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Sample records for severe stunting z-score

  1. Assessing the effect of drought severity on height-for-age z-score in Kenyan children: a secondary analysis

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    Kate Lillepold, BScH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, droughts are occurring more regularly and are having negative effects on population health, particularly in countries such as Kenya, where agriculture is a primary driver of the economy and a source of subsistence for many communities. Children are particularly susceptible to weather-related shocks. Previous research has shown an association between drought and cross-sectional indicators of malnutrition, such as stunting. In this study, we explored various longitudinal and spatial analysis approaches to evaluating the effect of drought on height-for-age z-scores (HAZ over time and space among young children in Kenya. Methods: Using anthropometric data from three georeferenced Kenyan Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS and the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index, we developed multivariate linear regression and spatial lag and error models (with Moran's I calculations to investigate the association between drought severity and HAZ in children aged 0–5 years. Initial covariates included age of the child, sex, maternal age, height and education, wealth index, urban or rural location, and size at birth. We then did multilevel and geographically weighted regression modelling using frequentist or Bayesian methods and with inclusion of household-level covariates, such as livelihood zones. To assess the effect of changes in drought severity on child HAZ over time, KDHS data from 2003, 2008–09, and 2014 were analysed with spatiotemporal modelling. Findings: Preliminary results from the multivariate linear model showed a negative, non-significant association between drought severity and HAZ among Kenyan children in 2014 (β=0·033, p=0·101; however, there was a significant interaction between drought severity and age (β=–0·002, p<0·0007. The spatial lag model gave similar results. Other variables associated with HAZ included wealth index, age, sex, maternal education, and maternal height. Global Moran's I

  2. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

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    Jullyana F.R. Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2 or severe stunting (HAZ < -3. Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. RESULTS: the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001 stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01 were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG in both severely (initial: 91.8 mg/dL; final: 79.1 mg/dL; p = 0.01 and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2 mg/dL; final 88.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4 mg/dL; final: 42.2 mg/dL. The values of total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1 mg/dL; final: 163.5 mg/dL and initial: 109.0 mg/dL; final: 107.3 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition.

  3. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

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    Alves, Jullyana F R; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2) or severe stunting (HAZ < -3). Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001) and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001) stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01) were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG) in both severely (initial: 91.8mg/dL; final: 79.1mg/dL; p = 0.01) and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2mg/dL; final 88.7mg/dL; p = 0.01), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4mg/dL; final: 42.2mg/dL). The values of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1mg/dL; final: 163.5mg/dL and initial: 109.0mg/dL; final: 107.3mg/dL, respectively). the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

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    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  5. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  6. Socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh.

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    Mostafa, Kamal S M

    2011-04-01

    Malnutrition among under-five children is a chronic problem in developing countries. This study explores the socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh. The study used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Cross-sectional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the socio-demographic variables on moderate and severe stunting over normal among the children. Findings revealed that over two-fifths of the children were stunted, of which 26.3% were moderately stunted and 15.1% were severely stunted. The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis yielded significantly increased risk of severe stunting (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.34-4.79) and moderate stunting (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.47-3.83) over normal among children with a thinner mother. Region, father's education, toilet facilities, child's age, birth order of children and wealth index were also important determinants of children's nutritional status. Development and poverty alleviation programmes should focus on the disadvantaged rural segments of people to improve their nutritional status.

  7. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

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    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  8. How consistent are associations between stunting and child development? Evidence from a meta-analysis of associations between stunting and multidimensional child development in fifteen low- and middle-income countries.

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    Miller, Ann C; Murray, Megan B; Thomson, Dana R; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting's associations with other developmental domains. Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding ('low BF'middle-income countries. Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36-59 months. Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <-2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development. Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.

  9. Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in-depth analysis of nationally representative data

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    Aguayo, Victor M; Badgaiyan, Nina; Paintal, Kajali

    2015-01-01

    Stunting is associated with poor survival and development in children. Our analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of 2085 children 0–23 months old. We find that 27.5% of children were stunted and almost half (42.6%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Children's mean height-for-age z-score deteriorated significantly with age (from −0.23 in infants 0–5 months old to −1.60 in children 18–23 months old) and levels of severe stunting were significantly higher among boys. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that children from the Eastern/Western regions had a 64% higher odds of being stunted than children from the Central region (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.07); similarly, children from the two lower wealth quintiles had 37% higher odds of being stunted than children from the two upper wealth quintiles (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00–1.87). Children whose mothers received three or fewer antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy had a 31% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01–1.69) while children whose mothers did not receive antenatal care from a doctor, nurse or midwife had a 51% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.18–1.92). Recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower odds of stunting, particularly in the first year of life. Specifically, children who were not fed complementary foods at 6–8 months had about threefold higher odds of being severely stunted than children who were fed complementary foods (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.06–7.02). PMID:25536283

  10. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

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    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  11. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

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    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  12. Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study

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    Sinywimaanzi Pamela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, 193 HIV-infected children were enrolled in a cohort study in Macha, Zambia. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Weight- and height-for-age z-scores were constructed from WHO growth standards. All children receiving ART at enrollment or initiating ART during the study were included in this analysis. Linear mixed effects models were used to model trajectories of weight and height-for-age z-scores. Results A high proportion of study children were underweight (59% and stunted (72% at treatment initiation. Improvements in both weight- and height-for-age z-scores were observed, with weight-for-age z-scores increasing during the first 6 months of treatment and then stabilizing, and height-for-age z-scores increasing consistently over time. Trajectories of weight-for-age z-scores differed by underweight status at treatment initiation, with children who were underweight experiencing greater increases in z-scores in the first 6 months of treatment. Trajectories of height-for-age z-scores differed by age, with children older than 5 years of age experiencing smaller increases over time. Conclusions Some of the effects of HIV on growth were reversed with ART initiation, although a high proportion of children remained underweight and stunted after two years of treatment. Partnerships between treatment and nutrition programs should be explored so that HIV-infected children can receive optimal nutritional

  13. Classification of Airflow Limitation Based on z-Score Underestimates Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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    Tejero, Elena; Prats, Eva; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Pardo, Paloma; Gavilán, Adelaida; Martínez-Cerón, Elisabet; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Del Peso, Luis; García-Río, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Global Lung Function Initiative recommends reporting lung function measures as z-score, and a classification of airflow limitation (AL) based on this parameter has recently been proposed. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the AL classifications based on z-score or percentage predicted of FEV 1 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 2,614 patients with COPD recruited outside the hospital setting was examined after a mean (± SD) of 57 ± 13 months of follow-up, totaling 10,322 person-years. All-cause mortality was analyzed, evaluating the predictive capacity of several AL staging systems. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, 461 patients (17.6%) had mild, 1,452 (55.5%) moderate, 590 (22.6%) severe, and 111 (4.2%) very severe AL. According to z-score classification, 66.3% of patients remained with the same severity, whereas 23.7% worsened and 10.0% improved. Unlike other staging systems, patients with severe AL according to z-score had higher mortality than those with very severe AL (increase of risk by 5.2 and 3.9 times compared with mild AL, respectively). The predictive capacity for 5-year survival was slightly higher for FEV 1 expressed as percentage of predicted than as z-score (area under the curve: 0.714-0.760 vs. 0.649-0.708, respectively). A severity-dependent relationship between AL grades by z-score and mortality was only detected in patients younger than age 60 years. In patients with COPD, the AL classification based on z-score predicts worse mortality than those based on percentage of predicted. It is possible that the z-score underestimates AL severity in patients older than 60 years of age with severe functional impairment.

  14. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

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    Hallgeir Kismul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. Methods This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013–14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Results Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother’s age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother’s BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother’s education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Conclusions Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address

  15. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-05-24

    Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.

  16. APLIKASI Z-SCORE METHOD DALAM PEMBENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO

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    Deannes Isynuwardhana

    2017-01-01

    The problem that often occurs in forming portfolio was regarding the selection and weighting the stock wichhad to be included in portfolio. This study attempted to solve the problem by using a simple model, which wasexpected to be applied easily by investors. This was a descriptive research with quantitative approach, andused stocks that was categorized as “blue chip” in Indonesia’s stock exchange as a sample. Stock selectionprocess used Z-score method with 6 criteria. There were, price earni...

  17. Aplikasi Z-score Method Dalam Pembentukan Portofolio

    OpenAIRE

    Isynuwardhana, Deannes

    2013-01-01

    The problem that often occurs in forming portfolio was regarding the selection and weighting the stock wichhad to be included in portfolio. This study attempted to solve the problem by using a simple model, which wasexpected to be applied easily by investors. This was a descriptive research with quantitative approach, andused stocks that was categorized as “blue chip” in Indonesia's stock exchange as a sample. Stock selectionprocess used Z-score method with 6 criteria. There were, price earni...

  18. APLIKASI Z-SCORE METHOD DALAM PEMBENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO

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    Deannes Isynuwardhana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem that often occurs in forming portfolio was regarding the selection and weighting the stock wichhad to be included in portfolio. This study attempted to solve the problem by using a simple model, which wasexpected to be applied easily by investors. This was a descriptive research with quantitative approach, andused stocks that was categorized as “blue chip” in Indonesia’s stock exchange as a sample. Stock selectionprocess used Z-score method with 6 criteria. There were, price earning ratio, price to book value, debt to equityratio, gross profit margin, return on equity, and stock’s historical price. The weighting of each stock inportfolio was then calculated by were used Bodie, Kane, and Markus (2011 approach. The coefficient ofvariation, risk and return of the market used as benchmark to measure portfolio performance. The result showedthat portfolio which formed by Z-score method give higher return than the market. Although the portfolioprovided greater risk, but it was not comparable with the marker return that gave negative results in return.The result suggested that portfolio which was created using the Z-score method could be applied by investorsin Indonesia’s stock exchange.

  19. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

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    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2013-01-01

    Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  20. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

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    Nora Fenske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. RESULTS: At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  1. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  2. Identification of Outliers in Grace Data for Indo-Gangetic Plain Using Various Methods (Z-Score, Modified Z-score and Adjusted Boxplot) and Its Removal

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    Srivastava, S.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are widely used for the hydrological studies for large scale basins (≥100,000 sq km). GRACE data (Stokes Coefficients or Equivalent Water Height) used for hydrological studies are not direct observations but result from high level processing of raw data from the GRACE mission. Different partner agencies like CSR, GFZ and JPL implement their own methodology and their processing methods are independent from each other. The primary source of errors in GRACE data are due to measurement and modeling errors and the processing strategy of these agencies. Because of different processing methods, the final data from all the partner agencies are inconsistent with each other at some epoch. GRACE data provide spatio-temporal variations in Earth's gravity which is mainly attributed to the seasonal fluctuations in water level on Earth surfaces and subsurface. During the quantification of error/uncertainties, several high positive and negative peaks were observed which do not correspond to any hydrological processes but may emanate from a combination of primary error sources, or some other geophysical processes (e.g. Earthquakes, landslide, etc.) resulting in redistribution of earth's mass. Such peaks can be considered as outliers for hydrological studies. In this work, an algorithm has been designed to extract outliers from the GRACE data for Indo-Gangetic plain, which considers the seasonal variations and the trend in data. Different outlier detection methods have been used such as Z-score, modified Z-score and adjusted boxplot. For verification, assimilated hydrological (GLDAS) and hydro-meteorological data are used as the reference. The results have shown that the consistency amongst all data sets improved significantly after the removal of outliers.

