemophilia. A total of 150 adolescents (aged 10-18) with severe haemophilia A or B from 11 UK treatment centres or those who had attended focus groups to explore the potential for a social network designed specifically for their use were surveyed. Teenage boys with severe haemophilia in the UK who responded to an online and paper questionnaire (n = 47; 31% response rate) rarely knew of or socialized with others with haemophilia outside their families. Two-thirds of respondents said they would like to meet others. For 70% of boys, parents were the major source of information about haemophilia, yet more than half said they often had trouble finding answers to their questions. These boys frequently used online social networks to chat with friends. Adolescents with severe haemophilia frequently have limited contact with others and many wish to have greater contact. They may benefit from peer support and experiential learning gained through online social networking. The SixVibe restricted access social network is to be launched in 2011. It includes features designed to promote and facilitate the development of peer-to peer disease management skills for adolescents with severe haemophilia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Fecal microbiota transplant in severe and severe-complicated Clostridium difficile: A promising treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Monika; Sipe, Brian; Cheng, Yao-Wen; Phelps, Emmalee; Rogers, Nicholas; Sagi, Sashidhar; Bohm, Matthew; Xu, Huiping; Kassam, Zain

    2017-05-04

    Severe and severe-complicated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Colectomy is standard of care; however, post-surgical mortality rates approach 50%. Case reports suggest fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a promising treatment of severe and severe-complicated disease but there is a paucity of data. Here, we present a single center experience with a novel sequential FMT protocol for patients refractory to maximal medical therapy. This approach consists of at least one FMT delivered via colonoscopy with criteria for repeat FMT and continued vancomycin therapy based on clinical response and pseudomembranes. Our cohort included 57 consecutive inpatients diagnosed with severe or severe-complicated CDI and treated with FMT. Overall, 91% (52/57) experienced clinical cure at 1 month with a 100% cure rate among severe CDI (n = 19) patients and an 87% cure rate for severe-complicated CDI (n = 33) patients. For the cohort, the survival rate was 94.7% at 1 month and 78.6% at 3 months. There were no serious adverse events related to FMT including no procedure-related complications or perforation. There was no difference in outcome between fresh or frozen fecal material. Sequential FMT for inpatients with severe or severe-complicated CDI is promising and may be preferred over colectomy in certain patients.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Modified CT Severity Index in Assessing Severity of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Amna; Shabbir, Zonaira; Shaukat, Asim; Riaz, Osman

    2016-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of modified CT severity index in assessing the severe acute pancreatitis keeping APACHE II as gold standard. Cross-sectional (validation) study. Department of Radiology, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, from February to August 2014. A total of 120 patients of either gender aged 20-60 years with epigastric pain radiating to back and having sonographic findings (decreased or heterogeneous pancreatic echogenicity, pancreatic enlargement, peripancreatic fluid collection), supportive of acute pancreatitis were taken. CT with intravenous contrast was performed on 128-slice scanner within 24 hours of presentation. Slice thickness was 3 mm in region of pancreas. Modified CT severity index was calculated. Score above 5 was graded as severe pancreatitis. APACHE II score of >11 considered as gold standard was also calculated within 24 hours of admission. Mean age of the patients was 39.03 ±8.71 years. Most of the patients were females 73 (60.8%). Out of 120 patients, 43 (35.83%) patients had severe acute pancreatitis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of modified CT severity index in assessing the severe acute pancreatitis were 100%, 87%, 81.13% and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was yielded as 91.67% considered APACHE II as gold standard. Modified CT severity index had high diagnostic accuracy in assessment of severe acute pancreatitis and can be used reliably in early prediction of complications of severe acute pancreatitis.

  20. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  1. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  2. Behavioural induced severe hypernatremia without neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia is a relatively common entity and is more prevalent among the elderly and critically ill. A number of medical conditions are commonly associated with hypernatremia, and these differ substantially among children and adults. Severe hypernatremia is usually associated with central nervous system manifestations and carries a high mortality rate. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department of the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with severe hypernatremia and without any associated co-morbid conditions or neurological manifestations. We did not find any etiological background despite extensive eva-luation other than under hydration due to decreased fluid intake, which was secondary to beha-vioural causes.

  3. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva.

  4. Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Byun, Jisoo; Gaussier, Hervé; Hirachi, Kengo; Kim, Kang-Tae; Shcherbina, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes 28 chapters by authors who are leading researchers of the world describing many of the up-to-date aspects in the field of several complex variables (SCV). These contributions are based upon their presentations at the 10th Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables (KSCV10), held as a satellite conference to the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) 2014 in Seoul, Korea. SCV has been the term for multidimensional complex analysis, one of the central research areas in mathematics. Studies over time have revealed a variety of rich, intriguing, new knowledge in complex analysis and geometry of analytic spaces and holomorphic functions which were "hidden" in the case of complex dimension one. These new theories have significant intersections with algebraic geometry, differential geometry, partial differential equations, dynamics, functional analysis and operator theory, and sheaves and cohomology, as well as the traditional analysis of holomorphic functions in all dimensions. This...

  5. Talalgia. A review of 30 severe cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerster, J C; Saudan, Y; Fallet, G H

    1978-01-01

    Seronegative spondyloarthritides (Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriatic arthritis) was diagnosed in 24 of 30 patients with severe heel pain. Most of the patients were carriers of the antigen HLA B27. Talalgia was frequently the first symptom of disease. Heel surgery is contra-indicated during the inflammation phase, since it may cause local aggravation and risk of ankylosis of the talocalcaneal articulation. Other causes of heel pain include tendon chondrocalcinosis, local tuberculous infection, and nodular tendinitis caused by a partial rupture of the tendon. On the other hand, severe talagia was rarely found in rheumatoid arthritis, and no case was related to the presence of tophi or xanthomas of the Achilles tendon.

  6. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  7. Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.

  8. Relatives of patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Lykke Mortensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    relatives of patients with severe brain injury. METHODS: The relatives were assessed on the anxiety and depression scales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and latent variable growth curve models were used to model the trajectories. The effects of patient's age, patient's Glasgow Coma Score, level...... improvement. Higher initial level of symptoms of depression was seen in female relatives. Higher initial level of anxiety was associated with younger patient age, lower level of function and consciousness in the patient and the relative being female or the spouse. CONCLUSION: Future research and interventions......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate trajectories and predictors of trajectories of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients with a severe brain injury during the first year after injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study with four repeated measurements. SUBJECTS: Ninety...

  9. Severe hypomagnesaemia with tetany following ESHAP protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Gautam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One patient with B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma developed severe hypomagnesaemia and tetany 15 days after the first course of treatment with ESHAP protocol. This prompted a careful look at the incidence and severity of hypomagnesaemia during treatment with this combination chemotherapy. Method This patient and two further patients having the same treatment were monitored for hypomagnesaemia throughout their treatment period. Result All three patients developed significant hypomagnesaemia requiring intravenous magnesium infusion in the second and third weeks after treatment though not after every course of chemotherapy. Conclusions ESHAP protocol is often associated with significant hypomagnesaemia two to three weeks after treatment. Therefore, serum magnesium level should be monitored throughout the treatment period.

