Sample records for severely disabled long-term

  1. Making Music, Making Friends: Long-Term Music Therapy with Young Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina


    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic…

  2. Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities. (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina


    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs.

  3. A model for the development of virtual communities for people with long-term, severe physical disabilities

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    C.M. Tilley


    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports results of an investigation into the needs of persons with disabilities wanting to participate in the use of virtual communities. The aim was to investigate 'how virtual communities for persons with long-term, severe physical disabilities can best be facilitated'? Method. A Grounded Theory approach was adopted to inform the investigation. In- depth interviews were conducted with twelve persons with paraplegia, quadriplegia or other severe, long-term physical or mobility disabilities and six health care professionals, service providers, information personnel and policy advisers who were involved in their well-being. Analysis. Rich explanations were derived about the information and communication technology (ICT usage and the technologies' contributions towards restoration of sense of control over their lives. Results. The primary outcome of the investigation is a theory regarding the character of virtual communities for the disabled. The theory is represented as a Virtual Community Model. The model identifies: the need for 'a sense of control' as the foundation element of virtual communities for the disabled; the key domains in which disabled people participate in virtual communities; and the barriers and enablers to their participation. Conclusion. The model provides a framework which can be used by interest groups and other organizations to facilitate the development of virtual communities for persons with severe physical disabilities. The six key types of community need to be represented in such virtual communities if a full 'sense of control' is to be achieved by disabled persons.

  4. Long-term disability in anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F


    This longitudinal study aims to investigate differences in long-term disability between social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA), panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and multiple anxiety disorders (multiple AD), focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour). Data were used from participants with no psychiatric diagnosis (healthy controls, n = 647) or with a current anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 191; PDA, n = 90; PD, n = 84; GAD, n = 110; multiple AD, n = 480). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability. Long-term disability was most prevalent in participants with SAD and multiple AD, and lowest in PDA and PD. GAD had an intermediate position. Anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour were associated with more long-term disability in anxiety disorders than course trajectories. Various anxiety disorders have different disability levels over 4 years of time, therefore diagnostic distinction is important for treatment focus. Anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are major predictors for long-term disability in anxiety disorders.

  5. Long term effect (more than five years) of intrathecal baclofen on impairment, disability, and quality of life in patients with severe spasticity of spinal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahavi, A; Geertzen, JHB; Middel, B; Staal, M; Rietman, JS


    Objectives: To evaluate long term change in impairment, disability, and health related functional status in patients with severe spasticity who received intrathecal baclofen. Methods: A long term ( more than five years) observational longitudinal follow up study assessing 21 patients who received

  6. Long-term outcomes after severe shock. (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M


    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  7. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

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    Folmer Robert L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

  8. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (United States)

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino


    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  9. Pre-surgery Disability Compensation Predicts Long-Term Disability among Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (United States)

    Spector, June T.; Turner, Judith A.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Franklin, Gary


    Background We sought to identify early risk factors for work disability compensation prior to and after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery, and to determine whether pre-surgery disability compensation is associated with long-term disability. Methods Washington State workers’ compensation administrative data and data from interviews with workers 18 days (median) after submitting new workers’ compensation claims for CTS were examined. Baseline risk factors for pre-surgery disability compensation and for long-term disability (≥365 days of work disability compensation prior to two years after claim filing) were evaluated for workers who underwent CTS surgery and had at least one day of disability compensation (N=670). Results After adjustment for baseline long-term disability risk factors, workers with pre-surgery disability compensation had over five times the odds of long-term disability. Baseline factors in multiple domains, including job, psychosocial, clinical, and worker pain and function, were associated with both pre-surgery disability compensation and long-term disability. Conclusions Risk factors for work disability prior to and after CTS surgery are similar, and early work disability is a risk factor for long-term CTS-related disability. An integrated approach to CTS-related disability prevention could include identifying and addressing combined risk factors soon after claim filing, more efficient use of conservative treatments and appropriate work modifications to minimize early work loss, and, when indicated, timely surgical intervention. PMID:22392804

  10. High prevalence of early onset mental disorders among long-term disability claimants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L.R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M R; Brouwer, S; Groothoff, J.W.


    PURPOSE: To provide information on prevalence, comorbidity, age-of-onset and severity of mental disorders among persons claiming disability after long-term sickness absence. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of Dutch disability claimants (n = 346). Composite International Diagnostic

  11. High prevalence of early onset mental disorders among long-term disability claimants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L. R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M. R.; Brouwer, S.; Groothoff, J. W.


    Purpose: To provide information on prevalence, comorbidity, age-of-onset and severity of mental disorders among persons claiming disability after long-term sickness absence. Method: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of Dutch disability claimants (n=346). Composite International Diagnostic

  12. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenken, C.; Assies, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Holwerda-van der Maat, W. G.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Delleman, W. J.; Kinds, G.; Rothova, A.


    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of inpatient aggression by adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviour: a long-term prospective study in two Dutch treatment facilities. (United States)

    Drieschner, Klaus H; Marrozos, Isabel; Regenboog, Maarten


    Over five years, various types of aggressive incidents by 421 intellectually disabled inpatients were recorded on a daily basis, using an adapted version of the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Stable patient characteristics (e.g., gender, intelligence, DSM IV classification at the start of treatment) and pre-treatment scores of two treatment outcome measures (e.g., Adult Behavior Checklist and Dynamic Risk Outcome Scale) were used to predict aggression during the treatment. At an overall average of one incident per patient per week, about ten times more aggression occurred on admission compared to resocialisation wards, and the 20% most aggressive individuals caused 50% of the verbal and 80% of the physical incidents. The best predictor of aggressive behaviour was aggression early in treatment, followed by coping skills deficits and impulsiveness. The relevance of the results for the treatment of aggressive behaviour and methodological issues in the recording of inpatient aggression are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing long-term disability plans: tax efficiency vs. maximizing wage replacement. (United States)

    Luecke, Randall W; Blair, Dennis T


    The tax treatment of long-term disability plans raises difficult questions for employers and employees, as it necessitates a tradeoff between tax efficiency and maximizing wage replacement for disabled workers. By using simplified case examples, this article illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of different plan design choices. The authors conclude that, in most cases, long-term disability coverage should be mandatory but that employees should be given the choice to decide whether their coverage is taxable.

  15. Long-term follow-up of severely symptomatic women with adenomyoma treated with combination therapy

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    Wei-Min Liu


    Conclusion: Combination therapy for adenomyoma provides an effective treatment option for long-term symptom control and uterine preservation in severely symptomatic women for whom previous long-term drug therapy has failed or proven to be intolerable.

  16. Prognostic factors of long term disability due to mental disorders : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L.R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.

    Introduction In the past few decades, mental health problems have increasingly contributed to sickness absence and long-term disability. However, little is known about prognostic factors of return to work (RTW) and disability of persons already on sick leave due to mental health problems.

  17. Disability in long-term care residents explained by prevalent geriatric syndromes, not long-term care home characteristics: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Lane, Natasha E; Wodchis, Walter P; Boyd, Cynthia M; Stukel, Thérèse A


    Self-care disability is dependence on others to conduct activities of daily living, such as bathing, eating and dressing. Among long-term care residents, self-care disability lowers quality of life and increases health care costs. Understanding the correlates of self-care disability in this population is critical to guide clinical care and ongoing research in Geriatrics. This study examines which resident geriatric syndromes and chronic conditions are associated with residents' self-care disability and whether these relationships vary across strata of age, sex and cognitive status. It also describes the proportion of variance in residents' self-care disability that is explained by residents' geriatric syndromes versus long-term care home characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a health administrative cohort of 77,165 long-term care home residents residing in 614 Ontario long-term care homes. Eligible residents had their self-care disability assessed using the RAI-MDS 2.0 activities of daily living long-form score (range: 0-28) within 90 days of April 1st, 2011. Hierarchical multivariable regression models with random effects for long-term care homes were used to estimate the association between self-care disability and resident geriatric syndromes, chronic conditions and long-term care home characteristics. Differences in findings across strata of sex, age and cognitive status (cognitively intact versus cognitively impaired) were examined. Geriatric syndromes were much more strongly associated with self-care disability than chronic conditions in multivariable models. The direction and size of some of these effects were different for cognitively impaired versus cognitively intact residents. Residents' geriatric syndromes explained 50% of the variation in their self-care disability scores, while characteristics of long-term care homes explained an additional 2% of variation. Differences in long-term care residents' self-care disability are

  18. Men's Sheds: enabling environments for Australian men living with and without long-term disabilities. (United States)

    Hansji, Neeraj L; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie


    The health of Australian men has recently received greater attention. Men's Sheds are named in national policy as an exemplar community-based organisation for the betterment of men's psychosocial health; yet, the evidence base to support this is limited. This study investigates the comparative experience of men with long-term disabilities and men without long-term disabilities who go to a Men's Shed and to what extent this provides these men with an enabling, as opposed to disabling, environment. Data were collected from 12 individual interviews with men with long-term disabilities (5) and men without long-term disabilities (6), including 1 interview with the male Men's Shed Coordinator (MSC); participant observation within the shed; and a document received from the female MSC regarding the funding the Shed receives. Interviews explored the men's experiences at the Shed and their sense of belonging and social inclusion. Participants had any type of long-term disability and had been attending the shed for a minimum of 1 month. Data were collected between May and September 2013 and were analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The core theme that emerged was an enabling community space. The four sub-themes were: a community and social hub; an equalising space; a safe and supportive male environment; and meaningful male activities. The current literature exemplifies Men's Sheds to be important community-based organisations beneficial to men's health and well-being. For men living with long-term disabilities, this study illuminates that Men's Sheds offer an environment of equality, facilitating a collegial and egalitarian culture. Men can partake in enabling activities and enjoy the company of other men enhancing their sense of belonging and social inclusion as well as interact with other community groups that occupy the same space as the Men's Shed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors. (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R


    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders. (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F


    This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Severity-Dependent Long-Term Spatial Learning-Memory Impairment in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury. (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Hongjian; Hong, Dandan; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in young adults. Long-term mental disability often occurs in patients suffering moderate and severe TBI while not as frequent in the victims of mild TBI. To explore the potential mechanism underlying this severity-dependent cognitive deficit, we subjected C57/BL6 mice to different severities of controlled cortical impact (CCI) and assessed their learning-memory functions. The mice subjected to moderate and severe TBI exhibited significantly impaired long-term spatial learning-memory ability, which was accompanied by marked white matter injury and hippocampus damage. In contrast, long-term learning-memory deficits or structural abnormalities within the hippocampus or white matter were not significant in the case of mild TBI. According to a correlation analysis, the hippocampus or white matter injury severity was more relevant to Morris water maze outcome than tissue volume. This study revealed that long-term spatial learning-memory deficits are dependent on the severity of destruction in the white matter and hippocampus. Therapeutic strategies targeting both the white matter and hippocampus may be needed to improve the neurological functions in TBI victims.

  2. Health problems and disability in long-term sickness absence: ICF coding of medical certificates

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    Morgell Roland


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and to explore the distribution, including gender differences, of health problems and disabilities as reflected in long-term sickness absence certificates. Methods A total of 433 patients with long sick-listing periods, 267 women and 166 men, were included in the study. All certificates exceeding 28 days of sick-listing sent to the local office of the Swedish Social Insurance Administration of a municipality in the Stockholm area were collected during four weeks in 2004-2005. ICD-10 medical diagnosis codes in the certificates were retrieved and free text information on disabilities in body function, body structure or activity and participation were coded according to ICF short version. Results In 89.8% of the certificates there were descriptions of disabilities that readily could be classified according to ICF. In a reliability test 123/131 (94% items of randomly chosen free text information were identically classified by two of the authors. On average 2.4 disability categories (range 0-9 were found per patient; the most frequent were 'Sensation of pain' (35.1% of the patients, 'Emotional functions' (34.1%, 'Energy and drive functions' (22.4%, and 'Sleep functions' (16.9%. The dominating ICD-10 diagnostic groups were 'Mental and behavioural disorders' (34.4% and 'Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue' (32.8%. 'Reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders' (14.7%, and 'Depressive episode' (11.5% were the most frequent diagnostic codes. Disabilities in mental functions and activity/participation were more commonly described among women, while disabilities related to the musculoskeletal system were more frequent among men. Conclusions Both ICD-10 diagnoses and ICF categories were dominated by mental and musculoskeletal health problems, but there seems to be gender

  3. Long-term psychological functioning of adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, J.; Versnel, S.L.; Plomp, R.G.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Mathijssen, I.M.


    BACKGROUND: In adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement, assessment of long-term psychological impact remains limited. This study determines the long-term psychological functioning in these patients and evaluates differences compared with patients with acquired facial disfigurement and a

  4. Health and participation problems in older adults with long-term disability. (United States)

    Hilberink, Sander R; van der Slot, Wilma M A; Klem, Martijn


    More attention and understanding of the health and participation problems of adults with early and later onset disabilities in the Netherlands is needed. To explore health/participation problems and unmet needs in adults aged ≥40 years with long-term disabilities and their relationship with the time of onset. Participants were recruited in the Netherlands through newsletters and social media to participate in a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed background characteristics, (change in) health/participation problems, and unmet needs. Spearman's rho was used to examine the relationships with time of onset. Of the 163 survey respondents, 42% acquired their disability before age 25 years and reported fatigue (77%), walking problems (66%), and pain (59%). In 21% of the respondents with early-onset disability fatigue, pain and depressive feelings co-occurred. Early-onset disability correlated with joint deformities, pain and anxiety. Participation problems included loss of income and fewer social activities. Early-onset correlated with the need for more information about diagnosis and prognosis. People aged over 40 years with long-term disability have significant and increasing health and participation problems. Adults with early-onset disability are more likely to have health or participation problems than adults with late-onset disability. Early identification is needed for preventive care and access to specialized services that focus on improving and maintaining physical symptoms, energy management, and participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term disability progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 15-year study. (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A; Sormani, Maria Pia; Rovaris, Marco; Caputo, Domenico; Ghezzi, Angelo; Montanari, Enrico; Bertolotto, Antonio; Laroni, Alice; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Martinelli, Vittorio; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo


    Prognostic markers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis evolution are needed. We investigated the added value of magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and cervical cord damage in predicting long-term clinical worsening of primary progressive multiple sclerosis compared to simple clinical assessment. In 54 patients, conventional and diffusion tensor brain scans and cervical cord T1-weighted scans were acquired at baseline and after 15 months. Clinical evaluation was performed after 5 and 15 years in 49 patients. Lesion load, brain and cord atrophy, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values from the brain normal-appearing white matter and grey matter were obtained. Using linear regression models, we screened the clinical and imaging variables as independent predictors of 15-year disability change (measured on the expanded disability status scale). At 15 years, 90% of the patients had disability progression. Integrating clinical and imaging variables at 15 months predicted disability changes at 15 years better than clinical factors at 5 years (R2 = 61% versus R2 = 57%). The model predicted long-term disability change with a precision within one point in 38 of 49 patients (77.6%). Integration of clinical and imaging measures allows identification of primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients at risk of long-term disease progression 4 years earlier than when using clinical assessment alone. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Rural-urban differences in the long-term care of the disabled elderly in China.

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    Mei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In China, the rapid rate of population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long-term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long-term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. METHODS: This study uses data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in Zhejiang province in 2012. The participants were 826 individuals over 60 years of age, who had been bedridden or suffered from dementia for more than 6 months. A generalized linear model and two-part regression model were applied to estimate costs, with adjustment of covariates. RESULTS: Pensions provide the main source of income for urban elderly, while the principal income source for rural elderly is their family. Urban residents spend more on all services than do rural residents. Those who are married spend less on daily supplies and formal care than the unmarried do. Age, incapacitation time, comorbidity number, level of income, and bedridden status influence spending on medical care (β=-0.0316, -0.0206, 0.1882, 0.3444, and -0.4281, respectively, but the cost does not increase as the elderly grow older. Urban residents, the married, and those with a higher income level tend to spend more on medical equipment. Urban residence and living status are the two significant factors that affect spending on personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: The use of long-term care services varies by living area. Long-term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long-term care insurance to relieve the burden of families of disabled elderly, and particular attention should be given to the rural elderly.

  7. Abuse in Mexican Older Adults with Long-Term Disability: National Prevalence and Associated Factors. (United States)

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mino-León, Dolores


    To determine the prevalence of self-reported abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities and to identify associated risk factors. Secondary analysis of the Perception of Disability in Mexican Population 2010 survey. Mexico. Individuals aged 60 and older with long-term disabilities without cognitive decline (N = 1,089). The elder abuse variable was constructed from the 21 questions included in the survey that assessed the presence of physical, psychological, sexual, and financial exploitation. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, self-rated health, disability (number of functional domains or basic activities), multimorbidity, emotional symptoms, health resources used, and informal help. The prevalence of elder abuse was 32.1%. The most frequent type of abuse was psychological (28.1%). Nearly 58% of respondents reported one type of abuse, 34% reported two types, and 8% reported more than three types. The most common combination of two types of abuse was psychological with financial exploitation. Variables associated with the presence of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse (conflict abuse) were age 80 and older, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. Financial exploitation was associated with age 80 and older, being married or living with a partner, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, living in an urban area, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. The prevalence of abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities is high. Associated factors were level of education, number of disabilities, and health status. Further studies should explore the applicability of these results to other populations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans (United States)

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.


    Background: Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. Objectives: To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. Participants: A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Outcome Measures: Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. Results: The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20–30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%–70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9–24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4–1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7–3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2–2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent

  9. Long-term disability associated with war-related experience among Vietnam veterans: retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A


    Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20-30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%-70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9-24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4-1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7-3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2-2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long-term

  10. Long-term outcome of a cohort of adults with autism and intellectual disability: A pilot prospective study. (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Brondino, Natascia; Orsi, Paolo; Provenzani, Umberto; De Micheli, Andrea; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a long-life condition frequently associated with intellectual disability. To date, long-term outcome has been investigated mostly in ASD people with average or above-average intelligence and there is a paucity of data about autistic adults with comorbid intellectual disability. The aim of the present study is to assess long-term variations of adaptive abilities in a sample of autistic adults with intellectual disability and severe language impairment. 22 adults (17 males and 5 females) affected by autism and intellectual disability were recruited and evaluated after their admission in an Italian farm-community. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were used as outcome measure for adaptive abilities. After ten years the measurement was repeated in order to study the evolution of patients' skills along time. Additionally, sociodemographic variables, changes in medication and comorbidities were recorded. No statistically significant improvement neither deterioration was found according to VABS raw scores in the entire sample. On the contrary, a significant improvement was evident in standard scores for the Adaptive Behavior Composite Scale and for each domain. In general, our patients remained stable in adaptive abilities. However, our results are not generalisable to the entire autistic population, but only to inpatients with autism and comorbid intellectual disability. New measures should be developed in order to better assess changes in this particular population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Frailty and long term mortality, disability and hospitalisation in Spanish older adults. The FRADEA Study]. (United States)

    Martínez-Reig, Marta; Flores Ruano, Teresa; Fernández Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón García, Alicia; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro


    The objective of this study was to analyse whether frailty is related to long-term mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL), and hospitalisation. A concurrent cohort study conducted on 993 participants over age 70 from the FRADEA Study. Frailty was determined with Fried frailty phenotype. Data was collected on mortality, hospitalisation and incident disability in BADL (bathing, grooming, dressing, toileting, eating or transferring) during the follow-up period. The risk of adverse events was determined by logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, sex, Barthel index, comorbidity and institutionalization. Mean follow-up was 952 days (SD 408), during which 182 participants (18.4%) died. Frail participants had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 4.5, 95%CI: 1.8-11.1), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.3-5.9) and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-6.1). Pre-frail subjects had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-3.6), and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.3-3.6). There was a positive association between frailty and hospitalisation, which almost reached statistical significance (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-3.0). Frailty is long-term associated with mortality and incident disability in BADL in a Spanish cohort of older adults. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term mortality and disability in Cryptococcal Meningitis: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Pasquier, Estelle; Kunda, John; De Beaudrap, Pierre; Loyse, Angela; Temfack, Elvis; Molloy, Síle F; Harrison, Thomas S; Lortholary, Olivier


    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the primary cause of meningitis in HIV-infected adults and an emerging disease in HIV-seronegative individuals. No literature review has studied the long-term outcome of CM. We performed a systematic review on the long-term (≥3 months) impact of CM (C. neoformans and C. gattii) on mortality and disability in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected adults. Though the quality of current evidence is limited, the long-term impact of CM on survival and disability appears to be high. One-year mortality ranged from 13% in an Australian non-HIV C.gattii infected cohort to 78% in a Malawian HIV-infected cohort treated with fluconazole monotherapy. One-year impairment proportions among survivors ranged from 19% in an Australian C.gattii cohort to more than 70% in a Taiwanese non-HIV and HIV-infected cohorts. Ongoing early therapeutic interventions, early detection of impairments and access to rehabilitation services may significantly improve patients' survival and quality of life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail:

  13. Prestroke physical activity is associated with severity and long-term outcome from first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, L-H; Truelsen, T; Gluud, C


    To determine whether prestroke level of physical activity influenced stroke severity and long-term outcome.......To determine whether prestroke level of physical activity influenced stroke severity and long-term outcome....

  14. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  15. Long-term physical, psychological and social consequences of severe injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.K.; Eisma, W.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.

    This 6 year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the long-term physical, psychological and social outcomes of severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16). Patients were treated at the University Hospital Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 1989 and

  16. Identification of alcohol abuse and transition from long-term unemployment to disability pension. (United States)

    Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka


    The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Long-term disabilities associated with combat casualties: measuring disability and reintegration in combat veterans. (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Reiber, Gayle


    Many physical and mental health problems associated with combat casualties affect the reintegration of service members into home and community life. Quantifying and measuring reintegration is important to answer questions about clinical, research, economic, and policy issues that directly affect combat veterans. Although the construct of participation presented in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a theoretical framework with which to understand and measure community reintegration in general, a measure was needed that specifically addressed the reintegration of combat veterans. To address this need, the Community Reintegration for Service Members global outcomes measure was developed. It consists of three scales, which measure extent of participation, perceived limitations, and satisfaction. The measure was validated in a general sample of veterans and in a sample of severely wounded service members. The computer-adapted test version shows good precision, reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity.

  18. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to long-term heparinization presenting as severe hypertriglyceridaemia in pregnancy.


    Watts, G F; Cameron, J; Henderson, A; Richmond, W.


    A case of severe hypertriglyceridaemia presenting in the third trimester of pregnancy in a woman on long-term heparin prophylaxis is described. The hypertriglyceridaemia was attributed to impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles secondary to heparin-induced reduction in the activity of the lipolytic enzyme, lipoprotein lipase.

  19. Predicting long-term disability outcomes in patients with MS treated with teriflunomide in TEMSO. (United States)

    Sormani, Maria Pia; Truffinet, Philippe; Thangavelu, Karthinathan; Rufi, Pascal; Simonson, Catherine; De Stefano, Nicola


    To predict long-term disability outcomes in TEMSO core (NCT00134563) and extension (NCT00803049) studies in patients with relapsing forms of MS treated with teriflunomide. A post hoc analysis was conducted in a subgroup of patients who received teriflunomide in the core study, had MRI and clinical relapse assessments at months 12 (n = 552) and 18, and entered the extension. Patients were allocated risk scores for disability worsening (DW) after 1 year of teriflunomide treatment: 0 = low risk; 1 = intermediate risk; and 2-3 = high risk, based on the occurrence of relapses (0 to ≥2) and/or active (new and enlarging) T2-weighted (T2w) lesions (≤3 or >3) after the 1-year MRI. Patients in the intermediate-risk group were reclassified as responders or nonresponders (low or high risk) according to relapses and T2w lesions on the 18-month MRI. Long-term risk (7 years) of DW was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. In patients with a score of 2-3, the risk of 12-week-confirmed DW over 7 years was significantly higher vs those with a score of 0 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, p = 0.0044). Patients reclassified as high risk at month 18 (18.6%) had a significantly higher risk of DW vs those in the low-risk group (81.4%; HR = 1.92; p = 0.0004). Over 80% of patients receiving teriflunomide were classified as low risk (responders) and had a significantly lower risk of DW than those at increased risk (nonresponders) over 7 years of follow-up in TEMSO. Close monitoring of relapses and active T2w lesions after short-term teriflunomide treatment predicts a differential rate of subsequent DW long term. TEMSO, NCT00134563; TEMSO extension, NCT00803049.

  20. Severity of core symptoms in first episode schizophrenia and long-term remission. (United States)

    Marchesi, Carlo; Affaticati, Andrea; Monici, Alberto; De Panfilis, Chiara; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo


    A definable concept of symptomatic remission in schizophrenia has been proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG). Nevertheless no studies to date assessed eventual differences in core symptoms at onset between remitters and non-remitters. The present study evaluated whether the severity of core symptoms differed among 48 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and whether it predicted long-term (16-years) remission. Particularly, the present study aimed to verify if RSWG remission criteria might identify a sub-group of patients with mild core symptoms at their first episode. In the present study the severity of core symptoms was significantly lower in remitted than in non-remitted patients; interestingly, five out of the eight core symptoms already satisfied the severity criteria for remission in most remitted patients. Among the core symptoms only the severity of social withdrawal predicted the long-term outcome, while age at onset, duration of untreated psychosis and employment status did not exert any effect. Concluding, patients with FES presenting, mild core symptoms, particularly low negative symptoms, were more likely to reach long-term remission. Therefore, RSWG remission criteria seem to identify a subgroup of FES patients with mild severe core symptoms so with a higher probability to reach remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term safety aspects of systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters in severe psoriasis. (United States)

    Hoefnagel, J J; Thio, H B; Willemze, R; Bouwes Bavinck, J N


    Therapy with fumaric acid esters (FAE) has been shown to be safe and effective in patients with severe psoriasis in several clinical studies with limited follow-up periods. In view of the chronic character of psoriasis, long-term safety aspects are of major importance in determining the suitability of a drug during prolonged periods of treatment. To investigate adverse events of therapy with systemic FAE with follow-up periods of up to 14 years, in order to determine safety aspects of their long-term use in patients with severe psoriasis. Current and/or past therapeutic use of FAE was reviewed in 66 patients with severe psoriasis. Forty-one of 66 patients had received FAE for at least 1 year, and 12 of these 41 patients had received FAE for between 10 and 14 years. Adverse events were reported in 73% of the patients. These were usually mild and mainly consisting of flushing (55%), diarrhoea (42%), nausea (14%), tiredness (14%) and stomach complaints (12%). A relative lymphocytopenia was observed in 76% of patients during therapy with FAE, resulting in a permanent discontinuation of therapy with FAE in four patients. A transient eosinophilia and moderate liver enzyme elevations were observed in 14% and 25% of patients, respectively. The present study indicates that FAE can be considered as a safe long-term treatment in patients with severe psoriasis.

  2. Long-Term Prediction of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Moth; Færch, Louise; Thorsteinsson, Birger


    BACKGROUND: Prediction of risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH) in patients with type 1 diabetes is important to prevent future episodes, but it is unknown if it is possible to predict the long-term risk of SH. The aim of the study is to assess if long-term prediction of SH is possible in type 1...... diabetes. METHODS: A follow-up study was performed with 98 patients with type 1 diabetes. At baseline and at follow-up, the patients filled in a questionnaire about diabetes history and complications, number of SH in the preceding year and state of awareness, and HbA1c and C-peptide levels were measured......-up. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term prediction of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes was not possible, although baseline hypoglycemia unawareness tended to remain a predictor for risk of SH at follow-up. Therefore, it is important repeatedly to assess the different risk factors of SH to determine the actual risk....

  3. Catheter ablation of severe neurally meditated reflex (neurocardiogenic or vasovagal) syncope: cardioneuroablation long-term results. (United States)

    Pachon, Jose Carlos M; Pachon, Enrique Indalecio M; Cunha Pachon, Maria Zelia; Lobo, Tasso Julio; Pachon, Juan Carlos M; Santillana, Tomas Guilhermo P


    Neurally meditated reflex or neurocardiogenic or vasovagal syncope (NMS) is usually mediated by a massive vagal reflex. This study reports the long-term outcome of NMS therapy based on endocardial radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of the cardiac vagal nervous system aiming permanent attenuation or elimination of the cardioinhibitory reflex (cardioneuroablation). A total of 43 patients (18F/25M, 32.9 ± 15 years) without apparent cardiopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction=68.6 ± 5%) were included. All had recurrent NMS (4.7 ± 2 syncope/patient) with important cardioinhibition (pauses=13.5 ± 13 s) at head-up tilt test (HUT), normal electrocardiogram (ECG), and normal atropine test (AT). The patients underwent atrial endocardial RF ablation using spectral mapping to track the neurocardiac interface (AF Nest Mapping). The follow-up (FU) consisted of clinical evaluation, ECG (1 month/every 6 months/or symptoms), Holter (every 6 months/or symptoms), HUT (≥ 4 months/or symptoms), and AT (end of ablation and ≥ 6 months). A total of 44 ablations (48 ± 9 points/patient) were performed. Merely three cases of spontaneous syncope occurred in 45.1 ± 22 months (two vasodepressor, one undefined). Only four partial cardioinhibitory responses occurred in post-ablation HUT without pauses or asystole (sinus bradycardia). Long-term AT (21.7 ± 11 months post) was negative in 33 (76.7%, P < 0.01), partially positive in 7(16.3%), and normal in three patients only (6.9%) reflecting long-term vagal denervation (AT-Δ%HR pre 79.4% × 23.2% post). The post-ablation stress test and Holter showed no abnormalities. No major complications occurred. Endocardial RF catheter ablation of severe neurally meditated reflex syncope prevented pacemaker implantation and showed excellent long-term results in well selected patients. Despite no action in vasodepression it seems to cause enough long-term vagal reflex attenuation, eliminating the cardioinhibition, and keeping most patients

  4. Long-term psychological functioning of adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement. (United States)

    Versnel, Sarah L; Plomp, Raul G; Passchier, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Mathijssen, Irene M J


    In adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement, assessment of long-term psychological impact remains limited. This study determines the long-term psychological functioning in these patients and evaluates differences compared with patients with acquired facial disfigurement and a non-facially disfigured reference group. Also explored is the extent to which psychological functioning of the congenital group is related to satisfaction with facial appearance, fear of negative appearance evaluation by others, self-esteem, and severity of the facial deformity. Fifty-nine adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement, 59 adults with a traumatically acquired facial deformity in adulthood, and 120 non-facially disfigured adults completed standardized psychological, physical, and demographic questionnaires, including the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and a visual analogue scale. Adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement had relatively normal psychological functioning but appeared more prone to internalizing problems than the non-facially disfigured adults. Compared with patients with an acquired facial deformity, the congenital group displayed fewer problems on the physical component score of quality of life only. Satisfaction with facial appearance, fear of negative appearance evaluation, and self-esteem were good predictors of the different aspects of psychological functioning, with the exception of the physical component score of quality of life. Improving satisfaction with facial appearance (by surgery), enhancing self-esteem, or lowering fear of negative appearance evaluation (by psychological support) may enhance long-term psychological functioning. Future research should focus on the individual patient and risk factors for maladjustment. Risk, II.

  5. Use of Contact Lenses in Eyes with Severe Keratoconus: Long-term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Tuncer


    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the long-term results of rigid gas permeable (RGP contact lenses in severe keratoconic eyes. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Severe keratoconic eyes with RGP contact lenses were evaluated retrospectively. Re sults: Long-term follow-up results of RGP contact lenses applied to 59 eyes of 42 patients (25 women, 17 men with a diagnosis of severe keratoconus were analyzed. Follow-up period was 3 to 12 years (mean: 6.57±3.60. The mean age at first exam was 25.88±9.10 years, the mean corneal curve K1 was 6.49±0.40 mm and K2 was 5.91±0.40 mm. Mean visual acuities with spectacles and contact lenses were 0.26±0.10 lines (0.63±0.20 logMAR and 0.66±0.20 lines (0.20±0.10 logMAR, respectively. The difference between both visual acuities was statistically significant (p=0.0001. At the last visit, the mean visual acuity with RGP contact lenses was 0.68±0.20 lines (0.19±0.10 logMAR. There was no statistically significant difference in visual acuity between first and last examinations with contact lenses (p=0.32. During the long-term follow-up period, apical scarring developed in 17 eyes. Only the 2 eyes of one patient needed penetrating keratoplasty after 6 years of RGP contact lens use. Dis cus si on: Use of RGP contact lenses should be considered before penetrating keratoplasty in cases of severe keratoconus. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 202-6

  6. Severity stages in essential tremor: a long-term retrospective study using the glass scale. (United States)

    Gironell, Alexandre; Ribosa-Nogué, Roser; Gich, Ignasi; Marin-Lahoz, Juan; Pascual-Sedano, Berta


    Few prospective studies have attempted to estimate the rate of decline of essential tremor (ET) and these were over a relatively short time period (less than 10 years). We performed a long-term study of severity stages in ET using the Glass Scale scoring system. Fifty consecutive patients with severe ET were included. We retrospectively obtained Glass Scale scores throughout the patient's life. Common milestone events were used to help recall changes in tremor severity. According to the Glass Scale, the age distributions were as follows: score I, 40±17 years, score II, 55±12 years, score III, 64±9 years, and score IV, 69±7 years. A significant negative correlation between age at first symptom and rate of progression was found (r = -0.669, pScale may be a useful tool to determine severity stages during the course of ET in a manner similar to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale for Parkinson's disease.

  7. Effects of long-term multidisciplinary inpatient therapy on body composition of severely obese adolescents. (United States)

    Prado, Wagner Luiz do; Siegfried, Alena; Dâmaso, Ana R; Carnier, June; Piano, Aline de; Siegfried, Wolfgang


    To describe the effects of long-term multidisciplinary inpatient therapy on body composition of severely obese adolescents. A total of 728 extremely obese adolescents, including 249 boys (aged 15.25+/-1.56 years) and 479 girls (aged 15.34+/-1.59 years) received multidisciplinary therapy during a period of 3 to 9 months. The therapy consisted of reduced energy intake, dietetic education, physical exercises and psychological therapy. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and physical capacity was assessed by the multistage cycle ergometer test. Type and duration of each activity were recorded using a daily controlled activity diary. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body mass (27.84+/-12.49 kg for boys and 21.60+/-9.87 kg for girls), body mass index (9.19+/-3.88 kg/m(2) for boys and 7.72+/-3.98 kg/m(2) for girls) and fat mass. In addition, the percentage of fat free mass increased significantly (p < 0.05) in boys (from 58.8+/-6.41 to 69.98+/-7.43%) and in girls (from 51.86+/-4.96 to 60.04+/-5.65%). Long-term multidisciplinary approach allows significant reduction in severe obesity, preserving growth and percentage of fat free mass.

  8. Long-term safety study of infliximab in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Flavin, Susan K; Agarwal, Prasheen K; Lo, Kim Hung; Barnathan, Elliot S


    There was an increased number of malignancies in infliximab-treated (5.7%) over placebo-treated (1.3%) patients in a 44-week, phase 2 clinical study of 234 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To collect malignancy and mortality data from completed clinical studies of infliximab in COPD treatment. The multicenter, observational Remicade Safety Under Long-Term Study in COPD (RESULTS COPD) collected malignancy and mortality data every six months for five years from patients who received ≥1 study-agent dose in a phase 2 study. Co-primary endpoints were the number of patients with malignancy and the number of deaths. Secondary endpoints included the number of patients with a malignancy according to malignancy type. There was a gap period between the end of the phase 2 study and the initiation of RESULTS COPD, during which six malignancies and 14 deaths were reported spontaneously for the 107 (45.7%) of 234 patients with long-term safety information. Twenty-eight patients (overall 12.0%; placebo 10.4%, infliximab 12.7%) reported malignancies, including 12 patients during RESULTS COPD. Twenty-six patients (overall 11.1%; placebo 9.1%, infliximab 12.1%) died, including nine during RESULTS COPD. Lung cancer was the most common malignancy type (placebo n = 2; infliximab n = 10). The greater proportion of malignancies observed with infliximab versus placebo in a phase 2 study diminished over the long-term follow-up. Due to the observational nature, limited patient participation, potential reporting bias from the interim spontaneous reporting period, and unblinding of all patients, more definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Relationship between impairments, disability and handicap in reflex sympathetic dystrophy patients : a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Dijkstra, PU; van Sonderen, ELP; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH


    Objective: To determine the relationship between impairments, disability and handicap in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) patients. Design: A long-term follow-up study of upper extremity RSD patients. Setting: A university hospital. Subjects: Sixty-five patients, 3-9 years (mean interval 5.5

  10. Walking speed, rather than Expanded Disability Status Scale, relates to long-term patient-reported impact in progressive MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, L.V.A.E.; Kragt, J.J.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.


    Objective: To study the relationships between 1-2 year changes in well-known physician-rated measurements (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT)) and the long-term (= 5 years) outcome in patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (Multiple Sclerosis

  11. The effect of psychiatric rehabilitation on the activity and participation level of clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, T.F. van; Felling, A.J.A.; Persoon, J.M.G.


    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  12. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean


    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  13. Long-Term Experiences in Cash and Counseling for Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Familial Programme Representative Descriptions (United States)

    Harry, Melissa L.; MacDonald, Lynn; McLuckie, Althea; Battista, Christina; Mahoney, Ellen K.; Mahoney, Kevin J.


    Background: Our aim was to explore previously unknown long-term outcomes of self-directed personal care services for young adults with intellectual disabilities and limitations in activities of daily living. Materials and Methods: The present authors utilized participatory action research and qualitative content analysis in interviewing 11 unpaid…

  14. Do photosynthetic limitations of evergreen Quercus ilex leaves change with long-term increased drought severity? (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Misson, Laurent; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Martin, Nicolas K; Rambal, Serge


    Seasonal drought can severely impact leaf photosynthetic capacity. This is particularly important for Mediterranean forests, where precipitation is expected to decrease as a consequence of climate change. Impacts of increased drought on the photosynthetic capacity of the evergreen Quercus ilex were studied for two years in a mature forest submitted to long-term throughfall exclusion. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured on two successive leaf cohorts in a control and a dry plot. Exclusion significantly reduced leaf water potential in the dry treatment. In both treatments, light-saturated net assimilation rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)), maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)), mesophyll conductance to CO2 (g(m)) and nitrogen investment in photosynthesis decreased markedly with soil water limitation during summer. The relationships between leaf photosynthetic parameters and leaf water potential remained identical in the two treatments. Leaf and canopy acclimation to progressive, long-term drought occurred through changes in leaf area index, leaf mass per area and leaf chemical composition, but not through modifications of physiological parameters.

  15. Management of severe chronic pain with tapentadol prolonged release - long-term data from pain specialists. (United States)

    Strick, Volker


    Clinical trials have documented the efficacy and good tolerability of tapentadol prolonged released (PR) for severe chronic pain. This study investigated routine long-term administration by pain specialists. The effectiveness analysis included prospective data collected over a 3 month period (cohort I, n = 1457, mean age 61.2 ± 13 years) and over a 12 month period (cohort II, n = 588, 60.1 ± 13.2 years) regarding previous and concomitant analgesic treatment, tapentadol dosage, pain intensity, sleep and quality of life parameters, and tolerability. Most patients (>77%) had suffered from severe chronic pain for ≥2 years with low back pain the main pain diagnosis (82%); 91% had already received analgesic long-term treatment prior to initiation of tapentadol therapy (42% of those received strong opioids). After 3 month tapentadol treatment, cohort I had experienced a mean pain reduction of 2.4 points (from 6.8 ± 1.6 at baseline) and improvements of 2.1 points in quality of sleep (from 5.8 ± 2.5) and quality of life (from 6.5 ± 2; all p ≤ 0.001). The 12 month tapentadol treatment (cohort II) reduced the mean pain intensity by 3.2 points from 6.7 ± 1.6 at baseline (NRS-11; p ≤ 0.001); 57% of the patients experienced clinically relevant pain relief of ≥50%. At end of observation, 92% attained either their intended pain reduction and/or an additional individual treatment target, both predefined at start of tapentadol therapy. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in pain-related impairments in daily activities and an improvement in quality of life (all p ≤ 0.001). Most frequent side-effects were nausea (6.3% of patients) and dizziness (3.8%) for cohort I, and nausea (1.5%) and constipation (1.2%) for cohort II. Tapentadol PR is effective and well tolerated and can be considered an alternative to classical strong opioids in long-term chronic pain therapy. The study lacks a control group; assessment under

  16. Long-Term Durability of Pressure-Treated Wood in a Severe Test Site (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Grant Kirker; Patricia Lebow


    Improved estimates of the long-term durability of treated wood products are needed to guide choices about construction materials and allow estimates of design life. This report summarizes the long-term decay and insect resistance of treated wood post and lumber specimens placed in ground contact at a test site of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  17. Long-Term Prognosis after Myectomy in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy with Severe Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. (United States)

    An, Shuoyan; Fan, Chaomei; Yang, Yinjian; Hang, Fei; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Yuhui; Zhang, Jian


    Patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and severe left ventricular hypertrophy (maximal left ventricular wall thickness ≥30 mm) are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this study, we aimed to determine whether HOCM patients with severe hypertrophy had a lower incidence of SCD after myectomy. HOCM patients with severe hypertrophy were consecutively enrolled from Fuwai Hospital in China between 2000 and 2013. Long-term outcomes were retrospectively compared between the 2 groups, namely the myectomy group and medical group. A total of 244 patients (118 in the myectomy group and 126 in the medical group) were involved. The mean follow-up durations for the myectomy and medical groups were 5.07 ± 3.73 and 6.23 ± 4.15 years, respectively. During the follow-up period, the annual cardiovascular mortality rate was 0.84% in the myectomy group and 2.04% in the medical group (p = 0.041). The annual SCD rate was 0.33% in the myectomy group and 1.40% in the medical group (p = 0.040). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that myectomy was independently associated with lower rates of cardiovascular death and SCD. In HOCM patients with severe hypertrophy, those that underwent myectomy had a lower risk of cardiovascular death and SCD than those treated with medicines only. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Long-term Impact of Ixekizumab on Psoriasis Itch Severity: Results from a Phase III Clinical Trial and Long-term Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra B. Kimball


    Full Text Available Itching is a prevalent plaque psoriasis symptom. Ixekizumab, an IL-17A antagonist, has demonstrated rapid, significant improvements in itch severity over 12 weeks in Phase III psoriasis trials (UNCOVER-1, UNCOVER-2. We assessed the long-term (through 60 weeks effect of ixekizumab maintenance therapy (80-mg ixekizumab every 4 weeks [IXEQ4W] on itch severity, using the Itch Numeric Rating Scale, in psoriasis patients who received ixekizumab, placebo, or etanercept for 12 weeks in the Phase III UNCOVER-3 trial. After 12 weeks, patients either continued or switched to IXEQ4W. Mean improvements in itch severity achieved with 12 weeks of ixekizumab (–4.7 to –5.1 were maintained through 60 weeks with IXEQ4W (–4.9 to –5.0. Patients who initially received placebo or etanercept experienced rapid itch severity improvements after switching to ixekizumab at Week 12 (Week 12, placebo: –0.6; etanercept: –3.8; Week 60, placebo/IXEQ4W: –4.9; etanercept/IXEQ4W: –4.7. Ixekizumab maintenance therapy sustained improvements in itch severity through 60 weeks.

  19. Carbamazepine treatment in patients discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy. Effects on withdrawal severity and outcome. (United States)

    Schweizer, E; Rickels, K; Case, W G; Greenblatt, D J


    Forty patients with a history of difficulty discontinuing long-term, daily benzodiazepine therapy were randomly assigned, under double-blind conditions, to treatment with carbamazepine (200 to 800 mg/d) or placebo. A gradual taper (25% per week reduction) off benzodiazepine therapy was then attempted. Five weeks after taper, significantly more patients who had received carbamazepine than placebo remained benzodiazepine free, this despite the fact that no statistically significant differences in withdrawal severity could be demonstrated. Patients receiving carbamazepine reported a larger reduction in withdrawal severity than patients receiving placebo, but only at a trend level, and only on the daily patient-rated withdrawal checklist. Eleven patients (28%) required antidepressant therapy for depression or panic when assessed at 12-weeks follow-up. The results of this pilot investigation suggest that carbamazepine might have promise as an adjunctive drug therapy for the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, particularly in patients receiving benzodiazepines in daily dosages of 20 mg/d or greater of diazepam equivalents.

  20. Long-term Results of ABI in Children With Severe Inner Ear Malformations. (United States)

    Sennaroğlu, Levent; Sennaroğlu, Gonca; Yücel, Esra; Bilginer, Burçak; Atay, Gamze; Bajin, M Demir; Mocan, Burçe Özgen; Yaral, Mehmet; Aslan, Filiz; Çnar, Betül Çiçek; Özkan, Burcu; Batuk, Merve Özbal; Kirazl, Çiğdem Ekin; Karakaya, Jale; Ataş, Ahmet; Saraç, Sarp; Ziyal, İbrahim


    To report the long-term outcomes of children who received auditory brainstem implant (ABI) because of severe inner ear malformations. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral otolaryngology clinic. Between July 2006 and October 2014, 60 children received ABI at Hacettepe University. Preoperative work up included otolaryngologic examination, audiological assessment, radiological evaluation together with assessment of language development and psychological status. The surgeries were performed via retrosigmoid approach with a pediatric neurosurgeon. Intraoperatively, electrical auditory brainstem response was utilized. Initial stimulation was done 4 to 5 weeks postoperatively. Outcomes were evaluated with Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), speech intelligibility rate (SIR), functional auditory performance of cochlear implant (FAPCI) and Manchester Spoken Language Development Scale scores; receptive and expressive language ages were determined. Sixty children who received ABI were between ages of 12 and 64 months. Thirty-five patients with follow up period of at least 1 year, were reported in means of long-term audiological and language results. The most prevelant inner ear malformation was cochlear hypoplasia (n = 19). No major complication was encountered. Majority of the patients were in CAP 5 category, which implies that they can understand common phrases without lip reading. SIR was found out to be better with improving hearing thresholds. Children with ABI were performing worse than average cochlear implantation (CI) users when FAPCI scores were compared. Patients with the best hearing thresholds have expressive vocabulary of 50 to 200 words when evaluated with Manchester Spoken Language Development Scale. There was no relationship between the number of active electrodes and hearing thresholds. The type of inner ear anomaly with the best and the worst hearing thresholds were common cavity and cochlear aperture aplasia, respectively. Patients with

  1. Bronchial Thermoplasty – Long Term Safety and Effectiveness in Severe Persistent Asthma (United States)

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Laviolette, Michel; Rubin, Adalberto S.; Fiterman, Jussara; Lapa e Silva, Jose R.; Shah, Pallav L.; Fiss, Elie; Olivenstein, Ronald; Thomson, Neil C.; Niven, Robert M.; Pavord, Ian D.; Simoff, Michael; Hales, Jeff B.; McEvoy, Charlene; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Holmes, Mark; Phillips, Martin J.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Sumino, Kaharu; Kraft, Monica; Cox, Gerard; Sterman, Daniel H.; Hogarth, Kyle; Kline, Joel N.; Mansur, Adel H.; Louie, Brian E.; Leeds, William M.; Barbers, Richard G.; Austin, John H.M.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Quiring, John; Armstrong, Brian; Castro, Mario


    Background Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. Objective To assess effectiveness and safety of BT in asthma patients 5 years post therapy. Methods BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 (AIR2) Trial ( NCT01350414) were evaluated annually for 5 years to assess long-term safety of BT and durability of treatment effect. Outcomes assessed post-BT included severe exacerbations, adverse events, healthcare utilization, spirometry data, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Results 162/190 BT-treated subjects (85.3%) from the AIR2 Trial completed 5 years of follow-up. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations and Emergency Room visits, and the rates of events in each of years 1 to 5 remained low and were less than those observed in the 12 months prior to BT treatment (average 5 year reduction in proportions: 44% for exacerbations and 78% for ER visits). Respiratory adverse events and respiratory-related hospitalizations remained unchanged in Years 2 through 5 as compared to the first year after BT. Pre-BD FEV1 values remained stable between years 1 and 5 after BT, despite a 17% reduction in average daily inhaled corticosteroid dose. HRCT scans from baseline to 5 years after BT showed no structural abnormalities that could be attributed to BT. Conclusions These data demonstrate the 5-year durability of the benefits of BT with regard to both asthma control (based on maintained reduction in severe exacerbations and ER visits for respiratory symptoms) and safety. BT has become an important addition to our treatment armamentarium and should be considered for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain symptomatic despite taking ICS (inhaled corticosteroids) and LABA (long-acting-β2-agonists). PMID:23998657

  2. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels


    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  3. Long-term results of tracheostomy for severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (United States)

    Haapaniemi, J J; Laurikainen, E A; Halme, P; Antila, J


    Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) is most often accompanied by metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and coronary disease. In its most severe form, it is a life-threatening condition, requiring active and immediate help. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most efficient nonsurgical treatment for patients with OSAS. However, for anatomical, disease-related and subjective reasons, many patients cannot accept this treatment. A permanent tracheostomy may be one alternative in such patients who, in addition, often suffer from extreme obesity and severe heart disease. In this paper, we describe the long-term follow-up results of 7 patients suffering from OSAS and treated with permanent tracheostomy. All the patients (5 men, 2 women) were diagnosed using the static charge sensitive bed method and night-time oximetry for sleep analysis. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients ranged from 34 to 60 and the age from 41 to 64 years. All the patients had severe OSAS and long periods of low oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels. Six patients had a CPAP trial before tracheostomy. Only 2 patients tolerated the trial but, despite the continuous use of CPAP, they were nonresponders. Permanent tracheostomy was done according to normal routine in each patient. After primary healing of 2 days, they used silver cannulae, which also allowed them to speak. The patients were evaluated every year after the tracheostomy. After some practical difficulties including proper maintenance of the cannula, all the patients quickly learned the correct management. In postoperative sleep studies, nadir SaO2 levels had improved significantly, obstructive apneas had disappeared and the subjective quality of life had improved. No marked changes in BMI were found.