  3. Gestational Weight Gain-for-Gestational Age Z-Score Charts Applied across U.S. Populations.

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    Leonard, Stephanie A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Gestational weight gain may be a modifiable contributor to infant health outcomes, but the effect of gestational duration on gestational weight gain has limited the identification of optimal weight gain ranges. Recently developed z-score and percentile charts can be used to classify gestational weight gain independent of gestational duration. However, racial/ethnic variation in gestational weight gain and the possibility that optimal weight gain differs among racial/ethnic groups could affect generalizability of the z-score charts. The objectives of this study were (1) to apply the weight gain z-score charts in two different U.S. populations as an assessment of generalisability and (2) to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies the weight gain range associated with minimal risk of preterm birth. The study sample included over 4 million live, singleton births in California (2007-2012) and Pennsylvania (2003-2013). We implemented a noninferiority margin approach in stratified subgroups to determine weight gain ranges for which the adjusted predicted marginal risk of preterm birth (gestation gain between California and Pennsylvania births, and among several racial/ethnic groups in California. The optimal ranges decreased as severity of prepregnancy obesity increased in all groups. The findings support the use of weight gain z-score charts for studying gestational age-dependent outcomes in diverse U.S. populations and do not support weight gain recommendations tailored to race/ethnicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Perbedaan Intelligence Quotient (Iq) antara Anak Stunting dan Tidak Stunting Umur 7 €“ 12 Tahun di Sekolahdasar (Studi pada Siswa SD Negeri Buara 04 Kecamatan Ketanggungan Kabupaten Brebes)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunitasari, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Stunted is one form of malnutrition on children are calculated based on height measurement according to age (TB/U), where the value of z-score ‰¤ -2 SD (standart deviation). Child stunted have lower cognitive scores than the normal child. United Nations Imergency Children€™s Fund (UNICEF) said that children are stunted have an average IQ of 11 points lower than the average child who does stunted. The purpose of this research is to know the difference Intelligence quotient (IQ) on child stunte...

  5. Evaluating Z Scores to Quantify Levator Hiatal Distensibility by 3-Dimensional Ultrasonography in Nulliparas and Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

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    Wen, Lieming; Liu, Minghui; Zhao, Baihua; Qing, Zhenzhen

    2018-03-12

    To use Z scores to quantify hiatal distensibility and to test the performance of Z scores for levator hiatal areas in predicting substantial pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We undertook a retrospective study of the data from 145 nulliparas and 166 patients with POP who had a clinical POP examination with 3-dimensional translabial ultrasonography. Z scores were used to normalize levator hiatal areas of nulliparas. The Z score model for the hiatal area was built by the formula Z score = (measured value - predicted mean value)/predicted standard deviation and was used to evaluate hiatal ballooning in women with POP. Valid data were gathered from 134 nulliparas and 159 patients with POP. POP stage 1 was found in 46 women, stage 2 in 62, stage 3 in 43, and stage 4 in 8. We built the Z score model as follows: Z-Av = (measured value - 17.15)/3.11, where Av represented the minimal levator hiatal area on the maximum Valsalva maneuver. The levator hiatal area was strongly related to the POP stage (P < .001). On a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff of Z-Av was 1 for POP stage 2 or higher (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 60%) and substantial POP on ultrasonography (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 75%). Hiatal distensibility can be exactly evaluated by Z-Av. A Z-Av value of less than 1.0 was defined as a "normal hiatal expansion," 1 to 3 as "mild ballooning," 3 to 5 as "moderate ballooning," 5 to 7 as "marked ballooning," and 7 or greater as "severe ballooning." © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  7. Z Score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of undernutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

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    Fazili Anjum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF .Only 112 (25.58% of these children were in a state of anthropometric failure as per the Z-Score system , 10.73% of them being underweight , 15.29% wasted and 8.90% stunted. The most common anthropometric failure in these children was wasting while 30.35% of these undernourished children had more than one anthropometric failure.Using underweight as the sole criteria for assessing the magnitude of undernutrition in this study would give us an underestimate and we would miss about 58% of the undernourished children in our study population.

  8. Z score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of under nutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazili Anjum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF .Only 112 (25.58% of these children were in a state of anthropometric failure as per the Z-Score system , 10.73% of them being underweight , 15.29% wasted and 8.90% stunted. The most common anthropometric failure in these children was wasting while 30.35% of these undernourished children had more than one anthropometric failure.Using underweight as the sole criteria for assessing the magnitude of undernutrition in this study would give us an underestimate and we would miss about 58% of the undernourished children in our study population.

  9. Catch-up growth or regression to the mean? Recovery from stunting revisited.

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    Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. An evaluation of nutritional status of children in Anganwadi Centre of Hyderabad district of Andhra Pradesh stateusing WHO z- score technique

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    Shanawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India the nationwide Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS uses the I.A.P criteria to grade under nutrition. The current WHO recommendation is to use Z score or the standard deviation system to grade under nutrition. Although widely recommended the z scores have not been widely used in India, especially in community based studies. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the socio-demographic profile of 0-72 months age group of children. 2. To find out the nutritional status of children using WHO z- score technique. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional, community-based was done in ICDS Anganwadi centers among the 400 ICDS children (0-6 years RESULTS There are (47.5% undernourished and (16.5% severely malnourished children according to WHO z score technique. Males (49.5% are comparatively more under nourished than females (45.5%. Female infants (31.2% are less undernourished when compared to male infants (50%. Literacy of mother had significance over the nutritional status of their children (p˂0.05. CONCLUSION The present study shows that there are still many children who are undernourished and severely malnourished in our country, even after 36 years of ICDS services. There is need to use WHO standards at the grass route levels to correctly identify the burden of under nutrition. Z score technique is simple to use, reliable and easy to understand at grass route level by health workers.

  11. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  12. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  13. Analisis Potensi Kebangkrutan PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. dengan Menggunakan Altman’s Z Score

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    Iswandi Iswandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. (BLTA is a company engaged in the ocean transportation services listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. In 2009 and 2010 BLTA experienced a net loss. At the end of 2011 the company rocked the financial markets in Indonesia and Singapore being unable to meet financial obligations to financial institutions and corporate bondholders. Given such conditions until the end of August 2012 BLTA can not submit audited financial statement of year 2011 to the authorities of stock exchange and public. By using the 2007 to 2010 audited financial statements and June 2011 inhouse financial statement were analyzed using Altman's Z score model can be known that since 2007 BLTA produce a Z score were classified bankruptcy. Investors should analyze the financial condition by using Z Score in order to minimized shareholders and bondholders potential losses.

  14. Regression equations for calculation of z scores for echocardiographic measurements of right heart structures in healthy Han Chinese children.

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    Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Chen, Shu-Bao; Huang, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Wu, Lan-Ping; Hong, Wen-Jing; Shen, Rong; Liu, Yi-Qing; Zhu, Jun-Xue

    2017-06-01

    Clinical decision making in children with congenital and acquired heart disease relies on measurements of cardiac structures using two-dimensional echocardiography. We aimed to establish z-score regression equations for right heart structures in healthy Chinese Han children. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed in 515 patients. We measured the dimensions of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), main pulmonary artery (MPA), left pulmonary artery (LPA), right pulmonary artery (RPA), right ventricular outflow tract at end-diastole (RVOTd) and at end-systole (RVOTs), tricuspid valve annulus (TVA), right ventricular inflow tract at end-diastole (RVIDd) and at end-systole (RVIDs), and right atrium (RA). Regression analyses were conducted to relate the measurements of right heart structures to 4body surface area (BSA). Right ventricular outflow-tract fractional shortening (RVOTFS) was also calculated. Several models were used, and the best model was chosen to establish a z-score calculator. PVA, MPA, LPA, RPA, RVOTd, RVOTs, TVA, RVIDd, RVIDs, and RA (R 2  = 0.786, 0.705, 0.728, 0.701, 0.706, 0.824, 0.804, 0.663, 0.626, and 0.793, respectively) had a cubic polynomial relationship with BSA; specifically, measurement (M) = β0 + β1 × BSA + β2 × BSA 2  + β3 × BSA. 3 RVOTFS (0.28 ± 0.02) fell within a narrow range (0.12-0.51). Our results provide reference values for z scores and regression equations for right heart structures in Han Chinese children. These data may help interpreting the routine clinical measurement of right heart structures in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:293-303, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

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    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  16. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

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    Esther Leushuis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results: The mean CVB was 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13% and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%. The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001. Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001. Conclusion: There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability.

  17. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

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    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  18. The prevalence and risk factors of stunting among primary school children in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.

    2018-03-01

    Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (<-2 SD of height-for-age Z-score) were defined by using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.

  19. Validation of the Six Sigma Z-score for the quality assessment of clinical laboratory timeliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2018-03-28

    The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has introduced in recent times the turnaround time (TAT) as mandatory quality indicator for the postanalytical phase. Classic TAT indicators, namely, average, median, 90th percentile and proportion of acceptable test (PAT), are in use since almost 40 years and to date represent the mainstay for gauging the laboratory timeliness. In this study, we investigated the performance of the Six Sigma Z-score, which was previously introduced as a device for the quantitative assessment of timeliness. A numerical simulation was obtained modeling the actual TAT data set using the log-logistic probability density function. Five thousand replicates for each size of the artificial TAT random sample (n=20, 50, 250 and 1000) were generated, and different laboratory conditions were simulated manipulating the PDF in order to generate more or less variable data. The Z-score and the classic TAT indicators were assessed for precision (%CV), robustness toward right-tailing (precision at different sample variability), sensitivity and specificity. Z-score showed sensitivity and specificity comparable to PAT (≈80% with n≥250), but superior precision that ranged within 20% by moderately small sized samples (n≥50); furthermore, Z-score was less affected by the value of the cutoff used for setting the acceptable TAT, as well as by the sample variability that reflected into the magnitude of right-tailing. The Z-score was a valid indicator of laboratory timeliness and a suitable device to improve as well as to maintain the achieved quality level.

  20. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

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    Mahama Saaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8. Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ was associated with 0.07 standard units’ increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth.

  1. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  3. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Linear discriminant analysis (LDA is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA, which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  4. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  5. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004

  6. Mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting: evidence from semi-urban communities in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Nomura, Marika; Ogino, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanako; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith

    2018-05-22

    Childhood stunting (height-for-age z-scores below - 2), a form of chronic undernutrition, remains a global health burden. Although a growing literature has examined the association between mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting, these studies have been limited to countries in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa where women have relatively lower social status than do men. Little research has analyzed the effect of mothers' autonomy on childhood stunting in Lao PDR, where women's social status is relatively high compared to that in other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire and body scale measurement targeting 100 mothers and their 115 children (autonomy, we measured self-esteem, self-efficacy, decision-making power, freedom of mobility, and control of money. We then analyzed how each dimension was associated with the likelihood of childhood stunting. The likelihood of childhood stunting was significantly lower if mothers had higher self-efficacy for health care (OR = 0.15, p = 0.007), self-esteem (OR = 0.11, p = 0.025), or control of money (OR = 0.11, p = 0.041). In contrast, mothers' decision-making power and freedom of mobility were not significantly associated with childhood stunting. We clarified which dimensions of women's autonomy were associated with childhood stunting in Lao PDR. A closer examination of mothers' autonomy will aid proper understanding of the determinants of childhood stunting.

  7. Penerapan Aplikasi Z-Score Method Dalam Pembentukan Portofolio Saham Yang Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Katarina Labore

    2015-01-01

    The result of the research shows that by using Z-score methode in 23 Blue Chip companies in 2013 there are six companies that could be the candidate of optimal portfolio, they are UNVR, AALI, MYOR, KLBF, INCO, and AKRA. Based on calculation, an investor who invest in this stock will get portfolio return at the rate of 0.13% and 1.63% standard deviation. To invest, investors can share their stock into some companies, in which UNVR has 3.766% proportion , AALI has 35.026% proportion, MYOR has ...