  10. CORPORATE DEBT AND CRISIS SEVERITY IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Niemczak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the financial structure of non-financial corporations in the European Union prior to the 2008 crisis and to determine whether the ex-ante differences in corporate financial structure had an impact on the severity of the 2008 financial crisis in European countries. The analysis confirms a negative relationship between the corporate debt ratio prior to the crisis and crisis-induced contractions in corporate investment and GDP. The results indicate a greater importance of the growth in corporate indebtedness in the years prior to the crisis for crisis vulnerability than solely the level of debt immediately before the crisis. The paper has several important implications for crisis prevention and mitigation policy.

  11. Is paediatric trauma severity overestimated at triage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DO, H Q; Hesselfeldt, R; Steinmetz, J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe paediatric trauma is rare, and pre-hospital and local hospital personnel experience with injured children is often limited. We hypothesised that a higher proportion of paediatric trauma victims were taken to the regional trauma centre (TC). METHODS: This is an observational...... follow-up study that involves one level I TC and seven local hospitals. We included paediatric (trauma patients with a driving distance to the TC > 30 minutes. The primary end-point was the proportion of trauma patients arriving in the TC. RESULTS: We included 1934...... trauma patients, 238 children and 1696 adults. A total of 33/238 children (13.9%) vs. 304/1696 adults (17.9%) were transported to the TC post-injury (P = 0.14). Among these, children were significantly less injured than adults [median Injury Severity Score (ISS) 9 vs. 14, P 

  12. Severe periodontitis and higher cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard Grønkjær, Lea; Holmstrup, Palle; Schou, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Background Periodontitis and edentulism are prevalent in patients with cirrhosis, but their clinical significance is largely unknown. Objective The objective of this article is to determine the association of severe periodontitis and edentulism with mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Methods...... A total of 184 cirrhosis patients underwent an oral examination. All-cause and cirrhosis-related mortality was recorded. The associations of periodontitis and edentulism with mortality were explored by Kaplan–Meier survival plots and Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, gender, cirrhosis...... etiology, Child–Pugh score, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, smoker status, present alcohol use, comorbidity, and nutritional risk score. Results The total follow-up time was 74,197 days (203.14 years). At entry, 44% of the patients had severe periodontitis and 18% were edentulous. Forty...

  13. [Asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a reopened debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Stefano; Sadaba, Rafael; de la Cruz, Elena

    2014-05-06

    Aortic stenosis is a complex disease. About 2-7% of the population over 65 years of age is affected by its degenerative form. In patients with severe aortic stenosis presenting with symptoms or left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF)debate. Recent published data show that about one third of these patients present with low left ventricle stroke volume, which may affect survival. For this reason, and considering that aortic valve replacement is in most cases a low risk procedure, early surgery in this subgroup is a strategy that deserves to be taken into account. In this review we report on these recent findings, which allow understanding why patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis should not be considered and treated as a homogenous population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  15. [Severe hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis. Report of six cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Leonella; Silvariño, Ricardo; Boggia, José; Noboa, Oscar; Gadola, Liliana

    2014-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis results from acute necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers and consequent leakage of muscle constituents into the circulation. It ranges from an asymptomatic state to a severe condition associated with extreme elevations in creatine kinase and acute renal failure. Reported etiologies of rhabdomyolysis include alcohol abuse, drugs, muscle trauma and muscle overexertion. Less common causes include muscle enzyme deficiencies, electrolyte abnormalities, infectious causes, toxins and endocrine disorders. Hypokalemia is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. We report six patients aged 31 to 57 years (three women) with a severe hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis, secondary to chronic diarrhea in two patients, treatment with loop diuretics in one and Gitelman syndrome in three. Rhabdomyolysis may be underdiagnosed in the context of hypokalemia, because the neuromuscular symptoms can be attributed solely to the electrolyte disorder.

  16. When to advise surgery for severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    A typical severely obese patient will have about 50 kg excess weight to lose, which is equivalent to a store of 350,000 kcal. The optimum rate of weight loss in such a patient is about 1 kg/week, which involves an energy deficit of 1000 kcal/day for about a year. It is difficult to maintain this degree of dietary restriction over such a long period, and procedures such as jaw wiring or stomach stapling may help in some cases. Maintenance of weight loss is difficult to achieve and may be helped by fitting a nylon waist cord after weight loss. On theoretical grounds, patients who do not lose weight despite keeping to a properly-designed reducing diet would not benefit from surgery, but in practice this problem does not arise. It is dangerous to resort to surgery for the treatment of severely obese patients who cannot diet by reason of psychiatric disorder. PMID:2780444

  17. Aetiology and treatment of severe postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of three studies focusing on severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). PPH is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Risk factors include retained placenta, prolonged duration of the third stage of labour, previous caesarean section, and operative vaginal...... delivery. Occurrence and development of PPH are, however, unpredictable and can sometimes give rise to massive haemorrhage or even hysterectomy and maternal death. Severe haemorrhage can lead to coagulopathy causing further haemorrhage and requiring substitution with blood transfusions. The aim...... transfusion at 6 weeks postpartum. A total of 249 women were randomised to either 2 grams of fibrinogen or placebo. The mean concentration of fibrinogen increased significantly in the intervention group compared to the placebo group (0.40 g/L, confidence interval: 0.15-0.65), but there was no difference...

  18. Estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljenedil, Sumayah; Hegele, Robert A; Genest, Jacques; Awan, Zuhier

    Estrogen, whether therapeutic or physiologic, can cause hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis is a rare complication. We report 2 women who developed estrogen-associated severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis. The first patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia associated with in vitro fertilization cycles. Marked reduction in her triglyceride was achieved with dietary restrictions and fibrate. The second patient developed pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia during her pregnancies. She was noncompliant with the treatment; therefore, her triglyceride remained high after delivery. In both patients, no hypertriglyceridemia-associated genes mutations were identified, although the second patient had strong polygenic susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia. Estrogen-induced severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition. Screening in high-risk patients is crucial to prevent subsequent complications. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  20. Cardiac Sarcoidosis Culminating in Severe Biventricular Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takefumi Ozaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old woman with a history of lung sarcoidosis developed general edema and exertional dyspnea. An electrocardiogram showed first-degree atrioventricular block with complete right bundle branch block. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. Echocardiography showed diffuse and severe hypokinesis of the left ventricle (LV and biventricular enlargement with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Myocardial scintigraphy disclosed a perfusion defect at the ventricular septum and hypoperfusion at the posterior wall and the apex. On cardiac catheterization, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right ventricular, and right atrial pressures were elevated. Coronary angiograms were normal. Myocardial biopsy of the right ventricle histologically revealed epithelioid cell granuloma with infiltration of fibrous cells. The patient's symptom and LV function were improved with conventional medical therapy for heart failure. This is a rare case of cardiac sarcoidosis resulting in biventricular failure.