  4. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire for Subjects With COPD With Long-Term Oxygen Therapy. (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; July, Johanna; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Rzehak, Peter; Windisch, Wolfram


    Respiratory insufficiency in COPD may present as hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure treated with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and/or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with LTOT. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) is a tool for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in subjects receiving NIV. However, it remains unclear whether the SRI is also capable of assessing and discriminating HRQOL in subjects receiving LTOT. Stable subjects with COPD receiving LTOT or NIV + LTOT (NIV) were prospectively recruited and completed the SRI, lung function tests, and blood gases. Confirmatory factor analysis for construct validity and internal consistency reliability were calculated. One hundred fifty-five subjects were included (113 LTOT, 42 NIV). The Cronbach α coefficient of the 7 subscales ranged between 0.69 and 0.89 (LTOT) and between 0.79 and 0.93 (NIV), respectively. In both groups, confirmatory factor analysis revealed a one-factor model for the SRI summary scale; in 5 subscales, one- or 2-factor models could be established. Group differences in the SRI subsets were all P <.05 (except for physical functioning) with higher scores in subjects receiving NIV. The SRI showed high reliability and validity in subjects with COPD receiving LTOT. Subjects receiving LTOT had lower SRI scores, indicating a poorer HRQOL compared with subjects with established NIV and LTOT. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Long-Term, Continuous Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Treatment of Severe Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. (United States)

    Hockel, Konstantin; Diedler, Jennifer; Steiner, Jochen; Birkenhauer, Ulrich; Danz, Sören; Ernemann, Ulrike; Schuhmann, Martin U


    Secondary vasospasm and disturbances in cerebrovascular autoregulation are associated with the development of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. An intra-arterial application of nimodipine has been shown to increase the vessel diameter, although this effect is transient. The feasibility of long-term, continuous, intra-arterial nimodipine treatment and its effects on macrovasospasm, autoregulation parameters, and outcome were evaluated in patients with refractory severe macrovasospasm. Ten patients were included with refractory macrovasospasm despite bolus nimodipine application (n = 4) or with primary severe vasospasm (n = 6). The patients were assessed with continuous multimodal neuromonitoring (mean arterial pressure, intraceranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension probe), daily transcranial Doppler examinations, and computed tomography angiography/perfusion. Autoregulation indices, the pressure reactivity index, and oxygen reactivity index were calculated. Indwelling microcatheters were placed in the extracranial internal carotid arteries and 0.4 mg nimodipine was continuously infused at 50 mL/hour. The duration of continuous, intra-arterial nimodipine ranged from 9 to 15 days. During treatment intracranial pressure remained stable, transcranial Doppler flow velocity decreased, and brain tissue oxygen tension improved by 37%. Macrovasospasm, as assessed via computed tomography angiography, had improved (n = 5) or disappeared (n = 5) at the end of treatment. Cerebrovascular autoregulation according to the pressure reactivity index and oxygen reactivity index significantly worsened during treatment. All patients showed a favorable outcome (median Glasgow Outcome Scale 5) at 3 months. In well-selected patients with prolonged severe macrovasospasm, continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment can be applied as a rescue therapy with relative safety for more than 2 weeks to prevent secondary

  6. Long-term effects of physical exercise during rehabilitation in patients with severe burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Voigt, Charles D; Clayton, Robert P; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Kamolz, Lars-P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E


    We have reported that a 12-week exercise program is beneficial for the exercise performance of severely burned children. It is not known, however, whether the beneficial effects remain at 2 years postburn. Severely burned children who received no long-term anabolic drugs were consented to this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Patients chose between a voluntary exercise program (EX-group) and no exercise (NoEX-group) after discharge from the acute burn unit. Peak torque per lean leg mass, maximal oxygen consumption, and percent predicted peak heart rate were assessed. In addition, body mass index percentile and lean body mass index were recorded. Both groups were compared for up to 2 years postburn using mixed multiple analysis of variance. A total of 125 patients with a mean age of 12 ± 4 years were analyzed. Demographics between the EX-group (N = 82) and NoEX-group (N = 43) were comparable. In the EX-group, peak torque per lean leg mass, percent predicted peak heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption increased significantly with exercise (P Group (P group. There were no significant differences between groups in body mass index percentile, lean body mass index, peak torque per lean leg mass, and maximal oxygen consumption at 24 months postburn. Exercise significantly improves the physical performance of burned children. The benefits are limited to early time points, however, and greatly narrow with further recovery time. Continued participation in exercise activities or a maintenance exercise program is recommended for exercise-induced adaptations to continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of comorbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity (United States)

    Wardenaar, K. J.; van Loo, H. M.; Cai, T.; Fava, M.; Gruber, M. J.; Li, J.; de Jonge, P.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rose, S.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoevers, R. A.; Wilcox, M. A.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bunting, B.; Florescu, S. E.; Fukao, A.; Gureje, O.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y. Q.; Karam, A. N.; Levinson, D.; Medina Mora, M. E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Taib, N. I.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Kessler, R. C.


    Background Although variation in long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these distinctions can be refined by added information about comorbid conditions. The current report presents results on this question. Methods Data come from 8,261 respondents with lifetime DSM-IV MDD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Outcomes include four retrospectively-reported measures of persistence-severity of course (years in episode; years in chronic episodes, hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Machine learning methods (regression tree analysis; lasso, ridge, and elastic net penalized regression) followed by k-means cluster analysis were used to augment previously-detected subtypes with information about prior comorbidity to predict these outcomes. Results Predicted values were strongly correlated across outcomes. Cluster analysis of predicted values found 3 clusters with consistently high, intermediate, or low values. The high-risk cluster (32.4% of cases) accounted for 56.6–72.9% of high persistence, high chronicity, hospitalization, and disability. This high-risk cluster had both higher sensitivity and likelihood-ratio positive (relative proportions of cases in the high-risk cluster versus other clusters having the adverse outcomes) than in a parallel analysis that excluded measures of comorbidity as predictors. Conclusions Although results using the retrospective data reported here suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made with machine learning and clustering across multiple indicators of illness persistence-severity, replication is need with prospective data to confirm this preliminary conclusion. PMID:25066141

  8. The effects of co-morbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity. (United States)

    Wardenaar, K J; van Loo, H M; Cai, T; Fava, M; Gruber, M J; Li, J; de Jonge, P; Nierenberg, A A; Petukhova, M V; Rose, S; Sampson, N A; Schoevers, R A; Wilcox, M A; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Bunting, B; Florescu, S E; Fukao, A; Gureje, O; Hu, C; Huang, Y Q; Karam, A N; Levinson, D; Medina Mora, M E; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Taib, N I; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Zarkov, Z; Kessler, R C


    Although variation in the long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these distinctions can be refined by added information about co-morbid conditions. The current report presents results on this question. Data came from 8261 respondents with lifetime DSM-IV MDD in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Outcomes included four retrospectively reported measures of persistence/severity of course (years in episode; years in chronic episodes; hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Machine learning methods (regression tree analysis; lasso, ridge and elastic net penalized regression) followed by k-means cluster analysis were used to augment previously detected subtypes with information about prior co-morbidity to predict these outcomes. Predicted values were strongly correlated across outcomes. Cluster analysis of predicted values found three clusters with consistently high, intermediate or low values. The high-risk cluster (32.4% of cases) accounted for 56.6-72.9% of high persistence, high chronicity, hospitalization and disability. This high-risk cluster had both higher sensitivity and likelihood ratio positive (LR+; relative proportions of cases in the high-risk cluster versus other clusters having the adverse outcomes) than in a parallel analysis that excluded measures of co-morbidity as predictors. Although the results using the retrospective data reported here suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made with machine learning and clustering across multiple indicators of illness persistence/severity, replication with prospective data is needed to confirm this preliminary conclusion.

  9. Physical performance as long-term predictor of onset of activities of daily living (ADL) disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idland, Gro; Pettersen, Renate; Avlund, Kirsten


    non-disabled community-dwelling women with a mean age of 79.5 years at baseline. The baseline examinations of physical performance were: functional reach, climbing steps and comfortable walking speed. ADL disability was defined as need of personal assistance in at least one of five basic ADL items......Disability in ADL of aging women is an important public health concern. It is thus of interest to identify modifiable factors underlying onset of ADL disability. We assessed whether three physical performance-based measurements could predict ADL disability 9 years later. The participants were 113....... The participants were followed for 9 years. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the physical performance measurements together with the covariates in relation to ADL disability. At follow-up 25.7% were disabled in ADL. All three performance measurements were significantly associated with the onset...

  10. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men. (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L


    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  11. Factors Contributing to Long-Term Severe Visual Impairment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. (United States)

    Jongkhajornpong, Passara; Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Siriyotha, Sukanya; Kanokrungsee, Silada; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn


    Purpose. To study the correlation between demographics and clinical variables and long-term severe visual impairment in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods. A retrospective chart review of SJS/TEN patients between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Demographics, causative agents, ocular manifestations, and visual outcomes were collected. The data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results. Of the 89 patients including SJS (65, 73.03%), TEN (15, 16.85%), and SJS-TEN overlap (9, 10.11%), 55 were female. The mean age was 41.58 ± 19.17 years. The most common identified agents were medications. Among these groups, antibiotics were the most prevalent (47.19%). Three patients (3.7%) had unknown etiology. Antibiotics and nonpharmaceutical triggers were significantly associated with long-term severe visual impairment (odds ratio 4.32; P = 0.015 and 7.20; P = 0.037, resp.). There was a significant negative relationship between HIV infection and long-term severe visual impairment (P = 0.021). Among all chronic ocular complications, only corneal neovascularization significantly correlated with severe visual impairment (P = 0.001). Conclusions. SJS/TEN patients caused by nonpharmaceutical triggers or antibiotics have an increased risk of developing long-term severe visual impairment from corneal neovascularization. HIV infection might be a protective factor against long-term poor visual outcomes.

  12. Factors Contributing to Long-Term Severe Visual Impairment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passara Jongkhajornpong


    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the correlation between demographics and clinical variables and long-term severe visual impairment in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. Methods. A retrospective chart review of SJS/TEN patients between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Demographics, causative agents, ocular manifestations, and visual outcomes were collected. The data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results. Of the 89 patients including SJS (65, 73.03%, TEN (15, 16.85%, and SJS-TEN overlap (9, 10.11%, 55 were female. The mean age was 41.58 ± 19.17 years. The most common identified agents were medications. Among these groups, antibiotics were the most prevalent (47.19%. Three patients (3.7% had unknown etiology. Antibiotics and nonpharmaceutical triggers were significantly associated with long-term severe visual impairment (odds ratio 4.32; P=0.015 and 7.20; P=0.037, resp.. There was a significant negative relationship between HIV infection and long-term severe visual impairment (P=0.021. Among all chronic ocular complications, only corneal neovascularization significantly correlated with severe visual impairment (P=0.001. Conclusions. SJS/TEN patients caused by nonpharmaceutical triggers or antibiotics have an increased risk of developing long-term severe visual impairment from corneal neovascularization. HIV infection might be a protective factor against long-term poor visual outcomes.

  13. Factors Contributing to Long-Term Severe Visual Impairment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (United States)

    Siriyotha, Sukanya; Kanokrungsee, Silada; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn


    Purpose. To study the correlation between demographics and clinical variables and long-term severe visual impairment in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods. A retrospective chart review of SJS/TEN patients between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Demographics, causative agents, ocular manifestations, and visual outcomes were collected. The data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results. Of the 89 patients including SJS (65, 73.03%), TEN (15, 16.85%), and SJS-TEN overlap (9, 10.11%), 55 were female. The mean age was 41.58 ± 19.17 years. The most common identified agents were medications. Among these groups, antibiotics were the most prevalent (47.19%). Three patients (3.7%) had unknown etiology. Antibiotics and nonpharmaceutical triggers were significantly associated with long-term severe visual impairment (odds ratio 4.32; P = 0.015 and 7.20; P = 0.037, resp.). There was a significant negative relationship between HIV infection and long-term severe visual impairment (P = 0.021). Among all chronic ocular complications, only corneal neovascularization significantly correlated with severe visual impairment (P = 0.001). Conclusions. SJS/TEN patients caused by nonpharmaceutical triggers or antibiotics have an increased risk of developing long-term severe visual impairment from corneal neovascularization. HIV infection might be a protective factor against long-term poor visual outcomes. PMID:28458921

  14. Multiculturalism and Severe Disabilities. (United States)

    Meyer, Luanna H.


    This article discusses the need for educators to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to help students with severe disabilities from mainstream groups to develop cross-cultural knowledge, values, and competencies. It outlines goals for multicultural understanding for educational researches, for teacher educators, and for school leaders and…

  15. Evaluation of the Management of Severe Trauma Kidney Injury and Long Term Renal Function in Children. (United States)

    Overs, Camille; Teklali, Youssef; Boillot, Bernard; Poncet, Delphine; Rabattu, Pierre-Yves; Robert, Yohan; Piolat, Christian


    To evaluate the management and long term renal function with DMSA scintigraphy in pediatric severe traumatic kidney injury (STKI) grade IV (STKI IV) and V (STKI V) at the trauma center of Grenoble Teaching Hospital. This is a single-center observational retrospective study between 2004 and 2014. All children under the age of 15 managed at the Grenoble teaching Hospital for a STKI IV or V were included. The trauma grade was radiologically diagnosed on arrival at hospital, using the classification of the American Association for Surgery of Trauma. The management followed the algorithm in effect in the establishment. The assessment of the renal function was performed by a DMSA scintigraphy after at least 6 months from the injury. 21 children were managed for a STKI (16 STKI IV and 5 STKI V). The diagnosis was initially made by an ultrasonography (8 cases) or a CT-scan (13 cases). A child with STKI IV underwent a nephrectomy on day 6 of the trauma. Eleven children needed a therapeutic procedure (3 embolizations, 4 double J stents, 1 arterial stent, 1 peritoneal lavage for a splenic hemoperitoneum, 4 pleural drainages). A DMSA scintigraphy was performed in 15 patients to assess the function of the injured kidney: 11/16 STKI IV with an average of 39.4%, and 17% for the 4/5 STKI V analyzed. among the 21 children managed for a STKI IV or V, 11 required a therapeutic procedure, one of them a nephrectomy. The DMSA scintigraphy performed after at least 6 months from the trauma, found an injured renal function at 39.4% for the 11/16 SKI IV analyzed, and 17% for the 4/5 SKI V analyzed, which confirms the currently conservative management. IV TYPE OF STUDY: original article, retrospective observational study.

  16. Long-term outcome after stroke: A disability-orientated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, J.; Donders, R.; Mulder, T.; Limbeek, J. van; Schoonderwaldt, H.


    Patients (N=165) under 75 who had suffered a stroke in the past 5 years completed a Sickness Impact Profile. Analysis of results indicated the influence of stroke on everyday functioning. Chronic psychosocial disabilities, independent of the degree of physical disability, were reported in fifty-two

  17. High intensity positive pressure ventilation and long term pulmonary function responses in severe stable COPD. A delicate and difficult balance. (United States)

    Esquinas, Antonio M; Petroianni, Angelo


    Method to improve minute ventilation (MV) during spontaneous breathing (SB) in stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a great clinical relevant in long term outcome. In this scenario, recommendations of early use of high-Intensity non-invasive Positive pressure Ventilation (HI-NPPV) or intelligent Volume Assured Pressure (iVAP) Support in Hypercapnic COPD have been proposed by safe therapeutics options. We analyze in this letter, Ekkernkamp et al. study that described the effect of HI-NPPV compared with SB on MV in patients receiving long-term treatment. We consider that interpretation of relationships between ABG, functional parameters, and respiratory mechanics reported need clarifications. Further prospective large clinical trials identifying the best mode of ventilation according to the characteristics in severe stable COPD are necessary to balance an effective approach and response on clinical symptoms and long-term effects.

  18. Determinants of physical health parameters in individuals with intellectual disability who use long-term antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kuijper, Gerda; Mulder, Hans; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scholte, Frans; Visser, Frank; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Individuals with intellectual disability frequently use antipsychotics for many years. This may have detrimental health effects, including neurological symptoms and metabolic and hormonal dysregulation, the latter possibly affecting bone metabolism. There is large variability in the degree in which

  19. Disability and Living with HIV: Baseline from a Cohort of People on Long Term ART in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Hanass-Hancock

    Full Text Available Through access to life saving antiretroviral treatment (ART in southern Africa, HIV has been reconceptualised as a chronic disease. This comes with new challenges of HIV-related co-morbidities and disabilities. We still lack an understanding of the types and scope of disabilities experienced by people on long term ART and how this impacts health, adherence, and livelihood. This paper describes the results of a cohort study examining the new health- and disability-related needs of the millions of people on ART in the region.Data was collected from a cohort of people who had been on ART for six months or longer in a semi-urban public health care setting in South Africa. 1042 adults (18 and older participated in the cross-sectional study which investigated disabilities/activity limitations, health, ART adherence, depression symptoms, and livelihood. We analysed the associations between these constructs using descriptive statistics, and bivariate and multivariate analyses.A large number of participants (35.5% obtained a weighted score of two or more on the WHODAS 2.0 indicating possible activity limitations. A positive relationship was found between activity limitations and depression symptoms, adherence, and worse health outcomes, while none was found for BMI or CD4 count. These associations varied by type of activity limitations and, in some cases, by gender.Activity limitations are potentially experienced by a large portion of people on ART in southern Africa which impacts health and ART adherence negatively. These results highlight the importance of better understanding the new health-related needs of people who are on long term ART, as well as the nuances of the disability they experience. This is urgently needed in order to enable HIV-endemic countries to better prepare for the new health-related needs of the millions of people on ART in southern Africa.

  20. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment (United States)

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann


    Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…

  1. Cortical N-acetyl aspartate is a predictor of long-term clinical disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xingchen; Hanson, Lars G.; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller


    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of the cortical N-acetyl aspartate to creatine ratio (NAA/Cr) in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Sixteen patients with newly diagnosed RRMS were studied by serial MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) once every 6 months...... for 24 months. Clinical examinations, including the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), were performed at baseline, month 24, and at year 7. Results: Baseline cortical NAA/Cr correlated inversely with EDSS at month 24 (r = -0.61, P = 4 had a lower baseline cortical...... parenchymal fraction (BPF) correlated inversely with EDSS at month 24 (r = -0.61, P disability after 2 and 7 years and may be used as a predictor of long-term disease outcome....

  2. Resilience, age, and perceived symptoms in persons with long-term physical disabilities. (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Molton, Ivan R; Ehde, Dawn M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Bombardier, Charles H; Smith, Amanda E; Jensen, Mark P


    Resilience may mitigate impact of secondary symptoms such as pain and fatigue on quality of life in persons aging with disability. This study examined resilience in a large sample of individuals with disabling medical conditions by validating the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, obtaining descriptive information about resilience and evaluating resilience as a mediator among key secondary symptoms and quality of life using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the measure's psychometric properties were adequate in this sample. Resilience was lowest among participants who were middle-aged or younger, and participants with depression. Resilience mediated associations between secondary symptoms and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A controlled study on the outcome of inpatient and outpatient treatment of low back pain. Part III. Long-term follow-up of pain, disability, and compliance. (United States)

    Härkäpää, K; Mellin, G; Järvikoski, A; Hurri, H


    The long-term outcome results of inpatient and outpatient treatment of low back pain (LBP) were studied in 476 subjects (aged 35-54, 63% men) randomly assigned to three study groups: inpatients (n = 157), outpatients (n = 159), and controls (n = 160). The study included changes in the severity of low back pain, grade and disability, compliance with self-care, data on disability pensions, and days of sickness allowance during a 2.5-year follow-up period. These variables were used as outcome criteria. Pain and disability had decreased significantly in the two treated groups up to the 3-month follow-up. LBP was still a little slighter in the inpatients at the 1.5-year and 22-month follow-ups, but there were no significant differences between the groups in disability caused by LBP. The refresher programme carried out 1.5 years after the first one did not bring about as clear short-term improvement in pain and disability as the first treatment. During the whole 2.5-year follow-up compliance with self-care was better in the two treated groups, especially in the inpatients. Days of sickness allowance had increased somewhat more in the controls than in the inpatients during the follow-up. No differences between the groups were found in the number of disability pensions granted.

  4. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen


    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  5. First-Grade Cognitive Abilities as Long-Term Predictors of Reading Comprehension and Disability Status (United States)

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren


    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal…

  6. Long-term efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in the control of severe intraocular inflammation. (United States)

    Lau, Chun H; Comer, Marie; Lightman, Susan


    To assess whether the previously demonstrated short-term efficacy of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; CellCept, Roche) is maintained in the long-term management of refractory uveitis. The study was an open-label, non-comparative retrospective series of 14 patients with refractory uveitis and treated with MMF for a mean of >33 months. Mycophenolate mofetil was given at a dosage of 1 g (oral) twice daily. Indications included prednisolone reduction, additive agent with cyclosporin, or replacement therapy (azathioprine or methotrexate). The intraocular inflammatory response, side-effects, and toxicity were monitored. Intraocular inflammation remained under control in 10 patients, unchanged in three and deteriorated in one patient. Transient side-effects included tiredness, headache and dizziness (one patient each, lasting less than 2 weeks from the time of MMF introduction). Mycophenolate mofetil was stopped in one patient because of absence of prolonged clinical improvement. Vision improved in 25% (7 eyes), did not change in 50% (14 eyes), but was reduced in 25% (7 eyes). Mycophenolate mofetil is safe for long-term usage and is recommended for treatment of refractory panuveitis or posterior uveitis with uncontrolled inflammation despite high prednisolone maintenance dosage (>15 mg/day) or toxicity or lack of efficacy of other immuno-suppressive agents. However, MMF is less effective for refractory uveitis unresponsive to azathioprine.

  7. [Long-term analysis of disability pensions in survivors of the Holocaust: somatic and psychiatric diagnoses]. (United States)

    Biermann, T; Sperling, W; Müller, H; Schütz, P; Kornhuber, J; Reulbach, U


    Survivors of the Holocaust are known to suffer more often from mental as well as somatic consequential illness. The assessment of the degree of disability and invalidity due to the persecution complies with the interaction of directly Holocaust-related mental and somatic primary injuries as well as physical, psychical and psychosocial disadvantages and illnesses acquired later on. The presented descriptive as well as multivariate analyses included complete reports (expertise, medical records, physicians' assessments, witnessed hand-written notes of the patients) of 56 survivors of the Holocaust (36 women and 20 men). The disability pension reports of 56 Holocaust survivors (36 women and 20 men) were analysed referring to the diagnostic groups and socio-demographic aspects. In 92.3 % a psychiatric illness could be diagnosed within the first year after liberation. In a separate analysis of somatic diagnoses, gastrointestinal diseases were statistically significant more often in Holocaust survivors with a degree of disability of more than 30 % (chi-square χ (2) = 4.0; df = 1; p = 0.046). The question of an aggravation of psychiatrically relevant and persecution-associated symptomatology is mainly the objective of the expert opinion taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors such as so-called life events. Above all, newly acquired somatic diseases seem to be responsible for an aggravation of persecution-associated psychiatric symptoms, at least in the presented sample of Holocaust survivors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Severity of alprazolam dependence and associated features among long-term alprazolam users from psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ting; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Yen, Chia-Nan; Su, Po-Wen; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Lin, Jin-Jia; Yen, Cheng-Fang


    The aim of this study was to examine the correlations between the severity of alprazolam dependence and socio-demographic characteristics, the characteristics of alprazolam use, psychiatric comorbidity, and beliefs toward alprazolam use among long-term alprazolam users in Taiwan. A total of 148 long-term alprazolam users participated in this study. The Chinese version of the Severity of Dependence Scale was used to assess participants' severity of alprazolam dependence in the preceding month. Their socio-demographic characteristics, family function characteristics, dosage of prescribed alprazolam, duration of alprazolam use, alcohol use pattern, pain reliever and cigarette use pattern, severity of depressive symptoms, psychiatric diagnosis, and belief toward alprazolam use were investigated. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that a longer duration of alprazolam use, severe depressive symptoms, a high level of belief in the necessity of alprazolam treatment, and a high level of concern about the potential adverse consequences of alprazolam use were significantly associated with more severe alprazolam dependence. Doctors should closely monitor the severity of alprazolam dependence among long-term users, especially patients' levels of depression, beliefs in the necessity of alprazolam treatment, and their concerns over the adverse consequences of continued treatment with alprazolam. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with or without Long-Term Oxygen Therapy (LTOT)


    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Bonadiman, Luca; Bricolo, Fernanda P; Tognella, Silvia; Turco, Paola


    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory condition which can lead to comorbidities of variable severity, cognitive dysfunction included. The role of supplemental oxygen in preventing COPD-induced cognitive deterioration is still debated, but only episodically investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive pattern of hypoxemic COPD subjects treated with long-term oxygen (LTOT) to that of patients of comparable severity assuming oxyg...

  10. Long-term results after Ilizarov treatment for severe high-energy injuries of the elbow. (United States)

    Fodor, Lucian; Ullmann, Yehuda; Soudry, Michael; Lerner, Alexander


    Clinical aspects, such as the long-term results after circular external fixation and functional rehabilitation after high-energy injuries of the elbow joint, have not received sufficient attention in the literature. Fourteen patients with high-energy elbow injuries were treated in our hospital over the last 15 years with a circular external fixation frame. The mechanism of injury was blast in eight patients, gunshot wounds in two, motor vehicle crash in two, and fall from height in two. Twelve patients had high-energy open periarticular fractures, nine had Gustillo-Anderson 3B fractures, and three had Gustillo-Anderson 3C fractures. Two patients suffered from closed high-energy periarticular elbow injuries. Seven patients had associated peripheral neurologic injuries and three had vascular injuries. Average Ilizarov fixation time was 20 weeks (range, 6-47 weeks). The follow-up period varied from 1.5 years to 11 years. The average arc of elbow flexion was 110.4 degrees and extension was 19.6 degrees. The average arc of forearm rotation was of 63.5 degrees for pronation (range, 5-90 degrees) and 63.2 degrees for supination (range, 5-90 degrees). The average Mayo Elbow Performance Index score was 84 points (range, 60-100) and the average Khalfayan functional score was 83.4 (range, 68.7-100). Long-term follow-up proved that the hinged Ilizarov/hybrid frame represents a useful instrument to provide stabilization of the elbow joint while facilitating early movements and physiotherapy. The main indication is patients who suffered from open high-energy contaminated fractures with extensive soft-tissue damage (e.g., blast, war injuries) and combined bone and ligaments injuries.

  11. Morbidity and mortality risk ratios are elevated in severe supine dominant OSA: a long-term follow-up study. (United States)

    Kulkas, Antti; Muraja-Murro, Anu; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Töyräs, Juha


    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common public health problem. Sleeping position dependency has been related to OSA, and around half of OSA patients suffer from positional OSA where majority of the respiratory events occur in supine position. The consequences of supine dominant OSA have not been thoroughly investigated in long-term follow-up studies. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of supine dominant OSA on morbidity and mortality risk ratios during long-term follow-up and compare the findings with a non-supine OSA group at different OSA severities. Ambulatory polygraphic recordings of 793 patients with median follow-up time of 194.5 months were retrospectively analysed. The risk ratios of morbidity and mortality of supine dominant OSA and non-supine OSA patients were compared. Supine dominant OSA patients, having majority of the obstruction events occurring in supine position, showed higher mortality and morbidity risk ratios in severe OSA category than the non-supine OSA patients. In severe category, the observed risk ratios were statistically significant. The increased risk ratios of mortality and morbidity found further emphasises that supine OSA might have more severe health consequences than non-positional OSA especially in severe OSA. Severe OSA occurring in supine position was shown to be more deleterious than non-supine OSA based on long-term mortality and morbidity evidence.

  12. Long-term pediatrician outcomes of a parent led curriculum in developmental disabilities. (United States)

    Keisling, Bruce L; Bishop, Elizabeth A; Kube, David A; Roth, Jenness M; Palmer, Frederick B


    Previous research has demonstrated high satisfaction and perceived relevance of Project DOCC (Delivery of Chronic Care), a parent led curriculum in developmental disabilities, across a sample of medical residents. The influence of such a training program on the clinical practices and professional activities of these residents once they are established in their careers as physicians, however, has not been studied; this was the aim of the present study. An anonymous follow-up survey was designed and disseminated to physicians who participated in Project DOCC during their one-month developmental disabilities rotation as part of their pediatrics or medicine/pediatric residency between 2002 and 2010. Fifty-eight physicians completed the survey. The findings suggest that participation in a parent led curriculum during medical residency had a lasting impact on physicians' relationships with families. Specifically, a majority of the physicians espoused a family-centered approach to care, a sensitivity to the interactional effect that caring for a Child with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) has on family members, the need for physicians to have a prominent role in community resource coordination, and the importance of an integrated approach to health care provision. Use of a parent led curriculum as a means to increase the provision of family-centered care by physicians is supported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Empowerment of people with a long-term work disability: development of the 'VrijBaan' questionnaire. (United States)

    Samoocha, David; De Koning, Jan; Zaeyen, Tessa; De Vet, Henrica C; Bruinvels, David J; Nijhuis, Frans; Van Der Beek, Allard J


    To develop an instrument that measures empowerment among people with a long-term work disability. A six-dimension empowerment model was chosen as a theoretical framework. These dimensions are as follows: competence, self-determination, meaning, impact, positive identity and group orientation. A literature search was conducted to find instruments that currently are being used to measure one or more of these constructs. Validated and applicable instruments from this search were used in a preliminary questionnaire. A pilot test was conducted consulting the target population and experts. On basis of changes from this pilot, a concept questionnaire was conducted. In a field test, this questionnaire was sent to 976 subjects who followed a vocational rehabilitation course in the years 2001-2003. Item-total correlations and factor analyses were performed on the collected data to reduce the number of items. Factor analysis was performed, and internal consistency was determined to get insight into the psychometric properties of the final questionnaire. From all subjects who were approached, 385 (39%) returned usable questionnaires that could be analysed. Item reduction by item-total correlations and factor analysis resulted in a final questionnaire consisting of 62 items divided over the six subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales was good: all subscales had Cronbach's alphas between 0.80 and 0.91. Some inter-correlation existed between the subscales competence, self-determination and impact. The 'VrijBaan' questionnaire was developed to measure empowerment among people with a long-term work disability. Although the results support the internal consistency of the subscales, further psychometric work is needed to improve the quality of this questionnaire.

  14. Long-term, open-label study of risperidone in children with severe disruptive behaviors and below-average IQ. (United States)

    Findling, Robert L; Aman, Michael G; Eerdekens, Marielle; Derivan, Albert; Lyons, Ben


    This study determined the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone in treating severe disruptive behavior in children with subaverage intelligence. This 48-week, open-label extension included 107 children ages 5-12 years with severe disruptive behavior disorders (according to DSM-IV criteria and a score of > or = 24 on the conduct problem subscale of the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form) and subaverage intelligence (IQ 36-84) who completed at least 2 weeks of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone. All patients received 0.02-0.06 mg/kg/day of oral risperidone; the purpose was to accumulate long-term safety data. Scores on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form were also obtained. The mean risperidone dose was 1.5 mg/day. The most common adverse events reported were somnolence (33%), headache (33%), rhinitis (28%), and weight gain (21%). Somnolence was usually mild and transient. The mean weight increase was 5.5 kg; half was attributable to developmentally expected growth. Transient and asymptomatic increases in prolactin levels were observed. There were no significant changes in Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores and no cases of tardive dyskinesia. No clinically relevant changes in ECGs or vital signs were noted. Risperidone was associated with rapid, significant improvement on the conduct problem subscale score of the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form in patients previously treated with placebo; improvement was maintained during long-term treatment and in patients previously given risperidone. Long-term risperidone appears to be generally safe, well tolerated, and effective for treating severely disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence.

  15. Long-term disability and survival in traumatic brain injury: results from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Model Systems. (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan C; Strauss, David J; Shavelle, Robert M; Paculdo, David R; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L


    To document long-term survival in 1-year survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI); to compare the use of the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and FIM as factors in the estimation of survival probabilities; and to investigate the effect of time since injury and secular trends in mortality. Cohort study of 1-year survivors of TBI followed up to 20 years postinjury. Statistical methods include standardized mortality ratio, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, proportional hazards regression, and person-year logistic regression. Postdischarge from rehabilitation units. Population-based sample of persons (N=7228) who were admitted to a TBI Model Systems facility and survived at least 1 year postinjury. These persons contributed 32,505 person-years, with 537 deaths, over the 1989 to 2011 study period. Not applicable. Survival. Survival was poorer than that of the general population (standardized mortality ratio=2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.3). Age, sex, and functional disability were significant risk factors for mortality (Pmodels had comparable predictive performance (C index: .80 vs .80; Akaike information criterion: 11,005 vs 11,015). Time since injury and current calendar year were not significant predictors of long-term survival (both P>.05). Long-term survival prognosis in TBI depends on age, sex, and disability. FIM and DRS are useful prognostic measures with comparable statistical performance. Age- and disability-specific mortality rates in TBI have not declined over the last 20 years. A survival prognosis calculator is available online ( Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study. (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T


    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  17. Predicting long-term outcomes for women physically abused in childhood: contribution of abuse severity versus family environment. (United States)

    Griffin, Margaret L; Amodeo, Maryann


    Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood family environment. This study compares several models for predicting adult outcomes: a multidimensional CPA severity scale, the presence or absence of CPA, family environment, and childhood stresses. The effect of CPA on adult outcomes was examined among 290 community-dwelling women raised in 2-parent families. Standardized measures and a focused interview were used to collect data, with siblings as collateral informants. Comparison of a multidimensional CPA severity scale to a dichotomous measure of the presence or absence of CPA showed that the severity scale did not have greater predictive value for adult outcomes than the dichotomous measure. Childhood family environment scales considerably attenuated the predictive value of the dichotomous measure of CPA, exerting a greater mediating effect on outcomes than did childhood stresses. The specific characteristics of a CPA experience may be less important than the occurrence of CPA and the woman's childhood family environment for predicting long-term psychosocial outcomes. The presence of child physical abuse is substantial and continues to increase, but the clinical significance of abuse on adult outcomes is unclear. The findings of the current study lend credence to the idea that family stresses and resources other than CPA may be crucial in understanding long-term effects in women. Hence treatment and support for victims of CPA might benefit from clinicians' exploration of the family environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe Spastic Contractures and Diabetes Mellitus Independently Predict Subsequent Minimal Trauma Fractures Among Long-Term Care Residents. (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Leung, Man Fuk; Kwan, Chi Wai; Kwan, Joseph


    The study aimed to examine the epidemiology of hypertonic contractures and its relationship with minimal trauma fracture (MTF), and to determine the incidence and predictors of (MTF) in long-term care residents. This was a longitudinal cohort study of prospectively collected data. Participants were followed from March 2007 to March 2016 or until death. A 300-bed long-term care hospital in Hong Kong. All long-term care residents who were in need of continuous medical and nursing care for their activities of daily living. Information on patients' demographic data, severe contracture defined as a decrease of 50% or more of the normal passive range of joint movement of the joint, and severe limb spasticity defined by the Modified Ashworth Scale higher than grade 3, medical comorbidities, functional status, cognitive status, nutritional status including body mass index and serum albumin, past history of fractures, were evaluated as potential risk factors for subsequent MTF. Three hundred ninety-six residents [148 males, mean ± standard deviation (SD), age = 79 ± 16 years] were included for analysis. The presence of severe contracture was highly prevalent among the study population: 91% of residents had at least 1 severe contracture, and 41% of residents had severe contractures involving all 4 limbs. Moreover, there were a significant proportion of residents who had severe limb spasticity with the elbow flexors (32.4%) and knee flexors (33.9%) being the most commonly involved muscles. Twelve residents (3%) suffered from subsequent MTF over a median follow-up of 33 (SD = 30) months. Seven out of these 12 residents died during the follow-up period, with a mean survival of 17.8 months (SD = 12.6) after the fracture event. The following 2 factors were found to independently predict subsequent MTF in a multivariate Cox regression: bilateral severe spastic knee contractures (hazard ratio = 16.5, P diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio = 4.0. P = .018, confidence

  19. Long-term effects of fire severity on oak–conifer dynamics in the southern Cascades (United States)

    Matthew I. Cocking; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp


    We studied vegetation composition and structure in a mixed conifer–oak ecosystem across a range of fire severity 10 years following wildfire. Sample plots centered on focal California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) were established to evaluate oak and neighboring tree and shrub recovery across a gradient of fire severity in the southern Cascade...

  20. Accelerating the translation of research into practice in long term services and supports: a critical need for federal infrastructure at the nexus of aging and disability. (United States)

    Washko, Michelle M; Campbell, Margaret; Tilly, Jane


    The nexus of aging and disability, characterized by the phenomenon of aging with a disability, will become more visible as the population ages and the number of people with disabilities surviving to midlife increases. This article addresses 3 interrelated issues critical to the fields of aging and disability: increasing demand for community-based long-term services and supports, a paucity of evidence-based programs demonstrating effectiveness in facilitating independence for those aging with a disability, and lack of a federal infrastructure to support coordinated investments in research-to-practice for this population. Suggestions for federal interagency collaborations are given, along with roles for key stakeholders.

  1. Lacosamide in the treatment of patients with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities: A long-term study of 136 patients. (United States)

    Böttcher, Stefan; Lutz, Martin T; Mayer, Thomas


    This study aimed to analyze the retention rate of lacosamide (LCM) in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities (IDs), to identify factors influencing retention rate, and to investigate the LCM retention rate with and without concomitant sodium channel blocker (SCB). We hypothesized that the retention rate of LCM with concomitant SCB would be lower than without SCB. Using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, we conducted a monocentric, retrospective, observational, open-label study to evaluate LCM retention rates in patients with IDs and drug-resistant epilepsy. In addition, the impact of therapy-related variables on the long-term retention of LCM was evaluated. One hundred thirty-six subjects with IDs and drug-resistant epilepsy were included (age 2-66 years); most patients had focal epilepsy. Long-term retention rates were 62.0% at 1 year, 43.7% at 2 years, and 29.1% at 3 and 4 years. Reasons for LCM discontinuation included insufficient therapeutic benefits (69%), adverse events (11%), or a combination of both factors (8%). The LCM retention rate was influenced by the number of background antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). An additional and independent influence of concomitant therapy with SCB on retention rate could not be confirmed. One of the major challenges in medically caring for patients with epilepsy and IDs is the high rate of drug resistance. However, there is a lack of evidence-based information about the efficacy and tolerability of AEDs in this population. It has been shown that concomitant SCB use is a key factor in increasing the risk of LCM failure in children with epilepsy. This finding has not been replicated in our predominantly adult sample of patients with IDs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in haematology patients: long-term impact and early predictive factors. (United States)

    Lagier, D; Platon, L; Chow-Chine, L; Sannini, A; Bisbal, M; Brun, J-P; Blache, J-L; Faucher, M; Mokart, D


    Severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with haematological diseases expose clinicians to specific medical and ethical considerations. We prospectively followed 143 patients with haematological malignancies, and whose lungs were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h, over a 5-y period. We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome, and in particular to evaluate the impact of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in these patients. A secondary objective was to identify the early (first 48 h from ICU admission) predictive factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. An evolutive haematological disease (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.13-2.69) and need for renal replacement therapy (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.52-3.31) were associated with long-term mortality. Resolution of neutropaenia during ICU stay (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and early microbiological documentation (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91) were associated with survival. The extent of pulmonary infiltration observed on the first chest X-ray and the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection were the most relevant early predictive factors of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Long-Term treatment of a patient with severe restless legs syndrome using intrathecal morphine. (United States)

    Hornyak, Magdolna; Kaube, Holger


    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder.(1) The symptoms have a strong circadian rhythmicity and are most severe at night and at rest. In the most severe cases, symptoms are accompanied by serious sleep disturbances and unbearable paresthesias. First-line treatments of RLS are dopamine agonists, but GABAergic anticonvulsants and opioids are also effective.(2,3) Patients with the most severe RLS are often treated with oral opioids.(4) The use of these may, however, be limited due to side effects. The intrathecal administration of opioids results in better pain relief and fewer side effects in severe chronic pain. Case reports of 4 patients have documented excellent results with short-term use of intrathecal opioids also in RLS.

  4. Severe Periodontal Disease Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin


    Jôice Dias Corrêa; Amanda Leal Rocha; Lidiane Cristina Machado Costa; Denise Travassos; Wagner Henriques Castro; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Rodrigo Santiago Gomez; Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Tarcília Aparecida Silva


    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used in the treatment of neuropathy. This case report presents, for the first time, a patient with severe periodontal destruction after chronic therapy with IVIG. The patient reported having extracted his maxillary anterior teeth himself due to high mobility. Clinical examination and radiographic images show a generalized and severe periodontitis. No significant alterations in genetic or microbiological features were observed. The present case suggests tha...

  5. Long-term psychological distress in parents of child survivors of severe meningococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrlich, Tirtsa R.; Von Rosenstiel, Ines A.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Gerrits, Astrid I.; Bos, Albert P.


    OBJECTIVE: To study psychological distress in parents of child survivors of Severe Meningococcal Disease (SMD) after discharge of their child from the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). METHODS: This study approached parents of child survivors of SMD treated on the PICU between 1993-2001. Five

  6. Long-term mortality of persons with severe mental illness and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laursen, T M; Sandbaek, A


    BACKGROUND: Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) have excess mortality, which may partly be explained by their high prevalence of diabetes. METHOD: We compared the overall and cause-specific mortality in persons with SMI and diabetes with that of the general Danish population between 1997...

  7. Bronchial thermoplasty : Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Laviolette, Michel; Rubin, Adalberto S.; Fiterman, Jussara; Silva, Jose R. Lapa e; Shah, Pallav L.; Fiss, Elie; Olivenstein, Ronald; Thomson, Neil C.; Niven, Robert M.; Pavord, Ian D.; Simoff, Michael; Hales, Jeff B.; McEvoy, Charlene; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Holmes, Mark; Phillips, Martin J.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Sumino, Kaharu; Kraft, Monica; Cox, Gerard; Sterman, Daniel H.; Hogarth, Kyle; Kline, Joel N.; Mansur, Adel H.; Louie, Brian E.; Leeds, William M.; Barbers, Richard G.; Austin, John H. M.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Quiring, John; Armstrong, Brian; Castro, Mario


    Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. Objective: We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of BT in asthmatic patients 5 years after therapy. Methods: BT-treated subjects from the

  8. The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals (United States)

    Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 40 kg/m**2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus, nonsurgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive ...

  9. Long-Term Quality of Life Among Survivors of Severe Sepsis: Analyses of Two International Trials. (United States)

    Yende, Sachin; Austin, Shamly; Rhodes, Andrew; Finfer, Simon; Opal, Steven; Thompson, Taylor; Bozza, Fernando A; LaRosa, Steven P; Ranieri, V Marco; Angus, Derek C


    To describe the quality of life among sepsis survivors. Secondary analyses of two international, randomized clinical trials (A Controlled Comparison of Eritoran and placebo in patients with Severe Sepsis [derivation cohort] and PROWESS-SHOCK [validation cohort]). ICUs in North and South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Adults with severe sepsis. We analyzed only patients who were functional and living at home without help before sepsis hospitalization (n = 1,143 and 987 from A Controlled Comparison of Eritoran and placebo in patients with Severe Sepsis and PROWESS-SHOCK, respectively). None. In A Controlled Comparison of Eritoran and placebo in patients with Severe Sepsis and PROWESS-SHOCK, the average age of patients living at home independently was 63 and 61 years; 400 (34.9%) and 298 (30.2%) died by 6 months. In A Controlled Comparison of Eritoran and placebo in patients with Severe Sepsis, 580 patients had a quality of life measured using EQ-5D at 6 months. Of these, 41.6% could not live independently (22.7% were home but required help, 5.1% were in nursing home or rehabilitation facilities, and 5.3% were in acute care hospitals). Poor quality of life at 6 months, as evidenced by problems in mobility, usual activities, and self-care domains were reported in 37.4%, 43.7%, and 20.5%, respectively, and the high incidence of poor quality of life was also seen in patients in PROWESS-SHOCK. Over 45% of patients with mobility and self-care problems at 6 months in A Controlled Comparison of Eritoran and placebo in patients with Severe Sepsis died or reported persistent problems at 1 year. Among individuals enrolled in a clinical trial who lived independently prior to severe sepsis, one third had died and of those who survived, a further one third had not returned to independent living by 6 months. Both mortality and quality of life should be considered when designing new interventions and considering endpoints for sepsis trials.

  10. Long-term persistance of the pathophysiologic response to severe burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G Jeschke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Main contributors to adverse outcomes in severely burned pediatric patients are profound and complex metabolic changes in response to the initial injury. It is currently unknown how long these conditions persist beyond the acute phase post-injury. The aim of the present study was to examine the persistence of abnormalities of various clinical parameters commonly utilized to assess the degree hypermetabolic and inflammatory alterations in severely burned children for up to three years post-burn to identify patient specific therapeutic needs and interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PATIENTS: Nine-hundred seventy-seven severely burned pediatric patients with burns over 30% of the total body surface admitted to our institution between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in this study and compared to a cohort non-burned, non-injured children. Demographics and clinical outcomes, hypermetabolism, body composition, organ function, inflammatory and acute phase responses were determined at admission and subsequent regular intervals for up to 36 months post-burn. Statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA, Student's t-test with Bonferroni correction where appropriate with significance accepted at p<0.05. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, metabolic markers, cardiac and organ function clearly demonstrated that burn caused profound alterations for up to three years post-burn demonstrating marked and prolonged hypermetabolism, p<0.05. Along with increased hypermetabolism, significant elevation of cortisol, catecholamines, cytokines, and acute phase proteins indicate that burn patients are in a hyperinflammatory state for up to three years post-burn p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Severe burn injury leads to a much more profound and prolonged hypermetabolic and hyperinflammatory response than previously shown. Given the tremendous adverse events associated with the hypermetabolic and hyperinflamamtory responses, we now identified

  11. A severe case of esophageal ulcer causing a tight stricture despite long-term D-penicillamine treatment. (United States)

    Yapali, Suna; Turan, Ilker; Ozutemiz, Omer; Tekesin, Oktay


    D-penicillamine has long been used in the management of rheumatic diseases due to the effects on inhibition of collagen synthesis. Herein, we report a severe case of esophageal ulcer causing a tight stricture extending through the distal esophagus despite the long-term D-penicillamine treatment in a patient with Wilson's disease. D-penicillamine would theoretically be expected to contribute to the healing of an esophageal ulcer. However, the drug failed to have a favorable outcome, which is notable and worth reporting.

  12. Severe Periodontal Disease Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jôice Dias Corrêa


    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is used in the treatment of neuropathy. This case report presents, for the first time, a patient with severe periodontal destruction after chronic therapy with IVIG. The patient reported having extracted his maxillary anterior teeth himself due to high mobility. Clinical examination and radiographic images show a generalized and severe periodontitis. No significant alterations in genetic or microbiological features were observed. The present case suggests that periodontal disease aggravation could be considered a new adverse effect of IVIG therapy. Postulated mechanisms are immune complexes formation, complement activation, and a direct effect in osteoclasts. In conclusion, it is important that patients that will receive IVIG treatment underwent dental evaluation.