  8. PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR MODELING THE ALTMAN Z-SCORE FINANCIAL DISTRESS STATUS OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature shows some bankruptcy methods for determining the financial distress status of companies and based on this information we chosen Altman statistical model because it has been used a lot in the past and like that it has become a benchmark for other methods. Based on this financial analysis flowchart, programming software was developed that allows the calculation and determination of the bankruptcy probability for a certain rate of failure Z-score, corresponding to a given interval that is equal to the ratio of the number of bankrupt companies and the total number of companies (bankrupt and healthy interval.

  9. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  10. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  11. [Impact to Z-score Mapping of Hyperacute Stroke Images by Computed Tomography in Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shota; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Hosono, Makoto; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction method on Z-score mapping of hyperacute stroke in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. We used a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction [adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)] implemented in a CT system (Optima CT660 Pro advance, GE Healthcare). With 15 normal brain cases, we reconstructed CT images with a filtered back projection (FBP) and ASiR with a blending factor of 100% (ASiR100%). Two standardized normal brain data were created from normal databases of FBP images (FBP-NDB) and ASiR100% images (ASiR-NDB), and standard deviation (SD) values in basal ganglia were measured. The Z-score mapping was performed for 12 hyperacute stroke cases by using FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB, and compared Z-score value on hyperacute stroke area and normal area between FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB. By using ASiR-NDB, the SD value of standardized brain was decreased by 16%. The Z-score value of ASiR-NDB on hyperacute stroke area was significantly higher than FBP-NDB (pASiR100% for Z-score mapping had potential to improve the accuracy of Z-score mapping.

  12. Comparison of Alzheimer's disease with vascular dementia and non-dementia using specific voxel-based Z score maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shirou; Shishido, Fumio; Miyajima, Masayuki; Sakuma, Koutarou; Shigihara, Takeshi; Tameta, Tadanobu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and between AD and non-dementia using the program ''easy Z score imaging system'' (eZIS) developed by Matsuda et al., for the diagnosis of very early AD. Of 201 patients, we investigated 12 patients with AD, 10 with VaD, and 9 with non-dementia, who underwent brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography by technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) between February 2005 and September 2006. The sensitivity and specificity of the indicators of specific volume of interest (VOI) analysis, namely, severity, extent, and ratio were evaluated for the distinction of AD from VaD and non-dementia. There was a significant difference in all the criteria for severity, extent, and ratio between AD and non-dementia cases and in the ratio between AD and VaD. Between AD and non-dementia, the sensitivity and specificity of severity were 100% and 45%, respectively, using the cutoff value of 1.19. When using the cutoff value of 14.2 for extent, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 100% were demonstrated. When comparing AD with VaD, using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity were 42% and 100%, respectively. Using the cutoff value of 1.5 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity between AD and VaD were 92% and 80%, respectively, thereby showing the best results. The specific VOI analysis program of AD using specific voxel-based Z score maps is not influenced by interobserver differences among radiologists and is useful to discriminate AD from VaD and non-dementia. However, the setting of the cutoff value at each institution and comparison with original and eZIS images are suggested to distinguish better AD from VaD. (author)

  13. Stunting is characterized by chronic inflammation in Zimbabwean infants.

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    Andrew J Prendergast

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting.We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ -0.5; controls at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP, inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6 and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3 in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression.At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR HAZ -1.00 (-1.53, -0.08 vs 0.03 (-0.57, 0.62,; P<0.001 than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI -21.4 (-39.8, -3.1 ng/mL. From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3-12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99; P = 0.008 and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74; P = 0.087 during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting.Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy

  14. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  16. Use and Misuse of Stunting as a Measure of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2018-03-01

    The term "stunting" has become pervasive in international nutrition and child health research, program, and policy circles. Although originally intended as a population-level statistical indicator of children's social and economic deprivation, the conventional anthropometric definition of stunting (height-for-age z scores define chronic malnutrition. Epidemiologists often portray it as a disease, making inferences about the causes of growth faltering based on comparisons between stunted (i.e., undernourished) and nonstunted children. Stunting is commonly used to monitor public health and nutrition program effectiveness alongside calls for the "elimination of stunting." However, there is no biological basis for the -2 SD cutoff to define stunting, making it a poor individual-level classifier of malnutrition or disease. In fact, in many low- and middle-income countries, children above and below the threshold are similarly affected by growth-limiting exposures. We argue that the common use of stunting as an indicator of child linear growth has contributed to unsubstantiated assumptions about the biological mechanisms underlying linear growth impairment in low- and middle-income countries and has led to a systematic underestimation of the burden of linear growth deficits among children in low-resource settings. Moreover, because nutrition-specific short-term public health interventions may result in relatively minor changes in child height, the use of stunting prevalence to monitor health or nutrition program effectiveness may be inappropriate. A more nuanced approach to the application and interpretation of stunting as an indicator in child growth research and public health programming is warranted.

  17. Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed. (orig.)

  18. DETERMINAN PROFITABILITAS BANK MELALUI Z-SCORE, STRUKTUR MODAL, SIZE, RISIKO KREDIT DAN PERMODALAN PADA INDUSTRI PERBANKAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ferry Ananda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of the value of the Z-Score, capital structure, size, credit risk and capital as measured by CAR on bank profitability. The object of this study is on the national banking industry. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling. The sample in this study is a bank which went public on the Stock Exchange prior to the year 2013 and to publish financial statements in 2013 and 2014. The samples were 27 banks. Period study in 2013 and 2014. The analysis technique used multiple linear regression. The results showed that simultaneous Z-Score, capital structure, size, credit risk and capital effect on profitability. Partially value of the Z-Score, size, risk and CAR effect on profitability, while the capital structure policy has no effect on profitability.

  19. Predicting Corporate Financial Distress in Sri Lanka: An Extension to Z-Score Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.M. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop a better financial distress prediction model for the Sri Lankan companies using the Z-score model. Fourteen variables have been selected consisting of accounting, cash flow and market based variables. Multivariate Discriminate Analysis (MDA was used as the analytical technique and stepwise method was used to select the variables with the best discriminating power to a dataset of sixty-seven matched pairs of failed and non-failed quoted public companies over the period 2002 to 2011. The final models are validated using the cross validation method. The results indicate that a model with four predictors of earnings before interest and taxes, cash flow from operations to total debts, retained earnings to total assets, and firm size have achieved the classification accuracy of 85.8% in one year prior to the distress with a very low type I error. Moreover, the model has correctly classified the cases by 79.9% and 69.4% in two year and three year prior to distress respectively. The study has further revealed that the companies with negative cutoff value fall into distress zone while the companies with positive cutoff values fall into safety area. Hence, the study concluded that the companies with cutoff values approximately zero should be considered on mitigating actions for financial distress not only on the accounting information but also on the cash flow and market data.

  20. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province.

  1. Berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-24 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is one of the main problems of malnutrition often found in under-five children. The impacts include a delay in child’s growth, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. The direct factors that influence the incidence of stunting are low birth weight (LBW while the indirect factors are socioeconomic factors such as maternal education, low family income and a large number of family members. Objective: To analyze the relationship between LBW and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months in Yogyakarta Municipality. Method: This was a case-control study. The subjects were children aged 6-24 months with a group of cases comprising stunted children based on the indicator of height/age with a cut-off < -2 SD Z-score and the control group comprising normal children. The number of subjects for the study was 242 with the under-five children’s mothers as the research respondents. The sample selection used non-probability sampling with a consecutive sampling method. The data were analyzed by Chi-Square and multiple logistic regression. Results: The proportion of children 6-24 months who had low birth weight was 15.7 %. There was a significant relationship between LBW and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months (OR=5.60; 95%CI:2.27 to 15.70. There was a relationship between maternal height and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months (OR=2.14; 95%CI:1.08 to 4.33. Socioeconomic factors (maternal education, family income and a number of family members did not have a significant relationship with the incidence of stunting. Conclusion: LBW had a relationship with the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months in Yogyakarta Municipality.

  2. Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Emmett, Susan D; Kidd, Celeste; Leonard, William R; Piantadosi, Steven T; Reyes-García, Victoria; Sharma, Abhishek; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2018-01-01

    We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002-2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills. Stunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13-15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18-21% and 15-21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children. The results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  4. Trend in BMI z-score among Private Schools’ Students in Delhi using Multiple Imputation for Growth Curve Model

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    Vinay K Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the trend in mean BMI z-score among private schools’ students from their anthropometric records when there were missing values in the outcome. Methodology: The anthropometric measurements of student from class 1 to 12 were taken from the records of two private schools in Delhi, India from 2005 to 2010. These records comprise of an unbalanced longitudinal data that is not all the students had measurements recorded at each year. The trend in mean BMI z-score was estimated through growth curve model. Prior to that, missing values of BMI z-score were imputed through multiple imputation using the same model. A complete case analysis was also performed after excluding missing values to compare the results with those obtained from analysis of multiply imputed data. Results: The mean BMI z-score among school student significantly decreased over time in imputed data (β= -0.2030, se=0.0889, p=0.0232 after adjusting age, gender, class and school. Complete case analysis also shows a decrease in mean BMI z-score though it was not statistically significant (β= -0.2861, se=0.0987, p=0.065. Conclusions: The estimates obtained from multiple imputation analysis were better than those of complete data after excluding missing values in terms of lower standard errors. We showed that anthropometric measurements from schools records can be used to monitor the weight status of children and adolescents and multiple imputation using growth curve model can be useful while analyzing such data

  5. Predicting Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease at a North American Center: An Assessment of Baseline z Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mary Beth F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kim, Susan; Tang, Alexander; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fulton, David R; Lo, Mindy S; Baker, Annette L; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-31

    Accurate risk prediction of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in North American children with Kawasaki disease remains a clinical challenge. We sought to determine the predictive utility of baseline coronary dimensions adjusted for body surface area ( z scores) for future CAAs in Kawasaki disease and explored the extent to which addition of established Japanese risk scores to baseline coronary artery z scores improved discrimination for CAA development. We explored the relationships of CAA with baseline z scores; with Kobayashi, Sano, Egami, and Harada risk scores; and with the combination of baseline z scores and risk scores. We defined CAA as a maximum z score (zMax) ≥2.5 of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery at 4 to 8 weeks of illness. Of 261 patients, 77 patients (29%) had a baseline zMax ≥2.0. CAAs occurred in 15 patients (6%). CAAs were strongly associated with baseline zMax ≥2.0 versus Baseline zMax ≥2.0 had a C statistic of 0.77, good sensitivity (80%), and excellent negative predictive value (98%). None of the risk scores alone had adequate discrimination. When high-risk status per the Japanese risk scores was added to models containing baseline zMax ≥2.0, none were significantly better than baseline zMax ≥2.0 alone. In a North American center, baseline zMax ≥2.0 in children with Kawasaki disease demonstrated high predictive utility for later development of CAA. Future studies should validate the utility of our findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Adjepong

    Full Text Available In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were essential FA deficient (triene/tetraene ratio>0.02. Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score (HAZ or weight-for-age z-score (WAZ. In hemoglobin adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with arachidonic acid (p≤0.01, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, p≤0.05, docosatetraenoic acid (p≤0.01 and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid (p≤0.01. These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