  1. Solar Sources of Severe Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Shibasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Severe space weather is characterized by intense particle radiation from the Sun and severe geomagnetic storm caused by magnetized solar plasma arriving at Earth. Intense particle radiation is almost always caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) traveling from the Sun at super-Alfvenic speeds leading to fast-mode MHD shocks and particle acceleration by the shocks. When a CME arrives at Earth, it can interact with Earth's magnetopause resulting in solar plasma entry into the magnetosphere and a geomagnetic storm depending on the magnetic structure of the CME. Particle radiation starts affecting geospace as soon as the CMEs leave the Sun and the geospace may be immersed in the radiation for several days. On the other hand, the geomagnetic storm happens only upon arrival of the CME at Earth. The requirements for the production of particles and magnetic storms by CMEs are different in a number of respects: solar source location, CME magnetic structure, conditions in the ambient solar wind, and shock-driving ability of CMEs. Occasionally, intense geomagnetic storms are caused by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that form in the interplanetary space when the fast solar wind from coronal holes overtakes the slow wind from the quiet regions. CIRs also accelerate particles, but when they reach several AU from the Sun, so their impact on Earth's space environment is not significant. In addition to these plasma effects, solar flares that accompany CMEs also produce excess ionization in the ionosphere causing sudden ionospheric disturbances. This paper highlights these space weather effects using space weather events observed by space and ground based instruments during of solar cycles 23 and 24.

  2. Severe halitosis as presentation of epiphrenic diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca Megías, Elizabeth; Noa Pedroso, Guillermo; Martínez Alfonso, Miguel Ángel; Pérez Triana, Frank; Seijas Cabrera, Osvaldo; Garcia Jordá, Elsy

    2016-11-01

    Halitosis is a common condition, whose main etiology does not respond to diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Epiphrenic diverticula are a rare cause of this manifestation, thus they are not frequent and they are usually asymptomatic. However, they may produce symptoms with inability for patient. A patient with severe halitosis is presented. In his study, an epiphrenic diverticulum is diagnosed and the laparoscopic abdominal diverticulectomy is performed with a complete resolution of symptomatology.

  3. [Severe lactic acidosis associated to metformin intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda Peña, M S; Suberviola Cañas, B; González Castro, A; Marco Moreno, J M; Ugarte Peña, P

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is a biguanide extensively used in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Between the nocive effects of the metformin emphasizes tha lactic acidosis because of its low frecuency but potential severity. The diagnosis of the poisoning due to metformin is based on the coexistence of lactic acidosis and one or more of the risk factors. The development of lactic acidosis in metformin poisoning is associated to a range of 50-80% of mortality.

  4. Severe lamotrigine toxicosis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer D; Gates K

    2017-01-01

    Danielle Sawyer, Kathryn Gates Emergency and Critical Care Department, Advanced Critical Care and Emergency Specialty Services, Culver City, CA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to describe a case of severe lamotrigine toxicosis in a dog, which was successfully treated using minimal medical interventions. Case summary: A 7-month-old male, intact, Labrador mix was evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, rigidity, and dull mentation after ingesting lamotrigine tablets. The e...

  5. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  6. Rituximab for severe refractory pediatric Wegener granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aarat M; Lehman, Thomas J A

    2008-10-01

    We describe a case of pediatric Wegener granulomatosis initially treated with cyclophosphamide and oral corticosteroids resulting in remission for 5 years. Of note in this case is relapse with severe pulmonary disease treated with multiple regimens, all unsuccessful. Patient achieved remission with rituximab infusion therapy. This demonstrates how rituximab may be beneficial for childhood-onset Wegener granulomatosis unresponsive to conventional therapy. The case is followed by a review of the current treatment options.

  7. Tuberculous spondylitis presenting as severe chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Kaeser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 32-year-old male who presented to an emergency department with severe chest pain and a history of cough, fever, night sweats, loss of appetite and weight. Chest radiography revealed a left upper lobe consolidation and multiple compression deformities in the thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated significant kyphosis and vertebral plana at two thoracic levels. Anterior compression of the spinal cord and adjacent soft tissue masses were also noted.

  8. Tuberculous spondylitis presenting as severe chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Martha A; Kettner, Norman W; Albastaki, Usama; Kotb, Hossam Ahmed; Eldesouky, Ibrahim M A; Pierre-Jerome, Claude

    2012-03-30

    This case report describes a 32-year-old male who presented to an emergency department with severe chest pain and a history of cough, fever, night sweats, loss of appetite and weight. Chest radiography revealed a left upper lobe consolidation and multiple compression deformities in the thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated significant kyphosis and vertebral plana at two thoracic levels. Anterior compression of the spinal cord and adjacent soft tissue masses were also noted.

  9. Severe thrombocytopenia related to trastuzumab infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mantzourani, Marina; Gogas, Helen; Katsandris, Aikaterini; Meletis, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Trastuzumab is a humanized, monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor and binds selectively to the HERB2 protein which causes uncontrolled proliferation of malignant breast cells. Case Report We report a case of severe thrombocytopenia related to trastuzumab administration. Three days after the first dose of single-agent trastuzumab, the patient was admitted to the hospital with nose bleeding, petechiae and platelet counts of 5?109/L. Conclusions The pa...

  10. Severe shoulder tendinopathy associated with levofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter de Araujo Eyer-Silva

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone (FQ-associated tendinopathy and myopathy are uncommon but well recognized complications of the use of this class of antibacterial agents. The case of a 63-year-old previously asymptomatic female patient who developed severe left shoulder tendinopathy after surreptitiously doubling the prescribed dose of levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia is reported here. Surgical stabilization with suture anchors and subacromial decompression were needed.

  11. Severe congenital cyclic neutropenia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vidyavathi H.; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Balikai, Girish; Patil, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cyclic neutropenia syndrome is a constitutional genetic disorder which is characterized by very low number of neutrophils (neutropenia). Patients suffering from this disorder clinically present with neutropenia at early age, history of recurrent fever, ulcerations in the oral cavity, gingivitis, and other recurrent infections. This paper describes a case report of a child with recurrent mouth ulcers, fever, and later diagnosed with severe congenital cyclic neutropenia. This also em...

  12. Intima-Media Thickness in Severe Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmas, Elise; Kahn, Jean-François; Giral, Philippe; Abdennour, Meriem; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Fellahi, Soraya; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Clément, Karine; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Poitou, Christine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with cardiovascular risk and a low-grade inflammatory state in both blood and adipose tissue (AT). Whether inflammation contributes to vascular alteration remains an open question. To test this hypothesis, we measured arterial intima-media thickness (IMT), which reflects subclinical atherosclerosis, in severely obese subjects and explored associations with systemic inflammation and AT inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS IMT of the carotid artery (C-IMT) a...