  13. Sarcopenia is an Independent Predictor of Severe Postoperative Complications and Long-Term Survival After Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer (United States)

    Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Huang, Dong-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Zhou, Chong-Jun; Wang, Su-Lin; Lou, Neng; Ma, Liang-Liang; Yu, Zhen; Shen, Xian


    Abstract Currently, the association between sarcopenia and long-term prognosis after gastric cancer surgery has not been investigated. Moreover, the association between sarcopenia and postoperative complications remains controversial. This large-scale retrospective study aims to ascertain the prevalence of sarcopenia and assess its impact on postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From December 2008 to April 2013, the clinical data of all patients who underwent elective radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer were collected prospectively. Only patients with available preoperative abdominal CT scan within 30 days of surgery were considered for analysis. Skeletal muscle mass was determined by abdominal (computed tomography) CT scan, and sarcopenia was diagnosed by the cut-off values obtained by means of optimum stratification. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating risk factors of postoperative complications and long-term survival were performed. A total of 937 patients were included in this study, and 389 (41.5%) patients were sarcopenic based on the diagnostic cut-off values (34.9 cm2/m2 for women and 40.8 cm2/m2 for men). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for severe postoperative complications (OR = 3.010, P sarcopenia did not show significant association with operative mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for poorer overall survival (HR = 1.653, P sarcopenia remained an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of severe postoperative complications after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover, sarcopenia is independently associated with overall and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. PMID:27043677

  14. Severe nutritional risk predicts decreased long-term survival in geriatric patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease. (United States)

    Sanford, Dominic E; Sanford, Angela M; Fields, Ryan C; Hawkins, William G; Strasberg, Steven M; Linehan, David C


    Weight loss and malnutrition are poorly tolerated by geriatric patients, and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) can result in chronic malabsorption and weight loss. We sought to determine how preoperative severe nutritional risk (SNR), as defined by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program/American Geriatric Society Best Practice Guidelines, affects long-term survival after PD for benign disease among geriatric and nongeriatric patients. All patients undergoing PD for nonmalignant conditions at a single center between 1995 and 2013 were followed for survival, excluding patients who died within 90 days of surgery. Survival of geriatric (age ≥65 years) and nongeriatric (age patients with and without SNR was compared using Kaplan Meier methods. Cox regression was performed. There were 320 patients who underwent PD for benign disease. Over the course of the study, the proportion of geriatric patients undergoing PD for benign conditions increased from 25% to 46%. In addition to being older, geriatric patients undergoing PD for benign disease were significantly more likely to have coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. Geriatric patients with preoperative SNR had significantly decreased long-term survival after PD for benign disease (p patients dead at 5 years compared with 1 in 14 patients without SNR. Survival was not significantly different among nongeriatric patients with and without SNR. In geriatric patients, age, CAD, and SNR were significantly associated with decreased survival on both univariate and multivariate analysis. Severe nutritional risk can be a useful predictor of long-term survival in geriatric patients undergoing PD, and could improve patient risk stratification preoperatively. Nonoperative management should be strongly considered in geriatric patients with SNR, when malignancy is not suspected. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Reeves, Patrick T; Herndon, David N; Tanksley, Jessica D; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Clayton, Robert P; Crites, Nancy N; Hays, Joshua P; Andersen, Clark; Lee, Jong O; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C


    Administration of oxandrolone, a nonaromatizable testosterone analog, to children for 12 months following severe burn injury has been shown to improve height, increase bone mineral content (BMC), reduce cardiac work, and augment muscle strength. Surprisingly, the increase in BMC persists well beyond the period of oxandrolone administration. This study was undertaken to determine if administration of oxandrolone for 2 years yields greater effects on long-term BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). Patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ≥30% of total body surface area burned were consented to an IRB-approved protocol and randomized to receive either placebo (n = 84) or 0.1 mg/kg oxandrolone orally twice daily for 24 months (n = 35). Patients were followed prospectively from the time of admission until 5 years postburn in a single-center, intent-to-treat setting. Height, weight, BMC, and BMD were recorded annually through 5 years postinjury. The long-term administration of oxandrolone for 16 ± 1 months postburn (range, 12.1-25.2 months) significantly increased whole-body (WB) BMC (p burned pediatric patients significantly improves WB BMC, LS BMC, LS BMD, and height velocity. The administration of long-term oxandrolone was more efficacious than administration for 12 months. Additionally, fewer patients in the oxandrolone cohort met the diagnostic criteria for pediatric osteoporosis, pointing to a reduced risk for future bone fracture. This study demonstrates that administering oxandrolone for up to 2 years following severe burn injury results in greater improvements in BMC, BMD, and height velocity.

  16. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway. (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa


    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  17. Short- and long-term mortality in patients with community-acquired severe sepsis and septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Merete; Hallas, Jesper; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente


    Background: Severe sepsis and septic shock have a high 30-day mortality (10-50%), but the long-term mortality is not well described. The purpose of this study was to describe long-term mortality among patients with community-acquired severe sepsis or septic shock compared to a population...... (multivariate Cox regression controlling for age, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index). Conclusions: Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock who survived the first 30 days had a 2.7 times higher mortality hazard in the first year and a 2.3 times higher mortality hazard in the next 3 y, compared to persons...... follow-up. Among septic patients who survived the first 30 days, the mortality hazard ratio was 2.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.3) until day 365, and among septic patients who survived the first year, the 1-4 y mortality hazard ratio was 2.3 (95% CI 1.7-3.3), compared to the community-based reference persons...

  18. Patterns of Local and Systemic Cytokines in Bacterial Meningitis and its Relation with Severity and Long-Term Sequelae (United States)

    Perdomo-Celis, Federico; Torres, Miguel A.; Ostos, Henry; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Molano, Víctor; Durán, Luis F.; González, Guillermo; Narváez, Carlos F.


    Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a pyogenic infection present in the subarachnoid space, potentially fatal and frequently associated with neurological sequelae. During BM, cytokines (CTs) are locally produced. We sought to determine the CTs’ clinical role as disease severity predictors in adults, which is not completely clear. Using a bead-based flow cytometric assay, levels of six CTs were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 18 adult BM patients and 19 uninfected controls. Long-term neurological sequelae were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). All evaluated CTs were higher in CSF than in plasma, and the levels of CSF interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma IL-10 and IL-12p70 were significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis than with sepsis, suggesting an association with clinical severity. There was a strong negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and plasma IL-12p70 with GOS score, supporting the possible role of these CTs in the development of neurological long-term sequelae. These findings could be helpful to identify candidates to receive neuroprotective treatments and early physiotherapy schemes. PMID:26715831

  19. Effectiveness of Long-term Doxycycline Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Fatigue Severity in Patients with Q Fever Fatigue Syndrome (Qure Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Keijmel, Stephan P; Delsing, Corine E; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van der Meer, Jos W M; Donders, Rogier T; Leclercq, Monique; Kampschreur, Linda M; van den Berg, Michel; Sprong, Tom; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H; Knoop, Hans; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P


    Approximately 20% of patients with acute Q fever will develop chronic fatigue, referred to as Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS). The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of either long-term treatment with doxycycline or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing fatigue severity in patients with QFS. Adult patients were included who met the QFS criteria according to the Dutch guideline: a new onset of severe fatigue lasting ≥6 months with significant disabilities, related to an acute Q fever infection, without other somatic or psychiatric comorbidity explaining the fatigue. Using block randomization, patients were randomized between oral study medication and CBT (2:1) for 24 weeks. Second, a double-blind randomization between doxycycline (200 mg/day, once daily) and placebo was performed in the medication group. Primary outcome was fatigue severity at end of treatment (EOT; week 26), assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength subscale Fatigue Severity. Of 155 patients randomized, 154 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (doxycycline, 52; placebo, 52; CBT, 50). At EOT, fatigue severity was similar between doxycycline (40.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 37.3-44.3]) and placebo (37.8 [95% CI, 34.3-41.2]; difference, doxycycline vs placebo, -3.0 [97.5% CI, -8.7 to 2.6]; P = .45). Fatigue severity was significantly lower after CBT (31.6 [95% CI, 28.0-35.1]) than after placebo (difference, CBT vs placebo, 6.2 [97.5% CI, .5-11.9]; P = .03). CBT is effective in reducing fatigue severity in QFS patients. Long-term treatment with doxycycline does not reduce fatigue severity in QFS patients compared to placebo. NCT01318356.

  20. Long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity (FABS-5+): a prospective follow-up analysis. (United States)

    Inge, Thomas H; Jenkins, Todd M; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Dixon, John B; Daniels, Stephen R; Zeller, Meg H; Helmrath, Michael A


    Little is known about the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery for severe adolescent obesity, raising questions about the durability of early responses to surgery. We aimed to analyse long-term (>5 years) outcomes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a cohort of young adults who had undergone the operation during adolescence, in the Follow-up of Adolescent Bariatric Surgery at 5 Plus Years (FABS-5+) extension study. A cohort of young people aged 13-21 years underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for clinically severe obesity at a paediatric academic medical centre in the USA. We did a prospective follow-up analysis of these patients' outcomes 5-12 years after surgery. Outcomes assessed included BMI, comorbidities, micronutrient status, safety, and other risks. The FABS study is registered with, number NCT00776776. Between May, 2001, and February, 2007, 74 young people underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the FABS study. Of these, 58 individuals were eligible for the FABS-5+ study, could be located, and agreed to follow-up assessment. At baseline, the mean age of the cohort was 17·1 years (SD 1·7) and mean BMI was 58·5 kg/m(2) (10·5). At mean follow-up of 8·0 years (SD 1·6; range 5·4-12·5), the mean age of the cohort was 25·1 years (2·4) and mean BMI was 41·7 kg/m(2) (12·0; mean change in BMI -29·2% [13·7]). From baseline to long-term follow-up, significant declines were recorded in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (27/57 [47%] vs 9/55 [16%]; p=0·001), dyslipidaemia (48/56 [86%] vs 21/55 [38%]; p<0·0001), and type 2 diabetes (9/56 [16%] vs 1/55 [2%]; p=0·03). At follow-up, 25 (46%) of 58 patients had mild anaemia (ie, not requiring intervention), 22 (45%) had hyperparathyroidism, and eight (16%) had low amounts of vitamin B12 (ie, below the normal cutpoint). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery resulted in substantial and durable bodyweight reduction and cardiometabolic benefits for young adults. Long-term health maintenance after

  1. Long-Term Outcomes for Patients With Severe Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis Treated With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. (United States)

    Codner, Pablo; Orvin, Katia; Assali, Abid; Sharony, Ram; Vaknin-Assa, Hanna; Shapira, Yaron; Schwartzenberg, Shmuel; Bental, Tamir; Sagie, Alexander; Kornowski, Ran


    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established technique for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Data on long-term TAVI outcomes, both hemodynamic and clinical, in real-world practice settings are limited. We aim to explore the long-term clinical results in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis using multiple catheter-based options: 360 TAVI-treated patients were followed up for ≤5 years. The Medtronic CoreValve was used in 71% and the Edwards SAPIEN in 26%. The primary end point was all-cause mortality during follow-up. Outcomes were assessed based on the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 criteria. The mean ± SD patient age was 82.1 ± 6.9 years (56.4% women). The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 7.5 ± 4.7. The clinical efficacy end point and time-related valve safety at 3 years was 50% and 81.7%, respectively. The calculated 3- and 5-year survival rates were 71.6% and 56.4%, respectively. Five-year follow-up data were obtained for 54 patients alive; 96.2% of alive patients were in the New York Heart Association class I and II, 4 years after TAVI. No gender differences in all-cause mortality rates were observed (p = 0.58). In multivariate analysis, hospitalization 6 months previous to TAVI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 3.15, p = 0.01), frailty (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.2, p = 0.02), acute kidney injury (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.61, p = 0.04), and moderate or more paravalvular aortic regurgitation after TAVI (HR 4.26, 95% CI 2.54 to 7.15, p <0.001) were independent predictors for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, long-term outcomes of TAVI are encouraging. Prevention and early identification of paravalvular leak and acute renal failure after the procedure would improve short- and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences in self reported long term outcomes following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratcliff Graham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of research on health outcomes after a traumatic brain injury is focused on male participants. Information examining gender differences in health outcomes post traumatic brain injury is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in symptoms reported after a traumatic brain injury and to examine the degree to which these symptoms are problematic in daily functioning. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of a retrospective cohort study of 306 individuals who sustained a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury 8 to 24 years ago. Data were collected using the Problem Checklist (PCL from the Head Injury Family Interview (HIFI. Using Bonferroni correction, group differences between women and men were explored using Chi-square and Wilcoxon analysis. Results Chi-square analysis by gender revealed that significantly more men reported difficulty setting realistic goals and restlessness whereas significantly more women reported headaches, dizziness and loss of confidence. Wilcoxon analysis by gender revealed that men reported sensitivity to noise and sleep disturbances as significantly more problematic than women, whereas for women, lack of initiative and needing supervision were significantly more problematic in daily functioning. Conclusion This study provides insight into gender differences on outcomes after traumatic brain injury. There are significant differences between problems reported by men compared to women. This insight may facilitate health service planners and clinicians when developing programs for individuals with brain injury.

  3. Safety profile of injectable hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine for long-term severe opioid use disorder. (United States)

    Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Brissette, Suzanne; MacDonald, Scott; Guh, Daphne; Marchand, Kirsten; Jutha, Salima; Harrison, Scott; Janmohamed, Amin; Zhang, Derek Z; Anis, Aslam H; Krausz, Michael; Marsh, David C; Schechter, Martin T


    To review the safety profile of injectable hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine and explore if adverse events (AEs) or serious adverse events (SAEs) were associated with dose and patterns of attendance. This was a non-inferiority randomized double-blind controlled trial (Vancouver, Canada) testing hydromorphone (n=100) and diacetylmorphine (n=102) for the treatment of severe opioid use disorder. Medications were delivered under the supervision of trained Registered Nurses up to three times daily. AEs were described using MedDRA codes. Most common related AEs included immediate post-injection reaction or injection site pruritus reactions, somnolence and opioid overdoses. Adjusted analysis indicated that participants in the hydromorphone group were less likely to have any related AE or SAE compared to the diacetylmorphine group. Related somnolence and opioid overdose events were distributed throughout the six months treatment period. In the diacetylmorphine group, five of the eleven related SAE opioid overdoses (requiring naloxone) occurred in the first 30days since most recent treatment initiation. Analysis of somnolence and opioid overdose (AEs and SAEs) event rates by received dose suggested a non-linear relationship. However, in the diacetylmorphine group higher event rates per person days were recorded at lower doses. When injectable hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine are individually dosed and monitored, their opioid-related side effects, including potential fatal overdoses, are safely mitigated and treated by health care providers. In the midst of an opioid overdose epidemic, injectable options are timely to reach a very important minority of people who inject street opioids and are not attracted to other treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Mortality, severe morbidity and injury among long-term lone mothers in Sweden. (United States)

    Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Haglund, Bengt; Hjern, Anders; Rosén, Måns


    Being a lone mother often implies disadvantage in terms of both socioeconomic circumstances and health. Our aim was to examine differences in mortality, severe morbidity and injury between lone mothers and mothers living with partners, on the assumption that the disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances contribute to poor health. The odds for receipt of hospital care or death between 1991 and 1994 were estimated for 26 619 lone mothers and 379 855 partnered mothers from data collected for the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1990. We computed odds ratios by means of logistic regression, adjusting for confounders, mediators, and factors with an indeterminate position in various models. To control for health-selection effects, we only considered initially healthy women, as measured by non-hospitalization 4 years prior to follow-up. To reduce the impact of distress following divorce on health, we only included mothers who had been either lone or partnered for a period of > or =5 years. Lone mothers showed increased risks of total mortality, lung cancer, suicide/ suicide attempt, inflicted violence, traffic injury and other accident, psychiatric disease, and addiction. The main explanation for increased risks seems for most outcomes to lie in deficient household resources, as indicated here by receipt of social-welfare benefit and housing situation. For all the initially elevated outcomes, except for total mortality, significant risk increases remained unaccounted for even in the full model. Relationships varied according to subgroup. Lone motherhood was not related to accident, suicide and addiction among medium- and high-grade non-manual workers. Although lone mothers in general showed no increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, those receiving social benefit were exposed to a significantly increased risk. Our findings suggest that lone motherhood entails health disadvantages. Lack of household resources seems to play a major role in accounting for

  5. A Long-Term Leisure Program for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Settings: Research to Practice (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Burke, Amie M.; Fung, Michael P.


    We studied the effectiveness of an individually-tailored leisure program implemented by direct care staff in a residential program for 28 adults with severe to profound intellectual disability using a multiple baseline design across two homes over a 1.5 year baseline and treatment period followed by another nearly 1.5 year maintenance phase. The…

  6. An Initial Evaluation of a Long-Term, Sustainable, Integrated Community-Based Physical Activity Program for Adults with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Lante, Kerrie A.; Walkley, Jeff W.; Gamble, Merrilyn; Vassos, Maria V.


    Background: Physical activity (PA) programs for adults with intellectual disability (ID) have positive impacts, at least in the short term. No research has been reported on the effect of long-term engagement in PA programs for adults with ID. This paper explores the physical and psychosocial benefits gained by two individuals with mild ID who…

  7. Implementation of Medicaid Managed Long-Term Services and Supports for Adults with Intellectual And/Or Developmental Disabilities in Kansas (United States)

    Williamson, Heather J.; Perkins, Elizabeth A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Lulinski, Amie; Armstrong, Mary I.; Massey, Oliver T.


    Many adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) can access health and long-term services and supports (LTSS) through Medicaid. States are reforming their Medicaid LTSS programs from a fee-for-service model to a Medicaid managed LTSS (MLTSS) approach, anticipating improved quality of care and reduced costs, although there is…

  8. Case report: fast reversal of severe osteoporosis after correction of excessive levothyroxine treatment and long-term follow-up. (United States)

    Laine, C M; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K


    This case report describes a 38-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral femoral stress fractures and osteoporosis after years of excessive levothyroxine treatment. Her bone health was restored rapidly and long-lasting with the reduction of levothyroxine dosage. No bone-active treatment was warranted. Hyperthyroidism is a known risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. Recent studies on patients with serum thyrotropin-suppressive therapy have not, however, indicated adverse effects on bone during long-term follow-up. This case report describes long-term follow-up data of a clinically euthyreoid patient, who developed symptomatic osteoporosis due to excessive levothyroxine treatment. After correction of levothyroxine dosage, her bone mineral density (BMD) and previously elevated serum osteocalcin levels normalized rapidly and she remained free from fractures during 23 years of follow-up over menopause. Excessive TSH suppression contributed to the secondary osteoporosis in this patient; BMD normalized after dose reduction of levothyroxine and no fractures occurred during 23 years' follow-up. Some patients develop severe osteoporosis if they are over-substituted with levothyroxine, and decent follow-up of patients with levothyroxine supplementation is mandatory.

  9. Intrathecal ziconotide for severe chronic pain: safety and tolerability results of an open-label, long-term trial. (United States)

    Wallace, Mark S; Rauck, Richard; Fisher, Robert; Charapata, Steven G; Ellis, David; Dissanayake, Sanjeeva


    Ziconotide is a non-opioid drug indicated for management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal (IT) therapy is warranted and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatments. Six-hundred and forty-four patients with severe chronic pain participated in this open-label, multicenter study. Ziconotide titration was followed by long-term infusion. Efficacy assessments included the Visual Analog Scale of Pain Intensity. Safety was assessed via adverse events (AEs), vital signs, and routine laboratory values. One-hundred and nineteen patients received ziconotide for > or = 360 days; total exposure was 350.9 patient years. Median duration of ziconotide therapy was 67.5 days (range, 1.2-1215.5 days); mean dose at last infusion was 8.4 microg/d (range, 0.048-240.0 microg/d). Median Visual Analog Scale of Pain Intensity scores at baseline, month 1, and the last available observation up to month 2 were 76 mm (range, 4-100 mm), 68 mm (range, 0-100 mm), and 73 mm (range, 0-100 mm), respectively. Most patients (99.7%) experienced > or = 1 AE. Most AEs were of mild (43.5%) or moderate (42.3%) severity; 58.6% of AEs were considered unrelated to ziconotide. The most commonly reported AEs (> or = 25% of patients) included nausea, dizziness, headache, confusion, pain, somnolence, and memory impairment. Clinically significant abnormalities (> 3 times the upper limit of normal) in creatine kinase levels were reported in 0.9% of patients at baseline, 5.7% at month 1, and 3.4% at ziconotide discontinuation. No drug-related deaths, IT granulomas, or permanent adverse sequelae occurred with ziconotide therapy. We conclude that long-term IT ziconotide is an option for patients with severe, refractory chronic pain.

  10. Short-term combination therapy and long-term relapse prevention in the treatment of severe acne vulgaris. (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Stein Gold, Linda; Schlessinger, Joel; Brodell, Robert; Jones, Terry; Cruz, Alma; Kerrouche, Nabil; Jarratt, Michael


    Few long-term treatment regimens for severe acne vulgaris have been investigated in clinical trials. Data were combined from two consecutive, randomized, double-blind, controlled studies to evaluate the efficacy, safety and subject satisfaction of four nine-month regimens in severe acne vulgaris treatment. Subjects were first randomized to receive doxycycline (DCN) and adapalene 0.1% - benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (A/BPO) or vehicle once daily for 12 weeks. Subjects who had at least 50% global improvement were subsequently randomized to receive A/BPO or its vehicle once daily for 24 weeks. Over nine months, there were four regimens: A/BPO and DCN followed by A/BPO, vehicle and DCN followed by A/BPO, A/BPO and DCN followed by vehicle, and vehicle and DCN followed by vehicle. Among the four regimens, A/BPO and DCN followed by A/BPO led to the highest percentage of subjects rated "clear" or "almost clear" (50.0% vs. 40.4%, 26.2% and 25.0%, respectively), biggest reduction in total lesion counts (76% vs. 70%, 51% and 47%, respectively) and greatest subject satisfaction (85.0% vs. 75.5%, 63.3% and 52.4%, respectively) at week 36. It provided a faster onset of action compared to groups started with vehicle and DCN (PBPO and DCN followed by vehicle experienced deterioration once the active treatment was discontinued. All regimens were safe and well-tolerated. In conclusion, efficacious initial therapy and long-term treatment are both important. An initial combination therapy with adapalene-BPO and DCN followed by longer-term adapalene-BPO treatment is an efficacious and satisfactory new regimen for severe acne subjects.

  11. Predictive value of the Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and its components for long-term survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukland, Preben; Lando, Martin; Vilholm, Ole


    with lower odds ratios. When looking only at patients that survived the acute phase of treatment, only the STESS components "level of consciousness" (at admission), "coma" as worst seizure type, and "age" reached a statistical significant association with mortality. In these patients, STESS with a cut......BACKGROUND: The "Status Epilepticus Severity Score" (STESS) is the most important clinical score to predict in-hospital mortality of patients with status epilepticus (SE), but its prognostic relevance for long-term survival is unknown. This study therefore examined if STESS and its components...... retain their prognostic relevance beyond acute treatment. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five non-anoxic patients with SE were retrospectively identified in two hospitals between 2008 and 2014 (39.2 % refractory SE). Patients' treatment, demographic data, date of death, aetiology of SE, and the components...

  12. Long-term follow-up of children who underwent severe hypospadias repair using an online survey with validated questionnaires. (United States)

    Fraumann, Sarah A; Stephany, Heidi A; Clayton, Douglass B; Thomas, John C; Pope, John C; Adams, Mark C; Brock, John W; Tanaka, Stacy T


    Few studies of hypospadias repair in childhood have used validated questionnaires to investigate outcomes of cosmesis, urinary function, and sexual function in adulthood. We sought to investigate long-term outcomes in adult patients who had undergone severe hypospadias repair as children using an existing web-based application available to multiple institutions in order to develop an online patient survey of previously validated questionnaires. Patients aged 18 years or older who underwent severe hypospadias repair between 1992 and 1997 at our institution were contacted to complete an online survey. Through medical chart reviews, we analyzed the location of meatus, type of repair, and complications. The online survey included questions about penile appearance, and validated questionnaires to assess urinary and sexual function. Of 58 patients who met the inclusion criteria, we contacted 19, and 13 completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent had complications, with an average of 2.2 procedures per patient. Most (85.0%) were satisfied with penile appearance, although 38.0% had residual penile curvature. Hypospadias patients had mean lower orgasmic function than normal controls. Mean scores for urinary function and other domains of sexual function were similar to normal controls. Although the majority of adult patients were satisfied with the outcomes of penile appearance, urinary function, and sexual function, our online survey suggests decreased lower orgasmic function as measured by validated questionnaire. An online survey accessible to multiple institutions with validated questionnaires may facilitate assessment of long-term hypospadias results. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial disability and work role function compared across the long-term course of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders. (United States)

    Judd, Lewis L; Schettler, Pamela J; Solomon, David A; Maser, Jack D; Coryell, William; Endicott, Jean; Akiskal, Hagop S


    The research literature on psychosocial disability and work in mood disorders has either focused on relatively short-term course, or did not consider direct comparisons of these domains across all three of the affective subtypes of bipolar I (BP-I), bipolar II (BP-II), and unipolar major depressive disorders (UP-MDD). Mean composite measures of psychosocial impairment and months at specific levels of overall and work impairment were compared for 158 BP-I, 133 BP-II, and 358 UP-MDD patients based on semi-structured interviews conducted during 15 years of follow-up in the NIMH Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). These are contrasted with a single month of psychosocial impairment ratings for a sample of 1787 subjects with no current psychiatric disorder. Patients with mood disorders experienced some degree of disability during the majority of long-term follow-up (54 to 59% of months), including 19 to 23% of months with moderate and 7 to 9% of months with severe overall impairment. Severe disability occurred a substantial percentage of time only in the specific area of work role function. BP-I patients were completely unable to carry out work role functions during 30% of assessed months, which was significantly more than for UP-MDD and BP-II patients (21% and 20%, respectively). These findings have public health, economic, and clinical importance, and underscore the need to reduce the chronicity and impairment associated with these three prevalent affective disorder subtypes. Interventional research is just beginning to address these challenges.

  14. Severity of alprazolam dependence and associated features among long-term alprazolam users from psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ting Chen


    Conclusion: Doctors should closely monitor the severity of alprazolam dependence among long-term users, especially patients' levels of depression, beliefs in the necessity of alprazolam treatment, and their concerns over the adverse consequences of continued treatment with alprazolam.

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms are associated with baseline disability but not long-term treatment outcome in patients with chronic low back pain. (United States)

    Omair, Ahmad; Mannion, Anne F; Holden, Marit; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lie, Benedicte A; Hägg, Olle; Fritzell, Peter; Brox, Jens I


    To examine the association between COMT and OPRM1 gene polymorphisms and pain and disability at baseline and long-term follow-up in patients treated for chronic low back pain (LBP). 371 of 767 unrelated European patients recruited from four randomised trials underwent genetic analyses at mean 11.4 years follow-up. 274 patients had fusion and 97 had non-operative treatment. Association analyses included disability, pain, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COMT gene, and one SNP in the OPRM1 gene. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, analgesics and treatment. Disability at baseline was significantly associated with COMT SNPs rs4818 (p = 0.02), rs6269 (p = 0.007), rs4633 (p = 0.04) rs2075507 (p = 0.009), two haplotypes (p < 0.002), age, gender and smoking (p ≤ 0.002). No significant associations with clinical variables were observed for OPRM1, or for COMT at long-term follow-up. Results suggest that genetic factors are partly responsible for the variation in disability levels in patients presenting with chronic LBP being considered for surgery; in contrast, genetics has no influence on the long-term outcome of treatment.

  16. Posttraumatic severe infection of the ankle joint - long term results of the treatment with resection arthrodesis in 133 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienast B


    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a clear trend toward internal fixation for ankle arthrodesis, there is general consensus that external fixation is required for cases of posttraumatic infection. We retrospectively evaluated the technique and clinical long term results of external fixation in a triangular frame for cases of posttraumatic infection of the ankle. From 1993 to 2006 a consecutive series of 155 patients with an infection of the ankle was included in our study. 133 cases of the advanced "Gächter" stage III and IV were treated with arthrodesis. We treated the patients with a two step treatment plan. After radical debridement and sequestrectomy the malleoli and the joint surfaces were resected. An AO fixator was applied with two Steinmann-nails inserted in the tibia and in the calcaneus and the gap was temporary filled with gentamicin beads as the first step. In the second step we performed an autologous bone graft after a period of four weeks. The case notes were evaluated regarding trauma history, medical complaints, further injuries and illnesses, walking and pain status and occupational issues. Mean age at the index procedure was 49.7 years (18-82, 104 patients were male (67,1%. Follow up examination after mean 4.5 years included a standardised questionnaire and a clinical examination including the criteria of the AO-FAS-Score and radiographs. 92,7% of the cases lead to a stable arthrodesis. In 5 patients the arthrodesis was found partly-stable. In six patients (4,5% the infection was not controllable during the treatment process. These patients had to be treated with a below knee amputation. The mean AOFAS score at follow up was 63,7 (53-92. Overall there is a high degree of remaining disability. The complication rate and the reduced patient comfort reserve this method mainly for infection. Joint salvage is possible in the majority of cases with an earlier stage I and II infection.

  17. High school dropout and long-term sickness and disability in young adulthood: a prospective propensity score stratified cohort study (the Young-HUNT study). (United States)

    De Ridder, Karin A A; Pape, Kristine; Cuypers, Koenraad; Johnsen, Roar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Westin, Steinar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon


    High school dropout and long-term sickness absence/disability pension in young adulthood are strongly associated. We investigated whether common risk factors in adolescence may confound this association. Data from 6612 school-attending adolescents (13-20 years old) participating in the Norwegian Young-HUNT1 Survey (1995-1997) was linked to long-term sickness absence or disability pension from age 24-29 years old, recorded in the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation registers (1998-2008). We used logistic regression to estimate risk differences of sickness or disability for school dropouts versus completers, adjusting for health, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, school problems, and parental socioeconomic position. In addition, we stratified the regression models of sickness and disability following dropout across the quintiles of the propensity score for high school dropout. The crude absolute risk difference for long-term sickness or disability for a school dropout compared to a completer was 0.21% or 21% points (95% confidence interval (CI), 17 to 24). The adjusted risk difference was reduced to 15% points (95% CI, 12 to 19). Overall, high school dropout increased the risk for sickness or disability regardless of the risk factor level present for high school dropout. High school dropouts have a strongly increased risk for sickness and disability in young adulthood across all quintiles of the propensity score for dropout, i.e. independent of own health, family and socioeconomic factors in adolescence. These findings reveal the importance of early prevention of dropout where possible, combined with increased attention to labour market integration and targeted support for those who fail to complete school.

  18. Critical appraisal of the long-term impact of memantine in treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamon Puangthong


    Full Text Available Umamon Puangthong, Ging-Yuek Robin HsiungDivision of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in older adults. The clinical features include progressive memory decline as well as cognitive deficits with executive dysfunction, language, visual perceptual difficulties, apraxia and agnosia. During the moderate to severe stage of the disease, there is a major decline in memory and function, while neuropsychiatric disturbances often emerge and patients become difficult to manage. These distressing symptoms increase caregiver burden and add to the direct costs of care of the patients. Any improvements in patient function and behavioral symptoms can reduce caregiver burden. Memantine has been available for a number of years in Europe and in North America. In this article, we examine the pharmacological rationale for its use, and the current clinical evidence for its efficacy and long-term effectiveness in the management of cognitive and behavioral symptoms in moderate to severe stages of Alzheimer’s disease.Keywords: memantine, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia

  19. Dysplastic nevi with severe atypia: Long-term outcomes in patients with and without re-excision. (United States)

    Engeln, Kathleen; Peters, Kaitlin; Ho, Jonhan; Jedrych, Jaroslaw; Winger, Daniel; Ferris, Laura Korb; Patton, Timothy


    Dysplastic nevi with severe atypia (severely dysplastic nevi [SDN]) are frequently re-excised because of the concern that these lesions may in fact represent early melanoma. Data on long-term follow-up of these patients are limited. We sought to determine the rate of subsequent melanoma development in patients with SDN who underwent re-excision versus those who did not and to determine factors associated with decision to re-excise. A retrospective single institutional study was conducted with 451 adult patients (mean age 41.3 years) with SDN biopsied between November 1994 and November 2004, with clinical follow-up of at least 5 years. In 451 patients with SDN, re-excision was performed on 36.6%. Two melanomas were diagnosed in the re-excision specimens. Subsequent metastatic melanoma developed in 7 patients, all of whom had a history of melanoma. Margin comments influenced decision to re-excise. This was a retrospective study at a single institution. Re-excision of all SDN may not be necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The frequency and severity of cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2): long-term outcomes. (United States)

    Sansone, V A; Brigonzi, E; Schoser, B; Villani, S; Gaeta, M; De Ambroggi, G; Bandera, F; De Ambroggi, L; Meola, G


    Frequency and severity of cardiac involvement in DM2 are still controversial. The aims of our study were to determine the frequency and progression of cardiac and muscle involvement in a relatively large cohort of patients with DM2 throughout Italy and Germany and to provide long-term outcomes in this disorder. 104 DM2 and 117 DM1 patients underwent baseline and follow-up assessments of, ECG, 24h Holter monitoring, 2D echocardiography and electrophysiological study (EPS) when appropriate, and manual muscle strength testing (mean follow-up: 7.4 ± 4.1 for DM2 and 5.7 ± 4 years for DM1). Overall, 10% of DM2 patients vs 31% of DM1 patients had PR ≥ 200 ms and 17% of DM2 patients vs 48% of DM1 patients had QRSD ≥ 100 ms. Six patients with DM2 vs 28 patients with DM1 required PM/ICD implantations. DM2 patients were stronger than DM1 patients at baseline, but muscle strength worsened significantly over time (pDM2 compared to DM1 and that progression is slower and less severe. Nonetheless, careful cardiac evaluation is recommended in this patient population to identify patients at risk for potential major cardiac arrhythmias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep intronic variation in splicing regulatory element of the ERCC8 gene associated with severe but long-term survival Cockayne syndrome. (United States)

    Schalk, Audrey; Greff, Géraldine; Drouot, Nathalie; Obringer, Cathy; Dollfus, Hélène; Laugel, Vincent; Chelly, Jamel; Calmels, Nadège


    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by intellectual disability, microcephaly, severe growth failure, sensory impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and cutaneous sensitivity. This rare disease is linked to disease-causing variations in the ERCC6 (CSB) and ERCC8 (CSA) genes. Various degrees of severity have been described according to age at onset and survival, without any clear genotype-phenotype correlation. All types of nucleotide changes have been observed in CS genes, including splice variations mainly affecting the splice site consensus sequences. We report here the case of two brothers from a consanguineous family presenting a severe but long-term survival phenotype of Cockayne syndrome. We identified in the patients a homozygous deep intronic nucleotide variation causing the insertion of a cryptic exon in the ERCC8 (CSA) transcript, by modifying intronic regulatory elements important for exon definition. The pathogenesis of the nucleotide variant NG_009289.1(NM_000082.3):c.173+1119G>C was validated in vitro with a reporter minigene system. To our knowledge, these are the first Cockayne patients described with this kind of disease-causing variation, though molecular mechanism underlying early onset symptoms and unexpected slow raise of progression of the disease remain to be elucidated.

  2. Long term follow-up by gamma angiocardiography of patients with severe cardiac insufficiency bearing an ethylic cardiomyopathy; Suivi a long terme par gamma angiocardiographie de patients en insuffisance cardiaque severe porteurs d`un cardiomyopathie ethylique

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    Guillo, P. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cavale Blanche Brest 29200 (France); Mansourati, J. [Service de Cardiologie, CHU Cavale Blanche Brest 29200 (France); Le Rest, C.; Pennec, P.Y.; Cavarec, M.; Turzo, A. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cavale Blanche Brest (France); Blanc, J.J. [Service de Cardiologie, CHU Cavale Blanche Brest (France); Bizais, Y. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cavale Blanche Brest (France)


    The goal of this prospective study is establishing the evolution and long term prognostication in chronic ethylic patients afflicted with severe cardiac insufficiency (CI), presenting a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Forty patients (average age 44.8 {+-} 9.2 years) are consecutively included according to the following criteria: CI (stage IV), DCM without definite etiology, chronic alcoholism during more than 10 years and superior to 80 g alcohol/day. The telediastolic diameter (TDD) of left ventricle viewed by echo-cardiogram is increased up to 68.4 {+-} 3.6 mm with a fraction of shortening (FS) of 14.2 {+-} 3.7%. The isotopic ejection fraction (EF) is lowered down to 21.6 {+-} 5.9%. All the patients received a conventional treatment of CI while the abstinence was hardly urged. Three patients recurred and subsequently refused the follow-up. By the third month, in absence of any amelioration, a patient benefited by a cardiac transplant and another patient deceased after myocardial biopsy. Nine patients benefited by a complete follow-up of 36 months. After the third month the functional amelioration is notable and confirmed by different parameters: TDD of 64.3 {+-} 3.6 (p < 0.02), FS of 18.8 {+-} 7.2% (NS) and EF of 31.3 {+-} 11.1% (p < 0.03). The amelioration of different criteria is significant by the 6. month and than stabilizes itself up to 3 years as showed by the EF evolution curves. In conclusion, the prognostication of these patients with severe CI is favorable. The functional amelioration is precocious and confirmed by the different ventricular parameters studied. The medical treatment associated with a complete and definitive abstinence is the key of success

  3. Long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI income: Creating health-promoting contexts for families experiencing housing instability with disabilities. (United States)

    Glendening, Zachary S; McCauley, Erin; Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R


    Though disability and housing instability are discussed separately in public health literature, few studies address families at their intersection. As a result, little is known about families who experience both homelessness and disability, how many receive disability benefits like SSI and SSDI, or the influence of those benefits on health-promoting outcomes like housing stability and self-sufficiency. Moreover, no previous research compares the ability of different housing and service interventions to increase disability benefit access. We examine relationships between disabilities and SSI/SSDI income reported when families enter emergency shelters and later health-promoting outcomes (housing stability and self-sufficiency) and how housing interventions affect SSI/SSDI receipt. Families in the (name removed) Study (N = 1857) were interviewed in emergency shelters, randomly offered of one of three housing interventions or usual care (i.e., no immediate referral to any intervention beyond shelter), and re-interviewed 20 months later. A third of families reported a disability at shelter entry. SSI/SSDI coverage of these families increased nearly 10% points over 20 months but never exceeded 40%. Disabilities predicted greater housing instability, food insecurity, and economic stress and less work and income. Among families reporting disabilities, SSI/SSDI receipt predicted fewer returns to emergency shelter, and more income despite less work. Offers of long-term housing subsidies increased SSI/SSDI receipt. Many families experiencing homelessness have disabilities; those receiving SSI/SSDI benefits have better housing and income outcomes. Providing families experiencing homelessness with long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI could improve public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G C Ilboudo

    Full Text Available This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event. To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.

  5. Coculture of autologous limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells to treat severe ocular surface disorders: Long-term survival analysis (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sandhya V; Sejpal, Kunjal; Fatima, Anees; Gaddipati, Subhash; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Sangwan, Virender S


    Background: Cultivated limbal epithelium for reconstruction of corneal surface is a well-established procedure; however, it is not adequate for damage which also extensively involves the conjunctiva. In severe cases of ocular surface damage that warrant additional conjunctival transplantation apart from cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation, we describe the long-term survival of a novel method of cocultivating autologous limbal and conjunctival epithelium on a single substrate. Materials and Methods: Forty eyes of 39 patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival scarring or symblepharon underwent transplantation of autologous cocultivated epithelium on human amniotic membrane. A ring barrier was used to segregate the central limbal and peripheral conjunctival epithelia in vitro. Patients were followed up at regular intervals to assess stability of the ocular surface, defined by absence of conjunctivalization into the central 4 mm of the cornea and absence of diffuse fluorescein staining. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was subsequently performed, where indicated, in patients with surface stability. Results: The cumulative survival probability was 60% at 1 year and 45% at 4 years by Kaplan–Meier analysis (mean follow-up duration: 33 ± 29 months, range: 1–87 months). Best-corrected visual acuity improved to greater than 20/200 in 38% eyes at the last follow-up, compared with 5% eyes before surgery. Immunohistochemistry in five of the corneal buttons excised for PKP showed an epithelial phenotype similar to cornea in all five. Conclusions: Synchronous use of cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelium offers a feasible alternative and a simpler one-step surgical approach to treat severe ocular surface disorders involving limbus and conjunctiva. PMID:23552358

  6. Medium-/Long-Term Effects of a Specific Exercise Protocol Combined with Patient Education on Spine Mobility, Chronic Fatigue, Pain, Aerobic Fitness and Level of Disability in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Giannotti


    Full Text Available Objective. To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21 or to a control group (CG = 20. Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1, and after 6 months (T6 from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, the visual analogue scale (VAS, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, the fatigue severity scale (FSS, the 6-minute walking test (6MWT, tender points count (TPC, and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04. The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. Conclusion. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS.

  7. Medium-/long-term effects of a specific exercise protocol combined with patient education on spine mobility, chronic fatigue, pain, aerobic fitness and level of disability in fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Giannotti, Erika; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Pigatto, Maurizia; Rampudda, Maria Elisa; Doria, Andrea; Masiero, Stefano


    To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21) or to a control group (CG = 20). Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1), and after 6 months (T6) from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the fatigue severity scale (FSS), the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), tender points count (TPC), and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04). The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS.

  8. The availability and affordability of long-term care for disabled older people in China: The issues related to inequalities in social security benefits. (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Zhuochun


    China is experiencing increasing pressure from issues relating to an ageing population. The rationality of different eligibility criteria of the benefits within the social security system has been widely challenged; however, to date, no previous study has explored its association with the availability and affordability of long-term care (LTC). This study evaluates the availability and affordability of Long-Term Care (LTC) services for disabled older people (aged 65 and above) in China, with special attention to the differences among groups in receipt of specific social security benefits. The data of availability and affordability of LTC services for disabled older people is from a nationally representative sample Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Three different social security benefits were identified and their effects on the long-term care services for disabled older people were explored. The overall proportions of disabled older people who have only limited or no available or affordable LTC services were remarkably high, especially for those who have moderate or no social security benefits. Compared to those who are entitled to generous social security benefits, older people who have no social security benefits are 18.45 times more likely to be unable to afford health care expenses. The findings imply that policy makers in China could focus on the LTC needs for the social security and socioeconomically disadvantaged (who have limited or no social security benefits and in low household income) disabled older people which could reduce the gap between them and those who are entitled to generous social security benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of differentiated neurotherapy programs for a patient after severe TBI and long term coma using event-related potentials. (United States)

    Pachalska, Maria; Łukowicz, Małgorzata; Kropotov, Juri D; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Talar, Jan


    This article examines the effectiveness of differentiated rehabilitation programs for a patient with frontal syndrome after severe TBI and long-term coma. We hypothesized that there would be a small response to relative beta training, and a good response to rTMS, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function. M. L-S, age 26, suffered from anosognosia, executive dysfunction, and behavioral changes, after a skiing accident and prolonged coma, rendering him unable to function independently in many situations of everyday life. Only slight progress was made after traditional rehabilitation. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training (program A) and later in 20 sessions of rTMS (program B); both programs were combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment, after the completion of program A, and again after the completion of program B. As hypothesized, patient M.L-S showed small improvements in executive dysfunction and behavioral disorders after the conclusion of program A, and major improvement after program B. Similarly, in physiological changes the patient showed small improvement after relative beta training and a significant improvement of the P300 NOGO component after the rTMS program. The rTMS program produced larger physiological and behavioral changes than did relative beta training. A combination of different neurotherapeutical approaches (such as neurofeedback, rTMS, tDCS) can be suggested for similar severe cases of TBI. ERPs can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs.

  10. Long-term impact of wildfire on soils exposed to different fire severities. A case study in Cadiretes Massif (NE Iberian Peninsula). (United States)

    Francos, Marcos; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo; Alcañiz, Meritxell


    Wildfires affect ecosystems depending on the fire regime. Long-term studies are needed to understand the ecological role played by fire, especially as regards its impact on soils. The aim of this study is to monitor the long-term effects (18years) of a wildfire on soil properties in two areas affected by low and high fire severity regimes. The properties studied were total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), C/N ratio, soil organic matter (SOM) and extractable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K). The study was carried out in three phases: short- (immediately after the wildfire), medium- (seven years after the wildfire) and long-term (18years after the wildfire). The results showed that in both fire regimes TN decreased with time, TC and SOM were significantly lower in the burned plots than they were in the control in the medium- and long-terms. C/N ratio was significantly lower at short-term in low wildfire severity area. Extractable Ca and Mg were significantly higher in control plot than in the burned plots in the medium-term. In the long-term, extractable Ca and Mg were significantly lower in the area exposed to a high severity burning. No differences were identified in the case of extractable Na between plots on any of the sampling dates, while extractable K was significantly higher in the plot exposed to low wildfire than it was in the control. Some restoration measures may be required after the wildfire, especially in areas affected by high severity burning, to avoid the long-term impacts on the essential soil nutrients of TC, SOM, extractable Ca and Mg. This long-term nutrient depletion is attributable to vegetation removal, erosion, leaching and post-fire vegetation consumption. Soils clearly need more time to recover from wildfire disturbance, especially in areas affected by high severity fire regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term outcome of 25 children and adolescents with severe aplastic anemia treated with antithymocyte globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Medeiros C.R.


    Full Text Available Severe aplastic anemia (SAA is probably an immune-mediated disorder, and immunosuppressive therapy is recommended for patients with no available donor for bone marrow transplant. Between October 1984 and November 1987, 25 consecutive children and adolescents with SAA with no HLA-compatible marrow donor received equine antithymocyte globulin (ATG (15 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 days. The patients were evaluated 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after starting ATG treatment. Thereafter, patients were evaluated yearly until July 1998. Median age was 10 years (range, 1.5-20 years, granulocyte counts on referral ranged from 0.032 to 1.4 x 10(9/l (median 0.256 x 10(9/l, and 12 patients had granulocyte counts <0.2 x 10(9/l. At a median follow-up of 9.6 years (range, 8.6-11.8 years, 10 patients (40% remained alive with good marrow function. No morphologic evidence of hematological clonal disorders has been observed, although two patients probably have acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 8 and del(6q21, respectively. Responses to ATG were observed between 6 weeks and 6 months from the start of treatment in 60% of evaluable patients. The response rate was not different in patients whose granulocyte count at diagnosis was <0.2 x 10(9/l, or in those who were <10 years of age. This study supports the view that, when compared with supportive measures, ATG is an effective treatment for children or adolescents with SAA. Although these results are inferior to those reported for marrow transplantation or more intensive immunosuppressive regimens, these patients who responded to ATG are long-term survivors with stable peripheral blood counts and a low rate of relapse.

  12. Serum Creatinine Levels During and After Long-term Treatment with Cyclosporine A in Patients with Severe Atopic Dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Jorien; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Deinum, Joukje; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein S


    Safety data with respect to kidney function during long-term treatment with cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with atopic dermatitis is limited. Data on serum creatinine levels before, during and after CsA treatment were collected in a retrospective cohort of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

  13. The effects of co-morbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, K. J.; van Loo, H. M.; Cai, T.; Fava, M.; Gruber, M. J.; Li, J.; de Jonge, P.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rose, S.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoevers, R. A.; Wilcox, M. A.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bunting, B.; Florescu, S. E.; Fukao, A.; Gureje, O.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y. Q.; Karam, A. N.; Levinson, D.; Medina Mora, M. E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Taib, N. I.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Kessler, R. C.


    Background. Although variation in the long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these

  14. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J


    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study...... regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. RESULTS: Patients differed significantly from the general...... population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness...

  15. Gender differences in personal and work-related determinants of return-to-work following long-term disability: a 5-year cohort study. (United States)

    Lederer, Valérie; Rivard, Michèle; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa


    To assess the differential effect of personal and work-related psychosocial, physical and organizational determinants by gender on time to return-to-work (RTW) following long-term disability. Data come from a larger study conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. A cohort of 455 adults on long-term disability due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders at the back/neck/upper limb was followed for 5 years through structured interviews and administrative databases. Left-truncated Cox regression modeling stratified by gender was used to assess time to a first partial or full RTW of at least 3 days. Survival curves of time to RTW were similar between men and women on long-term disability (log-rank test p value = 0.920) but many personal and occupational factors influencing RTW differed by gender. Women's risk factors included older age (HR = 0.734--in 10 years unit), poor to very poor perceived economic status (HR = 0.625), working ≥40 h/week and having dependents (HR = 0.508) and awareness of workplace-based occupational health and safety program (HR = 0.598); higher gross annual income (in $10,000 s) was a facilitator (HR = 1.225). In men, being over 55 years old (HR = 0.458), poor perceived economic status (HR = 0.653), working ≥40 h/week and high perceived physical workload (HR = 0.720) and higher job insecurity (HR = 0.825) negatively influenced time to RTW. For both men and women, probabilities of not returning to work varied widely according to workers' specific profile of personal and occupational factors (high or low risk profile). Results confirm the importance of gender-sensitive strategies to investigate RTW determinants from a gender perspective.

  16. Efficacy and safety of long-term prophylaxis in severe hemophilia A dogs following liver gene therapy using AAV vectors. (United States)

    Sabatino, Denise E; Lange, Amy M; Altynova, Ekaterina S; Sarkar, Rita; Zhou, Shangzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Franck, Helen G; Nichols, Timothy C; Arruda, Valder R; Kazazian, Haig H


    Developing adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated gene therapy for hemophilia A (HA) has been challenging due to the large size of the factor VIII (FVIII) complementary DNA and the concern for the development of inhibitory antibodies to FVIII in HA patients. Here, we perform a systematic study in HA dogs by delivering a canine FVIII (cFVIII) transgene either as a single chain or two chains in an AAV vector. An optimized cFVIII single chain delivered using AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) by peripheral vein injection resulted in a dose-response with sustained expression of FVIII up to 7% (n = 4). Five HA dogs administered two-chain delivery using either AAV8 or AAV9 via the portal vein expressed long-term, vector dose-dependent levels of FVIII activity (up to 10%). In the two-chain approach, circulating cFVIII antigen levels were more than fivefold higher than activity. Notably, no long-term immune response to FVIII was observed in any of the dogs (1/9 dogs had a transient inhibitor). Long-term follow-up of the dogs showed a remarkable reduction (>90%) of bleeding episodes in a combined total of 24 years of observation. These data demonstrate that both approaches are safe and achieve dose-dependent therapeutic levels of FVIII expression, which supports translational studies of AAV-mediated delivery for HA.