  7. Analysis of High Quality Agar wood Oil Chemical Compounds By Means Of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-Score Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila Ismail; Mohd Ali Nor Azah; Mailina Jamil; Saiful Nizam Tajuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the grading of the agar wood oil to the high and low quality is done using manually such as human trained grader. It was performed based on the agar wood oil physical properties such as human experience and perception and the oil colour, odor and long lasting aroma. Several researchers found that chemical profiles of the oil should be utilized to overcome the problem facing by manual techniques for example human nose cannot tolerate with the many oils at the same time, so that accurate result can be obtained in grading the agar wood oil. The analysis involved of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-score techniques have been proposed in this study to analyze the chemical compounds especially from the high quality samples of agar wood oil (Aquilariamalaccensis) from Malaysia. Two SPME fibers were used such as divinylbenzene-carbogen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in extracting the oils compound under three different sampling temperature conditions such as 40, 60 and 80 degree Celsius. The chemical compounds extracted by SPME/ GC-MS were analyzed. The chemical compounds as identified by Z-score as significant compounds were discussed before the conclusion is made. It was found that 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, aromadendrene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran and γ-eudesmol were highlighted as significant for high quality agar wood oil and can be used as a marker compounds in classifying the agar wood oil. (author)

  8. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  9. Computer-assisted lateralization of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using Z-score parametric F-18 FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ching-yee Oliver; Gannon, James; Bong, Jeffrey; Wong, Christiana O; Saha, Gopal B

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the use of unbiased computer-assisted lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by z-score parametric PET imaging (ZPET). 38 patients with histologically proven unilateral TLE due to pure hippocampal sclerosis, referred for pre-surgical PET evaluation of intractable seizure over a 5-year period, were included. The F-18 FDG images were oriented along temporal long axis and then transformed into ZPET images on a voxel by voxel basis. Multiple regions of interests (21 in total) were placed on cortical, subcortical and cerebellar structures on twenty-eight out of 38 patients with totally seizure-free (class I) outcome. Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to determine the location of the most asymmetric regions as variables for subsequent discriminant analysis of the entire group of the patients. The computer program identified the anterior half of the temporal lobe (p < 0.0005) and thalami (p = 0.021) as the most asymmetric regions in TLE patients with Class I outcome. Discriminant analysis using z-scores from a total of 8 ROIs (in 4 pairs) on these structures correctly lateralized thirty-seven out of 38 (97%) patients (sensitivity = 94%; specificity = 100%). The only false localization came from a patient with equivocal z-scores on the temporal lobes and this patient turned out to have poor outcome. The computer-assisted lateralization of TLE using ZPET provides an accurate, fast and objective way of seizure evaluation

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on reducing anaemia and stunting in refugee populations in the Horn of Africa: Secondary data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Style

    Full Text Available Stunting and micronutrient malnutrition are persistent public health problems in refugee populations. UNHCR and its partner organisations implement blanket supplementary feeding programmes using a range of special nutritional products as one approach to address these issues. The evidence base for the efficacy and effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement, Nutributter®, in reducing stunting and anaemia is limited. Secondary data analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of Nutributter® distribution on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6-23 months (programme target group and 6-59 months (the standard age group sampled in routine nutrition surveys. Analysis was conducted using routine pre and post-intervention cross-sectional nutrition survey data collected between 2008-2011 in five refugee camps in Kenya and Djibouti. Changes in total anaemia (Haemoglobin<110g/L, anaemia categories (mild, moderate and severe, and stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2 were explored using available data on the Nutributter® programme and contextual factors. A significant reduction in the prevalence of anaemia in children aged 6-23 months and 6-59 months was seen in four of five, and in all five camps, respectively (p<0.05. Reductions ranged from 12.4 to 23.0, and 18.3 to 29.3 percentage points in each age group. Improvements were largely due to reductions in moderate and severe anaemia and occurred where the prevalence of acute malnutrition was stable or increasing. No change in stunting was observed in four of five camps. The replicability of findings across five sites strongly suggests that Nutributter® distribution was associated with a reduction in anaemia, but not stunting, among refugee children in the Horn of Africa. Benefits were not restricted to the 6-23 month target group targeted by the nutrition programme. However, even following this intervention anaemia remained a serious public health problem and additional work to

  11. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. At-home and away-from-home dietary patterns and BMI z-scores in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2018-01-01

    Away-from-home food intake has been associated with high rates of overweight among children and adolescents. However, there are no studies comparing at-home and away-from-home eating patterns among adolescents. The objective of this paper was to identify at-home and away-from-home dietary patterns among adolescents in Brazil, and to evaluate the relationship between these patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Data from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-2009 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was assessed by completion of written food records on two non-consecutive days. Five thousand two hundred sixty-six adolescents 10-19 years of age living in urban areas of Brazil were included in the analysis. Thirty-two food groups were examined by factor analysis, stratified by at-home and away-from-home eating. The associations between the food patterns and BMI z-scores were ascertained using linear regression analysis. In general, mean at-home food intake was greater than away-from-home food intake, but the ratio of away-from-home/at-home was greater than 30% for baked and deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, sandwiches, pizza, and desserts, and was lower than 10% for rice and beans. Three main similar dietary patterns were identified both at-home and away-from-home: the "Traditional pattern", the "Bread and Butter pattern" and the "Western pattern"; however, away-from-home patterns encompassed more overall food items. Only the at-home "Western pattern" was positively associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.0006; p away-from-home food consumption is not associated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, M

  14. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Carla C; Slater, Betzabeth

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI) z-score change among adolescents. The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004) (hereafter, baseline) and 299 in wave II (2005) (hereafter, follow-up). BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04) and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03) was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  15. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI Z-score among Brazilian adolescents*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Enes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI z-score change among adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004 (hereafter, baseline and 299 in wave II (2005 (hereafter, follow-up. BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. Results: The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04 and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03 was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Conclusions: Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  16. The association between glucocorticoid therapy and BMI z-score changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpe, Marie-Louise Hyre; Rørvig, Sascha; Kok, Karin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed the common issue of weight gain in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during early phases of treatment, and even fewer have used the appropriate measure for weight fluctuation in children, BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZs). The purpose of this study......) treatment but not in periods without GC. ΔBAZ was larger in boys compared to girls, and ΔBAZ was higher in patients who were under/normal weight at diagnosis, compared to patients who were overweight/obese (1.26 ± 1.29 vs. -0.04 ± 0.41; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: BAZ increased significantly in children...

  17. An SPSS implementation of the nonrecursive outlier deletion procedure with shifting z score criterion (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Glenn L

    2006-05-01

    Sophisticated univariate outlier screening procedures are not yet available in widely used statistical packages such as SPSS. However, SPSS can accept user-supplied programs for executing these procedures. Failing this, researchers tend to rely on simplistic alternatives that can distort data because they do not adjust to cell-specific characteristics. Despite their popularity, these simple procedures may be especially ill suited for some applications (e.g., data from reaction time experiments). A user friendly SPSS Production Facility implementation of the shifting z score criterion procedure (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994) is presented in an attempt to make it easier to use. In addition to outlier screening, optional syntax modules can be added that will perform tedious database management tasks (e.g., restructuring or computing means).

  18. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  19. Analisis Kebangkrutan Perusahaan dengan Menggunakan Metode Z Score (Studi Kasus pada Industri Consumer Goods di Bursa Efek Jakarta Periode 1997 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Kriesnawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze bankruptcy using the Z score. Research done in the consumer goods industry listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange 1997-2000 period. The results found that in 2000 the value of Z score companies has decreased, this is possible because the value of the variable X3 and X4 has decreased, but in 2001 the value of Z score Integration again experienced an increase, although not as high as in 1999, this means that the company can improve its performance. PT Mandom value of Z score indicates that the company is in a good condition or not bankruptcy. Z score value of the company from 1997 to 2001 continues to increase, it suggests that good corporate performance which proved that despite the crisis the company was still able to survive even continue to increase. Analysis of the bankruptcy of PT Unilever shows that the company is in a good condition. As in PT Mandom, the company is also not affected by the crisis. Z score value of the company from 1997 to 2001 have increased constantly, this indicates that the performance is good. Analysis of the bankruptcy of the PT Procter and Gamble shows that the company is in conditions that are less stable, this is indicated by the value of Z score in 1997 shows that the company is in the condition of the gray area, in 1998 based on assessment standards of bankruptcy, the company in 1998 experienced bankruptcy, in 1999 the company experienced a slight improvement from the beginning in a state of bankruptcy changes on the condition of the gray area, in 2000 the company was in good condition or not bankrupt, this is possible because the company sells most of its fixed assets in order to operate properly. However, in 2001 the company back on the condition of the gray area, it is because the value X2 to X5 has decreased.

  20. Differences in distribution of T-scores and Z-scores among bone densitometry tests in postmenopausal women (a comparative study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendlova, J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the character of T-score and Z-score value distribution in individually selected methods of bone densitometry and to compare them using statistical analysis. We examined 56 postmenopausal women with an age between 43 and 68 years with osteopenia or osteoporosis according to the WHO classification. The following measurements were made in each patient: T-score and Z-score for: 1) Stiffness index (S) of the left heel bone, USM (index). 2) Bone mineral density of the left heel bone (BMDh), DEXA (g of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 2 ). 3) Bone mineral density of trabecular bone of the L1 vertebra (BMDL1). QCT (mg of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 3 ). The densitometers used in the study were: ultrasonometer to measure heel bone, Achilles plus LUNAR, USA: DEXA to measure heel bone, PIXl, LUNAR, USA: QCT to measure the L1 vertebra, CT, SOMATOM Plus, Siemens, Germany. Statistical analysis: differences between measured values of T-scores (Z-scores) were evaluated by parametric or non-parametric methods of determining the 95 % confidence intervals (C.I.). Differences between Z-score and T-score values for compared measurements were statistically significant; however, these differences were lower for Z-scores. Largest differences in 95 % C.I., characterizing individual measurements of T-score values (in comparison with Z-scores), were found for those densitometers whose age range of the reference groups of young adults differed the most, and conversely, the smallest differences in T-score values were found when the differences between the age ranges of reference groups were smallest. The higher variation in T-score values in comparison to Z-scores is also caused by a non-standard selection of the reference groups of young adults for the QCT, PIXI and Achilles Plus densitometers used in the study. Age characteristics of the reference group for T-scores should be standardized for all types of densitometers. (author)

  1. Comparison of midupper arm circumference and weight-for-height z score for assessing acute malnutrition in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo: an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Arifeen, Shams El; Billah, Sk Masum; Faruque, Asg; Islam, M Munirul; Jackson, Alan A

    2017-11-01

    Background : In clinical settings, wasting in childhood has primarily been assessed with the use of a weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and in community settings, it has been assessed via the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) with a cutoff children were not identified when these cutoffs for MUAC were used. Objective: We determined the cutoffs for MUAC to detect wasting in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo. Design: A secondary analysis was carried out on data from 27,767 children aged 6-59 mo. This analysis comprised 1 ) 9131 children across Bangladesh and 2 ) 18,636 children enrolled in a surveillance study in the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b during 1996-2014. The area under the receiver operating curve was used to indicate the most appropriate choice for cutoffs that related MUAC with WHZ. Results: The mean ± SD age for the entire group was 21 ± 14 mo, WHZ was -1.18 ± 1.23, height-for-age z score was -1.63 ± 1.39, MUAC was 136 ± 14 mm, and 45% of subjects were girls. MUAC correlated with the WHZ ( r : 0.618, P < 0.001). Age-stratified analyses revealed that, for ages 6-24 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <120 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <125 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 72.9% and 63.2%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.7% and 85.3%, respectively; for ages 25-36 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <125 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <135 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 55.0% and 71.7%, respectively, and a specificity of 92.8% and 78.7% respectively; and for ages 37-60 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <135 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <140 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and 70.4%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.6% and 80.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The respective cutoffs for MUAC to better capture the vulnerability and risk of severe (WHZ <-3) and moderate (WHZ <-2) wasting would be <120 and <125 mm for ages 6-24 mo, <125 and <135 mm for ages 25-36 mo, and <135 and <140 mm for ages 37-60 mo. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children’s conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother’s height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother’s characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. The Interplay among BMI z-Score, Peer Victmization, and Self-Concept in Outpatient Children and Adolescents with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Affuso, Gaetana; Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca; Valerio, Giuliana