  13. Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Khavjou, Olga A; Thompson, Hope; Trogdon, Justin G; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Dietz, William

    2012-06-01

    Previous efforts to forecast future trends in obesity applied linear forecasts assuming that the rise in obesity would continue unabated. However, evidence suggests that obesity prevalence may be leveling off. This study presents estimates of adult obesity and severe obesity prevalence through 2030 based on nonlinear regression models. The forecasted results are then used to simulate the savings that could be achieved through modestly successful obesity prevention efforts. The study was conducted in 2009-2010 and used data from the 1990 through 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The analysis sample included nonpregnant adults aged ≥ 18 years. The individual-level BRFSS variables were supplemented with state-level variables from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the American Chamber of Commerce Research Association, and the Census of Retail Trade. Future obesity and severe obesity prevalence were estimated through regression modeling by projecting trends in explanatory variables expected to influence obesity prevalence. Linear time trend forecasts suggest that by 2030, 51% of the population will be obese. The model estimates a much lower obesity prevalence of 42% and severe obesity prevalence of 11%. If obesity were to remain at 2010 levels, the combined savings in medical expenditures over the next 2 decades would be $549.5 billion. The study estimates a 33% increase in obesity prevalence and a 130% increase in severe obesity prevalence over the next 2 decades. If these forecasts prove accurate, this will further hinder efforts for healthcare cost containment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of Several Low‐Cost Accelerometers

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, Richard M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E. S.; Guy, Richard; Hellweg, M. (Matthias); J. F. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low-cost host-operated systems of strong-motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C...

  15. An Unexpected Cause of Severe Hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caravaca-Fontan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of severe hypokalemia with electrocardiographic changes, due to licorice consumption, in a 15-year-old female student with no previous medical history. Prompt replacement of potassium and cessation of licorice ingestion resulted in a favourable outcome. We also discuss the pathophysiology and diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of a detailed anamnesis to rule out an often forgotten cause of hypokalemia as the licorice poisoning.

  16. Insomnia comorbid to severe psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Katherine A; Harvey, Allison G.

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that sleep disturbances exert a detrimental influence on the course of these disorders and contribute to impaired function. Even when psychiatric disorders are successfully treated or stabilized, insomnia and other sleep disturbances often fail to remit. The present review focuses on sleep in two severe mental illnesses, namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This article discusses the role of sleep disturbances and al...

  17. Severe Adverse Drug Reaction to Gadobenate Dimeglumine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Singer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation and management of stroke in the setting of an atrial septal defect. Shortly after receiving gadobenate dimeglumine for magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic vessels, he experienced cardiac arrest from which he was resuscitated. His course was complicated by profound distributive shock. The presumed cause was a severe anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction to the gadolinium-based compound that he received.

  18. Severe halitosis as presentation of epiphrenic diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Montes-de-Oca-Megías

    Full Text Available Halitosis is a common condition, whose main etiology does not respond to diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Epiphrenic diverticula are a rare cause of this manifestation, thus they are not frequent and they are usually asymptomatic. However, they may produce symptoms with inability for patient. A patient with severe halitosis is presented. In his study, an epiphrenic diverticulum is diagnosed and the laparoscopic abdominal diverticulectomy is performed with a complete resolution of symptomatology.

  19. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades

    OpenAIRE

    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D

    2000-01-01

    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  20. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12?48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  1. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  2. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p pathogenesis of acne.

  4. Management of severe ocular burns with symblepharon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiyun; Wang, Ting; Gao, Hua; Xie, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of lamellar keratoplasty combined with limbal stem cells, using amniotic membrane, autologous conjunctiva, and pseudopterygium to reconstruct external eyes for severe ocular burns with symblepharon. Thirty eyes of 29 patients had severe symblephara resulting from eye burns. According to the range of the symblepharon and the loss of limbal stem cells, partial lamellar keratoplasty combined with partial limbal stem cell treatment was performed in 19 eyes, and total lamellar keratoplasty with total limbus was performed in 11 eyes. All patients had amniotic membrane and autologous conjunctival transplantation, and the pseudopterygium was preserved to reconstruct the fornix. Symblephara were completely relieved in 19 eyes. They remained partially in ten eyes in strip-like form, but seven of these were completely relieved after further autologous conjunctival transplantation. One eye was treated with tarsorrhaphy for eyelid malformation. The remaining pseudopterygium became thinner after the operation and showed no symblepharon. Immune rejection occurred in eight corneal grafts; clarity was restored in four of these, while there was graft neovascularization in the remaining four. Depending on the area of symblepharon and the loss of limbal stem cells, partial or total lamellar keratoplasty combined with limbal stem cells, using amniotic membrane, autologous conjunctiva and pseudopterygium to reconstruct external eyes appears to be effective in treating severe ocular burns with symblepharon. Pseudopterygium can partly substitute autologous conjunctiva in ocular surface reconstruction.

  5. Transjugular liver biopsy in severe alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shiran; Venkatakrishnan, L; Krishanveni, J; Kumari, Shantha

    2017-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis although part of spectrum of alcoholic liver disease can have overlapping features, and differentiating them using clinical, biochemical, and imaging features is not always possible. Standard therapy for each differs, and steroid therapy while beneficial in alcoholic hepatitis may be detrimental in cirrhosis due to high infectious complications. We analyzed our experience with liver biopsy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. Male patients in the age group of 25-65 years who were clinically diagnosed with severe alcoholic hepatitis (DF > 32) were retrospectively analyzed and included in this study. All of them had undergone transjugular liver biopsy within the first 7 days of hospitalization. Thirty patients were included. Most were in the 35-55 age group. Jaundice was present in all patients with fever and tender hepatomegaly also being common. On histopathological evaluation, 33.3% (n = 10) suspected clinically to have alcoholic hepatitis had underlying cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is found in one third of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. This may alter our approach to management of this condition.

  6. Emotional intelligence, trauma severity, and emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Min C; Chen, Yung Y

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a moderator for the association between emotional expression and adaptive trauma processing, as measured by depressive symptoms. Using Pennebaker's written emotional expression paradigm, 105 participants were assigned to either a conventional trauma-writing or religious trauma-writing condition. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and again at one-month post writing. No significant association between EI and religiousness was found at baseline. Results indicated a three-way interaction among EI, trauma severity, and writing condition on depressive symptoms at follow-up. For the religious trauma-writing condition only, there was a significant difference between high- versus low-EI participants who experienced more severe trauma in depressive symptoms at follow-up, such that low-EI participants registered less depressive symptoms than high-EI participants; while there was no significant difference between low versus high EI for participants with less severe trauma. These findings encourage further investigation of the conditions under which religion may be a beneficial factor in trauma adaptation.