  17. Effects of Controlled Discontinuation of Long-Term Used Antipsychotics on Weight and Metabolic Parameters in Individuals With Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kuijper, Gerda; Mulder, Hans; Evenhuis, Heleen; Visser, Frank; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Antipsychotics are frequently prescribed agents in individuals with intellectual disability, often for behavioral symptoms. Efficacy of antipsychotics for this is ambiguous, so discontinuation should be considered. Weight gain and metabolic dysregulation are well-known adverse effects of

  18. The severe complication of Stevens–Johnson syndrome induced by long-term clozapine treatment in a male schizophrenia patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MK


    Full Text Available Ming-Kung Wu,1 Weilun Chung,2 Ching-Kuan Wu,2 Ping-Tao Tseng2 1Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tsyr-Huey Mental Hospital, Kaohsiung Jen-Ai’s Home, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Introduction: Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS is a severe adverse drug reaction that can result in disability and mortality. SJS is defined as having a widespread distribution throughout the whole body surface area with <10% extent of skin detachment and skin lesions. Some drugs, such as carbamazepine, have been reported to have a greater correlation to SJS. Although clozapine use has been mentioned as a risk factor for development of SJS, no report has clearly described the features of SJS as a reaction to clozapine use. Herein, we report the case of a patient presenting SJS after long-term clozapine treatment.Case report: Mr A was a 54-year-old male with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia. He was hospitalized in a mental institute and received clozapine 200 mg/day for 2 years, without discomfort or drug side effects. He developed acute-onset mouth edema, multiple oral and ocular ulcers, oral and ocular mucosa swelling, and multiple erythematous skin rashes over his entire body and extremities with hypertension and high fever. SJS was diagnosed after referral to a general hospital.Results: The SJS subsided under supportive treatment.Conclusion: Accumulated lymphocytes and macrophages in the epidermis and elevated TNF-α might cause an immune reaction and apoptosis and result in the clinical presentation of SJS. Clozapine is believed to modulate the immunologic reaction, and therefore might induce SJS through immunomodulation. This case highlights the importance of considering the possibility of SJS resulting from the use of drugs for which there are no reports of such a severe complication. Keywords: psychiatry, side effect, pharmacotherapy, adverse reaction, pharmacy

  19. Long-Term Effect of Polyalkylimide Gel Injections on Severity of Facial Lipoatrophy and Quality of Life of HIV-Positive Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, Refaat B.; de Lint, Cathelijne A.; van Galen, Sebastiaan R.; van Rozelaar, Leo; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Askarizadeh, Erfan; Hage, J. Joris


    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with facial lipoatrophy, which is potentially stigmatizing for HIV-positive patients. We assessed the long-term effects of polyalkylimide gel injections on the severity of lipoatrophy and quality of life of patients on HAART. A prospective

  20. Long-term safety and tolerability of pimecrolimus cream 1% and topical corticosteroids in adults with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luger, T. A.; Lahfa, M.; Fölster-Holst, R.; Gulliver, W. P.; Allen, R.; Molloy, S.; Barbier, N.; Paul, C.; Bos, J. D.


    OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study compared the long-term safety and tolerability of pimecrolimus cream 1% and topical corticosteroids (TCS) in 658 adults with moderate-severe atopic dermatitis (AD). METHODS: Patients applied either pimecrolimus or TCS (i.e. 0.1%

  1. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Jeroen; Kruisdijk, Frank; Tenback, Diederik; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Taal, Erik; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Tak, Erwin; Hendriksen, Ingrid; van Harten, Peter


    Background: Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term

  2. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, J.; Kruisdijk, F.; Tenback, D.; Braakman-Jansen, A.; Taal, E.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Beekman, A.; Tak, E.C.; Hendriksen, I.; Harten, P. van


    Background. Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term

  3. Physicians' reasons not to discontinue long-term used off-label antipsychotic drugs in people with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kuijper, G. M.; Hoekstra, P. J.


    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) frequently use antipsychotic drugs on an off-label base, often for many years. Physicians' decisions to discontinue these drugs not only depend on patient characteristics, like the presence of mental or behavioural disorders, but also on

  4. Severe Disabilities. ERIC Digest #311. Revised. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines the term "severe disabilities"; lists some typical behavioral characteristics of individuals with severe disabilities, such as self-mutilation and lack of self-care skills; and outlines the educational implications of severe disabilities. The digest stresses the need for a multidisciplinary approach to education; the…

  5. Assembling the evidence jigsaw: insights from a systematic review of UK studies of individual-focused return to work initiatives for disabled and long-term ill people (United States)


    Background Employment rates of long-term ill and disabled people in the UK are low and 2.63 million are on disability-related state benefits. Since the mid-1990 s, UK governments have experimented with a range of active labour market policies aimed to move disabled people off benefits and into work to reduce the risk of poverty and social exclusion. This systematic review asks what employment impact have these interventions had and how might they work better? Methods A systematic review of observational and qualitative empirical studies and systematic reviews published between 2002 and mid-2008 reporting employment effects and/or process evaluations of national UK government interventions focused on helping long-term sick or disabled people (aged 16-64) into the open labour market. This built on our previous systematic review which covered the years 1970 to 2001. Results Searches identified 42 studies, 31 of which evaluated initiatives with an individual focus (improving an individual's employability or providing financial support in returning to work) while 11 evaluated initiatives with an environmental focus (directed at the employment environment or changing the behaviour of employers). This paper synthesises evidence from the 31 studies with an individual focus. The use of personal advisors and individual case management in these schemes helped some participants back to work. Qualitative studies, however, revealed that time pressures and job outcome targets influenced advisors to select 'easier-to-place' claimants into programmes and also inhibited the development of mutual trust, which was needed for individual case management to work effectively. Financial incentives can help with lasting transitions into work, but the incentives were often set too low or were too short-term to have an effect. Many of the studies suffered from selection bias into these programmes of more work-ready claimants. Even though these were national programmes, they had very low

  6. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD


    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  7. Long-term sequelae of severe acute kidney injury in the critically ill patient without comorbidity: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Fortrie

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT is associated with high mortality and increased risk for end stage renal disease. However, it is unknown if this applies to patients with a preliminary unremarkable medical history. The purpose of this study was to describe overall and renal survival in critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT stratified by the presence of comorbidity.A retrospective cohort study was performed, between 1994 and 2010, including all adult critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT, stratified by the presence of comorbidity. Logistic regression, survival curve and cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate overall and renal survival. Standardized mortality rate (SMR analysis was performed to compare long-term survival to the predicted survival in the Dutch population.Of the 1067 patients included only 96(9.0% had no comorbidity. Hospital mortality was 56.6% versus 43.8% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. In those who survived hospitalization 10-year survival was 45.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Adjusted for age, sex and year of treatment, absence of comorbidity was not associated with hospital mortality (OR=0.74, 95%-CI=0.47-1.15, while absence of comorbidity was associated with better long-term survival (adjusted HR=0.28, 95%-CI = 0.14-0.58. Compared to the Dutch population, patients without comorbidity had a similar mortality risk (SMR=1.6, 95%-CI=0.7-3.2, while this was increased in patients with comorbidity (SMR=4.8, 95%-CI=4.1-5.5. Regarding chronic dialysis dependency, 10-year renal survival rates were 76.0% and 92.9% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. Absence of comorbidity was associated with better renal survival (adjusted HR=0.24, 95%-CI=0.07-0.76.While hospital mortality remains excessively high, the absence of comorbidity in critically ill patients with RRT-requiring AKI is associated with a relative good long-term

  8. Suicidal Career in Severe Depression among Long-Term Survivors: In a Followup after 37–53 Years Suicide Attempts Appeared to End Long before Depression


    Lisa Crona; Alexander Mossberg; Louise Brådvik


    Objective. To describe the suicidal career in the long-term course of severe depression. Subjects and Method. Seventy-five former in-patients were interviewed by telephone about course of depression and suicide attempts 37–53 years after index admission. Medical records were read in many cases. Results. 29 subjects had attempted suicide, 13 repeated, 10 made severe, and 13 violent attempts. The risk of suicide attempt decreased by 10% for every decade spent depressed. Suicide attempts were ma...

  9. Factors associated with long-term weight-loss maintenance following bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. (United States)

    Ryder, J R; Gross, A C; Fox, C K; Kaizer, A M; Rudser, K D; Jenkins, T M; Ratcliff, M B; Kelly, A S; Kirk, S; Siegel, R M; Inge, T H


    Bariatric surgery produces robust weight loss, however, factors associated with long-term weight-loss maintenance among adolescents undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are unknown. Fifty adolescents (mean±s.d. age and body mass index (BMI)=17.1±1.7 years and 59±11 kg m(-2)) underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, had follow-up visits at 1 year and at a visit between 5 and 12 years following surgery (Follow-up of Adolescent Bariatric Surgery at 5 Plus years (FABS-5+) visit; mean±s.d. 8.1±1.6 years). A non-surgical comparison group (n=30; mean±s.d. age and BMI=15.3±1.7 years and BMI=52±8 kg m(-2)) was recruited to compare weight trajectories over time. Questionnaires (health-related and eating behaviors, health responsibility, impact of weight on quality of life (QOL), international physical activity questionnaire and dietary habits via surgery guidelines) were administered at the FABS-5+ visit. Post hoc, participants were split into two groups: long-term weight-loss maintainers (n=23; baseline BMI=58.2 kg m(-2); 1-year BMI=35.8 kg m(-2); FABS-5+ BMI=34.9 kg m(-2)) and re-gainers (n=27; baseline BMI=59.8 kg m(-2); 1-year BMI=36.8 kg m(-2); FABS-5+ BMI=48.0 kg m(-2)) to compare factors which might contribute to differences. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, baseline diabetes status and length of follow-up. The BMI of the surgical group declined from baseline to 1 year (-38.5±6.9%), which, despite some regain, was largely maintained until FABS-5+ (-29.6±13.9% change). The BMI of the comparison group increased from baseline to the FABS-5+ visit (+10.3±20.6%). When the surgical group was split into maintainers and re-gainers, no differences in weight-related and eating behaviors, health responsibility, physical activity/inactivity, or dietary habits were observed between groups. However, at FABS-5+, maintainers had greater overall QOL scores than re

  10. How do general practitioners contribute to preventing long-term work disability of their patients suffering from depressive disorders? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Sylvain, Chantal; Durand, Marie-José; Maillette, Pascale; Lamothe, Lise


    Depression is a major cause of work absenteeism that general practitioners (GPs) face directly since they are responsible for sickness certification and for supervising the return to work (RTW). These activities give GPs a key role in preventing long-term work disability, yet their practices in this regard remain poorly documented. The objectives of this study were therefore to describe GPs' practices with people experiencing work disability due to depressive disorders and explore how GPs' work context may impact on their practices. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 13 GPs and six mental healthcare professionals in two sub-regions of Quebec. The sub-regions differed in terms of availability of specialized resources offering public mental health services. Data were anonymized and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was performed to identify patterns in the GPs' practices and highlight impacting factors in their work context. Our results identified a set of practices common to all the GPs and other practices that differentiated them. Two profiles were defined on the basis of the various practices documented. The first is characterized by the integration of the RTW goal into the treatment goal right from sickness certification and by interventions that include the workplace, albeit indirectly. The second is characterized by a lack of early RTW-oriented action and by interventions that include little workplace involvement. Regardless of the practice profile, actions intended to improve collaboration with key stakeholders remain the exception. However, two characteristics of the work context appear to have an impact: the availability of a dedicated mental health nurse and the regular provision of clinical information by psychotherapists. These conditions are rarely present but tend to make a significant difference for the GPs. Our results highlight the significant role of GPs in the prevention of long-term work disability and their need for

  11. Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave: a 6.75-year follow-up study in municipal eldercare workers (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Krane, Line; Borg, Vilhelm; Fleten, Nils; Jensen, Chris


    Objectives The aim was to study whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among municipal eldercare workers. Setting The municipal healthcare sector in the city of Aarhus, which is the second largest city in Denmark. Participants All elder care employees who worked the entire year of 2004 in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (N=2774). The employees’ sick leave days during 2004 were categorised into: 0–2 and 3–17 short (1–7 days) spells, 2–13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells and long spells only. Student workers (n=180), employees who were absent due to maternal/paternal leave (n=536) and employees who did not work the entire year of 2004 (n=1218) were not included. Primary outcome Disability pension and long-term sick leave (≥8 weeks) were subsequently identified in a National register. The cumulative incidence proportion as a function of follow-up weeks was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. The relative cumulative incidence (RR) of experiencing events within 352 weeks was analysed in a generalised linear regression model using the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation, unfavourable work factors and sick leave length. Results A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern showed RRs of being granted a disability pension of 2.08 (95% CI 1.00 to 4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI 1.33 to 5.12) compared with 0–2 short spells. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased for all sick leave patterns compared with 0–2 short spells. Adding sick leave length to the models attenuated all RRs and they became non-significant. Conclusions Sick leave length was a better indicator of future workability than spell frequency. Preventive actions should target employees engaged in homecare. The more sick leave days the greater the preventive potential seems, irrespective of spell frequency. PMID:24508850

  12. Long-term safety and analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine buccal film in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale M


    Full Text Available Martin Hale,1 Veronica Urdaneta,2 M Todd Kirby,3 Qinfang Xiang,4 Richard Rauck5 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL, USA; 2Pharmacovigilance and Risk Management, 3Clinical Development, 4Biometrics, Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Malvern, PA, USA; 5Carolinas Pain Institute, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston Salem, NC, USA Background: This open-label, single-arm study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a novel buprenorphine formulation, buprenorphine buccal film, in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids.Methods: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of buprenorphine buccal film. Five hundred and six patients who completed previous studies with buprenorphine buccal film (n=445; rollover patients or were recruited de novo for this study (n=61 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a dose titration period of ≤6 weeks, during which doses of buprenorphine buccal film were adjusted to a maximum 900 µg every 12 hours, depending on tolerability and the need for rescue medication. An optimal dose was defined as the dose that the patient found satisfactory for both pain relief and tolerability, without the need for rescue medication or with ≤2 tablets of rescue medication per day. Once the optimal dose was reached, treatment was continued for ≤48 weeks. Pain intensity was measured throughout the study using a 0–10 numerical rating scale.Results: Of 435 patients achieving an optimal dose of buprenorphine buccal film who commenced long-term treatment, 158 (36.3% completed 48 weeks of treatment. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 116 patients (22.9% during the titration phase and 61 patients (14.0% during the long-term treatment phase, and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment occurred in 14 (2.8% and 14 (3.2% patients, respectively. The most common adverse events were those typically

  13. The Long Term Role of Anxiety Sensitivity and Experiential Avoidance on Pain Intensity, Mood, and Disability among Individuals in a Specialist Pain Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehta


    Full Text Available Background. Anxiety sensitivity (AS and experiential avoidance (EA have been shown to have an interactive effect on the response an individual has to chronic pain (CP potentially resulting in long term negative outcomes. Objective. The current study attempted to (1 identify distinct CP subgroups based on their level of EA and AS and (2 compare the subgroups in terms of mood and disability. Methods. Individuals with CP were recruited from an academic pain clinic. Individuals were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures at baseline and 1-year follow-up. A cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of EA and AS. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the Repeated Measures MANOVA. Results. From a total of 229 participants, five clusters were formed. Subgroups with lower levels of AS but similar high levels of EA did not differ in outcomes. Mood impairment was significantly greater among those with high levels of EA compared to lower levels (p<0.05. Significant improvement in disability (p<0.05 was only seen among those with lower levels of EA and AS. Conclusions. This cluster analysis demonstrated that EA had a greater influence on mood impairment, while both EA and AS levels affected disability outcomes among individuals with CP.

  14. Congenital giant cardiac tumor with severe left-ventricular inflow and outflow obstruction and arrhythmia treated with pulmonary artery banding and long-term amiodarone infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiji Takeuchi


    Full Text Available We report a congenital giant cardiac tumor that occupied the majority of left ventricular cavity with severe left ventricular inflow and outflow obstruction. The hemodynamics were similar to univentricular physiology. He was treated with prostaglandins and bilateral pulmonary artery banding. He had frequent supraventricular tachycardia associated with ventricular pre-excitation that was controlled by long-term administration of intravenous amiodarone. The patient died due to sepsis after 3 months.

  15. Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning. (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Cohen, Morris J


    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children's Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE), and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tasks requiring phonetic coding of material. Children with ADHD displayed intact CE and LTM functioning but reduced visual-spatial STM, especially when off stimulant medication. Children with RD/ADHD had deficits consistent with both disorders.

  16. Supporting the long-term residential care needs of older homeless people with severe alcohol-related brain injury in Australia: the Wicking Project. (United States)

    Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Lipmann, Bryan


    For years, community service providers have been frustrated with the lack in availability of long-term, specialized supported accommodation for older people, particularly older homeless people, with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and challenging behaviors. Although the incidence of ABI (particularly alcohol-related brain injury) is far wider than being confined to the homeless population, it is frequently misdiagnosed and very often misunderstood Wintringham is an independent welfare company in Melbourne, Australia, that provides secure, affordable, long-term accommodation and high quality services to older homeless people. The high incidence of alcohol abuse among the resident population has led us to adapt our model ofcare to accommodate a complexity of need. However, there are some individuals with severely affected behaviors that continue to challenge Wintringham's capacity to provide adequate support. The deficiency in highly specialized, long-term supported accommodation for older people with severe alcohol-related brain injury (ARBI) is the driving force behind this project. We aim to further develop and improve the current Wintringham model of residential care to better support people with these complex care needs. We will report on the synthesis of this project which aims to test a specialized model that can be reproduced or adapted by other service providers to improve the life circumstances of these frequently forgotten people.

  17. Chronic pain and severe disuse syndrome : long-term outcome of an inpatient multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Fleuren, Marjo J. T.; Stewart, Roy; van Wijhe, Marten

    Objective: Patients with chronic pain and severe disuse syndrome have pain with physiological, psychological and social adaptations. The duration and severity of complaints, combined with previously failed treatments, makes them unsuitable for treatment in primary care. Design: A prospective waiting

  18. A prospective web-based patient-centred interactive study of long-term disabilities, disabilities perception and health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis in The Netherlands: the Dutch Multiple Sclerosis Study protocol. (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A; Donders, Rogier; van der Zande, Anneke; van Noort, Esther; Kool, Anton


    In the past two decades the widespread use of disease modifying drugs with moderate to strong efficacy has changed the natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Health care professionals, researchers, patient organizations and health authorities are in need of recent information about the objectified and subjective long-term clinical outcomes in MS patients. Such information is scarce. We started a prospective, web-based, patient-centred, interactive study of long-term disabilities, disabilities perception and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in MS patients in The Netherlands (Dutch Multiple Sclerosis Study). The study has an on online patient-driven inclusion and online acquisition of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). At six-months intervals participants complete the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Profile (MSIP) (disabilities and disabilities perception in seven domains and four symptoms), the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 items (MSQoL-54), the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-5 items (MFIS-5) and the Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-8 items (LMSQoL) questionnaires, and a Medication and Adherence Inventory. Every three years the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score is assessed by phone. The monthly completion of the MFIS-5, LMSQoL and Medication and Adherence Inventory is optional. Completed questionnaires and inventories, and automatically generated scores are made available online to patients for self-monitoring and self-management purposes, and to authorized health care professionals for the evaluation of disease activity and of the effectiveness of treatments. Study duration is planned to be 15 years. Results will be analyzed periodically using means and standard deviations for continuous variables, and frequencies for categorical variables. Relations between time points, variables, patient and treatment characteristics will be evaluated in random effects repeated measures models. The Dutch Multiple Sclerosis Study is characterized by

  19. Global disability-adjusted life-year estimates of long-term health burden and undernutrition attributable to diarrhoeal diseases in children younger than 5 years. (United States)

    Troeger, Christopher; Colombara, Danny V; Rao, Puja C; Khalil, Ibrahim A; Brown, Alexandria; Brewer, Thomas G; Guerrant, Richard L; Houpt, Eric R; Kotloff, Karen L; Misra, Kavita; Petri, William A; Platts-Mills, James; Riddle, Mark S; Swartz, Scott J; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Reiner, Robert C; Hay, Simon I; Mokdad, Ali H


    Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. We attempt to quantify the long-term sequelae associated with childhood growth impairment due to diarrhoea. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study framework and leveraged existing estimates of diarrhoea incidence, childhood undernutrition, and infectious disease burden to estimate the effect of diarrhoeal diseases on physical growth, including weight and height, and subsequent disease among children younger than 5 years. The burden of diarrhoea was measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), a composite metric of mortality and morbidity. We hypothesised that diarrhoea is negatively associated with three common markers of growth: weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age Z-scores. On the basis of these undernutrition exposures, we applied a counterfactual approach to quantify the relative risk of infectious disease (subsequent diarrhoea, lower respiratory infection, and measles) and protein energy malnutrition morbidity and mortality per day of diarrhoea and quantified the burden of diarrhoeal disease due to these outcomes caused by undernutrition. Diarrhoea episodes are significantly associated with childhood growth faltering. We found that each day of diarrhoea was associated with height-for-age Z-score (-0·0033 [95% CI -0·0024 to -0·0041]; p=4·43 × 10-14), weight-for-age Z-score (-0·0077 [-0·0058 to -0·0097]; p=3·19 × 10-15), and weight-for-height Z-score (-0·0096 [-0·0067 to -0·0125]; p=7·78 × 10-11). After addition of the DALYs due to the long-term

  20. A history of unemployment or sick leave influences long-term functioning and health-related quality-of-life after severe traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Ulfarsson, Trandur; Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa; Blomstrand, Christian; Nilsson, Michael


    The consequences of pre-morbid factors in adults with severe traumatic brain injury have not been widely addressed. This study aimed to determine whether being unemployed or on sick leave before injury influences long-term health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and functioning in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Fifty-one consecutive patients were studied; aged 16-65 years, with severe traumatic brain injury who were admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, from 1999-2002. The patients were assessed once, 2-11 years after trauma. Data from the time of injury were combined into a validated prognostic model to adjust for injury severity. Data on sick leave and unemployment before injury were gathered from the Swedish social insurance agency. Outcomes were measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, and a self-report questionnaire specifically designed for this study to measure functioning. In a multivariate analysis, a history of sick leave/unemployment predicted a worse long-term global outcome, more problems with personal activities of daily living and worse HRQoL. These results should be considered when refining outcome predictions and optimizing rehabilitation interventions for patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  1. Preparation of a severely obese adolescent for significant and long-term weight loss: an illustrative case. (United States)

    Kruger, Andrew J; Hrovat, Kathleen B; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Inge, Thomas H


    For severely obese patients planning bariatric surgery, many surgeons advise pre-operative weight loss which can be difficult for some to achieve. We report a 16-year-old male who was referred for weight loss surgery in a very late stage of severe obesity with a weight and BMI of 310 kg and 93 kg/m(2), respectively. He also suffered from obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. To prepare him for laparoscopic gastric bypass, a strict pre-operative nutritional intervention with inpatient and outpatient phases was designed. He lost 22 kg pre-operatively and an additional 86 kg by 67 months post-operatively, representing a 35 % total reduction in BMI. This case illustrates the feasibility and value of a defined pre-operative dietary intervention to effectively manage the weight of an adolescent referred late in the progression of severe obesity.

  2. Long term treatment of severe obesity: four year follow up of results of combined behavioural modification programme. (United States)

    Björvell, H; Rössner, S


    A four year programme of treatment for severe obesity combining standard techniques such as behavioural modification, exercise, nutritional advice, and, in addition, readmission of patients who relapse has been developed. One hundred and seven subjects of both sexes were treated. Thirty nine had their jaws fixed from the start. After four years 104 out of 107 subjects were traced; 33 (31%) had left the programme. The mean loss of weight in the remaining 74 subjects was 11.7 kg (range -20 to 55.5): 14 had lost more than 20 kg, 35 had lost 5-20 kg, 17 had lost 0-5 kg, and eight were above their weight before treatment. The rate of dropping out in this study was lower than that generally reported. Our data suggest that combined behavioural modification used as a programme for reducing weight may result in a substantial loss of weight for several years even for severely obese subjects. PMID:3926201

  3. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  4. Long-term effects of biofeedback-induced facial relaxation on measures of asthma severity in children. (United States)

    Kotses, H; Harver, A; Segreto, J; Glaus, K D; Creer, T L; Young, G A


    We studied the effects of electromyographic biofeedback on measures of asthma severity in children. Fifteen children received biofeedback training to reduce facial tension, and 14 children, who served as controls, received biofeedback training to maintain facial tension at a stable level. Assignment to experimental condition was random. As a result of training, electromyographic levels decreased in children trained in facial relaxation and remained fairly constant in children trained in facial tension stability. Biofeedback training was augmented for children in both groups by having them practice their facial exercises at home. Each child's condition was followed for a five-month period subsequent to biofeedback training. Throughout the experiment, the following measures of asthma severity were monitored: lung function, self-rated asthma severity, medication usage, and frequency of asthma attacks. In addition, standardized measures of attitudes toward asthma, self-concept, and chronic anxiety were recorded at regular intervals. As compared to the facial stability subjects, the facial relaxation subjects exhibited higher pulmonary scores, more positive attitudes toward asthma, and lower chronic anxiety during the follow-up period. Subjects in the two groups, however, did not differ on self-rated asthma severity, medication usage, frequency of asthma attacks, or self-concept. Based on the improvements we observed in pulmonary, attitude, and anxiety measures, we concluded that biofeedback training for facial relaxation contributes to the self-control of asthma and would be a valuable addition to asthma self-management programs.

  5. Severe infections in sarcoidosis: Incidence, predictors and long-term outcome in a cohort of 585 patients. (United States)

    Duréault, Amélie; Chapelon, Catherine; Biard, Lucie; Domont, Fanny; Savey, Léa; Bodaghi, Bahram; Pourcher, Valérie; Rigon, Matthieu Resche; Cacoub, Patrice; Saadoun, David


    Sarcoidosis is associated with cell-mediated immunodeficiency and treatment of symptomatic sarcoidosis usually includes systemic immunosuppressants. Data relative to incidence, prognosis factors, and outcome of infections are scarce.Retrospective cohort study of 585 patients with biopsy proven sarcoidosis in a tertiary referral specialist clinic, with a nested case-control analysis. Twenty nine patients (4.9%) with severe infections were compared to 116 controls subjects with sarcoidosis, matched according to their gender, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, and treatment with corticosteroids.After a median follow-up of 8 years [range; 1-46], 38 severe infections [mycobacterial infections (n = 14), fungal infections (n = 10), bacterial (n = 8), viral (n = 3) and parasitic (n = 1)] were observed in 30 patients. The incidence of severe infections was 0.71% persons-year (CI 95% 0.5-0.98) and 0.43% persons-year (CI 95% 0.27-0.66). Patients with severe infection were more frequently of male gender (60% vs 46%) and were more likely treated by ≥ 3 immunosuppressive agents (OR = 3.8, IC 95% [1.5-9.64], P = .005) and by cyclophosphamide (OR = 5.55, IC 95% [1.9-16.1], P = .002), and with neurological (OR = 3.36 CI 95% [1.37-8.25], P = .008), or cardiac (OR = 2.65 CI 95% [1.09-6.43], P = .031) involvement of the sarcoidosis, compared to the controls. Two patients died within the 6 months following infection, due to progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (n = 1), and of peritonitis (n = 1).Severe infections are observed in 5.1% of our patients with sarcoidosis after a median follow-up of 8 years. Risk factors for severe infections included neurological or cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis, the use of immunosuppressive agents and mainly cyclophosphamide.

  6. Effect of long-term interactive music therapy on behavior profile and musical skills in young adults with severe autism. (United States)

    Boso, Marianna; Emanuele, Enzo; Minazzi, Vera; Abbamonte, Marta; Politi, Pierluigi


    Data on the potential behavioral effects of music therapy in autism are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a musical training program based on interactive music therapy sessions could enhance the behavioral profile and the musical skills of young adults affected by severe autism. Young adults (N = 8) with severe (Childhood Autism Rating Scale >30) autism took part in a total of 52 weekly active music therapy sessions lasting 60 minutes. Each session consisted of a wide range of different musical activities including singing, piano playing, and drumming. Clinical rating scales included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Musical skills-including singing a short or long melody, playing the C scale on a keyboard, music absorption, rhythm reproduction, and execution of complex rhythmic patterns-were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from "completely/entirely absent" to "completely/entirely present." At the end of the 52-week training period, significant improvements were found on both the CGI and BPRS scales. Similarly, the patients' musical skills significantly ameliorated as compared to baseline ratings. Our pilot data seem to suggest that active music therapy sessions could be of aid in improving autistic symptoms, as well as personal musical skills in young adults with severe autism.

  7. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging In Vivo Predicts Long-Term Functional Recovery and Histopathology in Rats following Different Severities of Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Patel, Samir P.; Smith, Taylor D.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Powell, David; Cox, David H.; Sullivan, Patrick G.


    Abstract The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in vivo to quantify temporally spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were scanned prior to a moderate or severe upper lumbar contusion SCI. Injured rats were behaviorally tested for hind limb locomotion (Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan [BBB] scores) weekly for 4 weeks and scanned immediately after each session, ending with terminal gait analyses prior to euthanasia. As a measure of tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) values were significantly lower throughout the spinal cord in both injury cohorts at all time-points examined versus pre-injury. Moreover, FA values were significantly lower following severe versus moderate SCI at all time-points, and FA values at the injury epicenters at all time-points were significantly correlated with both spared white and gray matter volumes, as well as lesion volumes. Critically, quantified FA values at subacute (24 h) and all subsequent time-points were highly predictive of terminal behavior, reflected in significant correlations with both weekly BBB scores and terminal gait parameters. Critically, the finding that clinically relevant subacute (24 h) FA values accurately predict long-term functional recovery may obviate long-term studies to assess the efficacy of therapeutics tested experimentally or clinically. In summary, this study demonstrates a reproducible serial MRI procedure to predict the long-term impact of contusion SCI on both behavior and histopathology using subacute DTI metrics obtained in vivo to accurately predict multiple terminal outcome measures, which can be particularly valuable when comparing experimental interventions. PMID:26650623

  8. Study of the Long-Term Results of Decompressive Craniectomy after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Based on a Series of 60 Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétane Gouello


    Full Text Available Background. Decompressive craniectomy can be proposed in the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Current studies report mixed results, preventing any clear conclusions on the place of decompressive craniectomy in traumatology. Methods. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of all decompressive craniectomies performed between 2005 and 2011 for refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury. Sixty patients were included. Clinical parameters (Glasgow scale, pupillary examination and radiological findings (Marshall CT scale were analysed. Complications, clinical outcome, and early and long-term Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS were evaluated after surgery. Finally, the predictive value of preoperative parameters to guide the clinician’s decision to perform craniectomy was studied. Results. Craniectomy was unilateral in 58 cases and the mean bone flap area was 100 cm2. Surgical complications were observed in 6.7% of cases. Mean followup was 30 months and a favourable outcome was obtained in 50% of cases. The initial Glasgow Scale was the only statistically significant predictive factor for long-term outcome. Conclusion. Despite the discordant results in the literature, this study demonstrates that decompressive craniectomy is useful for the management of refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury.

  9. Study of the long-term results of decompressive craniectomy after severe traumatic brain injury based on a series of 60 consecutive cases. (United States)

    Gouello, Gaétane; Hamel, Olivier; Asehnoune, Karim; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin


    Decompressive craniectomy can be proposed in the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Current studies report mixed results, preventing any clear conclusions on the place of decompressive craniectomy in traumatology. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of all decompressive craniectomies performed between 2005 and 2011 for refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury. Sixty patients were included. Clinical parameters (Glasgow scale, pupillary examination) and radiological findings (Marshall CT scale) were analysed. Complications, clinical outcome, and early and long-term Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were evaluated after surgery. Finally, the predictive value of preoperative parameters to guide the clinician's decision to perform craniectomy was studied. Craniectomy was unilateral in 58 cases and the mean bone flap area was 100 cm(2). Surgical complications were observed in 6.7% of cases. Mean followup was 30 months and a favourable outcome was obtained in 50% of cases. The initial Glasgow Scale was the only statistically significant predictive factor for long-term outcome. Despite the discordant results in the literature, this study demonstrates that decompressive craniectomy is useful for the management of refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury.

  10. Prediction of Long-Term Benefits of Inhaled Steroids by Phenotypic Markers in Moderate-to-Severe COPD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband

    Full Text Available The decline in lung function can be reduced by long-term inhaled corticosteroid (ICS treatment in subsets of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We aimed to identify which clinical, physiological and non-invasive inflammatory characteristics predict the benefits of ICS on lung function decline in COPD.Analysis was performed in 50 steroid-naive compliant patients with moderate to severe COPD (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, 30-80% of predicted, compatible with GOLD stages II-III, age 45-75 years, >10 packyears smoking and without asthma. Patients were treated with fluticasone propionate (500 μg bid or placebo for 2.5 years. Postbronchodilator FEV1, dyspnea and health status were measured every 3 months; lung volumes, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20, and induced sputum at 0, 6 and 30 months. A linear mixed effect model was used for analysis of this hypothesis generating study.Significant predictors of attenuated FEV1-decline by fluticasone treatment compared to placebo were: fewer packyears smoking, preserved diffusion capacity, limited hyperinflation and lower inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum (p<0.04.Long-term benefits of ICS on lung function decline in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD are most pronounced in patients with fewer packyears, and less severe emphysema and inflammation. These data generate novel hypotheses on phenotype-driven therapy in NCT00158847.

  11. Long-term administration of high doses of transdermal buprenorphine in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppert W


    Full Text Available Wojciech Leppert, Grzegorz Kowalski Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Buprenorphine is often administered by the transdermal route (transdermal buprenorphine [TB] in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain. However, high doses of TB of 140 µg/h are rarely used.Patients and methods: Three cancer patients with severe neuropathic Numeric Rating Scale (NRS pain scores of 8–10 who were successfully treated with high doses of TB up to 140 µg/h along with other opioids and adjuvant analgesics.Results: TB was administered for a long period of follow-up (9 months to 4 years, including 34–261 days of treatment with the dose of 140 µg/h, which allowed achievement of satisfactory analgesia (NRS 3–5 and good treatment tolerance. In all three patients, TB dose was gradually titrated from 35 to 140 µg/h, and all patients used morphine at least for some time for breakthrough and background pain management along with adjuvant analgesics. Two patients continued the treatment with TB until the end of life, and one patient is still receiving the treatment.Conclusion: TB at doses of up to 140 µg/h in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain seems to be effective and safe in combination with other opioids and with adjuvant analgesics, and may significantly improve patients’ quality of life. Clinical studies may explore higher than maximal 140 µg/h TB doses recommended by a manufacturer, and also in combination with other opioids and adjuvant analgesics. Keywords: adverse effects, analgesia, cancer, neuropathic pain, transdermal buprenorphine, treatment

  12. Treatment of a severe arch-length deficiency with anteroposterior and transverse expansion: long-term stability. (United States)

    Sabri, Roy


    This article describes the nonextraction treatment of a girl in the late mixed dentition with a severe arch-length deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion and molar distalization were combined with a lip bumper in the mandible, followed by fixed appliances. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse with this method of treatment, excellent stability was achieved at 5 years 3 months posttreatment. The merits of extraction vs nonextraction treatment and stability are discussed. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... T1-weighted MRIs about 8 weeks and 12 months post-injury. For comparison, 14 healthy controls with similar distribution of age, gender and education were scanned with a similar time interval. For each subject, longitudinal atrophy was estimated using SIENA, and atrophy occurring before the first...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  14. Long-term alterations of cytokines and growth factors expression in irradiated tissues and relation with histological severity scoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Gallet

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Beside its efficacy in cancer treatment, radiotherapy induces degeneration of healthy tissues within the irradiated area. The aim of this study was to analyze the variations of proinflammatory (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, profibrotic (TGF-β1, proangiogneic (VEGF and stem cell mobilizing (GM-CSF cytokines and growth factors in an animal model of radiation-induced tissue degeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24 rats were irradiated unilaterally on the hindlimb at a monodose of 30 Gy. Six weeks (n=8, 6 months (n=8 and 1 year (n=8 after irradiation the mediators expression in skin and muscle were analyzed using Western blot and the Bio-Plex® protein array (BPA technology. Additional histological severity for fibrosis, inflammation, vascularity and cellularity alterations scoring was defined from histology and immnunohistochemistry analyses. RESULTS: A significant increase of histological severity scoring was found in irradiated tissue. Skin tissues were more radio-sensitive than muscle. A high level of TGF-β1 expression was found throughout the study and a significant relation was evidenced between TGF-β1 expression and fibrosis scoring. Irradiated tissue showed a chronic inflammation (IL-2 and TNF-α significantly increased. Moreover a persistent expression of GM-CSF and VEGF was found in all irradiated tissues. The vascular score was related to TGF-β1 expression and the cellular alterations score was significantly related with the level of IL-2, VEGF and GM-CSF. CONCLUSION: The results achieved in the present study underline the complexity and multiplicity of radio-induced alterations of cytokine network. It offers many perspectives of development, for the comprehension of the mechanisms of late injuries or for the histological and molecular evaluation of the mode of action and the efficacy of rehabilitation techniques.

  15. Progesterone co-administration in patients discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy: effects on withdrawal severity and taper outcome. (United States)

    Schweizer, E; Case, W G; Garcia-Espana, F; Greenblatt, D J; Rickels, K


    Since recent research has suggested that the major metabolites of progesterone are barbiturate-like modulators of GABAergic function, we undertook a pilot study of the efficacy of micronized progesterone in attenuating withdrawal and facilitating discontinuation in benzodiazepine-dependent patients with a minimum of 1 year of continuous daily use. Forty-three patients taking a mean daily dose of 16.2 mg of diazepam (or its equivalent) were assigned, doubleblind, to treatment with either placebo (n = 13) or progesterone (n = 30). Progesterone was titrated to a mean daily dose of 1983 mg, and was co-administered for 3 weeks, after which the benzodiazepine was tapered by 25% per week. Progesterone (or placebo) was then continued for 4 weeks before being discontinued. There was no progesterone versus placebo difference in the severity of taper withdrawal. Withdrawal checklist change scores were 17.3 for progesterone and 16.5 for placebo (F 0.63; df 2.31; n.s.), and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety change scores were 7.8 for progesterone and 6.3 for placebo (F 0.22; df 2.30; n.s.). There was no difference in ability to remain drug-free at 12 weeks post-taper, with 57% of progesterone-treated patients, and 58% of placebo-treated patients having a successful outcome.

  16. Long-term effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea severity in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Kuna, Samuel T; Reboussin, David M; Borradaile, Kelley E; Sanders, Mark H; Millman, Richard P; Zammit, Gary; Newman, Anne B; Wadden, Thomas A; Jakicic, John M; Wing, Rena R; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Foster, Gary D


    To examine whether the initial benefit of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity at 1 year is maintained at 4 years. Randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1, 2, and 4 years. 4 Look AHEAD clinical centers. Two hundred sixty-four obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA. Intensive lifestyle intervention with a behavioral weight loss program or diabetes support and education. Change in apnea-hypopnea index on polysomnogram. The intensive lifestyle intervention group's mean weight loss was 10.7 ± 0.7 (standard error), 7.4 ± 0.7, and 5.2 ± 0.7 kg at 1, 2, and 4 years respectively, compared to a less than 1-kg weight loss for the control group at each time (P weight loss (P weight loss (P = 0.001). Remission of OSA at 4 years was 5 times more common with intensive lifestyle intervention (20.7%) than diabetes support and education (3.6%). Among obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA, intensive lifestyle intervention produced greater reductions in weight and apnea-hypopnea index over a 4 year period than did diabetes support and education. Beneficial effects of intensive lifestyle intervention on apneahypopnea index at 1 year persisted at 4 years, despite an almost 50% weight regain. Effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on apnea-hypopnea index was largely, but not entirely, due to weight loss.

  17. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A


    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  18. Profile of mecasermin for the long-term treatment of growth failure in children and adolescents with severe primary IGF-1 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Fintini


    Full Text Available Danilo Fintini, Claudia Brufani, Marco CappaEndocrinology Unit, “Bambino Gesù” Children’s Hospital-IRCCS, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHI or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 deficiency (IGFD is characterized by deficit of IGF-1 production due to alteration of response of growth hormone (GH receptor to GH. This syndrome is due to mutation of GH receptor or IGF-1 gene and patients affected showed no response to GH therapy. The only treatment is recombinant IGF-1 (mecasermin, which has been available since 1986, but approved in the United States by the US Food and Drug Administration only in 2005 and in Europe by the European Medicines Agency in 2007. To date, few studies are available on long-term treatment with mecasermin in IGFD patients and some of them have a very small number of subjects. In this review we discuss briefly clinical features of severe primary IGFD, laboratory findings, and indications for treatment. Results of long-term therapy with rhIGF1 (mecasermin in patients affected by severe primary IGFD and possible side effects are explained.Keywords: mecasermin, therapy, Laron syndrome, IGF-1

  19. Mechanical ventilation as an indicator of somatic severity of self-poisoning: implications for psychiatric care and long-term outcomes. (United States)

    Baer, Elodie; Barré, Carole; Fleury, Carole; de Montchenu, Claire; Garré, Jean-Bernard; Lerolle, Nicolas; Gohier, Bénédicte


    Somatic severity of a self-poisoning episode varies widely between patients. To determine the correlates (psychiatric profiles, long-term outcome) of mechanical ventilation used as a proxy to define somatic severity during a self-poisoning. All patients who required mechanical ventilation were pair-matched with ones who did not for age, gender and presence of psychiatric history. One year after the self-poisoning episode, patients were interviewed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a quality-of-life assessment questionnaire (Short-Form 12 Health Survey). The ventilation group (n = 99) more frequently had mood disorders and less frequently had adjustment disorders (P = 0.007), with a higher depression score on the HADS (P = 0.01) than those in the non-ventilation group (n = 97). Survival curves showed lower survival in the ventilation group (P = 0.03). Requirement for mechanical ventilation following self-poisoning is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders and poor long-term outcome. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Manganese-based superoxide dismutase mimics modify both acute and long-term outcome severity in a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia. (United States)

    Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia P; Ryan, Emily L; Hopson, Marquise L; Bishop, Heather M; Weitner, Tin; Tovmasyan, Artak; Spasojevic, Ivan; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Liang, Yongliang; Jones, Dean P; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L


    The goal of this study was to use two manganese (Mn)-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics to test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species contribute to both acute and long-term outcomes in a galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT)-null Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia. We tested the impact of each of two Mn porphyrin SOD mimics, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+), and MnTE-2-PyP(5+), (i) on survival of GALT-null Drosophila larvae reared in the presence versus absence of dietary galactose and (ii) on the severity of a long-term movement defect in GALT-null adult flies. Both SOD mimics conferred a significant survival benefit to GALT-null larvae exposed to galactose but not to controls or to GALT-null larvae reared in the absence of galactose. One mimic, MnTE-2-PyP(5+), also largely rescued a galactose-independent long-term movement defect otherwise seen in adult GALT-null flies. The survival benefit of both SOD mimics occurred despite continued accumulation of elevated galactose-1P in the treated animals, and studies of thiolated proteins demonstrated that in both the presence and absence of dietary galactose MnTE-2-PyP(5+) largely prevented the elevated protein oxidative damage otherwise seen in GALT-null animals relative to controls. Our results confirm oxidative stress as a mediator of acute galactose sensitivity in GALT-null Drosophila larvae and demonstrate for the first time that oxidative stress may also contribute to galactose-independent adult outcomes in GALT deficiency. Finally, our results demonstrate for the first time that both MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+) and MnTE-2-PyP(5+) are bioavailable and effective when administered through an oral route in a D. melanogaster model of classic galactosemia.

  1. Long-term outcome of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation for symblepharon caused by severe ocular burns. (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhai, Hualei; Wang, Junyi; Duan, Haoyun; Zhou, Qingjun


    The therapeutic effects of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) for symblephara at different degrees caused by ocular burns were evaluated in this study. A series of interventional cases were involved in this retrospective study. Eighty eyes (80 patients) with symblephara underwent CLET and the success rates of surgical treatment as well as corneal conditions and risk factors for recurrent symblepharon were analyzed. The average age of patients was 32.4 ± 13.7 years (ranged from 4 to 60 years). The average follow-up time was 26.4 ± 13.6 months (ranged from 12 to 60 months). Symblepharon cases were caused by chemical burns (36 eyes) or thermal burns (44 eyes). The first surgical intervention achieved complete success in 40 eyes (50%), partial success in 25 eyes (31.3%), and failure in 15 eyes (18.8%). The rate of complete success was 85.0% in eyes with grade I/II symblephara, 51.5% in eyes with grade III eyes and 22.2% in eyes grade IV symblephara (P = 0.001). The treatment was completely successful in 23.1% of eyes with moderate or severe preoperative inflammatory action and 63.0% of eyes with mild or no inflammation (P = 0.000). The corneal conditions were improved in 43 eyes (53.8%), of which 21 eyes had improved visual acuity. The recurrence of symblepharon after the first CLET was positively correlated with symblepharon length (P = 0.003), preoperative inflammatory activity (P = 0.016) as well as postoperative cicatricial entropion and trichiasis (P = 0.038). CLET was effective on the recovery of anatomically deep fornixes in eyes caused by symblephara and corneal surface condition could be improved simultaneously. The success of surgical treatment was dependent on the effective control of inflammation and timely management of eyelid abnormalities.

  2. Relationship between infarct size and severity measured by gated SPECT and long-term left ventricular remodelling after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Valentina; Sciagra, Roberto; Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy); Acampa, Wanda; Ricci, Francesca; Gallicchio, Rosj; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II and Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages of the National Council of Research, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); Cerisano, Giampaolo [Careggi Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Florence (Italy); Vigorito, Carlo [University Federico II, Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit, Naples (Italy)


    After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), left ventricular (LV) remodelling may occur despite successful reperfusion. This study aimed to investigate by gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) the long-term evolution of myocardial perfusion and LV function after AMI and to identify the predictors of LV remodelling. Sixty-eight AMI patients successfully treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention underwent {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT at 1 month (baseline) and over 6-month follow-up after the acute event. LV remodelling was defined as 20% increase in LV end-diastolic volume at follow-up. At baseline, patients with remodelling (n = 14) showed larger (infarct size 29.3 {+-} 7.8%) and more transmural (infarct severity 0.28 {+-} 0.10) infarctions, and reduced LV ejection fraction (35.4 {+-} 5.6%), but similar LV volume indexes, compared to patients without remodelling (n = 54) (infarct size 20.8 {+-} 14.4%, p < 0.05, infarct severity 0.40 {+-} 0.11, p < 0.001, ejection fraction 44.5 {+-} 9.2, p < 0.001). At stepwise multivariate regression analysis, infarct severity showed the best predictive value for predicting LV remodelling (F = 5.54, p < 0.05). Using the thresholds identified by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, infarct size and severity detected patients with remodelling with 75% accuracy and 95% negative predictive value. Infarct resorption (defined as the defect size difference between follow-up and baseline) was comparable between patients with (-4.4 {+-} 8.4%) and without remodelling (-6.8 {+-} 9.4%) (p = NS). Perfusion parameters assessed by gated SPECT in the subacute phase after successfully treated AMI correlate with changes in functional parameters at long-term follow-up. Infarct severity is more effective than infarct size, but both are helpful for predicting LV remodelling. (orig.)

  3. Thin-Section Computed Tomography Manifestations During Convalescence and Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Dong, Dawei; Ma, Daqing


    BACKGROUND SARS is not only an acute disease, but also leads to long-term impaired lung diffusing capacity in some survivors. However, there is a paucity of data regarding long-term CT findings in survivors after SARS. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in lung function and lung thin-section computed tomography (CT) features in patients recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), especially the dynamic changes in ground-glass opacity (GGO). MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical and radiological data from 11 patients with SARS were collected. The serial follow-up thin-section CTs were evaluated at 3, 6, and 84 months after SARS presentation. The distribution and predominant thin-section CT findings of lesions were evaluated. RESULTS The extent of the lesions on the CT scans of the 11 patients decreased at 6 and 84 months compared to 3 months. The number of segments involved on 84-month follow-up CTs was less than those at 6 months (PSARS, GGO and intralobular and interlobular septal thickening were the main thin-section CT manifestation. Intralobular and interlobular septal thickening predominated over GGO at 84 months.

  4. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv


    Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000, and fol......Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000...... consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. Results In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees......). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...

  5. Long-Term Use of Probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Has a Prophylactic Effect on the Occurrence and Severity of Pouchitis: A Randomized Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasiewicz Tomasz


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the long-term use of the composite probiotics in patients after restorative proctocolectomy. Method. Forty-three patients (20 females and 23 males, aged 21 to 68 years after restorative proctocolectomy were included in the study. After randomization patients were divided into placebo group and treatment group with oral intake of probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus. Patients were investigated during initial visit and during final visit after 9 months. All patients were subjected to standard clinical and endoscopic examination with microscopic study of the specimens. Concentrations of calprotectin and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2-PK were determined in all cases. Results. The average severity of pouchitis and the number of patients with pouchitis significantly decrease after 9 months of the probiotic taking. The concentrations of calprotectin and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2-PK significantly decreased after the therapy. Conclusions. Nine months of the probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus reduced the number of patients with pouchitis, decreased the PDAI score, and also decreased the fecal pyruvate kinase and calprotectin. The long-term probiotics use is safe and well accepted and can be an effective method of the pouchitis prevention.