    2017-06-01

    Research has provided evidence that obesity is associated with peer victimization and low levels of self-concept. No study has examined the relationship between BMI z-score, self-concept in multiple domains, and peer victimization. The aim of the research was to investigate the interplay between BMI z-score, self-concept in multiple domains (physical, athletic, social), and peer victimization, testing direct, mediated, and moderated associations. Eighty hundred fifteen outpatient children and adolescents were consecutively recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the Italian country. The sample consisted of 419 males and 396 females; mean age 10.91 ± 1.97 years (range 6-14 years) and mean BMI z-score 1.85 ± 0.74 (range -0.97 ± 3.27). Peer victimization and self-concept were assessed with a revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. A structural equation model approach was used to determine the associations among variables, testing two competing models. In both models, path analysis revealed that BMI z-score was directly associated with peer victimization and self-concept in multiple domains. In the first model, peer victimization mediated the relationship between BMI-score and self-concept, whereas in the alternative model, self-concept mediated the relationship between BMI z-score and peer victimization. Interaction analyses revealed that social competence moderated the relationship between BMI z-score and peer victimization and that peer victimization moderated the relationship between BMI z-score and physical appearance. Higher levels of BMI z-score are a risk factor for peer victimization and poor self-concept. When high levels of BMI z-score are associated with a negative self-concept, the risk of victimization increases. Preventive and supportive interventions are needed to avoid negative consequences on quality of life in children and adolescents with obesity.

  4. [Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhu-Mei; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Wang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Ai-Li

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls (Pdevelopment remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.

  5. Total Mini-Mental State Examination score and regional cerebral blood flow using Z score imaging and automated ROI analysis software in subjects with memory impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Eiji; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Togo, Takashi; Odawara, Toshinari; Oka, Takashi; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is considered a useful supplementary method to diagnose dementia and evaluate the severity of cognitive disturbance. However, the region of the cerebrum that correlates with the MMSE score is not clear. Recently, a new method was developed to analyze regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a Z score imaging system (eZIS). This system shows changes of rCBF when compared with a normal database. In addition, a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software was developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between rCBF changes and total MMSE score using these new methods. The association between total MMSE score and rCBF changes was investigated in 24 patients (mean age±standard deviation (SD) 71.5±9.2 years; 6 men and 18 women) with memory impairment using eZIS and 3DSRT. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, with the total MMSE score as the dependent variable and rCBF change in 24 areas as the independent variable. Total MMSE score was significantly correlated only with the reduction of left hippocampal perfusion but not with right (P<0.01). Total MMSE score is an important indicator of left hippocampal function. (author)

  6. Development of a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion method for planning water resources systems with a trading mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Zhang, J L; Cai, Y P; Liu, Z P; Liu, L R

    2016-12-01

    This study developed a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion (FSGZ) method for water resources allocation and water quality management with a trading-mechanism (WAQT) under uncertainties. FSGZ can handle uncertainties expressed as probability distributions, and it can also quantify objective/subjective fuzziness in the decision-making process. Risk-averse attitudes and robustness coefficient are joined to express the relationship between the expected target and outcome under various risk preferences of decision makers and systemic robustness. The developed method is applied to a real-world case of WAQT in the Kaidu-Kongque River Basin in northwest China, where an effective mechanism (e.g., market trading) to simultaneously confront severely diminished water availability and degraded water quality is required. Results of water transaction amounts, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes, and system benefits under various scenarios are analyzed, which indicate that a trading-mechanism is a more sustainable method to manage water-environment crisis in the study region. Additionally, consideration of anthropogenic (e.g., a risk-averse attitude) and systemic factors (e.g., the robustness coefficient) can support the generation of a robust plan associated with risk control for WAQT when uncertainty is present. These findings assist local policy and decision makers to gain insights into water-environment capacity planning to balance the basin's social and economic growth with protecting the region's ecosystems.

  7. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass...... to target young wasted and stunted children efficiently in situations where these two conditions are present. Wasting is also associated with decreased fat mass. A decreased fat mass is frequent but inconsistent in stunting. Fat secretes multiple hormones, including leptin, which may have a stimulating...... mass. Leptin may also have an effect on bone growth. This may explain why wasted children with low fat stores have reduced linear growth when their weight-for-height remains low. It may also explain the frequent association of stunting with previous episodes of wasting. Stunting, however, can occur...

  8. Body composition in stunted, compared to non-stunted, black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective was to compare the body composition of black stunted, and non-stunted, children, from two rural communities in South Africa, and investigate whether increased total and central adiposity is found in stunted children. The design was a cross-sectional study. The setting was two study populations of ...

  9. Uninvolved Maternal Feeding Style Moderates the Association of Emotional Overeating to Preschoolers' Body Mass Index z-Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Maren; Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relation between preschoolers' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) and the moderating role of permissive parent feeding styles in these associations. Cross-sectional study involving mothers' report of food-related parenting styles and child eating behaviors. Small city in southern Mississippi. Mother-preschooler dyads (n = 104). Child body BMIz. Moderated multiple regression. An uninvolved feeding style moderated the relationship between emotional eating and BMIz such that children with higher emotional overeating scores had higher a BMIz in the presence of an uninvolved feeding style (B = 2.16; P = .01). An uninvolved feeding style may be a risk factor for higher BMIz in preschoolers who tend to overeat to cope with negative emotions. For other children in this population, self-regulatory aspects of eating may be more important than mothers' feeding style in the maintenance of healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Z Score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of undernutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Fazili Anjum; Pandit M I; Mir A A; Bhat I A

    2012-01-01

    WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) .Only 112 (25.58%) of thes...

  11. Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Conde, Wolney Lisboa; Konno, Silvia; Lovadino, Ana Lucia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2010-04-01

    To assess trends in the prevalence and social distribution of child stunting in Brazil to evaluate the effect of income and basic service redistribution policies implemented in that country in the recent past. The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age z score below -2 using the Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization) among children aged less than 5 years was estimated from data collected during national household surveys carried out in Brazil in 1974-75 (n = 34,409), 1989 (n = 7374), 1996 (n = 4149) and 2006-07 (n = 4414). Absolute and relative socioeconomic inequality in stunting was measured by means of the slope index and the concentration index of inequality, respectively. Over a 33-year period, we documented a steady decline in the national prevalence of stunting from 37.1% to 7.1%. Prevalence dropped from 59.0% to 11.2% in the poorest quintile and from 12.1% to 3.3% among the wealthiest quintile. The decline was particularly steep in the last 10 years of the period (1996 to 2007), when the gaps between poor and wealthy families with children under 5 were also reduced in terms of purchasing power; access to education, health care and water and sanitation services; and reproductive health indicators. In Brazil, socioeconomic development coupled with equity-oriented public policies have been accompanied by marked improvements in living conditions and a substantial decline in child undernutrition, as well as a reduction of the gap in nutritional status between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic quintiles. Future studies will show whether these gains will be maintained under the current global economic crisis.

  12. Two food-assisted maternal and child health nutrition programs helped mitigate the impact of economic hardship on child stunting in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Shannon; Maluccio, John A; Myers, Caitlin K; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Rigorous evaluations of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs are stymied by the ethics of randomizing recipients to a control treatment. Using nonexperimental matching methods, we evaluated the effect of 2 such programs on child linear growth in Haiti. The 2 well-implemented programs offered the same services (food assistance, behavior change communication, and preventive health services) to pregnant and lactating women and young children. They differed in that one (the preventive program) used blanket targeting of all children 6-23 mo, whereas the other (the recuperative program) targeted underweight (weight-for-age Z score effects on height-for-age Z scores (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ growth in a time of deteriorating economic circumstances.

  13. Analisis Prediksi Kebangkrutan Menggunakan Metode Altman (Z-Score Pada Perusahaan Farmasi (Studi Kasus Pada Perusahaan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia Tahun 2011 – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fitria wulandari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the condition of the company using the Altman Z-Score to predict the potential bankruptcy of the five pharmaceutical companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 to 2015. The sampling method  is using purposive sampling with a sample of five pharmaceutical companies. This research is descriptive with quantitative approach. The results showed that: (1  in 2011 to 2015 the five pharmaceutical companies are in the good category, the number of  Z-Score from all companies are  ≥ 2.99. (2 Moreover  from the five pharmaceutical companies that were analyzed PT Merck Tbk in 2011, 2013 and 2014 had the highest number for Z-Score at 8.45, 6.3 and 5.92. (3 PT Kalbe Farma Tbk in 2012 and 2014 had the highest number for Z Score at 6.08 and 5.91. The results of this study are expected for pharmaceutical companies to maintain liquidity to meet all its obligations so that will interest   investors and creditors. Companies are expected  to manage assets to increase sales and generate profits.

  14. Association between Children's Physical Activity and Parental Practices Enhancing Children's Physical Activity: The Moderating Effects of Children's BMI z-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parental practices that aim at increasing children's physical activity were found to be related to children's physical activity. So far, however, the association between these two sets of variables was studied without considering the moderating role of children's BMI z-score, which may determine the effectiveness of parental practices. The present study aims at filling this void.Design: Longitudinal data were collected among 879 dyads of children (6–11 years old and their parents. Seven parental physical activity practices were assessed at baseline. Physical activity, body mass, and height (measured among children were assessed twice (at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Body mass and height were measured objectively. Seven moderation analyses were conducted.Results: Six parental practices emerged to predict physical activity of children: collaborative social control, overall support, stimulation to be active, general encouragement for physical activity, positive social control, and modeling. Children's BMI z-score moderated three associations. The relationships between parental positive social control, overall parental support, and general parental encouragement for physical activity (at baseline, and children's physical activity (at follow-up were significant only among children with low and medium BMI z-score. In turn, collaborative social control and modeling predicted children's physical activity at the follow-up regardless child's BMI z-score.Conclusions: Parental positive social control or overall parental support may be ineffective in children with higher body mass who are in need to increase their physical activity.