  7. CVD: a condition of underestimated severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, C R

    2014-06-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) affects approximately a quarter of the adult population and causes a considerable burden on the health of these patients. The true extent of the severity of the disease is hampered because of reduced public awareness, operational difficulties in diagnosis, and the perception that varicose veins are mainly a cosmetic inconvenience. Consequently the disease receives little attention in public health care systems which focus on life threatening conditions and those which cause obvious morbidity like cancer, cardiac disease and stroke. This review aims to correct these misconceptions by addressing the full scope of CVD, including the post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulceration. The severity of conditions like telangectasiae and edema and the symptoms they cause are frequently underestimated, especially if varicose veins are not present to alert the patient or doctor. The definition, diagnosis, scope, epidemiology, progression and cost of CVD are discussed with evidence to explain how these underestimate the severity of the disease. It is anticipated that once CVD achieves greater recognition this will open up greater opportunities for treatment. These include surgery, endovenous ablation, stenting, compression, venoactive drugs like micronized purified flavonoid fraction and other drugs such as sulodexide and pentoxifylline.

  8. Severe myopic anisometropia in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Candy, T Rowan; Yang, Yabo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a Chinese four-generation family with severe myopic anisometropia and to explore the possible pathogenesis for this disease. Eighteen individuals of a four-generation family participated in the study, including a pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins. A detailed family history and clinical data were recorded. All participants were subjected to ophthalmologic examinations including refractive error, slitlamp, and fundus examination. B-scan and A-scan ultrasonography were additionally ordered for each affected patient for further evaluation. Optical refractive correction was prescribed, and full-time occlusion therapy of 6 days weekly in right eye and 1 day weekly in left eye was prescribed for the MZ twins. Five individuals were affected with severe myopic anisometropia within this family, including the pair of MZ twins. In all affected individuals, the right eyes were more myopic than the left eyes, and axial length and anterior chamber depth measurements in the more myopic eyes were longer. After 6 months of therapy, the best corrected visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of the MZ twins improved significantly. The co-occurrence of severe myopic anisometropia in five individuals of the family supports a genetic basis for the disease. The successful therapeutic effect on anisometropic amblyopia highlights the importance of early detection and timely treatment.

  9. APR1400 severe accident mitigation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae Young, Lim; Jae Youb, Byun [Shin-Kori 3 and 4 NPP Project, Korea Power Engineering Company, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    APR1400, a Korean evolutionary advanced LWR, has been developed to meet the quantitative safety goals of mean core damage frequency to be less than one in one hundred thousand reactor years (10{sup -5}/y) and the expected overall mean frequency of occurrence of offsite doses in excess of 0.01 Sv within 24 hours at the site boundary to be less than one per million reactor years (10{sup -6}/y). In order to meet these quantitative goals, defense in depth, a long standing fundamental principle of reactor safety, was applied to ensure plant safety and to provide the balanced design between prevention and mitigation. And various advanced design features were reviewed to improve plant safety in the viewpoint of prevention and mitigation of design basis accident and severe accident. In this paper, 5 issues concerning severe accident mitigation features of the APR1400 are reviewed: 1) hydrogen control, 2) high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, 3) steam explosion, 4) molten corium concrete interaction, and 5) equipment survivability. It is shown that the APR1400 has been designed to withstand severe accidents.

  10. Ziconotide for treatment of severe chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtko, Achim; Lötsch, Jörn; Freynhagen, Rainer; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Pharmacological management of severe chronic pain is difficult to achieve with currently available analgesic drugs, and remains a large unmet therapeutic need. The synthetic peptide ziconotide has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for intrathecal treatment of patients with severe chronic pain that is refractory to other treatment modalities. Ziconotide is the first member in the new drug class of selective N-type voltage-sensitive calcium-channel blockers. The ziconotide-induced blockade of N-type calcium channels in the spinal cord inhibits release of pain-relevant neurotransmitters from central terminals of primary afferent neurons. By this mechanism, ziconotide can effectively reduce pain. However, ziconotide has a narrow therapeutic window because of substantial CNS side-effects, and thus treatment with ziconotide is appropriate for only a small subset of patients with severe chronic pain. We provide an overview of the benefits and limitations of intrathecal ziconotide treatment and review potential future developments in this new drug class. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PEG-asparaginase induced severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Rodolfo J; Yoon, Justin; Devoe, Craig; Myers, Alyson K

    2016-04-01

    Asparaginase (ASP) is an effective chemotherapy agent extensively used in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). There has been a recent interest in using ASP in adults with ALL, particularly the less toxic pegylated (PEG) formulation. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a rare complication of PEG-ASP therapy. We report two cases of obese patients who developed severe HTG after receiving PEG for ALL. Both patients were incidentally found to have severe HTG (TG of 4,330 and 4,420 mg/dL). In both patients, there was no personal or family history of dyslipidemia or hypothyroidism. There was no evidence of pancreatitis or skin manifestations of HTG. Both patients were treated with PEG cessation, low-fat diet and pharmacotherapy. Both patients were re-challenged with PEG, with subsequent increase in TG but no associated complications. TG returned to baseline after discontinuing PEG and while on therapy for HTG. A literature review of PEG-induced HTG in adults demonstrated similar results: asymptomatic presentation despite very severe HTG. HTG is a rare but clinically important adverse effect of PEG. Underlying obesity and/or diabetes may represent risk factors. Clinicians should monitor TG levels during PEG therapy to avoid TG-induced pancreatitis.

  12. Self-esteem in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  13. Development of Severe Accident Containment Analysis Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min; Seo, Jea-Uk; Lee, Dea-Young; Park, Soon-Ho; Lee, Jae-Gwon; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Byung-Chul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In safety viewpoint, the pressure and temperature of the containment is the important parameters, of course, the local hydrogen concentration is also the parameter of the major concern because of its flammability and the risk of the detonation. In addition, there are possibilities of occurrence of other relevant phenomena following the reactor core melting such as DCH(direct containment heating) due to HPME(high pressure melt ejection), steam explosion due to fuel-coolant interaction in the reactor cavity and molten core concrete interaction at the late stage. It is important to predict the containment responses during a severe accident by a reasonable accuracy for establishing of effective mitigation strategies and preparation of the safety features required. In this paper, the overview of the SACAP development status is presented. SACAP is developed so as to be able to analyze, so called, Ex-Vessel severe accident phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, combustible gas burn, direct containment heating, steam explosion and molten core-concrete interaction. At the parallel time, SACAP and In-Vessel analysis module named CSPACE are processed for integration through MPI communication coupling. Development of the integrated severe accident analysis code system will be completed in following one year to make the code revision zero to be released.