  6. Self-esteem and intentions mediates perceived fitness with physical activity in Finnish adolescents with long-term illness or disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Ng


    Full Text Available Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is recognised as the common language in disability research. However, personal factors in the ICF are not explicitly coded because of cultural differences that influence physical activity (PA participation. The ICF suggests using fitness as a personal factor, as well as other psychological assets. Intentions may serve as such psychological assets and studies on the antecedents to intentions which prompts PA behaviours is lacking in adolescent long term illness or disability (LTID populations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to report how ICF personal factors can influence participation in PA. Perceived fitness (FIT, global self-esteem (GSE, and PA intentions (INT are hypothesised to positively predict PA behaviours among adolescents with LTID after controlling for age. Methods: The data from Finnish 13 and 15 years old adolescents from the self-reported Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study from 2002 and 2010 were pooled. Those with LTID as stated by a medical doctor were included (N = 1,059. Serial mediation with ordinary least squares path analysis was used. Boys and girls were separately analysed, FIT was the independent variable, GSE and INT as mediators, and age controlled moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA the dependent variable. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals were used to test for significance of the direct and indirect paths. Results: FIT was positively related to GSE and INT for boys and girls. Furthermore, INT were positively related to MVPA for boys and girls. These relationships were statistically significant. Therefore, INT can be seen to mediate the relationship between FIT and MVPA after controlling for age. GSE also acted as a statistically significant mediator for boys, between FIT and INT. Therefore serial mediation was presented with boy's MVPA, whereas in the girl's model, only INT mediated FIT and MVPA

  7. Suicidal Career in Severe Depression among Long-Term Survivors: In a Followup after 37–53 Years Suicide Attempts Appeared to End Long before Depression (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise


    Objective. To describe the suicidal career in the long-term course of severe depression. Subjects and Method. Seventy-five former in-patients were interviewed by telephone about course of depression and suicide attempts 37–53 years after index admission. Medical records were read in many cases. Results. 29 subjects had attempted suicide, 13 repeated, 10 made severe, and 13 violent attempts. The risk of suicide attempt decreased by 10% for every decade spent depressed. Suicide attempts were made early in course of depression, and more time was spent depressed after suicide attempts than before. Conclusions. A healing process of the suicidal career, which may occur long before the end of the last depressive episode (sometimes decades), is proposed. PMID:24455226


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska


    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  9. Point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and use of antimicrobials in Irish intellectual disability long-term care facilities: 2013. (United States)

    Roche, F M; Donlon, S; Burns, K


    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) and use of antimicrobials are prevalent in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), but few data are available on the burden of these issues in intellectual disability (ID) LTCFs. To assess the prevalence of HCAIs and use of antimicrobials in Irish ID-LTCFs to plan future HCAI prevention programmes. A national point prevalence survey was conducted in Irish ID-LTCFs in May 2013 using a European protocol. All Irish ID-LTCFs with full-time residents were invited to participate in this voluntary survey. Data were collected locally and analysed at the national coordinating centre. Twenty-four Irish ID-LTCFs participated, with 1060 residents surveyed, representing 42% of ID-LTCF residents in Ireland. The crude HCAI prevalence rate was 4.3% (median 2.2, range 0-46.7), with respiratory tract infections (1.6%) and skin infections (1.6%) being the most prevalent types. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 10% of eligible residents (median 7.5, range 3.2-13.9), with 49% of all prescriptions indicated for prophylaxis. Prevention of urinary tract infections (38%), respiratory tract infections (36%) and skin infections (27%) were the most common reasons for prophylaxis. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of prescribing for prophylaxis across ID-LTCFs (range 2-29%), with only 17% of facilities having local antimicrobial guidelines in place. There is a considerable burden of HCAIs and use of antimicrobials, particularly for skin and respiratory tract infections, in Irish ID-LTCFs. Further surveillance in this population is needed to help guide preventive strategies for ID-LTCF residents at risk of these infections. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term outcomes in patients with severe sepsis randomised to resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 or Ringer’s acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Haase, Nicolai; Winkel, Per


    ) versus 47.5% (190/400) [relative risk 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.29; P = 0.10], respectively; at 1 year, 56.0 (223/398) versus 51.5% (206/400) (1.09; 95% CI 0.96-1.24; P = 0.20), respectively; at the time of longest follow-up, 59.8 (238/398) versus 56.3% (225/400) (1.06; 95% CI 0.94......-1.20; P = 0.31), respectively. Percentage of days alive and out of hospital at 1 year in the HES versus Ringer's groups was 24 (0-87 days) versus 63% (0-90) (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The long-term mortality rates did not differ in patients with severe sepsis assigned to HES 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate...

  11. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv


    Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000...... consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. Results In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees...... factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests...

  12. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme


    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  13. The Impact of Baseline Serum Creatinine on Complete Remission Rate and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Severe Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Korbet


    Full Text Available Background/Aim: We assess the impact of serum creatinine at baseline on complete remission rate and long-term outcome in severe lupus nephritis (SLN. Methods: A total of 86 adult patients with SLN [International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS class IV lesions] were evaluated based on baseline serum creatinine levels (≤1.0, 1.01-1.5, 1.51-2.0, 2.01-3.0, and >3.0 mg/dl; n = 22, 23, 16, 12, and 13, respectively. The complete remission rates (serum creatinine level of ≤1.4 mg/dl and proteinuria of ≤0.33 g/day and long-term outcomes (stable renal function, dialysis, and death were compared. The patients were followed for 121 ± 64 months. Results: The baseline clinical features were similar, but the chronicity index was significantly higher with increasing levels of serum creatinine. Complete remission rates were significantly higher in patients with lower levels of serum creatinine (86 vs. 52 vs. 19 vs. 25 vs. 0%, p 16 times as likely (OR 16.2; 95% CI: 4.2-61.5 to attain a complete remission and >6 times as likely (OR 6.1; 95% CI: 1.9-18.6 to have stable renal function at the last follow-up as compared to patients with a serum creatinine level of >1.0 mg/dl. The 15-year renal survival rate was greatest among those patients with a baseline serum creatinine level of ≤1.0 mg/dl (76 vs. 57 vs. 48 vs. 25 vs. 10%, p Conclusion: The prognosis of SLN is significantly affected by the serum creatinine level at baseline. The complete remission rate is highest, and the long-term prognosis most favorable, in patients with a baseline serum creatinine level of ≤1.0 mg/dl. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Limited effect of thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy in the treatment of severe chronic pancreatitis pain: a prospective long-term analysis of 75 cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buscher, H.C.J.L.; Schipper, E.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Goor, H. van


    BACKGROUND: Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis. It offers good, short-term pain relief, but long-term success is difficult to predict. We analyze long-term results and identify factors predicting success of

  15. [Analysis of the long-term results of late hand function reconstruction in patients with severe electrical injury of the wrists]. (United States)

    Xu, J; Li, Q; Chen, S


    To evaluate and analyze the long-term results of all the operation mordalities practised at present of late hand function reconstruction in patients with severe electrical injury of the wrists. Forty-seven cases with late electrical injury of the wrists were followed up and comprehensively analyzed in terms of the long-term results of morphological reconstruction and functional restoration. In addition to cutaneous tissue repair and functional training of the joints of the wrists, the flexor digitorum reconstruction with auto free tendon grafting gave a poor result (only 33.4% of the cases with function above medium level). In one case, the wrist function was rebuilt by compound plantaris tendon free flap with leg deep facia and posterior tibial artery, resulting in the restoration of thumb flexor function, with shorter treating time and less postoperative adhesion. Median and ulnar nerves were repaired with free auto nerve grafting with no obvious effects. Two cases were repaired by compound tissue grafting of sural nerve and deep facia carried by small saphenous veins with uncertain result. In another 3 cases, with the aid of retrograde evoked potential (REP), a proximal anastomosis of nerves was done with fairly good result. Insufficient blood supply and scar formation were the major causes of poor results of the tendon and nerve grafting. It was recommended that the graft should carry sufficient blood supply to improve the blood supply of the recipient bed in order to improve the therapeutic effects. The selection of proximal nerve segment should include the functional examination.

  16. Long-term safety and effectiveness of high-dose dimethylfumarate in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis: a prospective single-blinded follow-up study. (United States)

    Lijnen, Raphaël; Otters, Elsemieke; Balak, Deepak; Thio, Bing


    Mixtures of fumaric acid esters (FAE) are used as an oral systemic treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis. Large clinical studies with dimethylfumarate (DMF) monotherapy are scarce. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and long-term safety of high-dose DMF monotherapy in moderate to severe psoriasis. A prospective single-blinded follow-up study was performed in a cohort of patients treated with DMF. Patients were followed-up at fixed intervals. Assessment of consecutive photographs was performed by two observers. Primary outcome was a change in static physician global assessment (PGA) score. Safety outcome was defined as incidences of (serious) adverse events. A total of 176 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were treated with DMF for a median duration of 28 months. The median daily maintenance dosage of 480 mg was reached after a median of 8 months. Psoriasis activity decreased significantly by 1.7 out of five points. A total of 152 patients reported one or more adverse events, such as gastrointestinal complaints and flushing. High-dose DMF monotherapy is an effective and safe treatment option in moderate to severe psoriasis. It can be suggested that 50% of all patients may benefit from high-dose DMF monotherapy.

  17. Long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in adults with severe aortic stenosis: single-centre experience with 20 years of follow-up. (United States)

    Kalfa, David; Mohammadi, Siamak; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Kharroubi, Mounir; Doyle, Daniel; Marzouk, Mohamed; Metras, Jacques; Perron, Jean


    The optimal prosthesis option for aortic valve replacement in adult patientsRoss procedure in this population. Between 1990 and 2013, 276 patients aged 18 years and above (mean 40.3±10.6) underwent an elective Ross procedure. Among them, 221 patients had predominant severe AS; these patients form the study group. The Ross procedure was performed either by aortic root replacement (n=190; 86%) or the subcoronary technique (n=31; 14%). There were 169 patients with bicuspid valves and 33 redo operations including previous aortic valve repair (n=6) and replacement (n=9) for severe AS. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative and longitudinal clinical and echocardiographic data were collected prospectively. The median and mean follow-up were 11.4 years (range: 1-20.1 years) and 10.1±5.9 years, respectively. The follow-up was complete in all patients. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival analysis was performed to assess long-term survival, freedom from reoperation for autograft and/or homograft failure and freedom from autograft valve insufficiency. Cox regression risk analysis was performed to identify factors associated with autograft or homograft reoperations. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.9% (n=2). The incidence rate of early reoperation for bleeding was 5.9%. The actuarial survival rate at 10 and 15 years following surgery was 92.1 and 90.5%, respectively. Ross-related reoperations occurred in 21 patients during follow-up: autograft dysfunction (n=9), homograft dysfunction (n=6) and both (n=6). The rate of freedom from Ross-related reoperation was 94.7 and 87.7% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. The rate of freedom from reoperation for autograft failure was 97.6 and 91.5%, the rate of freedom from reoperation for homograft failure was 95.7 and 90.8%, and the rate of freedom from moderate or severe autograft regurgitation was 94.1 and 85.6% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. Compared with available aortic bioprosthetic alternatives in young adults with severe AS

  18. Long-term safety and tolerability of donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariot Pierre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donepezil (23 mg/day is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Approval was based on results from a 24-week, randomized, double-blind study of patients who were stable on donepezil 10 mg/day and randomized 2:1 to either increase their donepezil dose to 23 mg/day or continue taking 10 mg/day. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of donepezil 23 mg/day in patients with moderate to severe AD. Methods Patients who completed the double-blind study and were eligible could enroll into a 12-month extension study of open-label donepezil 23 mg/day. Clinic visits took place at open-label baseline and at months 3, 6, 9, and 12. Safety analyses comprised examination of the incidence, severity, and timing of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs; changes in weight, electrocardiogram, vital signs, and laboratory parameters; and discontinuation due to AEs. Results 915 double-blind study completers were enrolled in the open-label extension study and 902 comprised the safety population. Mean treatment duration in this study was 10.3 ± 3.5 months. In total, 674 patients (74.7% reported at least one AE; in 320 of these patients (47.5% at least one AE was considered to be possibly or probably study drug related. The majority of patients reporting AEs (81.9% had AEs of mild or moderate severity. There were 268 patients (29.7% who discontinued early, of which 123 (13.6% were due to AEs. Patients increasing donepezil dose from 10 mg/day in the double-blind study to 23 mg/day in the extension study had slightly higher rates of AEs and SAEs than patients who were already receiving 23 mg (78.0% and 16.9% vs 72.8% and 14.0%, respectively. The incidence of new AEs declined rapidly after the first 2 weeks and remained low throughout the duration of the study. Conclusion This study shows that long-term

  19. The long-term impact of wheelchair delivery on the lives of people with disabilities in three countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shore


    world appears to have a positive sustained impact on employment and income. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm these results and explore the factors responsible for fluctuating variables. This study affirms the importance of long-term follow-up of outcomes associated with wheelchair distribution in less-resourced environments.

  20. Restoring Functional Status: A Long-Term Case Report of Severe Lung and Ventilatory Muscle Pump Dysfunction Involving Recurrent Bacterial Pneumonias (United States)

    Sobush, Dennis C.; Laatsch, Linda; Lipchik, Randolph J.


    Background and Purpose Prolonged mechanical ventilation contributes to immobility and deconditioning making efforts to safely discontinue ventilator support desirable. This case report documents how implementing physical therapy treatment interventions, based on the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, can help to restore a person's functional status even after multiple years of mechanical ventilation dependency. Case Description A patient (female; aged 63 years) with severe restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment has survived 34 recurrent pneumonias involving 6 bacterial pathogens while being mechanically ventilated at home. A 3-year study was approved and informed consent obtained for a home exercise program of resistive extremity and inspiratory muscle training along with exercise reconditioning. Tolerable distances walked, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, hours spent on versus off mechanical ventilation, activities performed within and around her home, and community excursions taken were charted. Outcomes Daily time tolerated off the ventilator improved from less than one to 12 hours, distance walked in 6 minutes increased 33%, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures improved 62% and 9.6% respectively. These improvements made out-of-home social excursions possible. Discussion and Conclusions This patient's functional status improved following multiple physical therapy interventions dictated by the evaluation of initial physical therapy examination findings according to the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Long term mechanical ventilator dependency in the home environment did not exclude this patient from achieving clinically significant gains in functional status even when having severe restrictive and obstructive ventilator impairment. PMID:22833704

  1. Long-term treatment with recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in children with severe IGF-I deficiency due to growth hormone insensitivity. (United States)

    Chernausek, Steven D; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Frane, James; Kuntze, Joyce; Underwood, Louis E


    Children with severe IGF-I deficiency due to congenital or acquired defects in GH action have short stature that cannot be remedied by GH treatment. The objective of the study was to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) therapy for short children with severe IGF-I deficiency. Seventy-six children with IGF-I deficiency due to GH insensitivity were treated with rhIGF-I for up to 12 yr under a predominantly open-label design. The study was conducted at general clinical research centers and with collaborating endocrinologists. Entry criteria included: age older than 2 yr, sd scores for height and circulating IGF-I concentration less than -2 for age and sex, and evidence of resistance to GH. rhIGF-I was administered sc in doses between 60 and 120 microg/kg twice daily. Height velocity, skeletal maturation, and adverse events were measured. Height velocity increased from 2.8 cm/yr on average at baseline to 8.0 cm/yr during the first year of treatment (P < 0.0001) and was dependent on the dose administered. Height velocities were lower during subsequent years but remained above baseline for up to 8 yr. The most common adverse event was hypoglycemia, which was observed both before and during therapy. It was reported by 49% of treated subjects. The next most common adverse events were injection site lipohypertrophy (32%) and tonsillar/adenoidal hypertrophy (22%). Treatment with rhIGF-I stimulates linear growth in children with severe IGF-I deficiency due to GH insensitivity. Adverse events are common but are rarely of sufficient severity to interrupt or modify treatment.

  2. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme


    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  3. A long-term, open-label safety study of single-entity hydrocodone bitartrate extended release for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamachu S


    Full Text Available Srinivas Nalamachu,1,2 Richard L Rauck,3 Martin E Hale,4 Orlando G Florete Jr,5 Cynthia Y Robinson,6 Stephen J Farr,6 1International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, USA; 2Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3Carolinas Pain Institute, Center for Clinical Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Gold Coast Research, LLC, Weston, FL, USA; 5Institute of Pain Management, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 6Zogenix, Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of single-entity extended-release hydrocodone in opioid-experienced subjects with moderate to severe chronic pain not receiving adequate pain relief or experiencing intolerable side effects from their current opioid. Methods: This multicenter, open-label study started with a conversion/titration phase (≤6 weeks where subjects (n=638 were converted to individualized doses (range 20–300 mg of extended-release hydrocodone dosed every 12 hours, followed by a 48-week maintenance phase (n=424. The primary objective (safety and tolerability and the secondary objective (long-term efficacy as measured by change in average pain score; 0= no pain, 10= worst imaginable pain were monitored throughout the study. Results: Subjects were treated for a range of chronic pain etiologies, including osteoarthritis, low back pain, and neuropathic and musculoskeletal conditions. The mean hydrocodone equivalent dose at screening was 68.9±62.2 mg/day and increased to 139.5±81.7 mg/day at the start of the maintenance phase. Unlimited dose adjustments were permitted at the investigator's discretion during the maintenance phase, reflecting typical clinical practice. No unexpected safety issues were reported. Common adverse events during the conversion/titration and maintenance phases, respectively, were constipation (11.3% and 12.5%, nausea (10.7% and 9.9%, vomiting (4.1% and 9.7%, and somnolence (7

  4. Side Effects of Long-Term Continuous Intra-arterial Nimodipine Infusion in Patients with Severe Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. (United States)

    Kieninger, Martin; Flessa, Julia; Lindenberg, Nicole; Bele, Sylvia; Redel, Andreas; Schneiker, André; Schuierer, Gerhard; Wendl, Christina; Graf, Bernhard; Silbereisen, Vera


    Long-term continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion (CIAN) is a rescue therapy option in cases of severe refractory cerebral vasospasm (CV) following acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, CIAN therapy can be associated with relevant side effects. Available studies focus on intracerebral complications, whereas extracerebral side effects are rarely examined. Aim of the present study was to generate descriptive data on the clinical course during CIAN therapy and expectable extracerebral side effects. All patients treated with CIAN therapy for at least 5 days between May 2011 and December 2015 were included. We retrospectively extracted data from the patient data management system regarding the period between 2 days before the beginning and 5 days after the termination of CIAN therapy to analyze the course of ventilation parameters and pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamic support, renal and liver function, integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, and the occurrence of infectious complications. In addition, we recorded the mean daily values of intracranial pressure (ICP) and intracerebral problems associated with CIAN therapy. Data from 28 patients meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean duration of long-term CIAN therapy was 10.5 ± 4.5 days. Seventeen patients (60.7%) reached a good outcome level (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] 4-5) 6 months after SAH. An impairment of the pulmonary gas exchange occurred only at the very beginning of CIAN therapy. The required vasopressor support with norepinephrine was significantly higher on all days during and the first day after CIAN therapy compared to the situation before starting CIAN therapy. Two patients required short-time resuscitation due to cardiac arrest during CIAN therapy. Acute kidney injury was observed in four patients, and one of them required renal replacement therapy with sustained low-efficiency daily dialysis. During CIAN therapy, 23 patients (82.1%) needed the escalation

  5. Short- and long-term metabolic effects of recombinant human IGF-I treatment in patients with severe insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Rossen, M; Urhammer, S A


    the metabolic and hormonal responses to an unchanged insulin therapy with the addition of a subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) during (a) a short-term (2 weeks) period with rhIGF-I given twice a day in a high dose (80 micrograms/kg body weight) in four patients with extreme insulin....... In conclusion: 2 weeks of high-dose rhIGF-I therapy in insulin-treated patients with severe insulin resistance has a marked lowering effect on fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels whereas the metabolic and glycaemic effects of 10 weeks of treatment with low-dose rhIGF-I may be modest and transient.......-resistant diabetes mellitus and (b) during a long-term (10 weeks) period with rhIGF-I given once a day in a low dose (40 micrograms/kg body weight) in three of the four patients. Two siblings had known mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor and a deletion of exon 17 in part of their insulin...

  6. Care staff and family member perspectives on quality of life in people with very severe dementia in long-term care: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Quinn, Catherine; Hoare, Zoe; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Woods, Robert T


    Little is known about the quality of life of people with very severe dementia in long-term care settings, and more information is needed about the properties of quality of life measures aimed at this group. In this study we explored the profiles of quality of life generated through proxy ratings by care staff and family members using the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia (QUALID) scale, examined factors associated with these ratings, and further investigated the psychometric properties of the QUALID. Proxy ratings of quality of life using the QUALID were obtained for 105 residents with very severe dementia, categorised as meeting criteria for Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) stages 6 or 7, from members of care staff (n = 105) and family members (n = 73). A range of resident and staff factors were also assessed. Care staff and family member ratings were similar but were associated with different factors. Care staff ratings were significantly predicted by resident mood and awareness/responsiveness. Family member ratings were significantly predicted by use of antipsychotic medication. Factor analysis of QUALID scores suggested a two-factor solution for both care staff ratings and family member ratings. The findings offer novel evidence about predictors of care staff proxy ratings of quality of life and demonstrate that commonly-assessed resident variables explain little of the variability in family members' proxy ratings. The findings provide further information about the psychometric properties of the QUALID, and support the applicability of the QUALID as a means of examining quality of life in very severe dementia.

  7. Vocational Evaluation of Severely Disabled Deaf Clients. (United States)

    Watson, Douglas

    Research and practice in deafness rehabilitation show that evaluation services for severely disabled deaf clients can best be provided within a "total adjustment environment" which incorporates a number of special program considerations associated with the evaluation of deaf clients. Four of these considerations are (1) a rehabilitation…

  8. Persistent Serious Mental Illness Among Former Applicants for VA PTSD Disability Benefits and Long-Term Outcomes: Symptoms, Functioning, and Employment. (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Spoont, Michele Roxanne; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon Marie; Harwood, Eileen Mae; Sayer, Nina Aileen; Clothier, Barbara Ann; Bangerter, Ann Kay


    Millions of U.S. veterans have returned from military service with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for which a substantial number receive U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Although PTSD is treatable, comorbid serious mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar spectrum disorders) could complicate these veterans' recovery. Using VA administrative data, we examined the burden of persistent serious mental illness in a nationally representative cohort of 1,067 men and 1,513 women who applied for VA PTSD disability benefits between 1994 and 1998 and served during or after the Vietnam conflict. Self-reported outcomes were restricted to the 713 men and 1,015 women who returned surveys at each of 3 collection points. More than 10.0% of men and 20.0% of women had persistent serious mental illness; of these, more than 80.0% also had persistent PTSD. On repeated measures modeling, those with persistent serious mental illness consistently reported more severe PTSD symptoms and poorer functioning in comparison to other participants (ps employment rate did not exceed 21.0%. Interactions between persistent serious mental illness and PTSD were significant only for employment (p = .002). Persistent serious mental illness in this population was almost 2 to 19 times higher than in the general U.S. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Identification of several cytoplasmic HSP70 genes from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and their long-term evolution in Mollusca and Metazoa. (United States)

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Drosopoulou, Elena; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chintiroglou, Chariton C; Scouras, Zacharias G


    The HSP70 protein family consists one of the most conserved and important systems for cellular homeostasis under both stress and physiological conditions. The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan phylum. To study these genes in Mollusca, we have isolated and identified five HSP70 genes from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) and investigated their short-term evolution within Mollusca and their long-term evolution within Metazoa. Both sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the isolated genes belong to the cytoplasmic (CYT) group of the HSP70 genes. Two of these genes probably represent cognates, whereas the remaining probably represent heat-inducible genes. Phylogenetic analysis including several molluscan CYT HSP70s reveals that the cognate genes in two species have very similar sequences and form intraspecies phylogenetic clades, differently from most metazoan cognate genes studied thus far, implying either recent gene duplications or concerted evolution. The M. galloprovincialis heat-inducible genes show intraspecies phylogenetic clustering, which in combination with the higher amino acid than nucleotide identity suggests that both gene conversion and purifying selection should be responsible for their sequence homogenization. Phylogenetic analysis including several metazoan HSP70s suggests that at least two types of CYT genes were present in the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates, the first giving birth to the heat-inducible genes of invertebrates, whereas the other to both the heat-inducible genes of vertebrates and the cognate genes of all metazoans. These analyses also suggest that inducible and cognate genes seem to undergo divergent evolution.

  10. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotypes and Parenting Influence on Long-Term Executive Functioning After Moderate to Severe Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad G; Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L

    To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years. Prospective cohort followed over 7 years postinjury. Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning obtained at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years postinjury. DNA was collected from saliva samples, purified using the Oragene (DNA Genotek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) OG-500 self-collection tubes, and analyzed using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts) assay protocols to identify the COMT rs4680 polymorphism. Linear mixed models revealed a significant genotype × parenting style × time interaction (F = 5.72, P = .02), which suggested that the adverse effects of authoritarian parenting on postinjury development of executive functioning were buffered by the presence of the COMT AA genotype (lower enzyme activity, higher dopamine levels). There were no significant associations of executive functioning with the interaction between genotype and authoritative or permissive parenting ratings. The lower activity COMT rs4680 genotype may buffer the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on long-term executive functioning following injury in early childhood. The findings provide preliminary evidence for associations of parenting style with executive dysfunction in children and for a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as contributors to decreases in these problems after traumatic injuries in children. Further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay among genetic and

  11. Application of ERPs neuromarkers for assessment and treatment of a patient with chronic crossed aphasia after severe TBI and long-term coma - Case Report. (United States)

    Chantsoulis, Marzena; Półrola, Paweł; Góral-Półrola, Jolanta; Hajdukiewicz, Anna; Supiński, Jan; Kropotov, Juri D; Pachalska, Maria


     Objective. The study aimed to evaluate the application of ERPs neuromarkers for the assessment and treatment of a patient with chronic crossed aphasia after severe TBI and a long-term coma. An ambidextrous female patient, aged 29, suffered from posttraumatic chronic crossed aphasia, severe TBI and a prolonged coma after a car accident. The patient took part in two differentiated rehabilitation programmes of neurotherapy included 20 sessions of relative beta training and 20 sessions of rTMS; both programmes were combined with behavioural training. The patient was tested 3 times: before the experiment, after completion of programme A, and after completion of programme B. In the 1st recording, the neuromarker of aphasia was found - an excess of the P2 wave over the left temporal area. There was a cognitive control deficit - an excess of omission errors and an increase of RT variability - all indexes of sporadic ADHD. In the 2nd recording, slight improvements in cognitive control, and language functions were found. In the 3rd recording, after the rTMS sessions most of her cognitive dysfunctions had been resolved, including language functions. It should be stressed that the activation (especially the increase in the ERP potential of the right side over the frontal lobe) was found. The neuromarker of aphasia did not change, only the location had slightly moved frontally. The application of ERP neuromarkers assists in the diagnosis, treatment, and academic success of an ambidextrous patient with chronic posttraumatic aphasia and sporadic ADHD. ERPs can be used to assess the functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programmes.

  12. Long-term data archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  13. Long-term outcome of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and severe hepatic involvement after orthotopic liver transplantation: a single-center study. (United States)

    Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Chesnais, Anne-Laure; Ginon, Isabelle; Dumortier, Jérôme; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Finet, Gérard; Decullier, Evelyne; Marion, Denis; Plauchu, Henri; Boillot, Olivier


    Hepatic involvement occurs in up to 74% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and is characterized by a spectrum of arteriovenous malformations. Three different types of intrahepatic shunting may be present: hepatic artery to hepatic veins, hepatic artery to portal vein, and portal vein to hepatic vein. Hepatic involvement in HHT may lead to biliary ischemia, portal hypertension, or high-output cardiac failure (HOCF). Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proposed as the only definitive curative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with hepatic involvement due to HHT after OLT with respect to mortality, cardiac and hepatic status, epistaxis, and quality of life. Patients with HHT and severe hepatic vascular malformations who underwent OLT in the Lyon Liver Transplant Unit (LLTU) from 1993 to 2007 were followed at the LLTU and the French Reference Center for HHT. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form 36 questionnaire. There were 13 patients who fulfilled the entry criteria of the study (12 women and 1 man). The mean age at the time of OLT was 51.8 years (range = 33-65 years). Indications for OLT were cardiac failure (n = 9), biliary necrosis (n = 2), both cardiac failure and biliary necrosis (n = 1), and hemobilia (n = 1). The mean duration of follow-up was 109 months (range = 1-200 months). Twelve patients (92.3%) are still alive. For the 9 patients with HOCF, the mean cardiac index decreased from 5.4 L/minute/m(2) before OLT to 3.0 L/minute/m(2) after OLT. No severe hepatic complications were observed after OLT. Nine of the surviving patients (75%) experienced dramatic improvements in epistaxis and quality of life, including an ability to undertake more physical activity. In conclusion, OLT is an important therapeutic option for patients with HHT who have severe hepatic involvement. In the reported cohort, the mortality after OLT for this indication was low.

  14. Long-term symptom recovery and health-related quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate-severe community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moussaoui, Rachida; Opmeer, Brent C.; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Speelman, Peter; Prins, Jan M.


    STUDY OBJECTIVES: The long-term outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in terms of symptom resolution and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. Our objective was to determine the rate of symptom resolution using validated patient-based outcome measures, and to

  15. Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Maiers, Michele; Westrom, Kristine


    disability. The primary aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of 12 weeks versus 36 weeks of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) in older adults with back and neck disability. METHODS/DESIGN: Randomized, mixed-methods, comparative effectiveness trial conducted at a university......-affiliated research clinic in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Independently ambulatory community dwelling adults ≥ 65 years of age with back and neck disability of minimum 12 weeks duration (n = 200). INTERVENTIONS: 12 weeks SMT + SRE or 36 weeks SMT + SRE. RANDOMIZATION: Blocked...... ENDPOINT: 36 weeks post-randomization. DATA COLLECTION: Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary...

  16. Long-Term Effect of Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy on Severe Obesity: Do Preoperative Weight Loss and Binge Eating Behavior Predict the Outcome of Bariatric Surgery? (United States)

    Pekkarinen, Tuula; Mustonen, Harri; Sane, Timo; Jaser, Nabil; Juuti, Anne; Leivonen, Marja


    Few studies have examined weight loss sustainability after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome after SG and gastric bypass (GBP) and learn whether preoperative weight loss and binge eating behavior can be used to predict outcome. Together, 257 patients (64 % women) were operated, 163 by GBP and 94 by SG. Binge eating was assessed by binge eating scale (BES) and preoperative weight loss was advised to all, including very low-calorie diet for 5 weeks. Postoperative visits took place at 1 and 2 years, and long-term outcome was at median 5 years (range 2.29-6.85). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to predict outcome at 2-year and long-term control. Median age was 48 years, weight 141.1 kg, and BMI 48.2 kg/m(2). Preoperative weight loss was median 4.9 % before GBP and 3.8 % before SG, P = 0.04. Total weight loss at year one was 24.1 % in GBP and 23.7 % in SG (P = 0.40), at year two 24.4 and 23.4 % (P = 0.26), and at long-term control 23.0 and 20.2 % (P = 0.006), respectively. Weight was analyzed in 93, 88, and 89 % of those alive, respectively. BES did not predict weight outcome, but larger preoperative weight loss predicted less postoperative weight loss at 2 years. On long term, weight loss was better maintained after GBP compared with SG. Binge eating behavior was not a significant predictor, but larger preoperative weight loss predicted less postoperative weight loss for the next 2 years.

  17. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  18. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme


    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  19. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel


    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY...... OF BACKGROUND DATA: The cost-effectiveness of circumferential fusion in a long-term perspective is uncertain but nonetheless highly relevant as the ISSLS prize winner 2006 in clinical studies reported the effect of circumferential fusion superior to the effect of posterolateral fusion. A recent trial found...... no significant difference between posterolateral and circumferential fusion reporting cost-effectiveness from a 2-year viewpoint. METHODS: A total of 146 patients were randomized to posterolateral or circumferential fusion and followed 4 to 8 years after surgery. The mean age of the cohort was 46 years (range...

  20. Long-term variability of heat waves in Argentina and recurrence probability of the severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusticucci, M.; Kyselý, Jan; Almeira, G.; Lhotka, Ondřej


    Roč. 124, č. 3 (2016), s. 679-689 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB15AR001 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : heat waves * long-term variability * climate extremes Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016

  1. Quality of evidence of rehabilitation interventions in long-term care for people with severe disorders of consciousness after brain injury: A systematic review. (United States)

    Klingshirn, Hanna; Grill, Eva; Bender, Andreas; Strobl, Ralf; Mittrach, Rene; Braitmayer, Kathrin; Müller, Martin


    To characterize existing rehabilitation interventions for patients with disorders of consciousness in long-term care and to evaluate the quality of evidence of these interventions. Databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, CareLit and SoLit from January 2003 until July 2013. Studies were selected that focused on rehabilitation interventions for patients in a coma, vegetative state or minimally conscious state who were living in a long-term care setting. Interventions related to rehabilitation nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy were described. A total of 53 publications was included. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of reporting using the National Service Framework (NSF) for Long Term Neurological Conditions (LTNC). Out of all extracted rehabilitation interventions 12 categories were generated and described. Out of 53 publications 28 (52.8%) contained expert-based evidence and 25 (47.2%) presented research-based evidence. There are a multitude of different rehabilitation interventions for individuals with disorders of consciousness, which are established in clinical practice and supported by expert opinion. However, evidence regarding these interventions is weak and recommendations are strictly limited. The findings of this review may represent a basis for further research.

  2. Relative Ease in Creating Detailed Orthographic Representations Contrasted with Severe Difficulties to Maintain Them in Long-term Memory Among Dyslexic Children. (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Danzio, Sophie; Poncelet, Martine


    Most research into orthographic learning abilities has been conducted in English with typically developing children using reading-based tasks. In the present study, we examined the abilities of French-speaking children with dyslexia to create novel orthographic representations for subsequent use in spelling and to maintain them in long-term memory. Their performance was compared with that of chronological age (CA)-matched and reading age (RA)-matched control children. We used an experimental task designed to provide optimal learning conditions (i.e. 10 spelling practice trials) ensuring the short-term acquisition of the spelling of the target orthographic word forms. After a 1-week delay, the long-term retention of the targets was assessed by a spelling post-test. Analysis of the results revealed that, in the short term, children with dyslexia learned the novel orthographic word forms well, only differing from both CA and RA controls on the initial decoding of the targets and from CA controls on the first two practice trials. In contrast, a dramatic drop was observed in their long-term retention relative to CA and RA controls. These results support the suggestion of the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) that initial errors in the decoding and spelling of unfamiliar words may hinder the establishment of fully specified novel orthographic representations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Anti-TNF Alpha Drugs on Disability in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Long-Term Real-Life Data from the Lorhen Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Filippini


    Full Text Available This study involving 1033 patients with RA confirms the effectiveness of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab in reducing RA-related disability even in patients with a history of highly active and longstanding RA. Moreover, we found that the improvement in disability was biphasic, with a marked improvement during the first year of anti-TNF therapy, followed by slower but significant recovery over the subsequent four years.

  4. Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise: a parallel-group randomized clinical trial evaluating relative effectiveness and harms. (United States)

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Maiers, Michele; Westrom, Kristine; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni; Hartvigsen, Jan; Schulz, Craig


    Back and neck disability are frequent in older adults resulting in loss of function and independence. Exercise therapy and manual therapy, like spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), have evidence of short and intermediate term effectiveness for spinal disability in the general population and growing evidence in older adults. For older populations experiencing chronic spinal conditions, long term management may be more appropriate to maintain improvement and minimize the impact of future exacerbations. Research is limited comparing short courses of treatment to long term management of spinal disability. The primary aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of 12 weeks versus 36 weeks of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) in older adults with back and neck disability. Randomized, mixed-methods, comparative effectiveness trial conducted at a university-affiliated research clinic in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area. Independently ambulatory community dwelling adults ≥ 65 years of age with back and neck disability of minimum 12 weeks duration (n = 200). 12 weeks SMT + SRE or 36 weeks SMT + SRE. Blocked 1:1 allocation; computer generated scheme, concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Functional outcome examiners are blinded to treatment allocation; physical nature of the treatments prevents blinding of participants and providers to treatment assignment. 36 weeks post-randomization. Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary outcomes include pain, general health status, improvement, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, satisfaction, and medication use. Functional outcome assessment occurs at baseline and week 37 for hand grip strength, short physical performance battery, and accelerometry

  5. Cost effectiveness of interpersonal community psychiatric treatment for people with long-term severe non-psychotic mental disorders: protocol of a multi-centre randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    van Veen, Mark; Koekkoek, Bauke; Mulder, Niels; Postulart, Debby; Adang, Eddy; Teerenstra, Steven; Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Achterberg, Theo


    This study aims for health gain and cost reduction in the care for people with long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorders. Present care for this population has a limited evidence base, is often open ended, little effective, and expensive. Recent epidemiological data shows that 43.5% of the Dutch are affected by mental illness during their life. About 80% of all patients receiving mental health services (MHS) have one or more non-psychotic disorders. Particularly for this group, long-term treatment and care is poorly developed. Care As Usual (CAU) currently is a form of low-structured treatment/care. Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment (ICPT) is a structured treatment for people with long-term, non-psychotic disorders, developed together with patients, professionals, and experts. ICPT uses a number of evidence-based techniques and was positively evaluated in a controlled pilot study. Multi-centre cluster-randomized clinical trial: 36 professionals will be randomly allocated to either ICPT or CAU for an intervention period of 12 months, and a follow-up of 6 months. 180 Patients between 18-65 years of age will be included, who have been diagnosed with a non-psychotic psychiatric disorder (depressive, anxiety, personality or substance abuse disorder), have long-term (>2 years) or high care use (>1 outpatient contact per week or >2 crisis contacts per year or >1 inpatient admission per year), and who receive treatment in a specialized mental health care setting. The primary outcome variable is quality of life; secondary outcomes are costs, recovery, general mental health, therapeutic alliance, professional-perceived difficulty of patient, care needs and social contacts. No RCT, nor cost-effectiveness study, has been conducted on ICPT so far. The empirical base for current CAU is weak, if not absent. This study will fill this void, and generate data needed to improve daily mental health care. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): 3988 . Registered 13th of May

  6. Sexual Function, Satisfaction, and Use of Aids for Sexual Activity in Middle-Aged Adults with Long-Term Physical Disability. (United States)

    Smith, Amanda E; Molton, Ivan R; McMullen, Kara; Jensen, Mark P


    Sexuality is an important aspect of quality of life in individuals with disabilities, yet little is known about what factors contribute to sexual satisfaction as these individuals age. Middle-aged adults with physical disabilities completed a cross-sectional survey that included measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction. Consistent with studies of able-bodied adults, sexual function was the strongest predictor of satisfaction. However, depression also predicted sexual satisfaction for women. Use of aids for sexual activity varied by disability type and was generally associated with better function. Lowest levels of sexual satisfaction were reported by men with SCI. Depression may negatively impact sexual satisfaction in women, beyond contributions of sexual dysfunction, and effective use of sexual aids may improve function in this population.


    CERN Multimedia



    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  8. Long-term effects of AAV1/SERCA2a gene transfer in patients with severe heart failure: analysis of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality. (United States)

    Zsebo, Krisztina; Yaroshinsky, Alex; Rudy, Jeffrey J; Wagner, Kim; Greenberg, Barry; Jessup, Mariell; Hajjar, Roger J


    The Calcium Up-Regulation by Percutaneous Administration of Gene Therapy In Cardiac Disease (CUPID 1) study was a phase 1/phase 2 first-in-human clinical gene therapy trial using an adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vector carrying the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase gene (AAV1/SERCA2a) in patients with advanced heart failure. The study explored potential benefits of the therapy at 12 months, and results were previously reported. To report long-term (3-year) clinical effects and transgene expression in the patients in CUPID 1. A total of 39 patients with advanced heart failure who were on stable, optimal heart failure therapy were randomized to receive intracoronary infusion of AAV1/SERCA2a in 1 of 3 doses (low-dose, 6×10(11) DNase-resistant particles; mid-dose, 3×10(12) DNase-resistant particles; and high-dose, 1×10(13) DNase-resistant particles) versus placebo. The following recurrent cardiovascular and terminal events were tracked for 3 years in all groups: myocardial infarction, worsening heart failure, heart failure-related hospitalization, ventricular assist device placement, cardiac transplantation, and death. The number of cardiovascular events, including death, was highest in the placebo group, high but delayed in the low- and mid-dose groups, and lowest in the high-dose group. Evidence of long-term transgene presence was also observed in high-dose patients. The risk of prespecified recurrent cardiovascular events was reduced by 82% in the high-dose versus placebo group (P=0.048). No safety concerns were noted during the 3-year follow-up. After a single intracoronary infusion of AAV1/SERCA2a in patients with advanced heart failure, positive signals of cardiovascular events persist for years.

  9. Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Adalimumab for Moderate to Severe Psoriasis: Results from 7-Year Interim Analysis of the ESPRIT Registry. (United States)

    Menter, Alan; Thaçi, Diamant; Wu, Jashin J; Abramovits, William; Kerdel, Francisco; Arikan, Dilek; Guo, Dianlin; Ganguli, Arijit; Bereswill, Mareike; Camez, Anne; Valdecantos, Wendell C


    ESPRIT (NCT00799877) is an ongoing 10-year international prospective observational registry evaluating the long-term safety and effectiveness of originator adalimumab in routine clinical practice for adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Herein, we report the long-term safety, effectiveness, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following adalimumab treatment over the first 7 years of the ESPRIT registry. All treatment-emergent (All-TE) adverse events (AE) since the initial (first ever) dose of adalimumab were assessed. Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and PROs (PROs for US patients only) were evaluated during registry participation. As of 30 November 2015, 6051 patients in the ESPRIT registry were analyzed, representing 23,660.1 patient-years (PY) of overall adalimumab exposure. The incidence rates for All-TE serious AEs, serious infections, and malignancies were 4.4, 1.0, and 1.0 events per 100 PY (E/100PY), respectively. The standardized mortality ratio for TE deaths in the registry was 0.27 (95% CI 0.18-0.38). During the registry's first 7 years, PGA "clear" or "minimal" was achieved by >50% of patients at each annual visit, and among US patients, the mean improvement from baseline in different PROs was maintained. No new safety signals were identified during the first 7 years of the registry, and safety was consistent with the known safety profile of adalimumab. The number of TE deaths was below the expected rate. During the registry's first 7 years, most of the patients remained free of All-TE cardiovascular events, serious infections, and malignancy. As-observed effectiveness of adalimumab and improvements from baseline in PROs were maintained through 7 years of registry participation. Abbvie. identifier, NCT00799877.

  10. Predictors of long-term pain and disability in patients with low back pain investigated by magnetic resonance imaging: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson Madeleine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is possible that clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP differs according to the presence or absence of spinal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in which case there could be value in using MRI findings to refine case definition of LBP in epidemiological research. We therefore conducted a longitudinal study to explore whether spinal abnormalities on MRI for LBP predict prognosis after 18 months. Methods A consecutive series of patients aged 20-64 years, who were investigated by MRI because of mechanical LBP (median duration of current episode 16.2 months, were identified from three radiology departments, and those who agreed completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline and after a mean follow-up period of 18.5 months (a mean of 22.2 months from MRI investigation. MRI scans were assessed blind to other clinical information, according to a standardised protocol. Associations of baseline MRI findings with pain and disability at follow-up, adjusted for treatment and for other potentially confounding variables, were assessed by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence ratios (PRs with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Questionnaires were completed by 240 (74% of the patients who had agreed to be followed up. Among these 111 men and 129 women, 175 (73% reported LBP in the past four weeks, 89 (37% frequent LBP, and 72 (30% disabling LBP. In patients with initial disc degeneration there was an increased risk of frequent (PR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.9 and disabling LBP (PR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5 at follow-up. No other associations were found between MRI abnormalities and subsequent outcome. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the MRI abnormalities examined are not major predictors of outcome in patients with LBP. They give no support to the use of MRI findings as a way of refining case definition for LBP in epidemiological research.

  11. Hemiballismus and Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus as Long-Term Sequelae following a Hemispherectomy for Intractable Epilepsy in a Man with a Learning Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Joyce


    Full Text Available We report here a case of a 48-year-old gentleman with mild/moderate learning disability who developed late complications of hemispherectomy 28 years following the operation. The original operation was performed to treat intractable epilepsy (both generalized tonic/clonic and complex partial seizures in an 8-year-old boy. After a 28 year seizure-free period, the patient developed cognitive decline, seizures, hemiballismus and a subacute confusional state, possibly related to normal pressure hydrocephalus. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation, along with treatment with high doses of sulpiride, brought improvement in both mental state and hemiballismus.

  12. Long-term irradiation of a MSGC made of gold strips on electron conducting C85-1 glass under several gas mixtures and cleanliness conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Hoch, M; Million, G; Ropelewski, L; Sauli, F; Sharma, A; Shekhtman, L


    The present study aims to create reproducible and controlled polluted conditions in a clean gas system in order to be able to compare the behaviour of an MSGC plate operating with Ar-DME and Ne-DME gas mixtures. The achievement of such conditions seems to be more difficult than would be expected from the long term behaviour shown by MSGCs years ago in the same gas system. The pollutants present in the gas rack, possibly originating the dramatic losses reported then, are not present anymore in the gas system after four years of continuous operation with the Ar-DME mixture. The use of new and supposedly clean stainless steel gas pipes of smaller diameter might affect the chamber operation, although the lines are rapidly cleaned ( ~weeks) after being flushed with DME. The back-diffusion of pollutants due to the use of a Si-Oil bubbler affects dramatically the chamber operation, which behave s slightly better with argon than with neon; in view of the other variables, we do not consider this difference as signific...

  13. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas


    in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term......Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...

  14. Experience with febuxostat in a patient with severe disabling gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Eliseev


    Full Text Available Gout is a chronic disease that frequently leads to disability if urate-lowering therapy is inefficient. The paper presents the positive experience with febuxostat, a novel non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in a young patient with disabling chronic tophaceous gout. Twelve-month therapy with daily 80-mg dose of febuxostat resulted in almost complete resorption of subcutaneous tophi and in a long-term lack of arthritis attacks with the persistent serum uric acid levels below target ones. This is the first experience in successfully switching from one to another xanthine oxidase inhibitor, which was described after febuxostat registration in the Russian Federation.

  15. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  16. Major clinical events, signs and severity assessment scores related to actual survival in patients who died from primary biliary cirrhosis. A long-term historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, GM; Gips, CH; Reisman, Y; Maas, KW; Purmer, IM; Huizenga, [No Value; Verbaan, BW


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: One of the prognostic methods for survival in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the Mayo model, with a time-scale limited to 7 years. The aim of our study was to assess how major clinical events, signs, several severity assessment methods and Mayo survival probabilities fit in with

  17. Estimated disability-adjusted life years averted by long-term provision of long acting contraceptive methods in a Brazilian clinic. (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Bottura, Bruna F; Bahamondes, M Valeria; Gonçalves, Mayara P; Correia, Vinicius M; Espejo-Arce, Ximena; Sousa, Maria H; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete


    What is the contribution of the provision, at no cost for users, of long acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARC; copper intrauterine device [IUD], the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system [LNG-IUS], contraceptive implants and depot-medroxyprogesterone [DMPA] injection) towards the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted through a Brazilian university-based clinic established over 30 years ago. Over the last 10 years of evaluation, provision of LARC methods and DMPA by the clinic are estimated to have contributed to DALY averted by between 37 and 60 maternal deaths, 315-424 child mortalities, 634-853 combined maternal morbidity and mortality and child mortality, and 1056-1412 unsafe abortions averted. LARC methods are associated with a high contraceptive effectiveness when compared with contraceptive methods which need frequent attention; perhaps because LARC methods are independent of individual or couple compliance. However, in general previous studies have evaluated contraceptive methods during clinical studies over a short period of time, or not more than 10 years. Furthermore, information regarding the estimation of the DALY averted is scarce. We reviewed 50 004 medical charts from women who consulted for the first time looking for a contraceptive method over the period from 2 January 1980 through 31 December 2012. Women who consulted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Campinas, Brazil were new users and users switching contraceptive, including the copper IUD (n = 13 826), the LNG-IUS (n = 1525), implants (n = 277) and DMPA (n = 9387). Estimation of the DALY averted included maternal morbidity and mortality, child mortality and unsafe abortions averted. We obtained 29 416 contraceptive segments of use including 25 009 contraceptive segments of use from 20 821 new users or switchers to any LARC method or DMPA with at least 1 year of follow-up. The mean (± SD) age of the women at first consultation ranged from 25

  18. Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation. (United States)

    Sahetya, Sarina; Allgood, Sarah; Gay, Peter C; Lechtzin, Noah


    Although precise numbers are difficult to obtain, the population of patients receiving long-term ventilation has increased over the last 20 years, and includes patients with chronic lung diseases, neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, and children with complex disorders. This article reviews the equipment and logistics involved with ventilation outside of the hospital. Discussed are common locations for long-term ventilation, airway and secretion management, and many of the potential challenges faced by individuals on long-term ventilation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Long term complications of diabetes (United States)

    ... Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  20. Long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0.5% for the treatment of moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea: results of a 1-year open-label study. (United States)

    Moore, Angela; Kempers, Steven; Murakawa, George; Weiss, Jonathan; Tauscher, Amanda; Swinyer, Leonard; Liu, Hong; Leoni, Matthew


    Once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate (BT) gel 0.5% was shown to be efficacious and safe for the treatment of erythema of rosacea in previous studies including a 4-week treatment phase. In the present 1-year study, we aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the treatment. Subjects with moderate to severe erythema of rosacea were instructed to apply topical BT gel 0.5% once daily for 12 months. Severity of erythema and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Approximately 345 subject years of exposure to BT gel 0.5% was achieved in the study. The incidence of AEs and AEs judged to be related to the study drug was higher at the beginning and decreased over the course of the study. Similar safety profiles were observed between the subjects who had received or not received concomitant therapies for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea. Effect of topical BT gel 0.5% on erythema severity was observed after the first application and the durability of the effect was maintained until the end of the study at month 12, with no tachyphylaxis observed. In conclusion, once-daily topical BT gel 0.5% is safe and consistently effective for the long-term treatment of moderate to severe erythema of rosacea, even in the presence of concomitant therapies for the inflammatory lesions of rosacea.