  15. Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0-4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height. A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0-4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children's height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined 'concurrent stunting and overweight' as height-for-age Z-score +1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors. Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia. Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2007). There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34-2·01). Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0-4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

  16. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Results: Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de anormalidades nos perfis lipídico e glicêmico entre crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e também verificar se existe correlação entre os escores-z de índice de massa corporal (z-IMC e indicadores de comorbidades ligados a esses perfis. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal

  17. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  18. Asupan protein, kalsium dan fosfor pada anak stunting dan tidak stunting usia 24-59 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mayang Sari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is one of developing country which still facing a serious problem concerning stunting. Causes of stunting is a complex things, one of the cause is protein intake which is have effect on the level plasma insulin growth factor I (IGF-I, protein bone matrix and growth factor, also calcium and phosphorus that has an important role in bone formation. One of the province in Indonesia which has stunting prevalence above level of National prevalence is West Borneo. Pontianak as the capital city of West Borneo is still facing serious problem concerning stunting and the low level of food security. Objective: Analyze protein, calcium and phosphorus intake of stunting and non stunting children aged 24-49 months in Pontianak. Method: The study was an analytical observational with cross sectional design. Samples of the study were children aged 24-59 months in the districts of East Pontianak and North Pontianak, West Borneo, as much as 90 samples have been chosen by using simple random sampling technique. The research was conducted from July - August 2015. Statistical analysis was performed by using chi square and t-test. Results: Protein, calcium and phosphorus intake are lower to the stunting compare to non stunting children (p<0,05. Stunting prevalence of  lower protein group is higher 1,87 times than adequate protein intake group. Stunting prevalence of low calcium intake group is higher 3,625 times than adequate calcium intake group. Moreover, the stunting prevalence of low phosphor intake group is higher 2,29 times than adequate phosphor intake group. Conclusion: Protein, calcium and phosphor intake significant lower to the stunting compare to non stunting children aged 24- 59 months in Pontianak.

  19. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  20. Z-scores-based methods and their application to biological monitoring: an example in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulière, Guillaume; Dedecker, Jérôme; Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Rochcongar, Pierre; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Berthelot, Geoffroy

    2017-11-15

    The clinical and biological follow-up of individuals, such as the biological passport for athletes, is typically based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of hematological or urine markers. These follow-ups aim to identify abnormal behavior by comparing the individual's biological samples to an established baseline. These comparisons may be done via different ways, but each of them requires an appropriate extra population to compute the significance levels, which is a non-trivial issue. Moreover, it is not necessarily relevant to compare the measures of a biomarker of a professional athlete to that of a reference population (even restricted to other athletes), and a reasonable alternative is to detect the abnormal values by considering only the other measurements of the same athlete. Here we propose a simple adaptive statistic based on maxima of Z-scores that does not rely on the use of an extra population. We show that, in the Gaussian framework, it is a practical and relevant method for detecting abnormal values in a series of observations from the same individual. The distribution of this statistic does not depend on the individual parameters under the null hypothesis, and its quantiles can be computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed method is tested on the 3-year follow-up of ferritin, serum iron, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit markers in 2577 elite male soccer players. For instance, if we consider the abnormal values for the hematocrit at a 5% level, we found that 5.57% of the selected cohort had at least one abnormal value (which is not significantly different from the expected false-discovery rate). The approach is a starting point for more elaborate models that would produce a refined individual baseline. The method can be extended to the Gaussian linear model, in order to include additional variables such as the age or exposure to altitude. The method could also be applied to other domains, such as the clinical patient

  1. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  2. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  3. Perbedaan Asupan Energi, Protein, Zink, dan Perkembangan pada Balita Stunting dan non Stunting

    OpenAIRE

    Adani, Farahiyah Yusni; Nindya, Triska Susila

    2017-01-01

     Background: Stunting is a nutritional problem caused by inadequate nutrition intake for  a long time and/or recurrent infectious diseases. The impacts of stunting are increase mortality,  morbidity,  health costs, decrease cognitive development, motor, and language development.There are nutrients that important to linear growth as energy, protein, and zinc. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences of intake of the energy, protein, Zinc, development in stunting and...

  4. Impact of Childhood Nutritional Status on Pathogen Prevalence and Severity of Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, Kirkby D; Pavlinac, Patricia B; John-Stewart, Grace C; Denno, Donna M; Richardson, Barbra A; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Kirera, Ronald K; Swierczewski, Brett E; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2017-11-01

    Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection. Clinical and microbiological features were compared using log binomial regression among children with and without wasting (mid-upper arm circumference ≤ 125 mm) or stunting (height-for-age z score ≤ -2). Among 1,363 children, 7.0% were wasted and 16.9% were stunted. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with wasting were more likely than nonwasted children to present with at least one Integrated Management of Childhood Illness danger sign (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.5, P = 0.05), severe dehydration (aPR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8, P malnutrition which may be explained by a delay in care-seeking or diminished immune response to infection. Combating social determinants and host risk factors associated with severe disease, rather than specific pathogens, may reduce the disparities in poor diarrhea-associated outcomes experienced by malnourished children.

  5. Faktor sosiodemografi dan tinggi badan orang tua serta hubungannya dengan kejadian stunting pada balita usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afia Amin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is linear growth disturbance indicated by the value of the z-score of TB/U less than -2 SD. There are various factors associated with the incidence of stunting. Social demographics such as low income, low parental education and the number of members in the household, also indirectly related to the incidence of stunting. Parental height is also associated with the incidence of stunting. Short mothers have the possibility of having short baby. The results of the study in Egypt showed that children born from mothers with the height of <150 cm have a higher risk to be stunted.Objectives: To determine whether sociodemographic factors and parental height were risk factors for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: The design used case-control study. The research was conducted in April-June 2014 in the Sedayu Subdistrict. Number of samples were 252 children aged 6-23 months. The instruments were a questionnaire to determine the identity of children, the identity of respondents, nutritional status, and sociodemographic data. Infantometer used to measure the length of the children body and microtoise to measure the height of parents. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression test.Results: The prevalence of children stunting was 16.20%. Bivariate test showed that the height of mothers significantly associated with the incidence of stunting. Multivariate analysis showed that the most influential factors to the was maternal height, while variables of employment, education, income, expenditure, number of family members, and height of father did not show significant results.Conclusions: Maternal height were the risk factor for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, but sociodemographic were not.KEYWORDS: stunting, sociodemographic, parental heightABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting

  6. Praktik pemberian makanan pendamping ASI (MP-ASI bukan faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildagardis M.E Nai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting reflects a process of failure to reach linear growth potential as a result of suboptimal health or nutrition conditions. One of causal factors of stunting is inadequate of quality and quantity of complementary foods.Objectives: To identify complementary feeding practices such as introduction age of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency as risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: Study design was case-control with ratio (1:1. The study used both quantitative methods as well as case control design and qualitative through interview. Cases were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score <-2SD. Controls were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score ≥-2SD who live adjacent to the case. Data were analyzed by using univariable (descriptive, bivariable (chi-square test, and multivariable analysis (multiple logistic regression.Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that introduction age of complementary foods (OR=1.07, dietary diversity (OR=1.17, and meal frequency (OR=1.69 were not risk factors of stunting. However, compared with high dietary diversity score, low dietary diversity score (≤2, 3, 4 food groups associated with increased odds of being stunted among children aged 6-23 months (OR=2.24, 95% CI:1.00-5.01, OR=1.82, 95% CI:0.96-3.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI:0.81-3.46 respectively. The result of multivariate analysis showed that mother’s height (OR=1.86 and story of low birth weight (OR=3.23 were risk factors of stunting.Conclusions: Complementary feeding practices such as age introduction of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were not risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months. Mother’s height and story of low birth weight were risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months.KEYWORDS: stunting, nutritional intake, nutritional

  7. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  8. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  9. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  10. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pz-score differences remained significant in all age groups z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (p<0.0001) with 12.5% transitioning to overweight or obese status. These data show robust and significant differences in sex- and age-adjusted body weight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.

  11. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is It Time to Change Our Reference Curve for Femur Length? Using the Z-Score to Select the Best Chart in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huixia; Wei, Yumei; Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Yongqing; Shang, Lixin; Cai, Zhenyu; Ji, Liping; Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Wei, Li; Sun, Yufeng; Zhang, Xueying; Luo, Tianxia; Chen, Haixia; Yu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use Z-scores to compare different charts of femur length (FL) applied to our population with the aim of identifying the most appropriate chart. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in Beijing. Fifteen hospitals in Beijing were chosen as clusters using a systemic cluster sampling method, in which 15,194 pregnant women delivered from June 20th to November 30th, 2013. The measurements of FL in the second and third trimester were recorded, as well as the last measurement obtained before delivery. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified FL measurements from 19996 ultrasounds from 7194 patients between 11 and 42 weeks gestation. The FL data were then transformed into Z-scores that were calculated using three series of reference equations obtained from three reports: Leung TN, Pang MW et al (2008); Chitty LS, Altman DG et al (1994); and Papageorghiou AT et al (2014). Each Z-score distribution was presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD). Skewness and kurtosis and were compared with the standard normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The histogram of their distributions was superimposed on the non-skewed standard normal curve (mean = 0, SD = 1) to provide a direct visual impression. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of each reference chart for identifying fetuses 95th percentile (based on the observed distribution of Z-scores) were calculated. The Youden index was also listed. A scatter diagram with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile curves calculated from and superimposed on each reference chart was presented to provide a visual impression. Results The three Z-score distribution curves appeared to be normal, but none of them matched the expected standard normal distribution. In our study, the Papageorghiou reference curve provided the best results, with a sensitivity of 100% for identifying fetuses with measurements 95th percentile, and specificities of 99.9% and 81.5%, respectively. Conclusions It

  13. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  14. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  15. A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of different bundles of nutrition-specific interventions in improving mean length-for-age z score among children at 24 months of age in rural Bangladesh: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Masum Billah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh is 36%, varying with geographic and socio-economic characteristics. Previously, research groups statistically modelled the effect of 10 individual nutrition-specific interventions targeting the critical first 1000 days of life from conception, on lives saved and costs incurred in countries with the highest burden of stunted children. However, primary research on the combined effects of these interventions is limited. Our study directly addresses this gap by examining the effect of combinations of 5 preventive interventions on length-for-age z-scores (LAZ among 2-years old children. Methods This community-based cluster randomised trial (c-RCT compares 4 intervention combinations against one comparison arm. Intervention combinations are: 1 Behaviour change communication (BCC on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and complementary feeding, along with prenatal nutritional supplement (PNS and complementary food supplement (CFS; 2 BCC with PNS; 3 BCC with CFS; and 4 BCC alone. The comparison arm receives only routine health and nutrition services. From a rural district, 125 clusters were selected and randomly assigned to any one of the five study arms by block randomisation. A bespoke automated tab-based system was developed linking data collection, intervention delivery and project supervision. Total sample size is 1500 pregnant women, with minimum 1050 resultant children expected to be retained, powered to detect a difference of at least 0.4 in the mean LAZ score of children at 24 months, the main outcome variable, between the comparison arm and each intervention arm. Length and other anthropometric measurements, nutritional intake and other relevant data on mother and children are being collected during enrolment, twice during pregnancy, postpartum monthly till 6 months, and every third month thereafter till 24 months. Discussion This c

  16. Exercise and BMI z-score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Pate, Russell R

    2017-05-01

    Examine the effects of selected types of exercise (aerobic, strength training, both) on BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Randomized exercise intervention trials ≥ 4 weeks were included. Studies were retrieved by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual selection and abstraction occurred. Risk of bias and confidence in cumulative evidence were assessed. Network meta-analysis was performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models while surface under the cumulative ranking curves were used to calculate a hierarchy of exercise treatments. The number needed to treat (NNT) and percentile improvement (U 3 ) were also calculated. Thirty-four studies representing 2,239 participants were included. Median exercise occurred 3 times per week, 50 minutes per session over a 12-week period. Statistically significant reductions in BMI z-score were found for aerobic exercise and combined aerobic and strength exercise, but not strength training alone (M±SD, 95% CI: aerobic, -0.10, -0.15 to -0.05; aerobic and strength, -0.11, -0.19 to -0.03; strength, 0.04, -0.07 to 0.15). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked best, followed by aerobic exercise and strength training. The NNT was 2 for both aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Percentile improvements were 28.8% for aerobic exercise and 31.5% for combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Confidence in effect estimates was ranked as low for aerobic exercise and very low for combined aerobic and strength training as well as strength training. Aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training are associated with reductions in BMI z-score. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  18. Bankruptcy Prediction Using the Altman Z-score Model in Oman: A Case Study of Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial health is of great concern for a business firm. For measuring the financial health of a business firm, there are lots of techniques available. However, Altman’s Z-score has been proven to be a reliable tool. This model envisages predicting the possibilities of bankruptcy of manufacturing organization. Multiple discriminate analyses (MDA are useful tools in such situations. The use of MDA helps to consolidate the effect of all ratios. Keeping the above view in mind, the “Z score” analysis has been adopted to monitor the financial health of the company. The current study has been conducted to assess the financial health of a firm namely Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries in Oman. This study was based on the secondary data which was obtained from the published sources i.e. Annual report for the period of 8 years (2007 to 2014. The study revealed that the Company Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries are financially sound as they have higher Z score than the benchmark (2.99 except in some years of study. The findings of the study may be useful for the managers to take financial decision, the stockholders to choose investment options and others to look after their interest in the concerned cement manufacturers of the country.