  14. Survival After Severe Rhabdomyolysis Following Monensin Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Michela; Garrard, Alexander; Poppenga, Robert; Chen, Betty; Valento, Matthew; Halliday Gittinger, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    Monensin is a veterinary antibiotic with a narrow therapeutic window that has led to lethal intoxication in many animal species. Only two prior cases of human toxicity have been reported, both fatal. We present the first case of survival from severe toxicity following monensin ingestion. A 58-year-old man presented with 8 days of vomiting and abdominal pain. Due to delusions of central nervous system toxoplasmosis, he ingested 300 mg of monensin. His laboratory studies revealed severe rhabdomyolysis without renal dysfunction. Total creatine kinase (CK) peaked above 100,000 U/L. His CK decreased to 5192 U/L after 15 days of aggressive hydration and sodium bicarbonate therapy. His ejection fraction on echocardiogram decreased from 69 to 56%. Reports on acute clinical effects after human exposure to monensin are limited. Ingestion is known to cause skeletal and cardiac muscle rhabdomyolysis and necrosis. Animal studies demonstrate that monensin's toxicity is due to increases in intracellular sodium concentrations and Ca2+ release. To date, no effective antidotal treatment has been described. Monensin is a veterinary medication not approved for human use by the US Food and Drug Administration. Though poorly studied in humans, this case demonstrates the severe harm that may occur following ingestion.

  15. [Eating habits of patients with severe obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz Barragán, Aída Monserrat; Hernández Altamirano, Sheila Viridiana; Sierra Murguía, Mariana Alejandra; Torres Tamayo, Margarita

    2014-11-30

    Severe obesity is a health problem that has medical, emotional and economic consequences. The etiology of severe obesity is multifactorial; however, it is known that the eating habits represent a major factor in the development of this disease. This study aimed to identify eating patterns and specific habits that need to be changed to achieve weight loss. An observational, descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study with 250 candidates for bariatric surgery, 79.2% women and 20.8% men aged 37.7 ± 10.2 years and 44.3 ± 7.7 kg/m2 BMI patients was performed. It was found that "drinking water", "eat faster than most people", "leave the plate empty", "have long fasts", "sweet cravings", and "drinking soda" were the most common habits in patients with severe obesity. The existence of significant differences between the habits of men and women and between BMI strata or groups are also discussed. "Snacking" and "eat until you feel uncomfortable" were significantly different between men and women and "eat by yourself because you feel ashamed of eating with others" was significant between BMI strata. It was concluded that it is important that the treatment of these patients includes assessment techniques and behavior modification aimed at these habits. It is recommended to include in future studies patients with normal weight and overweight as well as the use of instruments with adequate psychometric properties. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  17. Ulcerating Ileocolitis in Severe Amatoxin Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Peter Hilty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is still associated with a great potential for complications and a high mortality. While the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis within the first 24 hours after amatoxin ingestion is well described, only very few descriptions of late gastrointestinal complications of amatoxin poisoning exist worldwide. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with severe amatoxin poisoning causing fulminant but reversible hepatic failure that on day 8 after mushroom ingestion developed severe abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Ulcerating ileocolitis was identified by computed tomography identifying a thickening of the bowel wall of the entire ileum and biopsies taken from the ileum and large bowel revealing distinct ileitis and proximally accentuated colitis. The absence of discernible alternative etiologies such as infectious agents makes a causal relationship between the ulcerating ileocolitis and the amatoxin poisoning likely. Diarrhea and varying abdominal pain persisted over several weeks and clinical follow-up after six months showed a completely symptom-free patient. The case presented highlights the importance to consider the possibility of rare complications of Amanita intoxication in order to be able to respond to them early and adequately.

  18. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  19. Labetalol in severe and resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L C; Murphy, M J; Parsons, V

    1979-01-01

    1 The efficacy of labetalol in the treatment of severe hypertension (diastolic greater than or equal to 115 mm Hg) was studied retrospectively. Ten patients were followed for more than 6 months. At 6 months, eight were well controlled and the mean dose in those was 975 mg daily. Four of these were receiving labetalol alone; two were on labetalol and diuretic only. 2 Three patients were resistant to doses of 1600, 1800 and 2400 mg daily respectively; two of these were controlled with increased doses of vasodilator drugs. In two cases labetalol had produced large falls in the standing BP while not influencing the supine BP. 3 Three other resistant patients were seen, of whom one merely required an increase in dose to 2200 mg daily and the addition of a diuretic. Both the others were elderly, had severe vascular disease, and suffered disabling postural hypotension on a dose of labetalol which did not influence the supine BP. 4 Labetalol can control severe hypertension. There remain patients whose supine BP is not influenced by a dose of labetalol which produces marked postural hypotension. PMID:526395

  20. Aciduric microbiota and mutans streptococci in severe and recurrent severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher V; Dahlan, Mohammed; Papadopolou, Eleftheria; Loo, Cheen Y; Pradhan, Nooruddin S; Lu, Shulin C; Mathney, Jennifer M J; Bravoco, Alexandra; Kent, Ralph L; Tanner, Anne C R

    2012-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) results from bacterial acid production in an acidic environment. The purpose of this study was to determine Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and acid-tolerant counts in severe early childhood caries. Two- to 6-year-olds with severe-ECC (N=77) or who were caries-free (N=40) were examined. Plaque samples from teeth and the tongue were cultured anaerobically on blood, acid, and S. mutans selective agars. Severe-ECC children were monitored post-treatment for recurrent caries. Severe-ECC and caries-free children were balanced by household income and education level. Carious lesions were observed in 75% maxillary incisors and >80% molars in severe-ECC. At baseline, S. mutans, and S. sobrinus counts and proportions of S mutans were higher in severe-ECC than caries-free children. Acid and blood counts were elevated only in anterior samples of severe-ECC children. Baseline counts of S. sobrinus, but not S. mutans, were higher in children with recurrent compared with no recurrent caries. S. mutans counts were lower following treatment than pretreatment, particularly for children without caries recurrence. Other counts did not differ between before and after therapy. Severe and recurrent early childhood caries was better explained by mutans streptococci than the aciduric microbiota. Streptococcus mutans did not predict children with recurrent caries.

  1. Airway Microbiota in Severe Asthma and Relationship to Asthma Severity and Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhang

    Full Text Available The lower airways harbor a community of bacterial species which is altered in asthma.We examined whether the lower airway microbiota were related to measures of asthma severity.We prospectively recruited 26 severe asthma, 18 non-severe asthma and 12 healthy subjects. DNA was extracted from induced sputum and PCR amplification of the V3-V5 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was performed.We obtained 138,218 high quality sequences which were rarefied at 133 sequences/sample. Twenty OTUs had sequences ≥1% of total. There were marked differences in the distribution of Phyla between groups (P = 2.8x10-118. Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were reduced in non-severe and severe asthmatic groups. Proteobacteria were more common in non-severe asthmatics compared to controls (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.94-2.64 and Firmicutes were increased in severe asthmatics compared to controls (OR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.89-2.45. Streptococcal OTUs amongst the Firmicutes were associated with recent onset asthma, rhinosinusitis and sputum eosinophilia.Sputum microbiota in severe asthma differs from healthy controls and non-severe asthmatics, and is characterized by the presence of Streptococcus spp with eosinophilia. Whether these organisms are causative for the pathophysiology of asthma remains to be determined.