  1. Acute and long term outcomes of catheter ablation using remote magnetic navigation for the treatment of electrical storm in patients with severe ischemic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Qi; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Pehrson, Steen


    BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation with remote magnetic navigation (RMN) can offer some advantages compared to manual techniques. However, the relevant clinical evidence for how RMN-guided ablation affects electrical storm (ES) due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with severe ischemic heart...

  2. The Nature of Interactions between Students with Severe Disabilities and Their Friends and Acquaintances without Disabilities. (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita


    This study of 20 elementary-school children with severe disabilities examined differences in their interactions with friends without disabilities compared with interactions with acquaintances without disabilities. Friends and acquaintances did not differ in developmental level, language age, functional movement, or social competence. Group…

  3. Long-term outcomes of bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with severe asthma: a comparison of 3-year follow-up results from two prospective multicentre studies (United States)

    Laviolette, Michel; Cohn, Lauren; McEvoy, Charlene; Bansal, Sandeep; Shifren, Adrian; Khatri, Sumita; Grubb, G. Mark; McMullen, Edmund; Strauven, Racho; Kline, Joel N.


    Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic therapy for severe asthma. The previously reported, randomised sham-controlled AIR2 (Asthma Intervention Research 2) trial showed a significant reduction in severe asthma exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalisations after bronchial thermoplasty. More “real-world” clinical outcome data is needed. This article compares outcomes in bronchial thermoplasty subjects with 3 years of follow-up from the ongoing, post-market PAS2 (Post-FDA Approval Clinical Trial Evaluating Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Persistent Asthma) study with those from the AIR2 trial. 279 subjects were treated with bronchial thermoplasty in the PAS2 study. We compared the first 190 PAS2 subjects with the 190 bronchial thermoplasty-treated subjects in the AIR2 trial at 3 years of follow-up. The PAS2 subjects were older (mean age 45.9 versus 40.7 years) and more obese (mean body mass index 32.5 versus 29.3 kg·m−2) and took higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids (mean dose 2301 versus 1961 μg·day−1). More PAS2 subjects had experienced severe exacerbations (74% versus 52%) and hospitalisations (15.3% versus 4.2%) in the 12 months prior to bronchial thermoplasty. At year 3 after bronchial thermoplasty, the percentage of PAS2 subjects with severe exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalisations significantly decreased by 45%, 55% and 40%, respectively, echoing the AIR2 results. The PAS2 study demonstrates similar improvements in asthma control after bronchial thermoplasty compared with the AIR2 trial despite enrolling subjects who may have had poorer asthma control. PMID:28860266

  4. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...... Morten Bennedsen, INSEAD and Professor Joseph Fan, Chinese University of Hong Kong. It consists of 40 questions regarding assets in the family and roadblocks facing the family firm. The Family Business Map determines that the level of family assets in KALK is high, while the level of roadblocks is severe...

  5. The research on long-term clinical effects and patients’ satisfaction of gabapentin combined with oxycontin in treatment of severe cancer pain (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Liang; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Juan; Zhu, Ye-Ke


    Abstract Gabapentin has been used as an adjuvant for treatment of cancer pain. Previous studies showed that opioids combined with gabapentin for management of cancer pain reduced the dosage of opioids. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effect and patients’ satisfaction of oxycontin combined with gabapentin in treatment of severe cancer pain. After titration of morphine, 60 severe cancer patients with visual analog score (VAS) more than 7 were randomly divided into trial group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). The control group was administered oxycontin and placebo, and the trial group was given oxycontin and gabapentin. VAS score was recorded pre- and post-treatment; while daily dose of oxycontin, daily cost of pain relief and life quality score were observed 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. We found that daily dose of oxycontin 1 month post was comparable between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Three months post, compared with control group (58.0 ± 15.2 mg), average daily dose of oxycontin was significant lower in trial group (33.4 ± 11 mg) (P  0.05), while the incidence of nausea and vomiting (P = 0.038), and constipation (P oxycontin combined with gabapentin used in severe cancer pain management can control pain effectively, decreased the dose of oxycontin and the cost of cancer pain relief, and reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting, and constipation, increased the life quality. PMID:27759644

  6. The research on long-term clinical effects and patients' satisfaction of gabapentin combined with oxycontin in treatment of severe cancer pain. (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Liang; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Juan; Zhu, Ye-Ke


    Gabapentin has been used as an adjuvant for treatment of cancer pain. Previous studies showed that opioids combined with gabapentin for management of cancer pain reduced the dosage of opioids.The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effect and patients' satisfaction of oxycontin combined with gabapentin in treatment of severe cancer pain. After titration of morphine, 60 severe cancer patients with visual analog score (VAS) more than 7 were randomly divided into trial group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). The control group was administered oxycontin and placebo, and the trial group was given oxycontin and gabapentin. VAS score was recorded pre- and post-treatment; while daily dose of oxycontin, daily cost of pain relief and life quality score were observed 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. We found that daily dose of oxycontin 1 month post was comparable between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Three months post, compared with control group (58.0 ± 15.2 mg), average daily dose of oxycontin was significant lower in trial group (33.4 ± 11 mg) (P  0.05), while the incidence of nausea and vomiting (P = 0.038), and constipation (P oxycontin combined with gabapentin used in severe cancer pain management can control pain effectively, decreased the dose of oxycontin and the cost of cancer pain relief, and reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting, and constipation, increased the life quality.

  7. Immediate and long-term relationship between severe maternal morbidity and health-related quality of life: a prospective double cohort comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Noor Norhayati


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the growing interest in severe maternal morbidity (SMM, the need to assess its effects on quality of life is pressing. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of life scores between women with and without SMM at 1-month and 6-month postpartum in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A prospective double cohort study design was applied at two tertiary referral hospitals over a 6-month period. The study population included all postpartum women who delivered in 2014. Postpartum women with and without SMM were selected as the exposed and non-exposed groups, respectively. For each exposed case identified, a non-exposed case with a similar mode of delivery was selected. The main outcome measures used were scores from the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12. Results The study measured 145 exposed and 187 non-exposed women. The group-time interaction of the repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA showed no significant difference in the mean overall SF-12 physical component summary score changes (P = 0.534 between women with and without SMM. Similarly, the group-time interaction of the RM ANOVA showed no significant difference in the mean overall SF-12 mental component summary score changes (P = 0.674 between women with and without SMM. However, women with SMM scored significantly lower on a general health perceptions subscale at 1-month (P = 0.031, role limitations due to physical health subscale at 6-month (P = 0.019, vitality subscale at 1-month (P = 0.007 and 6-month (P = 0.008, and role limitations due to emotional problems subscales at 6-month (P = 0.008. Conclusions Women with severe maternal morbidity demonstrated comparable quality of life during the 6-month postpartum period compared to women without severe maternal morbidity.

  8. Severe extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis in absence of concomitant joint involvement following long-term spontaneous remission. A case report. (United States)

    Lagrutta, Mariana; Alle, Gelsomina; Parodi, Roberto Leandro; Greca, Alcides Alejandro


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease occasionally associated with severe extra-articular manifestations, mostly in cases of longstanding highly active disease. We report the case of a 56 year-old woman diagnosed with active RA at the age of 40. After 5 years of high activity, her arthritis subsides spontaneously during pregnancy despite the lack of treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. She remains without articular symptoms for 7 years, and then she develops a Felty's syndrome requiring steroid treatment and splenectomy. Following steroid withdrawal she develops pericarditis with massive serohematic pericardial effusion, still in absence of articular activity, and responds to immunosuppressive therapy and colchicine. We emphasize the unusual spontaneous and sustained joint remission without specific treatment, and the development of severe extra-articular manifestations of RA in absence of concomitant articular activity, as well as the importance of controlling inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior. (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J


    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.

  10. High- Versus Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis: Demographics, Clinical Outcomes, and Effects of the Initial Aortic Valve Replacement Strategy on Long-Term Prognosis. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Ando, Kenji; Kanamori, Norio; Murata, Koichiro; Kitai, Takeshi; Kawase, Yuichi; Izumi, Chisato; Miyake, Makoto; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Kato, Masashi; Hirano, Yutaka; Matsuda, Shintaro; Inada, Tsukasa; Nagao, Kazuya; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yasuyo; Yamane, Keiichiro; Toyofuku, Mamoru; Ishii, Mitsuru; Minamino-Muta, Eri; Kato, Takao; Inoko, Moriaki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Komasa, Akihiro; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Hotta, Kozo; Higashitani, Nobuya; Kato, Yoshihiro; Inuzuka, Yasutaka; Maeda, Chiyo; Jinnai, Toshikazu; Morikami, Yuko; Saito, Naritatsu; Minatoya, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi


    There is considerable debate on the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LG-AS), defined as aortic valve area strategy: n=977, and conservative strategy: n=1120) with high-gradient severe aortic stenosis (HG-AS) and 1712 patients (initial AVR strategy: n=219, and conservative strategy: n=1493) with LG-AS. AVR was more frequently performed in HG-AS patients than in LG-AS patients (60% versus 28%) during the entire follow-up. In the comparison between the initial AVR and conservative groups, the propensity score-matched cohorts were developed in both HG-AS (n=887 for each group) and LG-AS (n=218 for each group) strata. The initial AVR strategy when compared with the conservative strategy was associated with markedly lower risk for a composite of aortic valve-related death or heart failure hospitalization in both HG-AS and LG-AS strata (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.37; Pstrategy was associated with a better outcome than the conservative strategy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.59; Pstrategy was associated with better outcomes than the conservative strategy in both HG-AS and LG-AS patients, although AVR was less frequently performed in LG-AS patients than in HG-AS patients. The favorable effect of initial AVR strategy was also seen in patients with LG-AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. URL: Unique identifier: UMIN000012140. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Activation of the tryptophan/serotonin pathway is associated with severity and predicts outcomes in pneumonia: results of a long-term cohort study. (United States)

    Meier, Marc A; Ottiger, Manuel; Vögeli, Alaadin; Steuer, Christian; Bernasconi, Luca; Thomann, Robert; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Henzen, Christoph; Hoess, Claus; Zimmerli, Werner; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp


    As part of the immune defense during infection, an increase in enzyme activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) leads to a breakdown of tryptophan to kynurenine. In previous animal studies, therapeutic antagonism of IDO resulted in reduced sepsis mortality. We investigated the prognostic ability of tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine and IDO (represented by the ratio of kynurenine/tryptophan) to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We measured tryptophan, serotonin and kynurenine on admission plasma samples from CAP patients included in a previous multicenter trial by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We studied their association with inflammation (C-reactive protein), infection (procalcitonin) and clinical outcome. Mortality in the 268 included patients was 45% within 6 years of follow-up. IDO and kynurenine showed a strong positive correlation with markers of infection (procalcitonin) and inflammation (C-reactive protein) as well as sepsis and CAP severity scores. Tryptophan showed similar, but negative correlations. In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age and comorbidities, higher IDO activity and lower tryptophan levels were strongly associated with short-term adverse outcome defined as death and/or ICU admission within 30 days with adjusted odds ratios of 9.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-59.5, p=0.021] and 0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.70, p=0.021). Multivariate analysis did not reveal significant associations for kynurenine and serotonin. In hospitalized CAP patients, higher IDO activity and lower tryptophan levels independently predicted disease severity and short-term adverse outcome. Whether therapeutic modulation of IDO has positive effects on outcome needs further investigation.

  12. Percutaneous Balloon Angioplasty for Severe Native Aortic Coarctation in Young Infants Less Than 6 Months: Medium- to Long-term Follow-up

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    Lan He


    Full Text Available Background: Although balloon angioplasty (BA has been performed for more than 20 years, its use as a treatment for native coarctation of the aorta (CoA during childhood, especially in young infants, remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects and potential role of percutaneous transcatheter BA for native CoA as an alternative therapy to surgical repair in young infants. Methods: The 37 patients aged from 6 days to 6 months with severe CoA in congestive heart failure or circulatory shock were admitted for BA. Patient′s weight ranged from 2.4 to 6.1 kg. All 37 patients were experiencing cardiac dysfunction, and eight patients were in cardiac shock with severe metabolic acidosis. Eleven patients had an isolated CoA, whereas the others had a CoA associated with other cardiac malformations. Cardiac catheterization and aortic angiography were performed under general anesthesia with intubation. Transfemoral arterial approaches were used for the BA. The size of the balloon ranged from 3 mm × 20 mm to 8 mm × 20 mm, and a coronary artery balloon catheter was preferred over a regular peripheral vascular balloon catheter. Results: The femoral artery was successfully punctured in all but one patient, with that patient undergoing a carotid artery puncture . The systolic peak pressure gradient (PG across the coarctation was 41.0 ± 16.0 mmHg (range 13-76 mmHg. The mean diameter of the narrowest coarctation site was 1.7 ± 0.6 mm (range 0.5-2.8 mm. All patients had successful dilation; the PG significantly decreased to 13.0 ± 11.0 mmHg (range 0-40 mmHg, and the diameter of coarctation significantly improved to 3.8 ± 0.9 mm (range 2.5-5.3 mm. No intraoperative complications occurred for any patients. However, in one case that underwent a carotid artery puncture, a giant aneurysm formed at the puncture site and required surgical repair. The following observations were made during the follow-up period from 6-month to 7-year: (1 The PG

  13. Long-term monitoring drug resistance by ultra-deep pyrosequencing in a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patient exposed to several unsuccessful therapy schemes. (United States)

    Sede, M; Ojeda, D; Cassino, L; Westergaard, G; Vazquez, M; Benetti, S; Fay, F; Tanno, H; Quarleri, J


    The aim of this study was to analyze the spectrum and dynamics of low-prevalent HBV mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) and S antigen by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). Samples were obtained from a chronically infected patient who was followed throughout a thirteen-year period. This technology enabled simultaneous analysis of 4084 clonally amplified fragments from the patient allowing detecting low prevalent (<1%) mutations during the follow-up. At baseline, HBV sequences were predominately wild-type. Under sequential HBV monotherapies including lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir, a high frequency of rtM204I mutation was detected initially as unique and then coexisting with rtM204V. Both mutations were statistically associated with rtA200V and rtV207I, respectively. Once the entecavir and tenofovir combined therapy was started, polymerase and consequently envelope gene mutations appeared at several positions at a higher frequency than before, including the entecavir resistance-associated mutation rtT184L. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiac Function in a Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Moderate and Severe Porcine Model of Chronic Myocardial Infarction

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    Renate de Jong


    Full Text Available Background. Novel therapies need to be evaluated in a relevant large animal model that mimics the clinical course and treatment in a reasonable time frame. To reliably assess therapeutic efficacy, knowledge regarding the translational model and the course of disease is needed. Methods. Landrace pigs were subjected to a transient occlusion of the proximal left circumflex artery (LCx (n=6 or mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD (n=6 for 150 min. Cardiac function was evaluated before by 2D echocardiography or 3D echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis. At 12 weeks of follow-up the heart was excised for histological analysis and infarct size calculations. Results. Directly following AMI, LVEF was severely reduced compared to baseline in the LAD group -17.1±1.6%, P=0.009 compared to only a moderate reduction in the LCx group -5.9±1.5%, P=0.02 and this effect remained unchanged during 12 weeks of follow-up. Conclusion. Two models of chronic MI, representative for different patient groups, can reproducibly be created through clinically relevant ischemia-reperfusion of the mid-LAD and proximal LCx.

  15. Cardiac function in a long-term follow-up study of moderate and severe porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction. (United States)

    de Jong, Renate; van Hout, Gerardus P J; Houtgraaf, Jaco H; Takashima, S; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo; Duckers, Henricus J


    Novel therapies need to be evaluated in a relevant large animal model that mimics the clinical course and treatment in a reasonable time frame. To reliably assess therapeutic efficacy, knowledge regarding the translational model and the course of disease is needed. Landrace pigs were subjected to a transient occlusion of the proximal left circumflex artery (LCx) (n = 6) or mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD) (n = 6) for 150 min. Cardiac function was evaluated before by 2D echocardiography or 3D echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis. At 12 weeks of follow-up the heart was excised for histological analysis and infarct size calculations. Directly following AMI, LVEF was severely reduced compared to baseline in the LAD group (-17.1 ± 1.6%, P = 0.009) compared to only a moderate reduction in the LCx group (-5.9 ± 1.5%, P = 0.02) and this effect remained unchanged during 12 weeks of follow-up. Two models of chronic MI, representative for different patient groups, can reproducibly be created through clinically relevant ischemia-reperfusion of the mid-LAD and proximal LCx.

  16. A lifecourse approach to long-term sickness absence--a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research on long-term sickness absence has focussed on exposure to occupational psychosocial risk factors such as low decision latitude. These provide an incomplete explanation as they do not account for other relevant factors. Such occupational risk factors may be confounded by social or temperamental risk factors earlier in life. METHODS: We analysed data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Long-term sickness absence was defined as receipt of Incapacity Benefit/Severe Disablement Allowance at age 42. In those in employment aged 33 we examined the effects of psychological distress, musculoskeletal symptoms, and low decision latitude. These were then adjusted for IQ, educational attainment, and the presence of early life somatic and neurotic symptoms. RESULTS: Low decision latitude predicted subsequent long-term absence, and this association remained, albeit reduced, following adjustment for psychological distress and musculoskeletal symptoms at age 33. Low decision latitude was no longer associated with long-term absence when IQ and educational attainment were included. Adjusting for early life somatic and neurotic symptoms had little impact. DISCUSSION: A greater understanding of the ways in which occupational risk factors interact with individual vulnerabilities across the life-course is required. Self reported low decision latitude might reflect the impact of education and cognitive ability on how threat, and the ability to manage threat, is perceived, rather than being an independent risk factor for long-term sick leave. This has implications for policy aimed at reducing long-term sick leave.

  17. Premature deaths among individuals with severe mental illness after discharge from long-term hospitalisation in Japan: a naturalistic observation during a 24-year period. (United States)

    Kondo, Shinsuke; Kumakura, Yousuke; Kanehara, Akiko; Nagato, Daisuke; Ueda, Taro; Matsuoka, Tsuneo; Tao, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto


    Premature death in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) in countries without nationally collected data, including Japan, is structurally underreported. To elucidate excess mortality among individuals with SMI in Japan. We retrospectively investigated all deaths among users of a non-clinical community-based mental health service provider in suburban Tokyo from 1992 to 2015. During the study period, 45 individuals died among 254 qualified registrants. Deaths were by natural causes in 33 cases (73.3%). The mean years of life lost was 22.2 years and the overall standard mortality ratio (SMR) was 3.28 (95% CI 2.40-4.39). The cause-specific SMR was 5.09 (95% CI 2.33-9.66) for cardiovascular disease and 7.38 (95% CI 2.40-17.22) for suicide. Although Japan leads the world in longevity, individuals with SMI suffer premature death and excess mortality due to physical conditions as well as suicide. Revealing this underreported disparity of life is the first step to improving physical care for individuals with SMI. S.K. received personal fees from Pfizer and Dainippon-Sumitomo, outside the submitted work, and was a medical adviser to Sudachi-kai. Y.K. received grants from Japan Foundation for Neuroscience and Mental Health (JFNMH), during the conduct of the study, and personal fees from Dainippon-Sumitomo, outside the submitted work. K.K. received grants from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Daiichi-Sankyo, Otsuka, Meiji-Seika Pharma, Yoshitomi, Mochida and Fuji-Film RI Pharma; grants and personal fees from MSD, Astellas, Dainippon-Sumitomo and Eisai; and grants from Lily, Takeda and Tanabe-Mitsubishi, outside the submitted work. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  18. Music Therapy and the Education of Students with Severe Disabilities (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer


    Music therapists regard music therapy as a valuable intervention for students with moderate to severe intellectual disability or multiple disabilities, but many special educators would regard it as a controversial practice, unsupported by empirical research. This paper reviews the goals and strategies used by music therapists working with students…

  19. Uncontrolled viral replication as a risk factor for non-AIDS severe clinical events in HIV-infected patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy: APROCO/COPILOTE (ANRS CO8) cohort study. (United States)

    Ferry, Tristan; Raffi, François; Collin-Filleul, Fidéline; Dupon, Michel; Dellamonica, Pierre; Waldner, Anne; Strady, Christophe; Chêne, Geneviève; Leport, Catherine; Moing, Vincent Le


    To determine risk factor for non-AIDS severe clinical events in HIV-infected patients on long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A validation committee reviewed each severe clinical event that occurred in the APROCO/COPILOTE (ANRS CO8) cohort that enrolled 1281 patients in 1997-1999 at the initiation of cART containing protease inhibitor. Probability of the occurrence of a first non-AIDS, cART-related, and AIDS-defining event was estimated, and potential determinants were studied using Cox regression models. During a median follow-up of 7.3 years, the incidence of non-AIDS events was higher than that of cART-related and AIDS-defining events (10.5, 3.6, and 2.6 per 100 patient-years, respectively). Bacterial (mainly airway) infections were the most frequent non-AIDS events (23.4%) followed by non-AIDS-defining malignancies and cardiovascular events (both 9.5%). Factors independently associated with the occurrence of a first non-AIDS event were age >60 years [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3 to 3.2] and CD4 4 log10 copies per milliliter at the time of the event (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5 to 2.5). Optimization and permanent continuation of long-term antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients is the best strategy to prevent or reduce the occurrence of non-AIDS severe morbidity.

  20. Reforming long-term care financing through insurance (United States)

    Meiners, Mark R.


    Until recently, insurance for long-term care was not viewed as feasible. This perception has changed dramatically in the past few years. Several models of long-term care insurance have begun to be tested. Although the application of insurance principles to long-term care is still new, the emergence of private market interest in developing long-term care insurance has been a catalyst to renewed public-policy support for reforming the way we pay for long-term care. States, in particular, have become interested in developing public-private partnerships to support the emergence of long-term care insurance that could help relieve the mounting pressure on Medicaid budgets. PMID:10312962

  1. The Disablement Score: An Intersubjective Severity Scale of the Social Exclusion of Disabled People

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    Kenjiro Sakakibara


    Full Text Available If a disability is understood as a type of social exclusion, its severity can be gauged from the social aspect. Such measurement is necessary to explore the intersubjective structure of social exclusion associated with bodily functions and structures. This paper presents a sociological and statistical method to rate the severity of a disability as social exclusion. The method is modeled on the rating procedure of occupational prestige. According to this technique, people subjectively rate severity by answering a questionnaire. The ratings are converted into a score (the “disablement score”. The method is applied in a preliminary web survey. The reliability of the scale is examined. People evaluate various conditions very differently, with physical conditions with functional limitations rated as severe and disfigurements as mild. Although the result does not necessarily agree with the objective circumstances, it is meaningful in that it reflects people’s reactions and attitudes toward disabilities.

  2. Long-term trajectories and service needs for military families. (United States)

    Link, Patrick E; Palinkas, Lawrence A


    The deployment of US military personnel to recent conflicts has been a significant stressor for their families; yet, we know relatively little about the long-term family effects of these deployments. Using data from prior military service eras, we review our current understanding of the long-term functioning and needs of military families. These data suggest that overseas deployment, exposure to combat, experiencing or participating in violence during war deployment, service member injury or disability, and combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) all have profound impacts on the functioning of military families. We offer several recommendations to address these impacts such as the provision of family-centered, trauma-informed resources to families of veterans with PTSD and veterans who experienced high levels of combat and war violence. Recent efforts to address the needs of caregivers of veterans should be evaluated and expanded, as necessary. We should also help military families plan for predictable life events likely to challenge their resilience and coping capacities. Future research should focus on the following: factors that mediate the relationship between PTSD, war atrocities, caregiver burden, and family dysfunction; effective family-centered interventions that can be scaled-up to meet the needs of a dispersed population; and system-level innovations necessary to ensure adequate access to these interventions.

  3. Life satisfaction and disability after severe traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Mailhan, Laurence; Azouvi, Philippe; Dazord, Alice


    To assess the relationships between life satisfaction and disability after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional study, including 75 patients 2 years or more after a severe TBI. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Subjective Quality of Life Profile. Impairments, activities and participation were assessed with standardized tests. The satisfaction profile was flat, i.e. the majority of items obtained mean satisfaction scores close to 0, suggesting that participants felt indifferent to these items or in other words that they were neither satisfied nor unsatisfied. Patients were on average slightly dissatisfied with their cognitive functions, physical abilities and self-esteem. A factor analysis revealed three underlying factors. The main finding was that the relationships between life satisfaction and disability were not linear: the lowest satisfaction scores were reported by participants with moderate disability rated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale, while individuals with severe disability did not significantly differ from the good recovery group. Life satisfaction is not linearly related to disability after severe TBI.

  4. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)


    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort

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    Lichtenstein Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of

  6. Efeitos da terapia multidisciplinar de longo prazo sobre a composição corporal de adolescentes internados com obesidade severa Effects of long-term multidisciplinary inpatient therapy on body composition of severely obese adolescents

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    Wagner Luiz do Prado


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos da terapia multidisciplinar de longo prazo sobre a composição corporal de adolescentes obesos severos internados. MÉTODOS: Um total de 728 adolescentes obesos extremos, incluindo 249 meninos (15,25±1,56 anos e 479 meninas (15,34±1,59 anos, recebeu terapia multidisciplinar durante um período de 3 a 9 meses. A terapia consistiu de redução da ingestão energética, orientação dietética, exercícios físicos e terapia psicológica. A composição corporal foi analisada pela bioimpedância elétrica, e a aptidão física foi avaliada pelo teste em ciclo ergômetro multiestágios. O tipo e duração de cada atividade foram avaliados através de recordatório diário de atividade física. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada redução significante (p OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of long-term multidisciplinary inpatient therapy on body composition of severely obese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 728 extremely obese adolescents, including 249 boys (aged 15.25±1.56 years and 479 girls (aged 15.34±1.59 years received multidisciplinary therapy during a period of 3 to 9 months. The therapy consisted of reduced energy intake, dietetic education, physical exercises and psychological therapy. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and physical capacity was assessed by the multistage cycle ergometer test. Type and duration of each activity were recorded using a daily controlled activity diary. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in body mass (27.84±12.49 kg for boys and 21.60±9.87 kg for girls, body mass index (9.19±3.88 kg/m² for boys and 7.72±3.98 kg/m² for girls and fat mass. In addition, the percentage of fat free mass increased significantly (p < 0.05 in boys (from 58.8±6.41 to 69.98±7.43% and in girls (from 51.86±4.96 to 60.04±5.65%. CONCLUSION: Long-term multidisciplinary approach allows significant reduction in severe obesity, preserving growth and percentage

  7. Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity

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    I. Kyrou


    Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.

  8. Adult and near-adult height in patients with severe insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency after long-term therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I. (United States)

    Backeljauw, Philippe F; Kuntze, Joyce; Frane, James; Calikoglu, Ali S; Chernausek, Steven D


    Treatment with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates linear growth in children with severe IGF-I deficiency (IGFD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with IGF-I in patients with severe IGFD treated until adult or near-adult height. Twenty-one children with severe IGFD were treated until adult or near-adult height under a predominantly open-label design. All patients were naive to IGF-I. Recombinant human IGF-I was administered subcutaneously in doses between 60 and 120 µg/kg twice daily. Nine patients received additional therapy with gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) analog for a mean period of 2.9 ± 1.8 years. Mean duration of treatment was 10.0 years. Mean height velocity increased from 3.1 cm/year prior to treatment to 7.4 cm/year during the first year of treatment. Height velocities during the subsequent years were lower, but remained above baseline for up to 12 years. Cumulative mean Δ height SD score at (near) adult height was +2. The observed mean gain in height was 13.4 cm more than had been expected without treatment. The adult height achieved by the patients also treated with GnRH analog was not different from those who received IGF-I therapy alone. There were no new safety signals identified in these patients, a subset of those previously reported. Long-term therapy with IGF-I improves adult height of patients with severe IGFD. Most patients did not bring their heights into the normal adult range. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Teaching Functional Sign Language to Severely Disabled Children. (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.; Myers, James J.


    The article describes a structured approach to teaching sign language to severely disabled students through task analysis. The approach emphasizes four basic principles from developmental and behavioral theories: (1) environmental influence, (2) imitation, (3) reinforcement, (4) practice. A functional sign vocabulary of 250 words grouped according…

  10. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings. (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra


    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  11. New Directions: Communication Development in Persons with Severe Disabilities. (United States)

    Goetz, Lori; Sailor, Wayne


    To produce spontaneous and generalized language use by severely disabled individuals, the language training context and content must be examined. Training methods can better approximate the conditions of natural language use when they involve: generation of spontaneous language responses to effect real-world changes, single performance "trials,"…

  12. Vector Communication Curriculum: Moderate and Severe, Multiple Disabilities. (United States)

    Baine, David

    This CD-ROM disk contains a curriculum on vector communication for students with moderate and severe multiple disabilities. Section 1 discusses pragmatic communication, functional analysis of behavior, augmentative and alternative communication, including gestures and signs, use of pictures and pictographs, and low, medium, and high tech…

  13. Long-term outcomes of children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease. (United States)

    Lanzieri, T M; Leung, J; Caviness, A C; Chung, W; Flores, M; Blum, P; Bialek, S R; Miller, J A; Vinson, S S; Turcich, M R; Voigt, R G; Demmler-Harrison, G


    To assess long-term outcomes of children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease detected at birth. We used Cox regression to assess risk factors for intellectual disability (intelligence quotient 20 or based on ophthalmologist report). Among 76 case-patients followed through median age of 13 (range: 0-27) years, 56 (74%) had SNHL, 31 (43%, n=72) had intellectual disability and 18 (27%, n=66) had vision impairment; 28 (43%, n=65) had intellectual disability and SNHL with/without vision impairment. Microcephaly was significantly associated with each of the three outcomes. Tissue destruction and dysplastic growth on head computed tomography scan at birth was significantly associated with intellectual disability and SNHL. Infants with symptomatic congenital CMV disease may develop moderate to severe impairments that were associated with presence of microcephaly and brain abnormalities.

  14. Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Tapentadol Extended Release Following up to 2 Years of Treatment in Patients With Moderate to Severe, Chronic Pain: Results of an Open-label Extension Trial. (United States)

    Buynak, Robert; Rappaport, Stephen A; Rod, Kevin; Arsenault, Pierre; Heisig, Fabian; Rauschkolb, Christine; Etropolski, Mila


    Tapentadol extended release (ER) has demonstrated efficacy and safety for the management of moderate to severe, chronic pain in adults. This study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of tapentadol ER in patients with chronic osteoarthritis or low back pain. Patients were enrolled in this 1-year, open-label extension study after completing one of two 15-week, placebo-controlled studies of tapentadol ER and oxycodone controlled release (CR) for osteoarthritis knee pain (NCT00421928) or low back pain (NCT00449176), a 7-week crossover study between tapentadol immediate release and tapentadol ER for low back pain (NCT00594516), or a 1-year safety study of tapentadol ER and oxycodone CR for osteoarthritis or low back pain (NCT00361504). After titrating the drug to an optimal dose, patients received tapentadol ER (100-250 mg BID) for up to 1 year (after finishing treatment in the preceding studies); patients who were previously treated with tapentadol ER in the 1-year safety study received tapentadol ER continuously for up to 2 years in total. Of the 1,154 patients in the safety population, 82.7% were aged >65 years and 57.9% were female; 50.1% had mild baseline pain intensity. Mean (SD) pain intensity scores (11-point numerical rating scale) were 3.9 (2.38) at baseline (end of preceding study) and 3.7 (2.42) at end point, indicating that pain relief was maintained during the extension study. Improvements in measures of quality of life (eg, EuroQol-5 Dimension and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) health status questionnaires) achieved during the preceding studies were maintained during the open-label extension study. Tapentadol ER was associated with a safety and tolerability profile comparable to that observed in the preceding studies. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (incidence ≥10%; n = 1154) were headache (13.1%), nausea (11.8%), and constipation (11.1%). Similar efficacy and tolerability results were shown for patients who

  15. Terminating a long-term clinical trial. (United States)

    Klimt, C R


    Long-term clinical trials often include more than one active treatment group. These may be discontinued independently if found to be ineffective or possibly harmful. Certain subgroups of patients may be discovered, in the course of a clinical trial, who do not respond satisfactorily and are, therefore, excluded during the course of a trial. Yet another kind of termination comes when we have a therapeutic breakthrough or when hope has to be abandoned for demonstrating beneficial effects for one, several, or all treatments included in a trial. Examples from the authors' experience are presented, as are successful and unsuccessful techniques in managing terminations of various types.

  16. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bsteh

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult.The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset.This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5, moderate (EDSS 3.0-5.5 or severe (EDSS ≥6.0 disability were calculated to correct for confounders.Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0-1580.1; p<0.001. Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23-0.77; p = 0.005, while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14-11.24; p = 0.028 and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11-19.50; p = 0.036 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability.We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms.

  17. Long-term EARLINET dust observations (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina


    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  18. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with cerebral palsy: improving long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabacca A


    Full Text Available Antonio Trabacca, Teresa Vespino, Antonella Di Liddo, Luigi Russo Scientific Institute I.R.C.C.S. “Eugenio Medea” – “La Nostra Famiglia” – Unit for Severe Disabilities in Developmental Age and Young Adults (Developmental Neurology and Neurorehabilitation, Brindisi Research Centre, Brindisi, Italy Abstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the most frequent causes of child disability in developed countries. Children with CP need lifelong assistance and care. The current prevalence of CP in industrialized countries ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 per 1,000 live births, with one new case every 500 live births. Children with CP have an almost normal life expectancy and mortality is very low. Despite the low mortality rate, 5%–10% of them die during childhood, especially when the severe motor disability is comorbid with epilepsy and severe intellectual disability. Given this life expectancy, children with CP present with a lifelong disability of varying severity and complexity, which requires individualized pathways of care. There are no specific treatments that can remediate the brain damage responsible for the complex clinical–functional dysfunctions typical of CP. There are, however, a number of interventions (eg, neurorehabilitation, functional orthopedic surgery, medication, etc aimed at limiting the damage secondary to the brain insult and improving these patients’ activity level and participation and, therefore, their quality of life. The extreme variability of clinical aspects and the complexity of affected functions determine a multifaceted skill development in children with CP. There is a need to provide them with long-term care, taking into account medical and social aspects as well as rehabilitation, education, and assistance. This long-term care must be suited according to children’s developmental stage and their physical, psychological, and social development within their life contexts. This impacts heavily on the national


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Shesternya


    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate association between 9p21.3 locus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and coronary atherosclerosis severity and long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with myocardial infarction (MI.Material and methods. A total of 255 Caucasian patients (211 male, 44 female; aged up to 65 years, on the average 52.56±7.98 years with MI were recruited into the study from 01.01.2009 to 30.06.2010. All participants were included into the study after written informed consent. Genome DNA was extracted from leukocytes of venous blood by the phenol-chloroform extraction method. Two SNPs rs10757278 and rs1333049 (locus 9p21.3 were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR according to protocol (probes TaqMan, Applied Biosystems, 7900HT. The coronary angiograms were reviewed by independent angiographers who were blinded to the results of the genotyp- ing (Philips Allura Xper FD10. The total number of lesions, Gensini score and SYNTAX score were derived. Follow-up lasted two years.Results. Locus 9р21.3 genotypes CC rs1333049 and GG rs10757278 demonstrated a direct strong association with severity of coronary atheromatous burden (left main coro- nary artery stenosis, total number of lesions, Gensini score. There are not influence of locus 9p21.3 on mortality, recurrent MI, hospitalization due to unstable angina, repeated PCI, stroke during follow-up period (6, 12, 24 months. Frequency of the genotype СС rs1333049 among patients with recurrent MI was 20% (without recurrent MI — 27.4%; р=0.54; with hospitalization due to unstable angina — 27.5% (without hospitalization — 26.4%; р=0.82; with repeated PCI — 24.0% (without repeated PCI — 27.2%; р=0.97; among died patients — 29.8% (among survived ones — 26.4%; р=0.76. Frequencies of the genotype GG rs10757278 were similar: recurrent MI (yes — 18.8%; no — 26.4%; р=0.49; hospitalization due to unstable angina (yes — 28%; no — 25

  20. Long-term management of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with dupilumab and concomitant topical corticosteroids (LIBERTY AD CHRONOS): a 1-year, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Gooderham, Melinda; Cather, Jennifer C; Weisman, Jamie; Pariser, David; Simpson, Eric L; Papp, Kim A; Hong, H Chih-Ho; Rubel, Diana; Foley, Peter; Prens, Errol; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Etoh, Takafumi; Pinto, Pedro Herranz; Pujol, Ramon M; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ettler, Karel; Kemény, Lajos; Zhu, Xiaoping; Akinlade, Bolanle; Hultsch, Thomas; Mastey, Vera; Gadkari, Abhijit; Eckert, Laurent; Amin, Nikhil; Graham, Neil M H; Pirozzi, Gianluca; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D; Shumel, Brad


    Dupilumab (an anti-interleukin-4-receptor-α monoclonal antibody) blocks signalling of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, type 2/Th2 cytokines implicated in numerous allergic diseases ranging from asthma to atopic dermatitis. Previous 16-week monotherapy studies showed that dupilumab substantially improved signs and symptoms of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with acceptable safety, validating the crucial role of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dupilumab with medium-potency topical corticosteroids versus placebo with topical corticosteroids in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. In this 1-year, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study (LIBERTY AD CHRONOS), adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis and inadequate response to topical corticosteroids were enrolled at 161 hospitals, clinics, and academic institutions in 14 countries in Europe, Asia-Pacific, and North America. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1:3) to subcutaneous dupilumab 300 mg once weekly (qw), dupilumab 300 mg every 2 weeks (q2w), or placebo via a central interactive voice/web response system, stratified by severity and global region. All three groups were given concomitant topical corticosteroids with or without topical calcineurin inhibitors where inadvisable for topical corticosteroids. Topical corticosteroids could be tapered, stopped, or restarted on the basis of disease activity. Coprimary endpoints were patients (%) achieving Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) 0/1 and 2-point or higher improvement from baseline, and Eczema Area and Severity Index 75% improvement from baseline (EASI-75) at week 16. Week 16 efficacy and week 52 safety analyses included all randomised patients; week 52 efficacy included patients who completed treatment by US regulatory submission cutoff. This study is registered with, NCT02260986. Between Oct 3, 2014

  1. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab


    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  2. Predictors of moderate to severe fatigue 12 months following admission to hospital for burn: Results from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ) Long Term Outcomes project. (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Cleland, Heather; Watterson, Dina; Schrale, Rebecca; McRae, Sally; Taggart, Susan; Darton, Anne; Wood, Fiona; Edgar, Dale W


    Fatigue has been identified as an outcome of concern following burn but is rarely captured in outcomes studies. We aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence, and predictors, of moderate to severe fatigue in the first 12 months following burn, and (ii) establish the association between fatigue and health-related quality of life and work outcomes. Adult burns patients, admitted >24h, were recruited from five BRANZ sites. Participants were followed-up at 1-, 6-, and 12-months after injury using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP)-work scale. Moderate to severe fatigue was defined as a global BFI score of 4-10. Multivariable mixed effects regression modelling was used to identify demographic, socioeconomic, burn size and severity predictors of moderate/severe fatigue at follow-up. The mean±SD age of the 328 participants was 42.1±16.7years, 70% were male, 47% were flame burns, and the mean±SD %TBSA was 8.7±11.2. The prevalence of moderate/severe fatigue decreased from 37% at 1-month, to 32% at 6-months and 26% at 12-months. The adjusted odds of moderate/severe fatigue were 2.62 (95% CI: 1.27, 5.42) times higher for women compared to men, and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.03, 6.79) times higher in patients with a %TBSA≥20. Compared to patients in major cities, the adjusted odds of reporting moderate/severe fatigue were 2.48 fold higher (95% CI: 1.17, 5.24) for patients residing in inner regional areas, and 3.60 fold (95% CI: 1.43, 9.05) higher for patients living in remote/very remote areas. At each time point, the physical and mental health summary scores, and each sub-scale score, of the SF-36 were significantly lower in patients reporting moderate/severe fatigue. Patients experiencing moderate to severe fatigue reported higher work-related disability on the SIP work scale at each time point after injury. More than a quarter of participants reported moderate to severe fatigue on the BFI at 12-months and

  3. High genetic differentiation in the alpine plant Campanula alpina Jacq. (Campanulaceae): evidence for glacial survival in several Carpathian regions and long-term isolation between the Carpathians and the Alps. (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Cieślak, E; Korbecka, G


    A survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was conducted to elucidate the phylogeography of Campanula alpina, a key species of silicicolous alpine grasslands in the Carpathians with a disjunct distribution in the Eastern European Alps. The Carpathians experienced a different glacial history from the Alps: local glaciers were present only in the highest massifs, while alpine habitats extended over larger areas related to their present distribution in this region. We asked: (i) whether in the Carpathians a high-mountain plant exhibits a complex phylogeographical structure or rather signatures of recent migrations, and (ii) whether the disjunct part of the species' distribution in the Alps resulted from a recent colonization from the Carpathians or from a restricted expansion from separate Eastern Alpine refugia. Our study revealed a clear phylogeographical pattern in AFLPs supported by congruent groups of distinct cpDNA haplotypes. Highest genetic differentiation was observed between the Alps and the Carpathians, indicating a long-term isolation between populations from these two mountain ranges. Further genetic division within the Carpathians suggests that current species' distribution is composed of several groups which have been isolated from each other for a long period. One genetic break separates Western from Southeastern Carpathian material, which is in line with a classical biogeographical boundary. A further, strongly supported genetic group was identified at the southwestern edge of the Carpathian arch. In the Eastern Alps, genetic traces of glacial survival in separate refugial areas in the calcareous northern part and the siliceous central part were found.

  4. Operationalisation of quality of life for adults with severe disabilities. (United States)

    Gómez, L E; Arias, B; Verdugo, M Á; Tassé, M J; Brown, I


    The operationalisation of quality of life for people with more severe disabilities has been acknowledged in the published research for more than two decades. This study aims to contribute to our knowledge and understanding of the quality of life of adults with severe disabilities by developing a set of quality of life indicators appropriate to this population using a Delphi method and the eight-domain conceptual model proposed by Schalock & Verdugo (2002). The participating panel in the Delphi method included 12 experts who evaluated each proposed item according to four criteria: suitability, importance, observability and sensitivity. Descriptive analyses were used to select the best items in each of the four rounds of this Delphi study, as well as examining the coefficients of concordance that were calculated for the final pool of items. The four rounds of the Delphi study resulted in a final pool of 118 items (91 that were considered valid in the first round plus 27 items proposed, reformulated or discussed in the following rounds). Importance and sensitivity were the criteria that received the highest and lowest ratings, respectively, but also the ones that had the highest and lowest mean coefficients of concordance. Experts showed the strongest agreement for items related to material well-being, while the weakest was found for items related to personal development. This study further contributes to our understanding of how to operationalise and measure quality of life in adults with severe disabilities. The item pool generated may prove helpful in the development of instruments for the measurement of quality of life-related outcomes in this population. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Physical and mental health in patients and spouses after intensive care of severe sepsis: a dyadic perspective on long-term sequelae testing the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. (United States)

    Rosendahl, Jenny; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Jaenichen, Doreen; Strauss, Bernhard


    To examine the physical and mental long-term consequences of intensive care treatment for severe sepsis in patients and their spouses under consideration of a dyadic perspective using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Prospective study. Patients and spouses who had requested advice from the German Sepsis Aid's National Helpline were invited to participate. We included 55 patients who survived severe sepsis and their spouses an average of 55 months after ICU discharge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form-12 Health Survey, the Posttraumatic Stress Scale-10, and the Giessen Subjective Complaints List-24 were used. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was tested using multilevel modeling with the actor effect representing the impact of a person's posttraumatic stress symptoms on his or her own mental health-related quality of life and the partner effect characterized by the impact of a person's posttraumatic stress symptoms on his or her partner's mental health-related quality of life. A significant proportion of patients and spouses (26%-42%) showed clinically relevant scores of anxiety and depression; approximately two thirds of both, patients and spouses, reported posttraumatic stress symptoms defined as clinically relevant. Compared with normative samples, patients reported greater anxiety, poorer mental and physical health-related quality of life, and greater exhaustion; spouses had an impaired mental health-related quality of life and increased anxiety. Testing the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed that posttraumatic stress symptoms were related to patients' (β = -0.71, 95% confidence interval -0.88 to -0.54) and spouses' (β = -0.62, 95% confidence interval -0.79 to -0.46) own mental health-related quality of life. Posttraumatic stress symptoms further influenced the mental health-related quality of life of the respective other (β = -0.18, 95% confidence interval -0.35 to -0.003 for patients; β = -0.15, 95

  6. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J


    stroke onset. By way of multiple logistic regression and survival analyses very old age was independently related to short- and long-term mortality and nursing home placement independent of other clinical characteristics. RESULTS: 16% of patients were 85 years or older at the time of stroke onset. More...... stroke very old age predicted mortality or nursing home placement (OR 3.9; 95% CI 2.1-7.3), and long-term mortality (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5). However, other factors such as onset stroke severity, pre-existing disability and atrial fibrillation were also significant independent predictors of prognosis......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age...

  7. Needs of Persons with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Q-Methodological Study of Clients with Severe Behavioural Disorders and Severe Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Kreuger, Linda; van Exel, Job; Nieboer, Anna


    Background: A demand-oriented approach is becoming increasingly important in care provision. The purpose of this study was to identify the primary needs of clients with Severe Behavioural Disorders and Severe Intellectual Disabilities. Materials and Methods: We used the theory of Social Production Function and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to…

  8. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith


    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  9. Long-term Periodicities of Cataclysmic Variables with Synoptic Surveys (United States)

    Yang, Michael Ting-Chang; Chou, Yi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Hu, Chin-Ping; Su, Yi-Hao; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Graham, Matthew J.; Donalek, Ciro


    A systematic study on the long-term periodicities of known Galactic cataclysmic variables (CVs) was conducted. Among 1580 known CVs, 344 sources were matched and extracted from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) data repository. The PTF light curves were combined with the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS) light curves and analyzed. Ten targets were found to exhibit long-term periodic variability, which is not frequently observed in the CV systems. These long-term variations are possibly caused by various mechanisms, such as the precession of the accretion disk, hierarchical triple star system, magnetic field change of the companion star, and other possible mechanisms. We discuss the possible mechanisms in this study. If the long-term period is less than several tens of days, the disk precession period scenario is favored. However, the hierarchical triple star system or the variations in magnetic field strengths are most likely the predominant mechanisms for longer periods.

  10. Introducing ZORA to Children with Severe Physical Disabilities. (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Renée; Lexis, Monique; de Witte, Luc


    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential of a ZORA-robot based intervention in rehabilitation and special education for children with (severe) physical disabilities from the professionals perspective. The qualitative results of this study will be presented. Professionals indicated meaningful application possibilities for ZORA. Overall, ZORA was able to improve motivation, concentration, taking initiative and attention span. Three domains could be identified to be most promising for application of ZORA: (re)learning of movement skills, cognitive skills and communication/social interaction skills.

  11. Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community. (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K M; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Cope, D N


    The objective of this study was to develop one instrument for assessing quantitatively the disability of severe head trauma patients so their rehabilitative progress could be followed from coma through different levels of awareness and functioning to their return to the community. This disability rating (DR) instrument was designed to be easily learned, quickly completed, valid, predictive of outcome and to have a high inter-rater reliability. The DR Scale consists of 8 items divided into 4 categories; 1. Arousal and awareness; 2. Cognitive ability to handle self-care functions; 3. Physical dependence upon others; 4. Psychosocial adaptability for work, housework, or school. Completed independently by several raters for more than 88 serious head injury patients, inter-rater correlations were highly significant. The admission DR was significantly related to clinical outcome at 1 year after injury and was significantly related to electrophysiologic measures of brain dysfunction as reflected in degree of abnormality of evoked brain potential patterns. The DR Scale is more sensitive than the Glasgow Outcome Scale in detecting and measuring clinical changes in individuals who have sustained severe head trauma. Also it can be used to help identify patients most likely to benefit from intensive rehabilitation care within a hospital setting. It provides a shorthand global description of a head injury patient's condition that facilitates understanding and communication.