  19. SEARCH FOR RATOON STUNTING DISEASE OF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absence of the ratoon stunting disease can be positively ascertained in indi- vidual stalks of sugarcane in field conditions in Louisiana'. The crop as a whole shows retarded growth with deficient root system and has poor stand due to the deterioration of lateral buds. As a result the number of stalks per stool is reduced in ...

  20. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  1. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Differences of Fundamental Motor Skills Stunting and Non Stunting Preschool Children in Kindergarten in North Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.

  3. Kadar kalsium serum pada anak stunting dan tidak stunting usia 24-59 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulinda Kurniasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with stunning as the accumulations of the lack of nutrient or continuous infection are highly at risk to suffer from illness and death. In developing country, there are 165 million children under the age of suffering from stunting. Research done showed that nationally stunting prevalence in 2013 is 37,2 percent. West Borneo is one of the twenty provinces with the stunting prevalence above the national average. During the growth period, children need calcium, especially for ossification. The lack of calcium is mainly caused by inadequate intake and or non-optimal calcium absorption. Some of the previous research has shown that the level of calcium serum of children with stunting has significantly lowered than the normal children. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the calcium serum level of the children with stunting aged 24-59 months in Pontianak City. Method: This study is a cross-sectional design. It conducted in East Pontianak and North Pontianak subdistricts,  from July to August 2015. A number of samples were 90 children. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: There was no significance in serum calcium level between stunting and nonstunting children (p=0,193. The average of the calcium serum level of the stunting children was 12,14±1,97 mg/dl, while the nonstunting children were 12,16±1,63 mg/dl. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference (p=0,966. Conclusion: There is no significant difference of the calcium serum level between the stunting and nonstunting children aged 24- 59 months in Pontianak City (p=0,193.

  4. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.; Bechere Fernandes, M.T.; Martins, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted - obese subjects. Hypothesis: previous malnutrition as judged by height-for-age could be associated with alterations in fat patterning, circulating hormones such as insulin and IGF-1. In addition, previous malnutrition could be also associated with alterations in plasma lipid profiles, such as high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertension. Sample and Methods: We recruited a population of 58 girls and boys with 11-14 years of age from the shantytown population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Half of this population was of normal weight and height, and the other half was stunted. More than 300 children from to 11 years old were screened to participate in the study and were eligible if they had weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ) of -2 to +2 according to the IVCHS standards. Children recruited for the stunted group (n=28) had height-for-age (HAZ) ≤-1.5 Z score and those for the non-stunted group (n=30) had HAZ >1.50. In addition, the two groups were selectively recruited to assure group similarities in mean age and WH. General anthropometry, blood sampling for fasting insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density cholesterol and IGF-1 were made as well as blood pressure. Results: Ninety two percent of the population had low values of IGF-1 indicating impaired growth. Stunted boys and girls had delayed pubertal stages. Lower fasting insulin levels and lower beta cell production according to HAM analysis in comparison to non-stunted children were found, after adjustment for differences in pubertal stages. In addition, a positive association was found between fasting insulin with age for the

  5. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  6. Anthropometric adjustments are helpful in the interpretation of BMD and BMC Z-scores of pediatric patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, T N; Short, D F; Eldar-Geva, T; Hirsch, H J; Tiomkin, M; Zimran, A; Gross-Tsur, V

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric adjustments of bone measurements are necessary in Prader-Willi syndrome patients to correctly assess the bone status of these patients. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of normal versus abnormal bone, allow for early and effective intervention, and achieve better therapeutic results. Bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Because of largely abnormal body height and weight, traditional BMD Z-scores may not provide accurate information in this patient group. The goal of the study was to assess a cohort of individuals with PWS and characterize the development of low bone density based on two adjustment models applied to a dataset of BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Fifty-four individuals, aged 5-20 years with genetically confirmed PWS, underwent DXA scans of spine and hip. Thirty-one of them also underwent total body scans. Standard Z-scores were calculated for BMD and BMC of spine and total hip based on race, sex, and age for all patients, as well as of whole body and whole-body less head for those patients with total-body scans. Additional Z-scores were generated based on anthropometric adjustments using weight, height, and percentage body fat and a second model using only weight and height in addition to race, sex, and age. As many PWS patients have abnormal anthropometrics, addition of explanatory variables weight, height, and fat resulted in different bone classifications for many patients. Thus, 25-70 % of overweight patients, previously diagnosed as normal, were subsequently diagnosed as below normal, and 40-60 % of patients with below-normal body height changed from below normal to normal depending on bone parameter. This is the first study to include anthropometric adjustments into the interpretation of BMD and BMC in children and adolescents with PWS. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of

  7. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberselassie, Selamawit Bekele; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Mutuku, Shadrack Mulinge; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Libo-Kemekem from October 15 to December 15, 2015. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 1,320 children aged 6-59months. Data were collected by trained community health extension workers under regular supervision. Data were entered into EPI-Info version 3.5.1, and height for age was converted to Z-score with ENA-SMART software. Data were then exported to SPSS version 20 for descriptive and binary logistic regression analysees. The significance of associations was determined at p<0.05. Out of 1287 children included in the analysis, 49.4% (95% CI: 46.7%-52.3%) were found to be stunted. In the multivariate analysis, increased child age [AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: (3.65, 10.91)], family size of six and above [AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: (1.35, 2.32)] were positively associated with stunting, while, fathers with secondary school education [AOR = 0.50, 95%CI: (0.30, 0.81)], farmers as household heads [AOR = 0.56, 95%CI: (0.38, 0.84)] and self-employed parents as household head [AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.72)] were found to be preventive factors. The prevalence of stunting was high in the study area. We found that stunting was significantly correlated with child age, occupational status of household head, family size, and fathers' education. Therefore, intervention focusing on supporting housewives, family planning, and education on child feeding and nutrition should be implemented.

  8. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...... to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27...

  9. Shorter sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and an increase in BMI z-score in young children predisposed to overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangan, A.; Zheng, M.; Olsen, N. J.

    2018-01-01

    in a group of young obesity-predisposed children, and to assess whether intakes of energy or macronutrients mediate this relationship. Methods: Participants included 368 Danish children aged 2–6 years from the Healthy Start Study, a 1.3 year randomised controlled intervention trial. Sleep habits were...... was 10.7 h (range 8.8–12.5 h). After controlling for potential confounders, a significant inverse association between nighttime sleep duration and ΔBMI z-score (β=−0.090, P=0.046) was observed. This relationship was mediated by energy intake, with all macronutrients contributing to this mediation effect...

  10. Integrated Blanket Supplementary Feeding Program Reduces Levels of Stunting in Yenangyaung, Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Thet; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    were seen in the underweight and wasting levels. However, significant improvements in the median height-for-age z-score (HAZ) were found in levels of stunting on Day-1 (-2.37 SD, n = 381) vs. 6-month follow-up (-1.99 SD, n = 314)(Z = -7.683, p<0.0001). Unfortunately, there were significant increases in the levels of stunting on Day-1 (-2.37 SD, n = 381) vs. 1-Year follow-up (-2.70 SD, n = 242)(Z = -2.21, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: An integrated blanket supplementary feeding program could possibly reduce levels of stunting in just 6-months, but continued monitoring is required of the children even if the children are discharged from the program to ensure their rehabilitation is sustained at home. The increase in levels of stunting at 1-Year follow-up may have been due to the fact that many of the rehabilitated children were discharged and not followed up for the study. Thus, further research is needed to assess the effects of integrated blanket supplementary feeding programs on reducing levels of stunting. (author)

  11. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, Hans P

    2017-11-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  13. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  14. Upper arm fat and muscle in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Winandi Arundito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of stunting in Indonesia is high, with particularly negative impacts on health during childhood as well as adolescence. Stunting impacts the health of children as well as adults, especially with  regards to future obesity. Therefore, evaluating body composition of stunted children before 2 years of age is necessary. Objective To compare upper arm fat and muscle measurements in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months of age. Methods We analyzed secondary data of the Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Disease, Department of Child Health, Universitas Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta which were collected using cluster random sampling from the Yogyakarta Special Province. We compared upper arm fat area (UFA, including the upper arm fat area estimate (UFE and the upper arm fat percentage (UFP, as well as upper arm muscle area (UMA and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME, among stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months. Results We analyzed 2,195 children. The prevalence of stunting was 354/2,195 (16.1%. The UFA, UFE, and UFP among stunted children were significantly lower compared to non-stunted children aged 7-12 months [UFA: 4.48 vs. 5.05 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; UFE: 4.88 vs. 5.55 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; and UFP: 30.82 vs. 32.58% (P = 0.03, respectively]. The UMA in children aged 7-12 months was also significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children [11.31 vs. 11.79 cm2 (P = 0.02, respectively], as well as in children aged 13-24 months [11.05 vs. 11.75 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. In addition, the UME in children aged 13-24 months was significantly lower in stunted compared to non-stunted children [10.50 vs. 11.18 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The UFA in children aged 7-12 months is smaller in stunted than in non-stunted children, whereas UMA in children aged 7-12 months and 13-24 months was smaller in stunted compared to non-stunted children.

  15. Efficacy of a first course of Ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus closure in extremely preterm newborns according to their gestational age-specific Z-score for birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Madeleneau

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.

  16. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  17. Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children underfive years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Surprisingly, the highest level of stunting is found in food surplus areas of the country. Objective: To identify the determinants of stunting in food surplus areas of West Gojam Zone. Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted ...