  2. Aciduric Microbiota and Mutans Streptococci in Severe and Recurrent Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher V.; Dahlan, Mohammed; Papadopolou, Eleftheria; Kent, Ralph L.; Loo, Cheen Y.; Pradhan, Nooruddin S.; Lu, Shulin C.; Bravoco, Alexandra; Mathney, Jennifer M.J.; Tanner, Anne C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Severe early childhood caries (ECC) results from bacterial acid production in an acidic environment. The current study determined Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and acid-tolerant counts in severe-ECC. Methods Children (2–6 years) with severe-ECC (n=77) or who were caries-free (n=40) were examined. Plaque samples from teeth and the tongue were cultured anaerobically on blood, acid and S. mutans selective agars. Severe-ECC children were monitored post-treatment for recurrent caries. Results Severe-ECC and caries-free children were balanced by household income and education level. Carious lesions were observed in 75% maxillary incisors and >80% molars in severe-ECC. At baseline, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus counts and proportions of S. mutans were higher in severe-ECC than caries-free children. Acid and blood counts were elevated only in anterior samples of severe-ECC children. Baseline counts of S. sobrinus, but not S. mutans, were higher in children with recurrent compared with no recurrent caries. S. mutans counts were lower post treatment than pre-treatment, particularly for children without caries recurrence. Other counts did not differ between before and after therapy. Conclusions We conclude that severe and recurrent ECC were better explained by mutans streptococci than the aciduric microbiota. S. mutans did not predict children with recurrent caries. PMID:22583872

  3. Predicting severe injury using vehicle telemetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Bulger, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration standardized collision data collected by event data recorders, which may help determine appropriate emergency medical service (EMS) response. Previous models (e.g., General Motors ) predict severe injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 15) using occupant demographics and collision data. Occupant information is not automatically available, and 12% of calls from advanced automatic collision notification providers are unanswered. To better inform EMS triage, our goal was to create a predictive model only using vehicle collision data. Using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System data set, we included front-seat occupants in late-model vehicles (2000 and later) in nonrollover and rollover crashes in years 2000 to 2010. Telematic (change in velocity, direction of force, seat belt use, vehicle type and curb weight, as well as multiple impact) and nontelematic variables (maximum intrusion, narrow impact, and passenger ejection) were included. Missing data were multiply imputed. The University of Washington model was tested to predict severe injury before application of guidelines (Step 0) and for occupants who did not meet Steps 1 and 2 criteria (Step 3) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Field Triage Guidelines. A probability threshold of 20% was chosen in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. There were 28,633 crashes, involving 33,956 vehicles and 52,033 occupants, of whom 9.9% had severe injury. At Step 0, the University of Washington model sensitivity was 40.0% and positive predictive value (PPV) was 20.7%. At Step 3, the sensitivity was 32.3 % and PPV was 10.1%. Model analysis excluding nontelematic variables decreased sensitivity and PPV. The sensitivity of the re-created General Motors model was 38.5% at Step 0 and 28.1% at Step 3. We designed a model using only vehicle collision data that was predictive of severe injury at

  4. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  5. Photographic Documentation and Hand Eczema Severity Index for Severity Assessment of Hand Eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabludovska, Kristine; Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema (HE) is a fluctuating disease, and an objective assessment of HE severity is coveted. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the association between Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) score and panel scores of photographs taken by dermatologists. METHODS: A total...

  6. Coagulation disorders in patients with severe leptospirosis are associated with severe bleeding and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.P. Wagenaar (Jiri); M.G.A. Goris (Marga); D.L. Partiningrum; B. Isbandrio; R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy); D.P.M. Brandjes; J.C.M. Meijers; M.H. Gasem; E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the involvement of coagulation in bleeding and poor outcome in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methods In a prospective study, parameters of the coagulation system were measured on admission and during follow-up in 52 consecutive patients with severe

  7. Severe asthma: lessons learned from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Nizar N; Erzurum, Serpil C; Bleecker, Eugene R; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A A; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A; Fain, Sean B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaston, Benjamin M; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D; Meyers, Deborah A; Moore, Wendy C; Peters, Stephen P; Sorkness, Ronald L; Teague, W Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E; Busse, William W

    2012-02-15

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure-function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies.

  8. [Severe burns related to steam inhalation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J A; Domínguez-Sampedro, P; Pérez, E; Suelves, J M; Collado, J M

    2015-02-01

    Despite lack of proven effectiveness and its potential to cause severe burns, steam inhalation therapy (SIT) is still used as a treatment for benign respiratory conditions. To characterize cases of burns related to steam inhalation therapy (BRSIT) in order to formulate appropriate preventive criteria. A review was conducted on cases of BRSIT admitted to a Burns Unit between 2006 and 2012, analysing epidemiological data, clinical aspects, severity and course. A total of 530 patients were admitted; 375 (70%) with scalds, and 15 with BRSIT (2.8% of burns; 4% of scalds). SIT was indicated in most cases for mild upper airway infections. The median age of patients was 7 years (2.5m-14 y). The burned area (BA) was ≥10% in 60% of cases (max. BA 22%). Injuries involved trunk, genital area, and extremities; only in one case was the face affected. The mean hospital length-of-stay was 14 days (3-30 d). Five patients (33%) were admitted to the PICU, most of them (60%) younger than 3 years. Eight patients (53%) underwent surgical treatment (skin grafting). In a 12-year-old patient whooping cough was diagnosed in the Burns Unit, and a 2.5-year-old patient developed staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. No patient died. The final course was satisfactory in all patients. BRSIT can be severe and cause significant use of health resources. Professionals caring for children, particularly paediatricians, should seriously consider their prevention, avoiding treatments with SIT, and educating parents in order not to use it on their own. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Severe secondary postpartum hemorrhage: a historical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Mathieu; Debost-Legrand, Anne; Déchelotte, Pierre; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    The principal objective of our study was to describe the frequency of severe secondary postpartum hemorrhages (PPH). Our secondary objectives were to describe the different causes of PPH and to assess if the PPH etiologies varied by parity. This is a historical cohort study covering the period from January 1, 2004, through February 13, 2013, in a level III maternity ward. Women were eligible if they were treated for severe secondary PPH during their postpartum hospitalization or were admitted for it after discharge but before the 42nd day postpartum, regardless of the type of delivery. Women were excluded if they gave birth before 22 weeks of gestation or if they had experienced only an immediate PPH (≤ 24 hours after delivery). Eligible patients were identified by the hospital's administrative software. Primiparas and multiparas were compared with Student's t test and a chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. The incidence of severe secondary PPH was 0.23 percent (n = 60/26,023). The mean time between delivery and PPH onset was 13.4 ± 10.8 days. The women's mean age was 30.4 ± 5.7 years and their mean body mass index was 23.4 ± 5.7 kg/m². Placental retention was the cause to which these hemorrhages were most frequently attributed (30.0%). Subinvolution of the placental bed was noted in 13.3 percent of the patients, endometritis in 10.0 percent, pseudoaneurysm of the uterine artery in 3.3 percent, and excessively strong resumption of menses in 3.3 percent; no cause could be determined for 16.7 percent of the cases. Neither clinical signs nor causes differed by parity. Secondary PPH is rare. Accurate diagnosis is based most often on histopathologic findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency and severe hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonard, S; Gauthier-Morgenstern, M; Douillard, C; Leteurtre, E; Nocaudie, M; Leroy, X; Proye, C; Marchandise, X; Wemeau, J L; Vantyghem, M C