  12. Health care utilisation among individuals reporting long-term pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola


    Individuals reporting long-term pain in the 1994 and 2000 Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys, which included random samples of 6000 and 16,684 persons respectively, were investigated concerning their use of the health care systems. A considerably higher use was observed in the pain population...... resulting in the seeking after a somatic diagnosis, and difficulties in recognizing the endpoint of reasonable treatment attempts), and societal factors (legislation on disability and compensation)....

  13. Success and problems of long-term levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Marsden, C D; Parkes, J D


    The patient with Parkinson' disease on chronic levodopa therapy, like the diabetic on insulin, is dependent on the drug. Like the diabetic, the patients with Parkinson's disease may run into problems during long-term treatment. Two have emerged as frequent and serious, an insidious and progressive loss of benefit and the appearance of progessively more severe fluctuations in disability. It is concluded that progression of the underlying pathology of the disease is probably responsible. Discovery of the exact causes for loss of benefit may provide a rational basis for new therapy.

  14. Long-term outcome of sports injuries : results after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; van der Sluis, CK; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; ten Duis, HJ

    Objective: To investigate whether sports injuries result in long-term disabilities and handicaps and to establish variables with a prognostic value for the occurrence of these long-term consequences. Materials and methods: All patients older than 17 years of age and admitted to the University

  15. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with severe neuromotor and verbal disabilities. (United States)

    Sabbadini, M; Bonanni, R; Carlesimo, G A; Caltagirone, C


    In people with cerebral palsy, severe neuromotor disability and communication problems make standard neuropsychological tests impossible. Therefore, alternative methods and specific aids must be developed to allow patients to autonomously respond to the examiner's questions. In the present individuals and study, a neuropsychological evaluation was made of a group of eight individuals with cerebral palsy, and severe neuromotor and verbal disabilities, and a group of 19 normal subjects matched for mental age. The tests were administered using an autonomous selection method in which the patient selects the various responses through specific aids without the examiner's interference. Patients' group performances in visuo-spatial and memory tests were on average lower than the mean of the control group. In the verbal domain, patients' scores were comparable to those of normal children in all tests but one assessing the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences. An analysis of the patients' individual performances also revealed heterogeneous cognitive profiles: some patients presented a homogeneously distributed cognitive impairment and others a more selective one. This finding is particularly important for planning differentiated learning programmes, and identifying suitable communicative instruments in rehabilitative and educational settings.

  16. Patient-Reported Disability Measures Do Not Correlate with Electrodiagnostic Severity in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E. Tulipan, MD


    Conclusions:. Electrodiagnostic severity grades do not correlate with patient-reported disability, including the DASH and MCS–12 surveys. There is a counterintuitive correlation between more-severe electrodiagnostic findings and decreased physical disability. These findings indicate that disability may not correlate with electrodiagnostic severity of median neuropathy in CTS.

  17. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)


    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  18. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.


    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  19. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates


    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel


    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  20. Long-term outcome of children with acute cerebellitis. (United States)

    Hennes, E; Zotter, S; Dorninger, L; Hartmann, H; Häusler, M; Huppke, P; Jacobs, J; Kraus, V; Makowski, C; Schlachter, K; Ulmer, H; van Baalen, A; Koch, J; Gotwald, T; Rostasy, K


    Acute cerebellitis (AC) is characterized by cerebellar symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes primarily confined to the cerebellum. To analyze the neurological and cognitive long-term outcome of children with AC. Children with AC diagnosed by typical clinical features and MRI findings were included in this retrospective study. Medical charts were reviewed and neurological deficits were assessed by neurological examination or by the expanded disability status scale telephone interview. Cognitive outcome was evaluated with a parental questionnaire (Kognitive Probleme bei Kindern und Jugendlichen). A total of 11 children (6 boys, 5 girls; age range: 3 years to 14 years and 10 months) were included. Of them, six children had a severe disease manifestation including mental status changes and neurological symptoms. Of the rest, two children had a moderate and three children had a mild form of AC. MRI of the cerebellum was obtained in the acute phase revealing signal alterations with different patterns. The average follow-up period was 4 years and 4 months. A complete recovery was observed in five children. Neurological sequelae were reported in five children ranging from ataxia to mild tremor. Cognitive deficits were found in six patients. The affected areas of cognition did include spatial visualization ability, language skills, and concentration. Neurological and cognitive sequelae are common in children with AC and underline the role of the cerebellum in cognition. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Long-term efficacy and safety of oxycodone–naloxone prolonged release in geriatric patients with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer pain: a 52-week open-label extension phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerriero F


    -related behavior. In general, OXN-PR was well tolerated.Conclusion: This study of the long-term treatment of chronic pain in a geriatric population with OXN-PR shows satisfying analgesic effects achieved with a stable low daily dose, coupled with a good safety profile and, in particular, with a reduction of constipation, often present during opioid therapy. Our findings support the indications of the American Geriatrics Society, suggesting the use of opioids to treat pain in older people not responsive to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Keywords: oxycodone/naloxone, geriatric, chronic noncancer pain, constipation

  2. Long-term clinical outcome of bilateral pallidal stimulation for intractable craniocervical dystonia (Meige syndrome). Report of 6 patients. (United States)

    Sobstyl, Michał; Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Grażyna; Zaczyński, Artur; Pasterski, Tomasz; Aleksandrowicz, Marta; Ząbek, Mirosław


    The aim of the present study was to report the short-term as well long-term results of bilateral pallidal stimulation in 6 consecutive patients for severe debilitating craniocervical dystonia (Meige syndrome) using Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). We evaluated 6 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of intractable long-standing craniocervical dystonia. The formal objective assessment included the motor and disability BFMDRS scores. The BFMDRS assessment was performed before and after it roughly annually up to 60months when bilateral pallidal stimulation was switched on and compared to baseline BFMDRS scores. We present short-term (3months postoperatively) follow-up as well long-term (from 6 to 60months) results. Baseline BFMDRS scores and subsequent follow-up BFMDRS scores were compared with the use of a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs. A two-tailed probability level of 5% (p<0.05) was considered significant. Bilateral GPi DBS improved the BFMDRS total movement score by 65% at short-term follow-up and by 53% at long-term follow-up when compared to baseline scores. Subscores for eyes at short-term follow-up were reduced by 78%, for mouth by 58%, and for speech/swallowing by 49%. This improvements for individual subscores were maintained at long-term follow-up and were as follows for eyes by 67%, mouth by 50% and speech/swallowing by 39%. The BFMDRS disability score was reduced by 48% at short-term follow-up and by 55% at long-term follow-up when compared to baseline scores. Our results showed that bilateral GPi DBS in craniocervical dystonia is effective and safe. Phasic dystonic movements like blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia responded very fast and favorable to pallidal stimulation reducing disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term outcomes after upper limb arterial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kucey, DS; Brenneman, FD; Hunter, GA; Maggisano, R; tenDuis, HJ

    OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes in multisystem trauma victims who have arterial injuries to upper limbs. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care regional trauma centre in a university hospital. PATIENTS: All consecutive severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score

  4. Freedom, Fairness, and Justice: What Now for Severe Disabilities?--A Response to Turnbull (United States)

    Meyer, Luanna H.


    Over the years, much has been accomplished in the area of severe disabilities--by professionals, academic scholars, parents of persons with disabilities, and self-advocates. It was not that long ago that children with severe disabilities were most likely to be excluded from school altogether or, if they received an education at all, it was far…

  5. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency]. (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert


    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  6. [Long-term outcome after hemispheric disconnection]. (United States)

    Bulteau, C; Dorfmüller, G; Fohlen, M; Jalin, C; Oliver, M-V; Delalande, O


    Hemispheric disconnection has been largely proposed for patients with severe epilepsy associated with a congenital or acquired hemispheric cerebral pathology. The classical procedure of anatomical hemispherectomy was progressively abandoned by neurosurgeons in order to avoid postoperative complications since then hemispherotomy techniques have been developed. Globally, with hemispheric disconnection, the rate of patients becoming seizure-free has been between 50 and 80%. The factors affecting seizure control have not been completely elucidated, but several authors suggested that differences in etiology as well as the hemispheric disconnection technique used may partially explain this variability. The percentage of seizure-free patients is higher with hemispherotomy techniques and in the group of patients with Rasmussen encephalitis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and vascular insults. Depending on overall long-term progression, there is an improvement compared to preoperative status even if children exhibit heterogenous abilities. The lowest scores are observed for motor skills but communication and socialization are relatively well-preserved and strongly related to the duration of epilepsy: the longer the duration, the lower the scores were. Neuropsychological outcome following hemispheric disconnection makes it possible to study the development of hemispheric specialization during infancy and to provide information on cognitive recovery. Cerebral reorganization has been proved to exist in motor and language recovery. Ipsilateral corticospinal pathways seem to be involved in the movement of hemiplegic limbs. Everyday language can be supported by both hemispheres, but there is an early hemispheric specialization of the left hemisphere according to metaphonologic abilities.

  7. Effect of severity of disability on survival in north east England cerebral palsy cohort. (United States)

    Hutton, J L; Colver, A F; Mackie, P C


    To investigate the effect of motor and cognitive disabilities on the survival of people on the North of England Collaborative Cerebral Palsy Survey, and compare this with other published results. The cerebral palsy cohort consists of 1960-1990 births in Northumberland, Newcastle, and North Tyneside health districts. Survival and cause of death were analysed in relation to data on birth, disabilities, and a unique measure of the impact of disability. Disability strongly influences survival. More than a third of those with a severe disability die before age 30. Fewer than a third of deaths are attributed to cerebral palsy on death certificates. Of those with severe cognitive disability, 63% live to age 35 (58% with severe ambulatory disability and 53% with severe manual disability), whereas at least 98% without severe disabilities live to age 35. The Lifestyle Assessment Score (LAS) allows a finer categorisation of impact of disability, and is strongly associated with survival: a ten point increase in LAS is associated with a doubling of the hazard rate. People who had LAS of at least 70, and had survived to age 5 have a 39% chance of dying before age 35. The majority of people with cerebral palsy attain adulthood. There appears to be more variation in survival rates associated with severe disability between regions of England, than between north east England, British Columbia, and California. Instantaneous risks of dying vary widely between England and California. This variation is not obviously attributable to differing rates of severe disability.

  8. Functional capacity and mental status of elderly people in long-term care in west Glasgow. (United States)

    Stott, D J; Dutton, M; Williams, B O; MacDonald, J


    Functional capacity and mental status were assessed in 821 patients in long-term care in West Glasgow. In geriatric medical long-term care only five (1.3%) out of 387 patients were independent in activities of daily living (walking, transfers from bed and chair, dressing, toileting, urinary and faecal continence) and were not severely mentally impaired (AMT score greater than 6/10); in psychogeriatric care n = 6/143 (4.2%) in private nursing homes n = 6/66 (9.1%) and in residential care n = 100/235 (42.6%). Patients in geriatric medical care had a greater prevalence of immobility and urinary incontinence but less mental impairment than those in psychogeriatric care. Nearly all patients placed in geriatric medical or psychogeriatric care had major functional disability or mental impairment. The level of disability was less in private nursing than in geriatric medical care. Although 57% of those in residential care required some assistance or supervision in activities of daily living or had severe mental impairment, 86% were independent in walking and 83% were continent of urine. The implications of these findings for the provision of care for physically and mentally frail elderly are discussed.

  9. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan


    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...

  10. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  11. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der


    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  12. Long-term weight loss maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wing, Rena R; Phelan, Suzanne


    ...% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss...

  13. Manganese in long term paediatric parenteral nutrition.


    Reynolds, A P; Kiely, E; Meadows, N


    The current practice of providing manganese supplementation to neonates on long term parenteral nutrition is leading to a high incidence of hypermanganesaemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in adults on long term manganese parenteral nutrition have shown changes in TI weighted MRI images and similar findings in a neonate receiving trace element supplementation are reported here. Whole blood manganese concentration in the infant was 1740 nmol/l (or 8.3 times upper reference limit). ...

  14. Globalization, women's migration, and the long-term-care workforce. (United States)

    Browne, Colette V; Braun, Kathryn L


    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends-population aging, globalization, and women's migration-on the supply and demand for DLTC workers in the United States. Following an overview of these trends, we identify three areas with embedded social justice issues that are shaping the DLTC workforce in the United States, with a specific focus on immigrant workers in these settings. These include world poverty and economic inequalities, the feminization and colorization of labor (especially in long-term care), and empowerment and women's rights. We conclude with a discussion of the contradictory effects that both population aging and globalization have on immigrant women, source countries, and the long-term-care workforce in the United States. We raise a number of policy, practice, and research implications and questions. For policy makers and long-term-care administrators in receiver nations such as the United States, the meeting of DLTC worker needs with immigrants may result in greater access to needed employees but also in the continued devaluation of eldercare as a profession. Source (supply) nations must balance the real and potential economic benefits of remittances from women who migrate for labor with the negative consequences of disrupting family care traditions and draining the long-term-care workforce of those countries.

  15. Long-Term Survival After Traumatic Brain Injury Part II: Life Expectancy. (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan C; Shavelle, Robert M; Strauss, David J; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L


    To compute the life expectancy of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on validated prognostic models from 2 cohorts, to compare mortality and life expectancy of persons with TBI with those of the U.S. general population, and to investigate trends toward improved survival over the last 2 decades. Survival analysis. Postdischarge from rehabilitation units and long-term follow-up at regional centers. Two cohorts of long-term survivors of TBI (N=12,481): the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) cohort comprised 7365 persons who were admitted to a TBIMS facility with moderate to severe TBI and were assessed at ≥1 years postinjury, and the California Department of Developmental Services (CDDS) cohort comprised 5116 persons who sustained a TBI and received long-term services from the CDDS. Not applicable. Life expectancy. The estimates of age-, sex-, and disability-specific life expectancy of persons with TBI derived from the CDDS and TBIMS were similar. The estimates of age- and sex-specific life expectancy were lower than those of the U.S. general population. Mortality rates of persons with TBI were higher than those of the U.S. general population. Mortality rates did not improve and the standardized mortality ratio increased over the study period from 1988 to 2010. Life expectancy of persons with TBI is lower than that of the general population and depends on age, sex, and severity of disability. When compared, the survival outcomes in the TBIMS and CDDS cohorts are remarkably similar. Because there have been no marked trends in the last 20 years, the life expectancies presented in this article may remain valid in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  17. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar


    Full Text Available How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  18. Deconditioning, fatigue and impaired quality of life in long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Dirou, Stéphanie; Chambellan, Arnaud; Chevallier, Patrice; Germaud, Patrick; Lamirault, Guillaume; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Perrot, Bastien; Delasalle, Béatrice; Forestier, Bastien; Guillaume, Thierry; Peterlin, Pierre; Garnier, Alice; Magnan, Antoine; Blanc, François-Xavier; Lemarchand, Patricia


    Long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for treatment-related adverse events, that may worsen physical capacity and may induce fatigue and disability. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate exercise capacity in allotransplant survivors and its relationship with fatigue and disability. Patient-reported outcomes and exercise capacity were evaluated in 71 non-relapse patients 1 year after allo-HSCT, using validated questionnaires, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with measure of peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ) and deconditioning, pulmonary function testing, echocardiography and 6-min walk test. A high proportion (75.4%) of allo-HSCT survivors showed abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters as compared to predicted normal values, including 49.3% patients who exhibited moderate to severe impairment in exercise capacity and 37.7% patients with physical deconditioning. PeakVO 2 values were not accurately predicted by 6-min walk distances (r = 0.53). Disability and fatigue were strongly associated with decreased peakVO 2 values (p = 0.002 and p = 0.008, respectively). Exercise capacity was reduced in most allo-HSCT long-term survivors. Because reduced exercise capacity was associated with fatigue, disability and a decrease in quality of life, cardiopulmonary exercise testing should be performed in every patient who reports fatigue and disability.

  19. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde


    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....

  20. Vitrectomy with silicone oil or long-acting gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of additional and long-term follow-up. Silicone Study report 11. (United States)

    Abrams, G W; Azen, S P; McCuen, B W; Flynn, H W; Lai, M Y; Ryan, S J


    The Silicone Study evaluated the outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). To evaluate short-term (up to 36 months) outcomes in eyes randomized to silicone oil or perfluoropropane gas and long-term (up to 72 months) outcomes in eyes with attached maculas at 36 months. Prospective, randomized, multicentered surgical trial. Community- and university-based vitreoretinal practices. Two-hundred sixty-five eyes with PVR randomized to perfluoropropane gas and silicone oil with follow-up through 3 years (cohort 1) and 249 eyes with attached maculas at 36 months (121 eyes randomized to long-acting gas [either sulfur hexafluoride or perfluoropropane] and 128 eyes randomized to silicone oil) with follow-up up to 6 years (cohort 2). Both cohorts consisted of eyes that had and had not undergone vitrectomy for PVR (groups 1 and 2, respectively) before randomization. Of the 265 eyes in cohort 1, 24-month follow-up data were available for 218 eyes (82%) and 36-month follow-up data were available for 196 eyes (74%). Of 208 eyes in cohort 2, 48-month follow-up data were available for 146 eyes (70%), 60-month follow-up data for 119 eyes (57%), and 72-month follow-up data for 73 eyes (35%). Vitrectomy surgery for PVR with a long-acting gas or silicone oil as the intraocular tamponade. Changes in visual acuity, recurrent retinal detachment, and incidence of complications. In group 1 of cohort 1, compared with oil-treated eyes, gas-treated eyes had a higher rate of complete retinal reattachment from 18 to 36 months (P gas-treated eyes had more hypotony (P oil-treated eyes that underwent subsequent surgery were more likely to have the oil retained (P = .02). Compared with oil-retained eyes, oil-removed eyes had higher rates of complete posterior attachment (P = .01) and of a visual acuity of 5/200 or better (P oil-removed eyes, gas-treated eyes had a worse visual acuity outcome (P oil and perfluoropropane gas were equal in most

  1. Mixing induces long-term hyperthermia in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, IC; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM


    The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether body temperature is a sensitive parameter to measure long-term effects of stress in pigs. Mixing of unacquainted pigs is a severe stressor that has detrimental effects on health, production and welfare. We measured deep body temperature after

  2. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after fetal arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico; Aziz, Muhammed I.; Nagel, Helene T.; Blom, Nico A.; Rozendaal, Lieke; Kanhai, Humphrey H. H.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in fetuses with severe tachy- or bradyarrhythmia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a follow-up study to assess the neurologic, mental, and psychomotor development in cases with fetal cardiac arrhythmia. RESULTS: A

  3. Nurses struggle to help pupils with long-term conditions. (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris


    Most school nurses are not confident they can give essential support to pupils with long-term health conditions. Research by the National Children's Bureau found that, due to heavy workloads and the need to work across several schools, nine out of ten school nurses were less confident they can help children with conditions such as diabetes and asthma.

  4. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.


    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  5. Long-term cerebral imaging after pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, A. M.; De Groot, J. C.; Wiegman, M. J.; Aarnoudse, J. G.; Sanwikarja, G. S.; Zeeman, G. G.

    Please cite this paper as: Aukes A, De Groot J, Wiegman M, Aarnoudse J, Sanwikarja G, Zeeman G. Long-term cerebral imaging after pre-eclampsia. BJOG 2012;119:11171122. Objective Formerly eclamptic women demonstrate cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) several years following the index pregnancy. The

  6. Estimating the severity of intellectual disability in adults: a Mokken scaling analysis of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire. (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; McKenzie, Karen


    A Mokken scaling analysis of the learning disability screening questionnaire (LDSQ) suggested that, with the exception of 1 item, the scale conforms to the properties of a Mokken scale. This has advantages for estimating the severity of intellectual disability and inferring the difficulties likely to be experienced by an individual for whom there is incomplete information on intellectual and adaptive functioning.

  7. Integration of Preschoolers with Severe Disabilities into Daycare. (United States)

    Pickett, Patricia L.; And Others


    A study was conducted over a 15-week period during which 6 preschoolers made weekly visits to a day-care center. There was little spontaneous cooperative play between day-care children and children with disabilities. Students with disabilities showed increased social and play skills. (LB)

  8. Telehealth for persons with severe functional disabilities and their caregivers: facilitating self-care management in the home setting. (United States)

    Forducey, Pamela G; Glueckauf, Robert L; Bergquist, Thomas F; Maheu, Marlene M; Yutsis, Maya


    Persons with severe functional disabilities are the highest users of health care services. Caring for the needs of this population represents a significant percentage of our national health care costs. A growing body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-management strategies and caregiver engagement for effective long-term care for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Economic forces over the past decade have led to new challenges and resulted in major changes in health care delivery resulting in shortened length of inpatient stays and greater limits on the length of outpatient treatment. Telehealth is an innovative method for health care delivery and a means of meeting this new challenge. This article highlights the findings of 3 pilot studies on the use of telecommunications technologies in promoting self-care management and enhancing health care outcomes in persons with severe disabilities and their family caregivers. The importance of matching technology to the needs of this population, lessons learned from these investigations, and future directions for research are addressed.

  9. Visuospatial Orientation Learning through Virtual Reality for People with Severe Disability (United States)

    de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; Valero-Aguayo, Luis; de la Rubia-Cuestas, Ernesto J.


    This study aims to test how an intervention based on virtual reality (VR) may enhance visuospatial skills amongst people with disability. A quasi-experimental intra-group study was therefore conducted. Participants were 20 people with severe disability (65% males; 34.35 years, on average, and 84.95% of disability rate according to the Andalusian…

  10. Supporting the Social Lives of Secondary Students with Severe Disabilities: Considerations for Effective Intervention (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.


    For adolescents with severe disabilities, efforts to enhance the social dimensions of schooling are widely advocated, yet rarely implemented. The peer interactions and relationships so critical to school success and individual well-being can be elusive for many students with intellectual disability, autism, and multiple disabilities. This article…

  11. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska


    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  12. Quality of life in caregivers of severely disabled war survivors. (United States)

    Mousavi, Batool; Seyed Hoseini Davarani, Seyed Hosein; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Jamali, Arsia; Khateri, Shahriar; Talebi, Morteza; Montazeri, Ali


    To evaluate quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of severely disabled war survivors and identify variables threatening caregivers' QOL. A cross-sectional study was performed on 532 caregivers of Iran-Iraq war related injured survivors by using Persian version of 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Caregivers had lower QOL compared to the Iranian female population (p < .001). Caregivers of amputees had better SF-36 scores compared to caregivers of two groups of chemical warfare survivors (p ranging from .01 to <.001). Caregiving to chemical warfare and being married at the time of trauma were the independent predictors of poor QOL in both the physical component summary (OR = 5.08, 95% CI = 3.35-7.7; OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37-0.89) and the mental component summary (OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.68-6.32; OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40-0.98). Caregivers of war veterans suffer from poor QOL. Chemical warfare agents contribute to more persistent poor QOL in caregivers than the injuries caused by conventional weapons. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  13. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park


    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  14. Beyond the operating theatre: Long-term quality of life in spina bida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term quality of life of a person born with spina bifida, as in any disability, is dependent on the challenges of that disability being recognised, met and overcome, to prevent patients becoming handicapped. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Willingness to Engage in Personal Relationships with Persons with Disabilities: Examining Category and Severity of Disability (United States)

    Miller, Eva; Chen, Roy; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Kranz, Peter


    This study examined the willingness of persons without disabilities (PWODs) to engage in personal relationships with persons with disabilities (PWDs). Participants (N = 305) were primarily female Hispanic students (91%) preparing for careers in the helping professions. The "Relationships and Disability Survey" assessed the effect of the category…

  16. Elderly and long-term care trends and policy in Taiwan: Challenges and opportunities for health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hung Wang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to address the trends and policy of elderly and long-term care in Taiwan. In response to the increasing demand of an aging society, healthcare professionals play crucial roles in elderly and long-term care and quality assurance of services. This article focuses on the current situation of elderly health care, demands of long-term care, long-term care policy in Taiwan, draft of the Long-term Care Services Act, and draft of the Long-term Care Insurance Act. After the 10-year long-term care project was proposed by the Taiwan government, the supply of health care services and demand for long-term care have created many challenges and opportunities for innovative health professional development. Challenges consist of low old dependency ratio caused by low birth rate, lack of elderly and long-term care related manpower, services and education reform related to long-term care for the future society, and interprofessional collaboration and team work of long-term care. Opportunities include expanding the roles and the career pathways of healthcare professionals, promoting the concepts of active aging and good quality of life, and developing industrial cooperation related to long-term care services. Under these circumstances, healthcare professonals are actively involved in practice, education and research of long-term care services that ensure elderly and disabled people can live a healthier and better life.

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis: assessment of long-term outcome 12 years after operative and conservative treatment. (United States)

    Hurri, H; Slätis, P; Soini, J; Tallroth, K; Alaranta, H; Laine, T; Heliövaara, M


    The present study focuses on the long-term prognosis of radiographically verified stenosis of the lower lumbar spine. The purpose here was to describe the outcome 12 years after radiographic diagnosis of spinal stenosis and to identify factors predicting disability after operative or conservative treatment. Data were compiled on 75 patients (43 men and 32 women) with changes in functional myelography diagnostic for spinal stenosis. Their mean age at the interview 12 years later was 61 years. The sagittal diameter of the dural sac was measured from baseline myelographs at all intervertebral levels and was corrected for magnification. In the interview, subjective outcome assessment was obtained with a structured questionnaire, and the low-back disorder was scored using the Oswestry disability index. The sagittal diameter of the dural sac was severely stenotic (<7.0 mm) in 32 patients (26 operated), and moderately stenotic (7.0-10.5 mm) in 43 patients (31 operated). The severity of the stenosis significantly predicted disability, even when the effects of age, sex, therapy regimen, and body mass index were adjusted for. For moderate and severe stenosis, the adjusted mean Oswestry indices were 28.4 and 39.1, respectively (p = 0.01). Therapy as such (operative versus nonoperative) did not significantly correlate with later disability. The radiographic severity of lumbar spinal stenosis predicts disability independently of therapy regimen. Randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the indications for surgical and conservative treatment. Radiographic severity of the stenosis should be considered as an effect-modifying or confounding factor in clinical trials and other studies focusing on the outcome of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  18. Aspects of long - term intensive care


    Picková, Jana


    My thesis deals with aspects of long-term intensive care. The goal of my thesis is to determine the basic needs of patients and family preparedness aspects of intensive home care. Other stated goals is find out the possibility of returning patients to home care and also find out what is the use of basal stimulation in long-term intensive care department. In the theoretical part of my thesis are included the chapters about definition of intensive care and home intensive care, for the full comp...

  19. Does 360° lumbar spinal fusion improve long-term clinical outcomes after failure of conservative treatment in patients with functionally disabling single-level degenerative lumbar disc disease? Results of 5-year follow-up in 75 postoperative patients. (United States)

    Zigler, Jack E; Delamarter, Rick B


    Surgical treatment of patients with mechanical degenerative disc disease has been controversial, but improvements in clinical outcomes have been shown in properly selected patients with disease-specific diagnoses, with fusion arguably now becoming the "gold standard" for surgical management of these patients. No published study thus far has been designed for prospective enrollment of patients with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria in whom at least 6 months of conservative therapy has failed and who are then offered a standardized surgical procedure and are followed up for 5 years. The study group was composed of the patients in the prospective, randomized Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trial comparing ProDisc-L (Synthes Spine, West Chester, Pennsylvania) with 360° fusion for the treatment of single-level symptomatic disc degeneration. Of 80 patients randomized to 360° fusion after failure of non-operative care, 75 were treated on protocol with single-level fusions. Follow-up of this treatment cohort was 97% at 2 years and 75% at 5 years and serves as the basis for this report. Patients in the trial were required to have failure of at least 6 months of nonoperative care and in fact had failure of an average of 9 months of nonoperative treatment. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score indicated greater than 60% impairment. The mean entry-level pain score on a visual analog scale was greater than 8 of 10. After fusion, not only did patients have significant improvements in measurable clinical outcomes such as the Oswestry Disability Index score and pain score on a visual analog scale but there were also substantial improvements in their functional status and quality of life. Specifically, over 80% of patients in this study had improvements in recreational status that was maintained 5 years after index surgery, indicating substantial improvements in life quality that were not afforded by months of conservative care. The percentage

  20. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann


    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  1. A comparison of two assessments of levels of functioning in clients with intellectual disability between occupational therapists and nursing staff within a long-term mental healthcare facility in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine van der Linde


    Full Text Available Background: The implementation of the South African Mental Health Care Act, which regulates care for clients with intellectual disabilities, impacted on the healthcare services provided to this population. Changes in the Act necessitated planning of new care packages, which resulted in the investigation of the current hospital client profile, as well as assessment data on patient abilities according to the occupational therapist and nursing staff as primary caregivers.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive correlation study design was used as information was analysed from an existing database. Descriptive analysis of clients’ demographic data, occupational performance and adaptive functioning were done, as well as a Spearman’s rank correlation test and cluster analysis to describe the association between the levels of functioning as measured by the different professions.Results: The results indicated low levels of abilities, as well as a good to excellent correlation between results of the Fairview self-help scale and Creative Participation Assessment.Conclusion: This study provided preliminary evidence that these two tools are valuable instruments for measuring occupational performance and adaptive functioning in institutions that provide care for this vulnerable and under-researched population.

  2. Long-term effects of directed forgetting. (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut


    The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay. The forget cue reduced the number of items that were recalled from L1. Experiment 2 implemented a 12-h delay between encoding and test that was either filled with day-time wakefulness or night-time sleep. Replicating the findings of Exp. 1, recall of L1 was reduced in the forget in comparison to the remember condition. Sleep in comparison to wakefulness significantly strengthened L1 memory in the remember group only. Taken together, the present study shows that the intention to forget can have long-lasting consequences. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie the short- and long-term effects of DF, with long-term effects potentially reflecting the preferential consolidation of information that has been identified as important during encoding.

  3. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings (United States)

    Lubinski, Rosemary


    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  4. Long-term maintenance needs planning. (United States)


    This research contributes to Kentucky's knowledge base of long-term maintenance needs in two parts. Part I presents an estimate of the average revenue needed to maintain four categories of highway in the first fifteen years after each is built or res...

  5. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...

  6. Long-Term Memory and Learning (United States)

    Crossland, John


    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  7. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.


    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  8. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans (United States)


    palliative care ,  adult day health care ,  homemaker/home health aide care ,  respite care , Long-Term Care Services for...8111A; §1785. 2 The VHA also provides dementia care ; transitional care ; health care workforce development; Geriatric Research Education, and...text (bold) = both VA and purchased community care . In addition, the VHA provides dementia care ; transitional care ; health care

  9. Acute Charcot arthropathy successfully treated with pamidronate: long-term follow-up. (United States)

    Naqvi, Asghar; Cuchacovich, Raquel; Saketkoo, Lesley; Espinoza, Luis R


    Charcot arthropathy is a relatively rare complication of diabetic neuropathy that may lead to significant discomfort, deformity, and disability, including severe function loss and limb amputation. Initial diagnosis of Charcot arthropathy is often delayed for several weeks, and it is compounded by the lack of specific clinical and laboratory diagnostic parameters. Increasing understanding of the underlying pathogenic events provide strong support for an important role for osteoclastic activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has led to the successful use of bisphosphonates in patients with acute presentation. Herein we report 3 patients with active (acute) Charcot arthropathy secondary to diabetic neuropathy that exhibited an excellent long-term clinical response to intravenous pamidronate therapy.

  10. Workshop on long-term contraceptives. (United States)


    The National Population Council Secretariat (NPCS) of Ghana held a three-day workshop on long-term contraceptives in 1996 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Association of Voluntary Surgical Contraception, and the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services. The session was funded by USAID. The executive director of NPCS, Dr. Richard Turkson, said that the slow rate of contraceptive acceptance was an obstacle to population control despite political concern that rapid population growth exerted an adverse impact on the economy. Only 10% of married women were using long-term or permanent methods of contraception. The hope was voiced that the participants would devise practical and cost-effective education, information, and communication (IEC) strategies to boost the demand for long-term contraceptive methods among sexually active people in Ghana. It was essential that these strategies and activities were based on a realist assessment of the demographic and social situation of the country. The examination of case studies in cultures similar to Ghana would also offer valuable lessons. The factors that hinder the acceptance of long-term methods include misconceptions, myths, and false rumors rooted in a general lack of knowledge among the people. Participants were urged to come up with strategies to counter these problems, and service providers were encouraged to improve their knowledge about contraceptive methods and counseling skills. Male involvement in contraception was also advocated. Statistics show that most Ghanians practicing contraception were using short-term methods such as foaming tablets, pills, and condoms. However, it is necessary to shift to long-term methods such as injectables, implants, and sterilization in order to achieve significant reductions in fertility.

  11. Long-term outcome of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections. (United States)

    Jacobsson, Gunnar; Nasic, Salmir


    Short-term mortality from invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections (ISA) is high. Death rates from 20% to 60% are reported. Long-term outcome has not been investigated. Studies of other critical illnesses have demonstrated incremental health effects that persist after hospital discharge. Several researchers have proposed that evaluation of mortality secondary to sepsis should take place after 1 y. We performed an observational, prospective, population-based study of long-term mortality and recurrence in a cohort of ISA patients during 2 y. One hundred and fifty-seven patients were included. All-cause mortality after 1 y was 37.6% and after 3 y was 45.5%. The multivariate survival analysis explored different independent factors for short-term compared to long-term mortality. Age, comorbidity, and place of acquisition were the determinants of long-term outcome. In contrast, infection-related factors such as disease severity and systolic blood pressure determined short-term mortality. The relapse-reinfection rate was 11.2% (16 in 143 episodes in 127 patients living 4 weeks after inclusion). Predictive factors for relapse-reinfection in a univariate analysis were joint prosthesis (28.6%, p = 0.027), haemodialysis (27.8%, p = 0.017), kidney disease (22.2%, p = 0.015), and healthcare- and nosocomial-related infection (18.3%, p = 0.029). No association to length of antibiotic therapy and relapse-reinfection rate was observed, nor any sex differences. The majority of relapses-reinfections (11 of 16) occurred during the first 11 months after the initial episode. Patients with ISA infections, irrespective of age, suffer a high long-term mortality and recurrence rate.

  12. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.


    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  13. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love. (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L


    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  14. Long-term effects of Bio-Electromagnetic-Energy Regulation therapy on fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Haase, Rocco; Piatkowski, Joachim; Ziemssen, Tjalf


    Electromagnetic-field therapy has beneficial short-term effects in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with major fatigue, but long-term data are lacking. PRIMARY STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term effects of a specific electromagnetic therapy device (Bio-Electromagnetic- Energy-Regulation [BEMER]) on MS-related fatigue, we designed a crossover control of a previously performed randomized controlled trial and a long-term open-label follow-up trial. Crossover and open-label follow-up trials at a single neurological outpatient center. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS who had major fatigue (N = 37 patients). After a previous randomized controlled trial (exposure to low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields for 8 min twice daily or to placebo treatment for 12 wk), a crossover from control to treatment for another 12 weeks, followed by an open label follow-up trial to 3 years, were done. The outcome criteria were the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), German long version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Scale (MSFC), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Patients previously on placebo during the randomized controlled trial experienced significant reductions in fatigue after crossing over to treatment. The MFIS and FSS scores were significantly lower in the open-label group than in the control subjects after follow-up. Participation in the open-label treatment was the strongest predictor of low fatigue outcome after followup. Electromagnetic-field therapy was well tolerated. In this long-term study, a beneficial effect of long-term BEMER therapy on MS fatigue was demonstrated. Electromagnetic-field therapy may be a useful therapeutic modality in MS patients with severe fatigue.

  15. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  16. Fostering Resilience through Art Education for Children with Severe Physical Disabilities (United States)

    Swanson, Sarah


    The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of fostering resilience through art education for students with severe physical disabilities ages 7-21. Recent trends of fostering resilience through art education were explored. Current attitudes towards art education for severely disables individuals were also explored. Of particular interest…

  17. Faculty Perceptions of Expertise among Teachers of Students with Severe Disabilities (United States)

    Ruppar, Andrea; Roberts, Carly; Olson, Amy Jo


    Given recent increased attention to teacher evaluation, it is imperative to understand the expertise teachers need to educate students with severe disabilities. In this grounded theory study, the authors interviewed nine special education faculty who specialize in severe disabilities about the job-related skills and qualities exhibited by expert…

  18. Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability (United States)

    Tsibidaki, Assimina


    Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

  19. Students with Severe, Permanent Disabilities and Their Educational Inclusion in Spain (United States)

    López-Torrijo, Manuel; Mengual-Andrés, Santiago


    This article analyses the educational inclusion of students with severe and permanent disabilities in the different autonomous communities of the Spanish State. After describing the Spanish socio-economic context, a comparative analysis is carried out based on the following indicators: the conception of severe, permanent disabilities; the…

  20. Manual Communication as an Alternative Mode of Language Instruction for Children with Severe Reading Disabilities. (United States)

    Blackburn, Deborah Webb; And Others


    The paper presents a critical review of studies dealing with manual communication training for severely reading disabled students plus the case report of two severely reading disabled adolescents given reading instruction with the aid of fingerspelling and sign language. (Author/CL)

  1. Moderators of the synchrony of change between decreasing depression severity and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C. E.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Sijtsema, J. J.

    Verboom CE, Ormel J, Nolen WA, Penninx BWJH, Sijtsema JJ. Moderators of the synchrony of change between decreasing depression severity and disability. Objective: To identify moderators of synchrony of change between depression severity and disability. Method: From a large cohort study with 2 years

  2. Teaching Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities: The Implementation of Shared Stories (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia D.


    This study investigated the results of employing shared story reading during literacy instruction for participants with severe and multiple disabilities. This intervention was conducted in an effort to improve independent responses made by participants with severe and multiple disabilities within a small group on a task analysis during shared…

  3. Feasibility and Reliability of Two Different Walking Tests in People with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.


    Background: The purpose of this study is to describe feasibility and test-retest reliability of the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD) and an adapted shuttle run test (aSRT) in persons with severe intellectual and sensory (multiple) disabilities. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven persons with severe multiple disabilities, with Gross Motor…

  4. Special Education Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness to Teach Students with Severe Disabilities (United States)

    Ruppar, Andrea L.; Neeper, Lance S.; Dalsen, Jennifer


    In the current study, special education teachers' perceptions of preparedness to implement recommended practices for students with severe disabilities were examined. A vignette-style survey was sent to special education teachers assigned to teach students with severe disabilities. Overall, respondents reported higher perceptions of preparedness to…

  5. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention. (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista


    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities.

  6. Suggestopedia: A Teaching Strategy for the Severely Disabled Reader. (United States)

    James, Bobby M.

    The use of suggestopedia--a technique combining memory expansion and relaxation--as a teaching technique for disabled readers is examined in this paper. The paper first describes the origin of suggestopedia as a therapeutic technique in Bulgaria; it then describes some components of suggestopedia: the creation of physical relaxation, the use of…

  7. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J


    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  8. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K J; Hansen, H P; Tarnow, L


    . Glycaemic control and blood pressure remained nearly unchanged. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In our outpatient clinic, the implementation of RAAS-blocking treatment in type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria successfully reduced long-term progression to overt DN to a rate similar to those previously......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin......-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients on progression of microalbuminuria and development of DN. METHODS: All patients with type 1 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) were identified (n=227...

  9. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P


    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid users. METHODS: Data were obtained from the national representative Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys and The Danish National Prescription Registry. Respondents with no dispensed opioids the year before the survey were followed from 2000 and from 2005 until the end of 2012 (n = 12...... defined as those who were dispensed at least one opioid prescription in six separate months within a year. RESULTS: The incidence of L-TOT was substantially higher in CNCP patients at baseline than in others (9/1000 vs. 2/1000 person-years). Smoking behaviour and dispensed benzodiazepines were...

  10. The dimensional structure of the functional abilities in cases of long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulders Henny PG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health problems that working people suffer can affect their functional abilities and, consequently, can cause a mismatch between those abilities and the demands of the work, leading to sickness absence. A lasting decrease in functional abilities can lead to long-term sickness absence and work disability, with negative consequences for both the worker and the larger society. The objective of this study was to identify common disability characteristics among large groups of long-term sick-listed and disabled employees. Methods As part of the disability benefit entitlement procedure in the Netherlands, an insurance physician assesses the functional abilities of the claimant in a standardised form, known as the List of Functional Abilities (LFA, which consists of six sections containing a total of 106 items. For the purposes of this study, we compiled data from 50,931 assessments. These data were used in an exploratory factor analyses, and the results were then used to construct scales. The stability of dimensional structure of the LFA and of the internal consistency of the scales was studied using data from 80,968 assessments carried out earlier, under a slightly different legislation. Results Three separate factor analyses carried out on the functional abilities of five sections of the LFA resulted in 14 scale variables, and one extra scale variable was based on the items from the sixth section. The resulting scale variables showed Cronbach's Alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.97, with the exception of one of 0.54. The dimensional structure of the LFA in the verification population differed in some aspects. The Cronbach's Alphas of the verification population ranged from 0.58 to 0.97, again with the exception of the same scale: Alpha = 0.49. Conclusion The differences between the dimensional structures of the primary data and the earlier data we found in this study restrict the possibilities to generalise the results. The scales

  11. Learning A Physical Long-term Predictor


    Ehrhardt, Sebastien; Monszpart, Aron; Mitra, Niloy J.; Vedaldi, Andrea


    Evolution has resulted in highly developed abilities in many natural intelligences to quickly and accurately predict mechanical phenomena. Humans have successfully developed laws of physics to abstract and model such mechanical phenomena. In the context of artificial intelligence, a recent line of work has focused on estimating physical parameters based on sensory data and use them in physical simulators to make long-term predictions. In contrast, we investigate the effectiveness of a single ...

  12. Long-term course of opioid addiction. (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas


    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  13. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania


    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  14. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty. (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L


    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  15. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  16. Long-Term Trends in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Modelski


    Full Text Available A revisit, and an extension, of the paper “From Leadership to Organization: The Evolution of Global Politics,” originally presented at the University of Zurich in 1993. Three long-term processes: the evolution of global politics (or political globalization; the rise and decline of world powers (the long cycle of global politics; and the emergence of the world system, have been reviewed and updated.

  17. Improved life satisfaction and pain reduction: follow-up of a 5-week multidisciplinary long-term pain rehabilitation programme. (United States)

    Silvemark, Annika; Källmén, Håkan; Molander, Carl


    Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programmes can improve physical functioning and help patients with long-term pain back to work. Little is known, however, of the extent to which such rehabilitation also affects life satisfaction, pain severity, and disability. We wanted to evaluate if a 5-week rehabilitation programme for patients with long-term pain improves life satisfaction and decreases pain severity and disability. The subjects were 164 patients aged 18-65 years from a pain rehabilitation clinic. Most of them were referred from primary care units. One group of repeated tests was used. Participants were asked to fill out the LiSat-11 checklist and parts of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), including pain severity, at admission, at discharge, and 1 year after the rehabilitation programme. Satisfaction with life as a whole, and six of ten LiSat-11 domains improved during the follow-up, though none reached the levels for the general population. MPI subscales pain severity, pain interference, life control, and affective distress improved, whereas no change was observed for general activity. Patients older than 38 years decreased more in MPI affective distress than younger patients. Gender, pain severity, and work status before the programme did not significantly influence the outcome. The results indicate that multidisciplinary rehabilitation improves life satisfaction, reduces pain severity, and reduces negative psychological, social, and behavioural effects of pain. These outcome variables relate to domains known to be of interest for patients and should therefore be considered for evaluation of rehabilitation programmes for long-term pain.

  18. Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (United States)

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.


    The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

  19. Long-term complications of splenectomy in adult immune thrombocytopenia. (United States)

    Thai, Lan-Huong; Mahévas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Dumas, Guillaume; Khellaf, Mehdi; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand


    The recent large decrease in splenectomy use for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is partly due to still-unsolved questions about long-term safety. We performed the first single-center exposed/unexposed cohort study evaluating the long-term incidence of splenectomy complications in patients with primary ITP. Overall, 83 patients who underwent splenectomy more than 10 years ago (exposed) were matched with 83 nonsplenectomized patients (unexposed) on the date of ITP diagnosis ±5 years, age and gender. After a median follow-up of 192 months (range 0.5-528), 43 patients (52%) achieved overall response after splenectomy. Splenectomized patients experienced more venous thromboembolism (VTE) than controls (n = 13 vs n = 2, P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, splenectomy was an independent risk factor of VTE (hazard ratio = 4.006, P = 0.032 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-14.21]). Splenectomized patients presented more severe infections on long-term follow-up: all required hospitalization, and 5/26 (19%) infections led to severe sepsis or septic shock and to death for 3 cases (none in controls). However, the incidence of malignancy was similar in both groups, as was cardiovascular risk, which appeared to be related more to ITP than splenectomy. Finally, splenectomy did not significantly decrease overall survival. Despite the risk of thrombosis and severe sepsis, splenectomy remains an effective and curative treatment for ITP.

  20. Long-term safety and efficacy of teriflunomide (United States)

    Comi, Giancarlo; Freedman, Mark S.; Miller, Aaron E.; Kappos, Ludwig; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Mares, Jan; Benamor, Myriam; Thangavelu, Karthinathan; Liang, Jinjun; Truffinet, Philippe; Lawson, Victoria J.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.


    Objective: To report safety and efficacy outcomes from up to 9 years of treatment with teriflunomide in an extension (NCT00803049) of the pivotal phase 3 Teriflunomide Multiple Sclerosis Oral (TEMSO) trial (NCT00134563). Methods: A total of 742 patients entered the extension. Teriflunomide-treated patients continued the original dose; those previously receiving placebo were randomized 1:1 to teriflunomide 14 mg or 7 mg. Results: By June 2013, median (maximum) teriflunomide exposure exceeded 190 (325) weeks per patient; 468 patients (63%) remained on treatment. Teriflunomide was well-tolerated with continued exposure. The most common adverse events (AEs) matched those in the core study. In extension year 1, first AEs of transient liver enzyme increases or reversible hair thinning were generally attributable to patients switching from placebo to teriflunomide. Approximately 11% of patients discontinued treatment owing to AEs. Twenty percent of patients experienced serious AEs. There were 3 deaths unrelated to teriflunomide. Soon after the extension started, annualized relapse rates and gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesion counts fell in patients switching from placebo to teriflunomide, remaining low thereafter. Disability remained stable in all treatment groups (median Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤2.5; probability of 12-week disability progression ≤0.48). Conclusions: In the TEMSO extension, safety observations were consistent with the core trial, with no new or unexpected AEs in patients receiving teriflunomide for up to 9 years. Disease activity decreased in patients switching from placebo and remained low in patients continuing on teriflunomide. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that long-term treatment with teriflunomide is well-tolerated and efficacy of teriflunomide is maintained long-term. PMID:26865517

  1. Failure in long-term treatment of chronic pain in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Vrabec-Matković


    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a disease of high variability and its progressive form leads to severe disability. This paper reports on a case of a 31-year-old woman with whiplash neck injury sustained at the age of 11, and subsequent neck pain and numbness of arms. Slow progression of symptoms led to tetraparesis, and C3C4 discherniation along with cervical myelopathy were revealed at the age of 26. Previously, she started a treatment for hypothyroidism. She underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Two additionaloperative treatments were done during the next two years due to lack of clinical improvement. Because of chronic pain the number ofmedications and the number of symptoms have gradually increased. We emphasize the problem of long-term treatment for chronic non- malignant pain and therapeutic dilemma in situations of inadequateanalgesia.

  2. Severity of disability related to road traffic crashes in the Spanish adult population. (United States)

    Palmera-Suárez, Rocío; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Brockhaus, Sarah; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Galán, Iñaki


    The severity of disability related to road traffic crashes has been little studied, despite the significant health and socio-economic impacts that determine victims' quality of life. To estimate the consequences of road traffic crashes on the severity of disability, in terms of individuals' capacity to execute activities and perform tasks in their current environment, using aids. Cross-sectional study conducted on community-dwelling participants in the "2008 National Survey of Disability", with data on 91,846 households having 20,425 disabled persons, 443 of whom had disability due to road traffic crashes. We measured severity using two indicators, i.e., the Capacity (CSI) and Performance (PSI) Severity Indices. The highest proportion of disability was mild (CSI=70.5%; PSI=80.8%), while 7.6% (CSI) and 4.9% (PSI) was severe/complete respectively. The moderate/severe disability rate was 0.6 per thousand on the CSI, decreasing to 0.4 per thousand on the PSI. No differences were observed by age or sex. Moderate/severely disabled persons had a fourfold higher probability of being retired or unfit for work. Mental and nervous system impairments were more closely related to moderate/severe/complete problems of capacity and performance (pdisability for carrying out general tasks and demands, and interpersonal interactions and relationships (pdisability. Moderate/severe disability is associated with lower work capacity, greater functional dependence, and increased need of aids, moving home and family support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling the disability severity score in motor insurance claims: an application to the Spanish case


    Miguel Santolino; Jean-Philippe Boucher


    Bodily injury claims have the greatest impact on the claim costs of motor insurance companies. The disability severity of motor claims is assessed in numerous European countries by means of score systems. In this paper a zero inflated generalized Poisson regression model is implemented to estimate the disability severity score of victims in-volved in motor accidents on Spanish roads. We show that the injury severity estimates may be automatically converted into financial terms by insurers at ...

  4. Nature-assisted rehabilitation for reactions to severe stress and/or depression in a rehabilitation garden: long-term follow-up including comparisons with a matched population-based reference cohort. (United States)

    Währborg, Peter; Petersson, Ingemar F; Grahn, Patrik


    To determine the effect of a nature-assisted rehabilitation programme in a group of patients with reactions to severe stress and/or mild to moderate depression. Changes in sick-leave status and healthcare consumption in these patients were compared with those in a matched population-based reference cohort (treatment as usual). Retrospective cohort study with a matched reference group from the general population. A total of 118 participants referred to a nature-assisted rehabilitation programme, and 678 controls recruited from the Skåne Health Care Register. For both groups, information on sick leave was extracted from the National Social Insurance Register and on healthcare consumption data from the Skåne Health Care Register. The interventional rehabilitation programme was designed as a multimodal programme involving professionals from horticulture and medicine. The programme was conducted in a rehabilitation garden, designed especially for this purpose. A significant reduction in healthcare consumption was noted among participants in the programme compared with the reference population. The main changes were a reduction in outpatient visits to primary healthcare and a reduction in inpatient psychiatric care. No significant difference in sick-leave status was found. A structured, nature-based rehabilitation programme for patients with reactions to severe stress and/or depression could be beneficial, as reflected in reduced healthcare consumption.

  5. Long-term efficacy and safety of transanal irrigation in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Passananti, V; Wilton, A; Preziosi, G; Storrie, J B; Emmanuel, A


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological disease in young adults. A majority of patients experience bowel dysfunction, reporting a wide spectrum of bowel symptoms that significantly negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Transanal irrigation (TAI) is a method of managing such bowel symptoms. We aimed to investigate long-term efficacy of TAI, to measure health status-related quality of life and identify factors predictive of TAI outcome. Forty-nine consecutive MS patients (37 female; mean age 51, range 26-80) were studied. We investigated predominant symptoms, reason for beginning TAI and medical comorbidity. All patients underwent anorectal physiology testing. They completed Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction and EQ-5D questionnaires at baseline and annual follow-up. Mean follow-up was 40 months, at which there was 55% rate of continuation of TAI. Severe bowel dysfunction was present in 47% at baseline, falling to 18%. The EQ-5D scores at latest follow-up were not statistically significant, but 42% had improved visual analog scores. The only predictive factor for successful therapy was impaired anal electrosensitivity (p = 0.008). Long-term continuation of TAI, with improved bowel symptomatology, is seen in the majority of patients. The EQ-5D is insufficiently sensitive to show change in MS patients that using TAI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Quantitative MRI predicts long-term structural and functional outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Immonen, Riikka J; Kharatishvili, Irina; Gröhn, Heidi; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli H J


    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the initial impact causes both immediate damage and also launches a cascade of slowly progressive secondary damage. The chronic outcome disabilities vary greatly and can occur several years later. The aim of this study was to find predictive factors for the long-term outcome using multiparametric, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology and a clinically relevant rat model of fluid percussion induced TBI. Our results demonstrated that the multiparametric quantitative MRI (T(2), T(1rho), trace of the diffusion tensor D(av), the extent of hyperintense lesion and intracerebral hemorrhage) acquired during acute and sub acute phases 3 h, 3 days, 9 days and 23 days post-injury has potential to predict the functional and histopathological outcome 6 to 12 months later. The acute D(av) changes in the ipsilateral hippocampus correlated with the chronic spatial learning and memory impairment evaluated using the Morris water maze (phelp to predict the long-term outcome after experimental TBI.

  7. Long-term motor, cognitive and behavioral outcome of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (United States)

    Shilo, Smadar; Michaeli, Orli; Shahar, Eli; Ravid, Sarit


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term motor and neurocognitive outcome of children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and to identify prognostic risk factors. The study included 43 children who were hospitalized due to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis during the years 2002-2012. The children underwent full neurological examinations, along with comprehensive neurocognitive and behavioral assessments. Twenty-six (61%) children had different degrees of neurological sequelae after a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.5 years. The most common residual impairment included attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (44%), behavioral problems (32%), and learning disabilities (21%). Five (12%) children had a full-scale IQ of 70 or less, compared to 2.2% in the general population. Neurocognitive sequelae were found even in children who were considered as fully recovered at the time of discharge. Risk factors for severe neurological sequelae were older age at diagnosis and male gender. We suggest neuropsychological testing and long-term follow-up for all children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, even in the absence of neurological deficits at discharge. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biofilm-based infections in long-term care facilities. (United States)

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia


    The recent trend in the early admittance to long-term care facilities (LTCFs) of severely injured patients transferred from general hospitals has given a new dynamic to the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, including biofilm-based infections related to the implant of urinary and intravascular catheters, and the onset of pressure ulcers. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections lead in most of the surveys on LTCFs, approximately 80% of urinary tract infections in these settings being due to the short- or long-term insertion of a urinary catheter. Furthermore, the implantation of intravascular catheters is often responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections caused by the development of an intraluminal biofilm. Pressure ulcers, frequently occurring in bedridden patients admitted to LTCFs, are also susceptible to infection by biofilm-growing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, the biofilm formation on the wound being the main reason for its delayed healing.

  9. Methods for Long-Term Stable Storage of Colletotrichum Species. (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Saijo, Yusuke


    In this chapter we describe methods for long-term preservation of ascomycete genus Colletotrichum species. Colletotrichum species employ a hemibiotrophic infection strategy and cause clear anthracnose diseases on various host plants including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Their infection proceeds in a highly synchronized manner, which is helpful for the dissection of the fungus-plant interactions at the molecular level. Gene engineering methods, including efficient protocols for targeted gene disruption, and whole-genome sequences are available for several Colletotrichum species. Thus, these pathogens provide us with model systems to address the molecular mechanisms underlying hemibiotrophic fungal pathogenicity.We describe how to prepare glycerol stocks or filter paper fungal stocks for long-term preservation of Colletotrichum species. These two methods are easily handled, and provide a stable preservation for at least a few years.

  10. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten


    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  11. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    , drug addiction) among adolescents from 14 to 27 years old with alcoholic parents. Hospitalisation of adolescents because of psychological disturbances is also seen relatively more often among cases where the parents are alcohol abusers. Similarly, an increased risk of teenage motherhood and youth...... unemployment is seen in families with evidence of alcohol abuse. In some respects mothers who are alcohol abusers seem to have a different effect on their children than fathers who are alcohol abusers. So, for example, there is a higher occurence of violence-related crimes and convictions for sexual offences......Does parents' long-term abuse of alcohol have an impact on children during their formative years? Yes, several long-term consequences for the children result from this study. The study ascertained an increased mortality and high occurrence of self-destructive behavioural forms (attempted suicide...

  12. Meeting the Needs of Students with Severe Disabilities: Issues and Practices in Teacher Education. (United States)

    Ryndak, Diane L.; Kennedy, Craig H.


    This introductory article highlights concerns faced by teacher education programs that prepare teachers to support students with severe disabilities in today's schools. Teacher shortages and the challenge of maintaining a teacher education program in a low incidence disabilities area are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. Special Education Teachers' Perceptions for Teaching Self-Determination to Students with Severe Disabilities (United States)

    Aldosiry, Norah


    Recognizing that many students with disabilities, including students with severe disabilities, lack self-determined behavior and the impact it has on students school and postschool outcomes. Educators and researchers are increasingly advocating to better equip those students with the needed skills and knowledge to enable them to be self-determined…

  14. The role of attention in the affective life of people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study,

  15. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out (United States)

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa


    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  16. Participation in Community and Political Life of Persons with Severe Disabilities (United States)

    Puumalainen, Jouni


    Participation as a citizen, that is, engaging in social, political, and governmental life, has been rarely seen as an important domain when studying social participation of disabled persons. The purpose of this study was to depict the participation in community and political life of persons with severe or multiple disabilities and to determine…

  17. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Network Interventions for High School Students with Severe Disabilities (United States)

    Asmus, Jennifer M.; Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan S.; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory L.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie


    This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of peer network interventions to improve the social connections of 47 high school students with severe disabilities. School staff invited, trained, and supported 192 peers without disabilities to participate in individualized social groups that met throughout one semester. Compared to…

  18. Engaging Preschool Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities Using Books and iPad Apps (United States)

    Kemp, Coral; Stephenson, Jennifer; Cooper, Megan; Hodge, Kerry


    A single subject multiple treatment design was used to compare the engagement of 3 preschool children with severe and multiple disabilities, using 2 different stimuli: picture books and iPad apps matched for theme and content. Two of the 3 children had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in addition to their other disabilities. Sessions for each…

  19. Clinical similarity of the biosimilar ABP 501 compared with adalimumab after single transition: long-term results from a randomized controlled, double-blind, 52-week, phase III trial in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. (United States)

    Papp, K; Bachelez, H; Costanzo, A; Foley, P; Gooderham, M; Kaur, P; Philipp, S; Spelman, L; Zhang, N; Strober, B


    ABP 501, a U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved biosimilar, is highly similar to adalimumab in structure, function and pharmacokinetics. To demonstrate similarity in efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of ABP 501 vs. adalimumab for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis (clinical trial: NCT01970488). Patients were randomized (1 : 1) to receive ABP 501 or adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. At week 16, patients with ≥ 50% improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score were eligible to continue to week 52. Patients receiving ABP 501 continued; adalimumab patients were rerandomized (1 : 1) to continue adalimumab or undergo a single transition to ABP 501. Key efficacy assessments included percentage PASI improvement from baseline, PASI responders and mean change in affected body surface area from baseline to weeks 16, 32 and 50. Safety was monitored via adverse events (AEs) and antidrug antibodies (ADAs) were assessed. A total of 308 patients were rerandomized at week 16 (ABP 501/ABP 501, n = 152; adalimumab/adalimumab, n = 79; adalimumab/ABP 501, n = 77). PASI percentage improvements from baseline were similar across groups for weeks 16, 32 and 50 (range: 85·8-88·2%), with no significant differences detected across groups in percentages of PASI 50, 75, 90 and 100 responders. Changes from baseline in percentage body surface area affected were similar across groups and time points. No new safety signals were detected. AEs were balanced between groups. Percentages of patients with binding and neutralizing ADAs were similar across treatments. ABP 501 and adalimumab have similar clinical efficacy, safety and immunogenicity profiles over 52 weeks, including after single transition, in this patient population. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Long-term prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome not determined by treatment options? (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yaqian; Ma, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Chunkui; Zhang, Hong-Liang


    Background The long-term follow-up system for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is not well established worldwide. In our study, the preliminary data of the long-term prognosis of GBS are collected to explore the prognosis of GBS and the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. Methods The follow-up data of 186 patients with GBS admitted from 2003 to 2013 were collected in 2015 via phone interview. The GBS disability scale score was ranked by clinician to evaluate the long-term prognosis. The clinical data during the acute phase were also collected. Results The mortality rates were 2.15%, 5.45% and 7.89% at discharge, 2-5 years and 6-10 years after disease, respectively. The GBS disability scale score improved dramatically from discharge to 2-12 years after the acute phase. The self-limitation, the spontaneous recovery of disease, occurred both at acute phase and 2-5 years after discharge. Comparisons between IVIg-treated patients and GBS patients who only received supportive care revealed no significant difference of long-term prognosis. Conclusion The long-term prognosis of GBS appears not to be influenced by treatment options. The long-term improvement of IVIg treated-patients might be due to the self-limitation of GBS per se instead of the IVIg treatment.

  1. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support. (b...

  2. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo


    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollu...

  3. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.


    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  4. Subregion-Specific p300 Conditional Knock-Out Mice Exhibit Long-Term Memory Impairments (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Estevez, Marcel A.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Grimes, Shannon; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted


    Histone acetylation plays a critical role during long-term memory formation. Several studies have demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CBP is required during long-term memory formation, but the involvement of other HAT proteins has not been extensively investigated. The HATs CBP and p300 have at least 400 described interacting…

  5. Health in the long-term unemployed. (United States)

    Herbig, Britta; Dragano, Nico; Angerer, Peter


    Although the unemployment rate in Germany is currently low, more than a million persons in the country have been out of work for more than a year. In this review article, we address these persons' state of health, the effect of unemployment on health, and the influence of macroeconomic factors and social policy. This article is based on a selective review of pertinent literature in the PubMed database. Large-scale meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that the long-term unemployed have an at least twofold risk of mental illness, particularly depression and anxiety disorders, compared to employed persons. Their mortality is 1.6-fold higher. Unemployment seems to be not only an effect of illness, but also a cause of it (i.e., there is evidence for both selection and causality). Learned helplessness is an important psychological explanatory model. Limited evidence indicates that the long-term unemployed have a moderately elevated prevalence of alcoholism; unemployment can be both an effect and a cause of alcoholism. Unemployment also seems to be associated with higher risks of heart attack and stroke. Cancer can lead to loss of employment. The link between unemployment and poorer health is strengthened by macroeconomic crises and weakened by governmental social interventions. The long-term unemployed carry a markedly higher burden of disease, particularly mental illness, than employed persons and those who are unemployed only for a short time. The burden of disease increases with the duration of unemployment. The vicious circle of unemployment and disease can be broken only by the combined effects of generally available health care, special health-promoting measures among the unemployed, and social interventions.

  6. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris


    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant’s recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation. PMID:26046770

  7. Long-Term Scenario of International Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to long-term scenario building in international relations, based on the analysis of changes in the dialectics of war and peace. Long-term trends in the development of forms and manifestations of violence in international relations, as well as the methods and approaches to its control and management determines the development of international relations. In solving the methodological problem of long-term forecasting, it must be as-sumed that the mere mechanical extrapolation even in the medium term has no meaning. The key current trend in terms of political violence is a blurring of the distinction between war and peace. This trend can be described as networking of war. Network war theory is a model of military strategy in the context of postmodernism. As a model of the new economy based on information and high technologies demonstrates its superiority over traditional capitalist and socialist models of the industrial age, and network war claims qualitative superiority over previous strategic concept of the industrial era. In modern political networks violent and non-violent instruments of influence co-exist in undifferentiated form. Network politics becomes total. Victory in the network war is the fact that the opponent should become part of the network. Since the network is formed around shared values, the network war can be reduced to a war of values. The clash between the networks will most likely wear un-compromising nature, so that in the end there will be only one network. Uncompromising network war is like the uncompromising religious wars and clashes of civilizations.

  8. Long-term EEG in children. (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D


    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Long-term weather predictability: Ural case study (United States)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Shopin, Sergey


    The accuracy of the state-of-the-art long-term meteorological forecast (at the seasonal level) is still low. Here it is presented approach (RAMES method) realizing different forecasting methodology. It provides prediction horizon of up to 19-22 years under equal probabilities of determination of parameters in every analyzed period [1]. Basic statements of the method are the following. 1. Long-term forecast on the basis of numerical modeling of the global meteorological process is principally impossible. Extension of long-term prediction horizon could be obtained only by the revealing and using a periodicity of meteorological situations at one point of observation. 2. Conventional calendar is unsuitable for generalization of meteorological data and revealing of cyclicity of meteorological processes. RAMES method uses natural time intervals: one day, synodic month and one year. It was developed a set of special calendars using these natural periods and the Metonic cycle. 3. Long-term time series of meteorological data is not a uniform universal set, it is a sequence of 28 universal sets appropriately superseding each other in time. The specifics of the method are: 1. Usage of the original research toolkit consisting of - a set of calendars based on the Metonic cycle; - a set of charts (coordinate systems) for the construction of sequence diagrams (of daily variability of a meteorological parameter during the analyzed year; of daily variability of a meteorological parameter using long-term dynamical time series of periods-analogues; of monthly and yearly variability of accumulated value of meteorological parameter). 2. Identification and usage of new virtual meteorological objects having several degrees of generalization appropriately located in the used coordinate systems. 3. All calculations are integrated into the single technological scheme providing comparison and mutual verification of calculation results. During the prolonged testing in the Ural region, it was

  10. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li-dars......-ters pertaining in the different calibration periods. This is supported by sliding-window analyses of one lidar at one location where the same order of variation is observed as between pre-service and post-service calibrations....

  11. Transverse dimension and long-term stability. (United States)

    Vanarsdall, R L


    This article emphasizes the critical importance of the skeletal differential between the width of the maxilla and the width of the mandible. Undiagnosed transverse discrepancy leads to adverse periodontal response, unstable dental camouflage, and less than optimal dentofacial esthetics. Hundreds of adult retreatment patients corrected for significant maxillary transverse deficiency using surgically assisted maxillary expansion (similar to osseous distraction) has produced excellent stability. Eliciting tooth movement for children (orthopedics, lip bumper, Cetlin plate) in all three planes of space by muscles, eruption, and growth, develops the broader arch form (without the mechanical forces of fixed or removable appliances) and has also demonstrated impressive long term stability.

  12. Long-term population studies of seabirds. (United States)

    Wooller, R D; Bradley, J S; Croxall, J P


    Long-term studies of seabirds, some now 30-40 years old, have begun to reveal significant age-related changes in the survival and reproduction o f these long-lived animals. Evidence for density-dependent regulation of seabird numbers, however, remains sparse whereas unpredictable, disastrous breeding years may be an important influence. Critical evaluation will require better data on (1) the extent of movements of seabirds between colonies, (2) the characteristics of those individuals that contribute disproportionately to the next generation, and (3) the importance of year and/or cohort effects on population processes. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  14. Long-term results of trismus release in noma patients. (United States)

    Bisseling, P; Bruhn, J; Erdsach, T; Ettema, A M; Sautter, R; Bergé, S J


    Noma, also known as cancrum oris, is an infectious disease that results in a loss of orofacial tissue, due to gangrene of soft and bony tissue. It is especially seen in young children in the sub-Saharan region. Among the sequelae of patients who survive noma, trismus is one of the most disabling. This retrospective research studied the long-term results of trismus release in noma patients. Thirty-six patients could be traced in the villages and were included in the study. The mean mouth opening in this group was 10.3mm (95% CI: 7.0; 13.6mm) and the mean period after discharge from hospital was 43 months. Better mouth opening was observed in patients who continued physiotherapy after discharge, were older, and those with a 'soft' (vs. 'hard') inner and outer cheek on palpation. The result of trismus release in noma patients in the long term was extremely poor in this study. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcomes following radial polydactyly reconstruction. (United States)

    Stutz, Chris; Mills, Janith; Wheeler, Lesley; Ezaki, Marybeth; Oishi, Scott


    To report long-term outcomes (> 10 y) after radial polydactyly reconstruction. We evaluated 43 surgically reconstructed thumbs in 41 patients with radial polydactyly whom we had observed for more than 10 years. The study group included 12 Flatt type II, 8 type III, 17 type IV, and 6 type V. The average age of surgery was 1 year and mean follow-up was 17 years. Objective outcome values and validated patient-oriented outcome evaluations were obtained. No early postsurgical complications were encountered. Eight patients had 10 revision procedures at an average of 8 years after the initial procedure. Five patients had interphalangeal joint arthrodesis, all for angulation with accompanying pain. The average Tada score was 4.1. Lateral, tripod, and tip pinch strengths were 96%, 86%, and 92%, respectively, of the unaffected side. As a group, the treated thumbs had significantly weaker tip and tripod pinch strengths than the untreated thumbs. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 4.5 and the average Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory score was 87 when administered to both the patient and the parent. Long-term results after surgical reconstruction for radial polydactyly were excellent but the revision rate trended upward over time despite maintenance of favorable scores on the objective outcome measures used. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck


    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  18. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation. (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent


    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  19. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M


    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  20. Long-term outcomes of thalidomide in refractory Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Gerich, M E; Yoon, J L; Targan, S R; Ippoliti, A F; Vasiliauskas, E A


    Several open-label and retrospective studies have indicated that thalidomide may be beneficial in patients with refractory Crohn's disease (CD). To report our long-term experience with the use of thalidomide for adults with refractory Crohn's disease. We conducted a retrospective study of long-term clinical and safety outcomes among adults treated with thalidomide for refractory Crohn's disease. Response was defined as a clinician's assessment of improvement after at least 7 days treatment of one or more of the following: bowel movement frequency, fistula output, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, extraintestinal manifestations, or well-being. Remission required all of the following: thalidomide for a median of 4.4 months and followed up for a median of 58 months. Clinical response and remission rates were 54% and 19%, respectively. About 40% of patients were able to stop steroids. Response rates were higher for those treated with more than 50 mg/day (85%) than for those treated with a maximum of 50 mg/day (40%; P = 0.01). An adverse event occurred in 68% of patients. Approximately one-third of patients (38%) experienced neuropathy. Thalidomide appears to be safe and effective in some patients with refractory Crohn's disease. Although side effects may limit long-term use, thalidomide has potential to induce significant clinical responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Eimori

    Full Text Available Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism.This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline.The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3, and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years.Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  2. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine


    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  3. Assessing body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rieken (Rob)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are at increased risk of developing malnutrition. While in recent years increased use of gastrostomy feeding has turned this trend, children receiving tube feeding run the opposite risk of

  4. Feasibility of bioelectrical impedance analysis in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga-Top, A. M.; Waninge, A.; van der Schans, C. P.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.


    Background: Body composition measurements provide important information about physical fitness and nutritional status. People with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (SIVD) have an increased risk for altered body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been evidenced as a

  5. Long-term functioning following whiplash injury: the role of social support and personality traits. (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Bernheim, Jan


    Transition from acute whiplash injury to either recovery or chronicity and the development of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) remains a challenging issue for researchers and clinicians. The roles of social support and personality traits in long-term functioning following whiplash have not been studied concomitantly. The present study aimed to examine whether social support and personality traits are related to long-term functioning following whiplash. One hundred forty-three subjects, who had experienced a whiplash injury in a traffic accident 10-26 months before the study took place, participated. The initial diagnoses were a 'sprain of the neck' (ICD-9 code 847.0); only the outcome of grades I-III acute WAD was studied. Long-term functioning was considered within the biopsychosocial model: it was expressed in terms of disability, functional status, quality of life and psychological well-being. Participants filled out a set of questionnaires to measure the long-term functioning parameters (i.e. the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being and the Symptom Checklist-90) and potential determinants of long-term functioning (the Dutch Personality Questionnaire and the Social Support List). The results suggest that social support (especially the discrepancies dimension of social support) and personality traits (i.e. inadequacy, self-satisfaction and resentment) are related to long-term functioning following whiplash injury (Spearman rho varied between 0.32 and 0.57; p personality traits in relation to long-term functioning following whiplash. For such studies, a broad view of long-term functioning within the biopsychological model should be applied.

  6. Murine model of long-term obstructive jaundice. (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki


    With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of three murine models of obstructive jaundice. C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Overall, 70% (7 of 10) of tCL mice died by day 7, whereas majority 67% (10 of 15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. A total of 19% (3 of 16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 d after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension and severe fibrosis by day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice, but long-term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unconjugated bilirubin exposure impairs hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jaundice is one of the most common problems encountered in newborn infants, due to immaturity of hepatic conjugation and transport processes for bilirubin. Although the majority of neonatal jaundice is benign, some neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. Accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB in selected brain regions may result in temporary or permanent impairments of auditory, motor, or cognitive function; however, the molecular mechanisms by which UCB elicits such neurotoxicity are still poorly understood. The present study is undertaken to investigate whether prolonged exposure of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to UCB alters the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using electrophysiological recording techniques, we find that exposure of hippocampal slice cultures to clinically relevant concentrations of UCB for 24 or 48 h results in an impairment of CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD induction in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hippocampal slice cultures stimulated with UCB show no changes in the secretion profiles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or the propidium ioide uptake. UCB treatment produced a significant decrease in the levels of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors through a calpain-mediated proteolytic cleavage mechanism. Pretreatment of the hippocampal slice cultures with NMDA receptor antagonist or calpain inhibitors effectively prevented the UCB-induced impairment of LTP and LTD. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage of NMDA receptor subunits by calpain may play a critical role in mediating the UCB-induced impairment of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. These observations provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying UCB

  8. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain. (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z


    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance.

  9. Long-term impact after fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome, case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rougé A


    Full Text Available Alain Rougé,1,2 Jérémie Lemarié,1,2 Sébastien Gibot,1,2 Pierre Edouard Bollaert1,2 1Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Central, University Hospital of Nancy, Nancy, France; 2INSERM UMRS-1116, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France Abstract: A 47-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit a few hours after ­presenting to emergency department with acute diplopia and dysphonia. Swallowing disorders and respiratory muscular weakness quickly required invasive ventilation. On day 3, the patient was in a “brain-death”-like state with deep coma and absent brainstem reflexes. Electroencephalogram ruled out brain death diagnosis as a paradoxical sleep trace was recorded. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electrophysiologic studies, and a recent history of diarrhea led to the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni-related fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS mimicking brain death. The outcome was favorable after long Intensive Care Unit and inpatient rehabilitation stays, despite persistent disability at 9 years follow-up. This case and the associated literature review of 34 previously reported fulminant GBS patients emphasize the importance of electrophysiological investigations during clinical brain-death states with no definite cause. Fulminant GBS has a worse outcome than “standard” GBS with higher rates of severe disability (about 50%. Long-term physiotherapy and specific rehabilitation programs appear essential to improve recovery. Keywords: fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome, brain death, electroencephalogram, C. jejuni, long-term follow 

  10. Design and Development of One-Switch Video Games for Children with Severe Motor Disabilities


    Aced López, Sebastián; Corno, Fulvio; Russis, Luigi De


    Video games are not just played for fun; they have become a handy instrument for the cognitive, emotional, and social development of children. However, several barriers prevent many children with disabilities from playing action-oriented video games, alone or with their peers. In particular, children with severe motor disabilities, who rely on one-switch interaction for accessing electronic devices, find fast-paced games that require rapid decision-making and timely responses, completely unpl...

  11. Endurance training is feasible in severely disabled patients with progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk, Ag; Næsby, M; Lützen, Karin


    This study tested whether upper-body endurance training (ET) is feasible and can be performed at sufficient intensity to induce cardiovascular adaptations in severely disabled patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven progressive MS patients (6.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 8.0) scheduled for a four...... was seen for VO2peak (p = 0.06). ET is feasible in severely disabled patients with progressive MS and it can probably be performed at sufficient intensity to induce cardiovascular adaptations....

  12. Integrating contributory elder-care benefits with voluntary long-term care insurance programs. (United States)

    O'Toole, Robert E


    Caregiving for aging parents or other disabled family members takes a heavy toll on work and family life, as well as the company bottom line. Research reveals that the two primary responses to elder-care issues in the workplace are employer-paid consultation and referral programs, and employee-paid long-term care insurance (LTCI) plans.

  13. Prevalence of long-term mental health care utilization in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D; Sytema, S; vanBusschbach, J; Schreurs, M; Kroon, H; Driessen, G


    The objective of this study is to estimate the proportion of the population in The Netherlands who receive long-term care for chronic psychiatric problems. The care needs of this population are assessed in terms both of diagnosis and of specific impairments and disabilities. Data from three surveys

  14. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P


    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long...... defined as those who were dispensed at least one opioid prescription in six separate months within a year. RESULTS: The incidence of L-TOT was substantially higher in CNCP patients at baseline than in others (9/1000 vs. 2/1000 person-years). Smoking behaviour and dispensed benzodiazepines were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  15. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy]. (United States)

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C


    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  16. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  17. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie


    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  18. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington


    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  19. Globalization: a long-term view. (United States)

    Suter, Keith


    The process of globalization is now the most important development in world affairs. It is the end of the world order dominated by nation states (or countries) and the beginning of an era in which national governments have to share their power with other entities, most notably transnational corporations (TNCs), inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The process has to be viewed in its long-term historical evolution. Unfortunately, the process was seen as a technical international law issue by most people so there was a lack of attention to ensuring that the process worked for the benefit of all of humanity. The current (belated) controversy, such as the 1999 Battle of Seattle, could be a window of opportunity for NGOs to encourage a more informed public debate on how to create proposals for a better world.

  20. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannink Jean-Luc


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. Methods A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley, an inbred crop. On the basis of marker data on 192 breeding lines from an elite six-row spring barley program, stochastic simulation was used to explore the effects of large or small initial training populations with heritabilities of 0.2 or 0.5, applying GS before or after phenotyping, and applying additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles. Genomic predictions were from ridge regression or a Bayesian analysis. Results Assuming that applying GS prior to phenotyping shortened breeding cycle time by 50%, this practice strongly increased early selection gains but also caused the loss of many favorable QTL alleles, leading to loss of genetic variance, loss of GS accuracy, and a low selection plateau. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles, however, allowed GS to increase their frequency earlier on, causing an initial increase in genetic variance. This dynamic led to higher long-term gain while mitigating losses in short-term gain. Weighted GS also increased the maintenance of marker polymorphism, ensuring that QTL-marker linkage disequilibrium was higher than in unweighted GS. Conclusions Losing favorable alleles that are in weak linkage disequilibrium with markers is perhaps inevitable when using GS. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable alleles, however, may reduce the rate of loss of such alleles to below that of phenotypic selection. Applying such weights at the beginning of GS implementation is important.

  1. Comprehensive Literacy Instruction, Interprofessional Collaborative Practice, and Students With Severe Disabilities. (United States)

    Erickson, Karen A


    The purpose of this clinical focus article is to briefly describe comprehensive emergent and conventional literacy instruction for students with severe disabilities. Specific attention is given to interprofessional collaborative practice and the roles of team members in planning and delivering instruction. A rationale for the delivery of comprehensive instruction that balances skill and meaning emphases is provided with reference to new college and career readiness standards, the literature on literacy acquisition for students without disabilities, and, when possible, the literature on literacy acquisition for students with severe disabilities. Specific instructional approaches are presented to demonstrate how teams can actively engage students with severe disabilities in instruction that is collaborative, participatory, and interactive. Successful provision of comprehensive literacy instruction that allows students with severe disabilities to achieve conventional literacy takes time and the efforts of a collaborative interprofessional team. Speech-language pathologists play a critical role on these teams as they ensure that students with severe disabilities have the language and communication supports they need to be successful.

  2. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss


    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  3. Exploring assistive technology and post-school outcomes for students with severe disabilities. (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C; Flanagan, Sara M


    This study sought to understand the extent to which students with severe disabilities receive assistive technology in school and out-of-school, and the relationship between receipt of assistive technology in school and post-school outcomes for these students. This study was a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) from the USA. To analyze the data in this correlational study, researchers conducted frequency distributions, Chi Square Tests of Associations, significance tests and logistic regressions. The main results suggest (a) receipt of assistive technology in school varied greatly by disability identification; (b) receipt of assistive technology post-school also varied by disability identification, but receipt was generally lower; and (c) few statistically significant post-school outcome differences existed between students who received assistive technology and those who did not. An under-utilization of assistive technology exists in practice in the USA for students with severe disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation An under-utilization of assistive technology for secondary students and adults with severe disabilities likely exists. A need exists for improved collaboration between professionals in rehabilitation and professionals in schools to ensure continuation of needed services or aids, such as assistive technology. Additional research is needed to better understand the adult life (or post-school) outcomes of individuals with severe disabilities, factors from PK-12 schooling or post-school services that positively and negative impact those outcomes.

  4. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.


    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed.

  5. Including students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L; Miracle, Sally; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy


    We conducted an online statewide survey of teachers of students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities to determine the extent to which their students were included in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. For the 252 teacher respondents who indicated that their primary caseload consisted of students with significant intellectual disabilities, we report the numbers of students participating in school and community activities and the primary type of support students required to participate in each activity. Finally, we identify implications for practitioners who want to increase the participation of students with significant disabilities in school and community activities.

  6. Recovery patterns and long term prognosis for axonal Guillain–Barré syndrome


    Hiraga, A; Mori, M; Ogawara, K.; Kojima, S.; Kanesaka, T; Misawa, S.; Hattori, T.; Kuwabara, S


    Background: Little is known about the long term prognosis for patients the severe acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) form of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), unlike those with acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP).

  7. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter


    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  8. Patent Citations and Financial Analysts’ Long-Term Growth Forecasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jincheol Bae; Wonchang Hur; Jaehong Lee; Jaimin Goh


    ...’ innovation outputs, on financial analysts’ long-term growth forecasts for firms. We find that financial analysts are more likely to issue long-term forecasts for firms with higher patent citations...

  9. Cochlear pathology of long term neomycin induced deafness in cats. (United States)

    Leake, P A; Hradek, G T


    The long term sequelae of hair cell destruction consequent from administration of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic, neomycin sulfate, were evaluated in histological and ultrastructural studies of cochlear morphology in cats. Complete hearing loss, as defined by an absence of brainstem evoked responses to click stimulation at 120 dB peak SPL, was induced by intramuscular injections of neomycin at 50 mg/kg body weight/day, and cochlear pathology was studied at 6 months and 1, 3 and 4 years following onset of profound deafness. In these long term ototoxicity cases the organ of Corti was collapsed and resorbed over the basal one-quarter to three-quarters of the cochlear spiral, depending on duration of deafness. Significant progressive reduction in the spiral ganglion cell population and sequential degenerative alterations in the remaining neurons were observed with increasing time elapsed after induced hearing loss. The sequence of pathological alterations in spiral ganglion neurons appeared to be: a) swelling, demyelination and degeneration of the peripheral dendrites; b) demyelination and shrinkage of the cell soma with preservation of the central axon; and c) demyelination of the central axon and degeneration of the cell perikaryon. In apical cochlear regions, severe degeneration of the spiral ganglion preceded the collapse of the tunnel of Corti and regional loss of pillar cells. Residual populations of spiral ganglion neurons were as low as 1-2% of the normal values in the most severely degenerated cochleae in the series. Light microscopic and ultrastructural studies revealed a selective survival advantage for the unmyelinated type II neurons over the myelinated type I neurons with these long survival periods. The prolonged time course and atrophic nature of these pathological alterations suggests that degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons progresses continuously following drug-induced insult to the cochlea. Some possible factors contributing to this long

  10. Physical rehabilitation for older people in long-term care. (United States)

    Crocker, Tom; Forster, Anne; Young, John; Brown, Lesley; Ozer, Seline; Smith, Jane; Green, John; Hardy, Jo; Burns, Eileen; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Darren C


    investigated adverse effects, including death, morbidity, and other events. We synthesised estimates of the primary outcome with the mean difference; mortality data, with the risk ratio; and secondary outcomes, using vote-counting. We included 67 trials, involving 6300 participants. Fifty-one trials reported the primary outcome, a measure of activities of daily living. The estimated effects of physical rehabilitation at the end of the intervention were an improvement in Barthel Index (0 to 100) scores of six points (95% confidence interval (CI) 2 to 11, P = 0.008, seven studies), Functional Independence Measure (0 to 126) scores of five points (95% CI -2 to 12, P = 0.1, four studies), Rivermead Mobility Index (0 to 15) scores of 0.7 points (95% CI 0.04 to 1.3, P = 0.04, three studies), Timed Up and Go test of five seconds (95% CI -9 to 0, P = 0.05, seven studies), and walking speed of 0.03 m/s (95% CI -0.01 to 0.07, P = 0.1, nine studies). Synthesis of secondary outcomes suggested there is a beneficial effect on strength, flexibility, and balance, and possibly on mood, although the size of any such effect is unknown. There was insufficient evidence of the effect on other secondary outcomes. Based on 25 studies (3721 participants), rehabilitation does not increase risk of mortality in this population (risk ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.13). However, it is possible bias has resulted in overestimation of the positive effects of physical rehabilitation. Physical rehabilitation for long-term care residents may be effective, reducing disability with few adverse events, but effects appear quite small and may not be applicable to all residents. There is insufficient evidence to reach conclusions about improvement sustainability, cost-effectiveness, or which interventions are most appropriate. Future large-scale trials are justified.

  11. The influence of coping styles on long-term employment in multiple sclerosis: A prospective study. (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Skår, Anne Br; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Assmus, Jorg; Farbu, Elisabeth; Lode, Kirsten; Nyland, Harald I; Smedal, Tori; Myhr, Kjell Morten


    The aim was to investigate predictive values of coping styles, clinical and demographic factors on time to unemployment in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) during 1998-2002 in Norway. All patients ( N = 108) diagnosed with MS 1998-2002 in Hordaland and Rogaland counties, Western Norway, were invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study in 2002. Baseline recordings included disability scoring (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), and questionnaire assessing coping (the Dispositional Coping Styles Scale (COPE)). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with unemployed at baseline, and Cox regression analysis to identify factors at baseline associated with time to unemployment during follow-up. In all, 41 (44%) were employed at baseline. After 13 years follow-up in 2015, mean disease duration of 22 years, 16 (17%) were still employed. Median time from baseline to unemployment was 6 years (±5). Older age at diagnosis, female gender, and depression were associated with patients being unemployed at baseline. Female gender, long disease duration, and denial as avoidant coping strategy at baseline predicted shorter time to unemployment. Avoidant coping style, female gender, and longer disease duration were associated with shorter time to unemployment. These factors should be considered when advising patients on MS and future employment.

  12. Enhancing patient-provider communication for long-term post-stroke spasticity management. (United States)

    Sunnerhagen, K S; Francisco, G E


    Stroke is a major public health concern, with estimated 16 million people worldwide experiencing first-time strokes each year, a number that is expected to rise. Two-thirds of those experiencing a stroke are younger than 70 years of age. Stroke is a leading cause of disability in adults as a result of major sequelae that include spasticity, cognitive impairment, paresis, and depression. Disabling spasticity, defined as spasticity severe enough to require intervention, occurs in 4% of stroke survivors within 1 year of first-time stroke. The aim of this report is to focus instead on a discussion of patient-provider communication, and its role in post-stroke spasticity (PSS) rehabilitation within the context of patient-centered health care. A discussion based on a review of the literature, mainly since 2000. Problems within communication are identified and suggestion to enhance communication are proposed thus improving patient-centered goal setting/goal achievement for the effective management of spasticity rehabilitation. These are as follows: (i) involving family members, (ii) educating patients and family members on stroke and rehabilitation, and (iii) establishing a common definition for long-term goals. Increased communication among physicians, patients, and payers may bridge some of the gaps and increase the effectiveness of PSS rehabilitation and management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials (United States)

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Kasperski, Jacek


    Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL) materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL) materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs), are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics. PMID:28788163

  14. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators (United States)

    Nestroy, O.


    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  15. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  16. Model of long-term seismogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades


    Full Text Available A three-stage faulting model explains the observed quantitative relations between long-term precursory seismicity, mainshocks and aftershocks. Seismogenesis starts with the formation of a major crack, culminates in the corresponding major fracture and earthquake, and ends with healing. Crack formation is a self-organised critical phenomenon, and shear fracture is a delayed sequel to crack formation. It is postulated that the major crack generates a set of minor cracks, just as, later, the major fracture generates a set of minor fractures. Fracturing of the minor cracks raises the average seismicity level. By Mogi’s uniformity criterion, the major earthquake is delayed until the minor fractures have healed and the stress-field has regained relative uniformity. In accord with the scaling principle, the model applies at all magnitude levels. The size of any given initial crack determines the scale of the ensuing seismogenic process. A graphical technique of cumulative magnitude analysis gives a quantitative representation of the seismicity aspects of the model. Examples are given for large earthquakes in a region of continental collision and a subduction region. The principle of hierarchy is exemplified by the seismogenesis of a M 5.9 mainshock occurring entirely within the precursory stage of a M 7.0 mainshock. The model is capable of accommodating a variety of proposed shorter-term precursory phenomena.

  17. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  18. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet


    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  19. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment. (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr


    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long term results of mandibular distraction. (United States)

    Batra, Puneet; Ryan, F S; Witherow, H; Calvert, M L


    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction) where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  1. TIA and Stroke: the long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, I. van


    Background Survival after stroke has improved, but little is known about the long-term risk of new vascular events and the functioning of long-term survivors. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate the long-term perspective of these patients. Methods Two longitudinal studies were carried

  2. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term consequences of anaesthesia were not seriously considered until relatively recently. There is increasing evidence that some intraoperative anaesthetic management decisions have long-term consequences, and that others might as well. Keywords: long-term consequences; anaesthetic management ...

  3. Correlates of lower respiratory tract infections and nutritional state in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Calis (Elsbeth)


    textabstractChildren with severe generalized cerebral palsy and intellectual disability represent a small part of the general Dutch population. Their share in healthcare, however, is disproportionally large. Due to their disabilities they are particularly susceptible to various medical

  4. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagergren Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  5. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression (United States)

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike


    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  6. Postural Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Severely Impaired Motor Function: A Scoping Review (United States)

    Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah; Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris


    Background: Poor postural care can have severe and life-threatening complications. This scoping review aims to map and summarize existing evidence regarding postural care for people with intellectual disabilities and severely impaired motor function. Method: Studies were identified via electronic database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and…

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Observed Mood and Emotions in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Vos, P.; De Cock, P.; Petry, K.; Van Den Noortgate, W.; Maes, B.


    Background: The measurement of subjective well-being in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities (ID) is a difficult challenge. As they cannot self-report about their life satisfaction, because of severe communicative and cognitive limitations, behavioural observations of their emotions and moods are important in the measurement…

  8. Moderators of the synchrony of change between decreasing depression severity and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sijtsema, J.J.


    Objective: To identify moderators of synchrony of change between depression severity and disability. Method: From a large cohort study with 2years of follow-up, patients with major depressive disorder at baseline who decreased at least 25% in depression severity after 2years (n=245) were selected.

  9. The Chronicity of Self-Injurious Behaviour: A Long-Term Follow-Up of a Total Population Study (United States)

    Taylor, Lorne; Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis


    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a relatively common problem for people with intellectual disabilities and it is known to be associated with various risk markers, such as degree of disability, sensory impairments, and autism (McClintock "et al." 2003). Less is known about its long-term course however. Method: The present…

  10. The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook (United States)


    Children program, certain other low-income children and pregnant women , and most elderly and disabled individuals who qualify for the Supplemental...such as coverage for prescription drugs and dental services), and they have exercised those options to varying degrees. Moreover, many states seek...participation by women . The labor force grew by 1.6 percent per year, on average, over the 1970–2010 period, for example, but is projected to grow by only

  11. Long-term functional outcome in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. (United States)

    Bartolome, G; Prosiegel, M; Yassouridis, A


    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was: (1) to document and investigate long-term post-treatment outcome focusing on swallowing disability; and (2) to reveal variables predicting successful functional follow-up results in 63 patients with neurogenic dysphagia. All patients were admitted to an inpatient neurologic rehabilitation unit. Information was gathered through chart review and questionnaires. Functional outcome was categorized according to the degree of feeding status: (1) total tube feeding; (2) oral and tube feeding combined; (3) oral feeding with compensation; and (4) total oral feeding. 'Improvement' was determined as a positive shift in the type of feeding, 'deterioration' as a negative shift and 'no change' was defined as remaining at the same nutritional level. The safety of feeding was assessed by tracking the occurrence of pneumonia. Seventy percent of the patients achieved an improved immediate outcome after therapy. During long-term follow-up examinations, 43% of all patients showed further improvement, 57% did not show any change in their feeding ability and no deterioration was reported for any patient. Comparisons of the relative frequencies of the feeding modalities before and after therapy revealed a significant reduction in tube feeders and a significant increase in oral feeders with compensation during inpatient-treatment. The outpatient-interval showed a significant shift in total oral feeders without compensations but no significant improvement within the tube feeders and within the partial oral feeders. The improvement in nutritional status was not associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. Additional comparisons of the relative frequencies of the compensatory strategies indicated a significant reduction in all treatment techniques at final follow-up. Using logistic regression, predictors of successful post-discharge outcome involved a decreasing pre-treatment interval and unexpectedly low Barthel-ADL mobility scores. As a

  12. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program (United States)

    Gosz, J.


    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  13. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev


    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  14. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)


    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  15. [The severely disabled: a new way of driving a car (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Raschke, G


    In many cases, the provision of an automobile equipped with a special control system is a necessary part of the rehabilitation of the severely disabled. The car is so important to the disabled as it enables him to overcome daily the distance between home and place of work, hence increasing his mobility and life quality. The presented care control system was developed to meet the individual needs of a particular disability. It is, however, possible to use this system for, or adapt it to, similar types of disabilities. This problem complex has been overcome by following innovations: 1. The electronically controlled accelerator which can be operated with minimal finger pressure. 2. The LIDA shoulder device for tetraplegics, a connecting piece between the shoulder and the manually operated brake lever. 3. The removable armrest on the right hand side of the driver's seat to improve the sitting stability. The car can be easily be converted for "normal driving". The author received financial assistance.

  16. Glioblastoma multiforme with long term survival. (United States)

    Deb, Prabal; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Agarwal, Deepak; Sarkar, Chitra


    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) Patients generally have a dismal prognosis, with median survival of 10-12 months. GBM with long-term survival (LTS) of (3) > or = 5 years is rare, and no definite markers indicating better prognosis have been identified till date. The present study was undertaken to evaluate GBMs with LTS in order to identify additional correlates associated with favourable outcome. The cases were evaluated for relevant clinicopathological data, proliferation index and expression of tumortumour suppressor gene (p53 ), cyclin-dependant kinase-inhibitors (p27 and p16 ) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) proteins. Six cases of GBM with LTS with an average survival of 9 years (range 5-15 years) were identified. All were young patients with mean age of 27 years (range 8-45 years). Histology of three cases was consistent with conventional GBM, while two showed prominent oligodendroglial component admixed with GBM areas. One was a giant cell GBM, which progressed to gliosarcoma on recurrence. The mean MIB-1LI was 12% (range 6-20%). p53 was immunopositive in 4 out of 5 cases. EGFR and p27 were immunonegative in all, whereas p16 was immunonegative in 3 out of 5 cases. Currently, in the absence of specific molecular and genetic markers, GBM in young patients should be meticulously evaluated for foci of oligodendroglial component and/or giant cell elements, in addition to proliferative index and p53 expression, since these probably have prognostic connotations, as evident in this study. The role of p16 and p27 however needs better definition with study of more number of cases.

  17. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino


    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  18. Long term observations of Saturn's northern auroras (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan


    Auroral emissions are a vital tool in diagnosing the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. While SaturnA?s southern UV auroras have been observed with high-sensitivity cameras onboard the Hubble Space Telescope {HST}, the northern auroras have only been observed at very oblique angles. Our understanding of SaturnA?s auroral emissions is thus only half complete. However, Saturn has now passed equinox and is moving toward summer in the northern hemisphere, such that the northern auroras are now visible from Earth, and recent results from HST have indicated that SaturnA?s northern auroras are not simply mirror images of the southern. The changing seasons are also expected to result in significant changes in magnetospheric phenomena related to the auroras. Observing these changes is a specific goal of the Cassini Solstice Mission {CSM} and, since joint HST-Cassini observations have repeatedly proved to be invaluable, CSM operations are currently being planned specifically with joint HST observations in mind. The observations proposed here will thus execute over Cycles 18-20, and will address the following science questions:What is the morphology of SaturnA?s northern auroras? Do SaturnA?s auroras change with the planetA?s season? How are the auroral emissions of different wavelengths related?The importance of long term HST observations of SaturnA?s northern auroras are highlighted by the fact that recent key discoveries would have been missed without the multiyear archive of observations of the planetA?s southern auroras. The opportunity to obtain HST images while Cassini makes specifically-tailored supporting observations is an extremely valuable opportunity, and HST is the only instrument capable of providing sustained, high time resolution observations of Saturns auroral emission.

  19. Long term stability of atomic time scales (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Arias, Elisa Felicitas


    International Atomic Time TAI gets its stability from some 400 atomic clocks worldwide that generate the free atomic scale EA L and its accuracy from a small number of primary frequency standards (PFS) which frequency measurements are used to steer the EAL frequency. Because TAI is computed in "real - time" (every month) and has operational constraints, it is not optimal and the BIPM computes in deferred time another time scale TT(BIPM), which is based on a weighted average of the evaluations of TAI frequency by the PFS. We show that a point has been reached where the stability of atomic time scales, the accuracy of primary frequency standards, and the capabilities of frequency transfer are approximately at a similar level, in the low 10 - 16 in relative frequency. The goal is now to reach and surpass 1x10 - 16 and the three fields are in various stages of advancement towards this aim. We review the stability and accuracy recently achieved by frequency standards, focusing on primary frequency standards on one hand, and on new secondary realizations e.g. based on optical transitions on the other hand. We study how these performances can translate to the performance of atomic time scales, and the possible implications of the availability of new high - accuracy frequency standards operating on a regular basis. Finally we show how time transfer is trying to keep up with the progresses of frequency standards. Time transfer is presently the limiting factor at short averaging time (e.g. 1 - 2 weeks) but it should not be limiting the long term stability of atomic time scales, which is the main need of many applications in astronomy.

  20. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo


    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the