    2002-12-01

    The typical manifestations of severe hypercalcemia with osteitis fibrosa cystica have become exceedingly rare. We describe the case of a woman hospitalized for a tibial tumor with functional impotence, leading to a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT I) associated with profound vitamin D deficiency. This 31-year-old woman was admitted, after two pregnancies complicated by the HELLP syndrome. Preoperative laboratory values were as follows: calcemia 4.05 mmol/l (2.2-2.6); urinary calcium 30 mmol/24 h (1.25-7.5); parathormone (PTH) 1 195 pg/ml (10-60); and 25 OH-vitamin D 13 nmol/l (22-120). Specific MIBI uptake by the tibial lesion oriented the diagnosis towards a brown tumor. After surgical excision of a parathyroid adenoma and the brown tumor (associated with tibial fracture), calcemia fell to 1.55 mmol/l and normalized after three months. Urinary calcium fell to 0.1 mmol/24 h and remained low during the 2 years following surgery. Vitamin D levels rapidly normalized on supplementation (87 nmol/l). PTH levels fell markedly after surgery but remained higher than normal till 2 years after surgery despite normalization of calcemia three months after. Bone repair, estimated by means of bone densitometry, improved from preoperative Z-score values of - 6.54, - 5.20 and - 3.50 in the left femoral neck, right femoral neck and lumbar spine, respectively, to - 0.20, - 1.55 and - 0.28, respectively, one year after surgery. In conclusion, this case illustrates: 1) the severe osseous expression of HPT probably related to vitamin D deficiency; 2) specific MIBI uptake by the bone lesion, orientating the diagnosis towards a brown tumor; 3) the consequences of vitamin D deficiency on postoperative outcome, with transient severe initial hypocalcemia related to bone calcium avidity; 4) a possible link between HPT and the HELLP syndrome.

  11. Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

  12. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  13. [Severe lactic acidosis revealing hematologic malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchikhe, A; Le Bivic, J-L; Longuet, O; Maindivide, J; Vincent, J-F

    2014-06-01

    A 75-year-old woman is hospitalised for sepsis. The diagnosis of cholecystitis is made and an antibiotic therapy is debuted. The clinical worsening leads to realise an urgent cholecystectomy. A sepsis like shock persisted. The antibiotherapy was changed and a second abdominal look made. A severe lactic acidosis persisted since the cholecystectomy despite a continuous hemofiltration. The diagnosis of type B lactic acidosis secondary to malignancy was suspected. An osteomedullar biopsy revelled B-cell lymphoma EBV induced. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe calcinosis cutis in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvabanditsin, Surasak; Patel, Jigneshkumar B. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Surgery, Newark, NJ (United States); Garrow, Eugene; Titapiwatanakun, Ruetima; Getachew, Rahel [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We report on an infant with severe asphyxia and persistent pulmonary hypertension as a newborn. The baby received prolonged intravenous calcium gluconate therapy for hypocalcemia. At 5 weeks of age, multiple firm, indurated areas (armor-like lesions) were palpable in the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk, arms, legs, and face, particularly in skin folds. Roentgenographic study showed generalized soft-tissue calcifications throughout the body, extremities, and face. Calcinosis cutis occurs through a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Case reports on calcinosis cutis in infants are uncommon, and the calcifications are mostly localized. In our patient, they are generalized. (orig.)

  15. Perceived Severity of Visually Accessible Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolf, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of past fires suggest that building occupants faced with a fire have problems defining the severity of it, especially in the early stages of the fire. An experiment was therefore carried out to study people’s ability to estimate fire growth, and their perceived ability to extinguish a fire using a portable fire extinguisher. A total of 535 persons, namely 304 men and 231 women, were asked to fill out a questionnaire that was divided into three parts. In the first part the test ...

  16. [Case of occlusal reconstruction for severe attrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    A 57-year-old female complained of aesthetic disturbance, dysmasesis and phonation disorder by attrition. She had severe attrition of almost teeth. To avoid metal color exposure and attrition of opposing teeth, hybrid ceramics were used for veneered crowns and fixed partial denture. Since the prosthetic treatment, the patient wears a night guard to prevent attrition of her teeth and prosthesis. There has been no specific trouble during the 4-year follow-up. It is considered that using hybrid ceramics for veneering crowns and fixed partial denture and night guard help to prevent the attrition of opposing teeth and abrasion of prosthesis.

  17. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-01-01

    In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special empha...

  18. The Lindelof principle in several complex variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Steven G.

    2007-02-01

    We formulate and prove a new Lindelof principle in the function theory of several complex variables. Inspired by the classical result, as improved later by Lehto and Virtanen, this new result meshes closely with the well-established Fatou theorems of Koranyi and Stein. In particular, this is a Lindelof principle for admissible approach regions. We further adapt the new principle to the Levi geometry of various domains. The results in this paper improve on earlier results of Cirka, Cima/Krantz, Abate, and Abate/Tauraso.

  19. Severe iron intoxication treated with exchange transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, M; Cortes, D; Jepsen, S

    2009-01-01

    An 18-month-old previous healthy girl who had ingested 442 mg elemental iron/kg was admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. The child was treated with gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation and intravenous deferoxamine. After 2 h of standard therapy serum iron had risen threefold to 1362 µg....../dl (244 µmol/l). The child was treated with exchange transfusion (ET; 52 ml/kg) and serum iron fell to 134 µg/dl (24 µmol/l). The patient made an uncomplicated recovery. ET should be considered in severe iron poisoning when standard therapy is inadequate....

  20. [Severe cervical kyphosis causing sudden inspiratory stridor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Karen Lise Dahl; Bach, Allan; Iversen, Rikke Haahr; Skaarup, Søren Helbo

    2017-05-08

    An 85-year-old woman was brought to an accident and emergency department with breathing difficulties accompanied by inspiratory stridor. She was being treated for hypertension and severe osteoporosis which had caused thoracal and cervical fractures of the columna. Intubation was initiated as she desaturated and deteriorated despite maximum oxygen therapy. The intubation revealed a subglottic stenosis as a consequence of a recent osteoporotic fracture in the cervical columna. This represents a rare cause of respiratory failure as all other cardial, pulmonary and allergic aetiologies had been eliminated.