  18. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stunting among Malawian preschool children continues to be a concern. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 251 semi-urban households, who participated in a community-supported preschool programme, was conducted. Results: Of the 433 participating two- to five-year-old children, 34.4% had stunting.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  20. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  1. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  2. A review of child stunting determinants in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Ty; Tumilowicz, Alison; Sutrisna, Aang; Izwardy, Doddy; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2018-05-17

    Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain. Consistent evidence suggests nonexclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, low household socio-economic status, premature birth, short birth length, and low maternal height and education are particularly important child stunting determinants in Indonesia. Children from households with both unimproved latrines and untreated drinking water are also at increased risk. Community and societal factors-particularly, poor access to health care and living in rural areas-have been repeatedly associated with child stunting. Published studies are lacking on how education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation, and the environment contribute to child stunting. This comprehensive synthesis of the available evidence on child stunting determinants in Indonesia outlines who are the most vulnerable to stunting, which interventions have been most successful, and what new research is needed to fill knowledge gaps. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Trends in inequalities in child stunting in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Aditi; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor; Subramanian, S V

    2017-10-19

    We analysed socio-economic inequalities in stunting in South Asia and investigated disparities associated with factors at the individual, caregiver, and household levels (poor dietary diversity, low maternal education, and household poverty). We used time-series analysis of data from 55,459 children ages 6-23 months from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan (1991-2014). Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, birth order, and place of residency, examined associations between stunting and multiple types of socio-economic disadvantage. All countries had high stunting rates. Bangladesh and Nepal recorded the largest reductions-2.9 and 4.1 percentage points per year, respectively-compared to 1.3 and 0.6 percentage points in India and Pakistan, respectively. Socio-economic adversity was associated with increased risk of stunting, regardless of disadvantage type. Poor children with inadequate diets and with poorly educated mothers experienced greater risk of stunting. Although stunting rates declined in the most deprived groups, socio-economic differences were largely preserved over time and in some cases worsened, namely, between wealth quintiles. The disproportionate burden of stunting experienced by the most disadvantaged children and the worsening inequalities between socio-economic groups are of concern in countries with substantial stunting burdens. Closing the gap between best and worst performing countries, and between most and least disadvantaged groups within countries, would yield substantial improvements in stunting rates in South Asia. To do so, greater attention needs to be paid to addressing the social, economic, and political drivers of stunting with targeted efforts towards the populations experiencing the greatest disadvantage and child growth faltering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Orbital Light Curves of UU Aquarii in Stunted Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Henden, A. A.; Campbell, R. T.

    2018-02-01

    Stunted outbursts are ∼0.ͫ6 eruptions, typically lasting 5–10 days, which are found in some novalike cataclysmic variables, including UU Aqr. The mechanism responsible for stunted outbursts is uncertain but is likely related to an accretion disk instability or to variations in the mass transfer rate. A campaign to monitor the eclipse light curves in UU Aqr has been conducted in order to detect any light curve distortions due to the appearance of a hot spot on the disk at the location of the impact point of the accretion stream. If stunted outbursts are due to a temporary mass transfer enhancement, then predictable deformations of the orbital light curve are expected to occur during such outbursts. This study used 156 eclipses on 135 nights during the years 2000–2012. During this interval, random samples found the system to be in stunted outbursts 4%–5% of the time, yielding ∼7 eclipses obtained during some stage of stunted outburst. About half of the eclipses obtained during stunted outbursts showed clear evidence for hot spot enhancement, providing strong evidence that the stunted outbursts in UU Aqr are associated with mass transfer variations. The other half of the eclipses during stunted outburst showed little or no evidence for hot spot enhancement. Furthermore, there were no systematic changes in the hot spot signature as stunted outbursts progressed. Therefore, we have tentatively attributed the changes in hot spot visibility during stunted outburst to random blobby accretion, which likely further modulates the strength of the accretion stream on orbital timescales.

  5. BMI z-scores are a poor indicator of adiposity among 2- to 19-year-olds with very high BMIs, NHANES 1999-2000 to 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts are widely used, BMI-for-age z-Scores (BMIz) are known to be uninformative above the 97th percentile. This study compared the relations of BMIz and other BMI metrics (%BMIp95, percent of 95th percentile, and BMI minus 95th ...

  6. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S.; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D.; McMurray, Robert G.; Buse, John B.; Stadler, Diane D.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Baranowski, Tom; HEALTHY Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R 2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R 2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R 2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20) than for WHtR (0.17–0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart. PMID:25132986

  7. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  8. Grandparents and Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijner, Sandor; Smits, Jeroen

    2018-03-26

    Globally an estimated 159 million children under 5 years of age are being too short for one's age (stunted). More than one third of these children is living in Africa. Given the substantial number of sub-Saharan African (SSA) children living in households with co-residing grandparents and the negative effects of stunting on productivity and economic growth, gaining insight into the role grandparents play for children's stunting, has become increasingly important. By applying multilevel logistic regression analysis on a database with information on 344,748 children aged 6-60 months living in 31 SSA countries, the strength of the relationship between grandparental co-residence and children's stunting is examined. Interaction analysis is used to explore how this relationship is moderated by characteristics of the household and of the context in which the household is situated. Children in households with a co-residing grandmother have significantly lower odds of being stunted than other children, provided that the grandmother is in the 50-75 age range. When the grandmother is very young or very old, the likelihood of being stunted is higher. For grandfathers, no significant overall relationship is found, but our findings show that co-residence of a grandfather is associated with less stunting of girls, in poor households and in polygamous households. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  10. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong Kyu; Baek, Seunghee; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2018-01-01

    Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z -score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65-80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5%) were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC) of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p =0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p =0.971, respectively). Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively), whereas that of -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was consistently lower than the optimal cutoff (-1.64 vs -1.31, -1.47, and -1.41, respectively). In the elderly population, both the fixed ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance for the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities. However, the conventional cutoff of neither 0.70 in the fixed ratio nor -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was optimal for predicting the long-term mortalities.

  12. Maternal waist circumference as a prediction of children's stunted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Stunted Child and Overweight Mother (SCOM) pairs in a South African setting. After a ... this study measured waist circumference, while the Mexican group ... predictor of the mothers' children's metabolic syndrome status, but.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Socio-economic predictors of stunting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-01

    Jun 1, 2009 ... Childhood stunting continues to be a public health issue in many African ... risk of child and adult obesity.4 This wide range of effects is particularly relevant in a ... interventions, and disease control and treatment programmes.

  14. Model Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Bawah Tiga Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Kusumawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stunting merupakan masalah gizi, terbukti data pemantauan status gizi Kabupaten Banyumas 2012 prevalensi stunting sebesar 28,37% dan prevalensi tertinggi (41,6% di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis faktor risiko terkait faktor anak, ibu, lingkungan terhadap stunting bawah tiga tahun (batita agar dapat dikembangkan model pengendaliannya. Penelitian menggunakan desain kasus kontrol, populasi adalah seluruh anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas selama enam bulan tahun 2013. Sampel kasus adalah 50 batita stunting, sampel kontrol adalah 50 batita status normal. Teknik pengambilan sampel kasus diambil dari tujuh desa yang terbanyak stuntingnya, sedangkan kontrol adalah batita normal tetangga terdekat kasus dengan usia yang disamakan. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan pengukuran. Analisis data univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat, dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik ganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan karakteristik batita stunting terkena penyakit infeksi (82%, riwayat panjang badan lahir < 48 centimeter (66%, riwayat pemberian ASI dan makanan pendamping ASI kurang baik (66%, riwayat berat badan lahir rendah (8%. Pada penelitian ini, faktor risiko stunting adalah penyakit infeksi, pelayanan kesehatan, immunisasi, pengetahuan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, ketersediaan pangan keluarga, dan sanitasi lingkungan. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah penyakit infeksi. Model pengendalian stunting melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan keluarga terkait pencegahan penyakit infeksi, memanfaatkan pekarangan sebagai sumber gizi keluarga dan perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan. Model of Stunting Risk Factor Control among Children under Three Years Old Stunting is a nutritional problem, proved by the evidence of nutritional status monitoring at Banyumas District in 2012, the prevalence of stunting was 28.37% and the highest prevalence 41.6% at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care. This study aimed to analyze risk factors

  15. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  16. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lif......An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting...... the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education....... Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels....

  17. A Literature Review of the Effect of Malaria on Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting. Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: There was mixed evidence for an effect of malaria on stunting among longitudinal observational studies, and none of the randomized controlled trials of malaria interventions found an effect of the interventions on stunting. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to include malaria as a determinant of stunting or an effect of malaria interventions on stunting in the LiST model. The paucity and heterogeneity of the available literature were a major limitation. In addition, the studies included in the review consistently fulfilled their ethical responsibility to treat children under observation for malaria, which may have interfered with the natural history of the disease and prevented any observable effect on stunting or linear growth. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  19. A Combined Intervention of Zinc, Multiple Micronutrients, and Albendazole Does Not Ameliorate Environmental Enteric Dysfunction or Stunting in Rural Malawian Children in a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alfred Z; Shulman, Robert J; Crocker, Audrey H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M; Devaraj, Sridevi; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. We tested whether a bundle of safe and affordable interventions would decrease EED and stunting over 12-24 wk in a cohort of rural Malawian children 12-35 mo old. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which the intervention group received a single dose of albendazole and 14 d of zinc at enrollment and after 20 wk. The intervention group also received a daily multiple micronutrient powder throughout the 24 wk of study. The primary outcomes were improvements in EED, as measured by the urinary lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (L:M ratio) from dual-sugar absorption testing, and linear growth. Urinary L:M ratios and anthropometric measurements were evaluated after 12 and 24 wk of intervention and compared with a placebo group that did not receive any of these interventions. A total of 254 children were enrolled at a mean age of 24 mo; 55% were female. Their mean weight-for-age z score was -1.5, and their mean length-for-age z score was -0.9. After 12 and 24 wk of study, increases in the L:M ratio did not differ between the intervention group (0.071 and 0.088 units, respectively) and the placebo group (0.073 and 0.080 units, respectively) (P = 0.87 and 0.19, respectively). Relative changes in length and weight also did not differ significantly between groups at any time point. The combined usage of albendazole, zinc, and a daily multiple micronutrient powder did not decrease EED or stunting in this population of agrarian children 12-35 mo old in rural Malawi. Alternative interventions to improve these diseases should be investigated. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02253095. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh DK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Kyu Oh,1 Seunghee Baek,2 Sei Won Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background and objective: Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z-score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Methods: Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65–80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Results: Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5% were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z-score of FEV1/FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p<0.001. For the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities, both the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p=0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p=0.971, respectively. Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively

  1. EVALUASI PENATALAKSANAAN GIZI BALITA STUNTING DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SIRAMPOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himatul Khoeroh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition merupakan upaya global dalam rangka rencana aksi percepatan perbaikan gizi salah satunya menanggulangi balita stunting fokus pada 1000 HPK. Stunting merupakan prevalensi tertinggi di Wilayah kerja Puskesmas Sirampog di Kabupaten Brebes, ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas pelayanan kesehatan masih rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi penatalaksanaan status gizi balita stunting dengan unsur input, proses dan output. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Informan awal ditentukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Metode pegumpulan data melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi dan dokumentasi terhadap 6 informan awal yang terdiri dari kepala puskesmas, bidan koordinator KIA, koordinator gizi, bidan desa, kader dan ibu balita sasaran. Dua informan triangulasi yang terdiri dari koordinator kesehatan kelurga dan koordinator gizi Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada tahap input yaitu tenaga kesehatan yang terlibat masih memerlukan tambahan, belum ada tenaga gizi. Pada unsur proses, sebagian program terlaksana dengan baik meliputi program sehat bagi wanita hamil, pemberian ASI Eksklusif, pemantauan tumbuh kembang, pemberian makanan tambahan, pemberian vitamin A kecuali program pemberian taburia. Pada unsur output, cakupan prevalensi stunting di Puskesmas Sirampog Kabupaten Brebes tahun 2015 sebesar 16,74 %.   ABSTRACT   SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition is  the global efforts from all shorts of countries in the framework of program attractive speeding up of nutrition improvement one of them to cope with baby of stunting  focused to 1000 HPK. Stunting is highest prevalency in estate work clinik of sirampog brebes, this is indicate that quality of health treatment is too low. The porpose of This research is to evaluate management status nutrition of baby stunting included unsure input, proses and output.. This research is the qualitative reseearch in estate work clinik of

  2. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  3. Maize bush stunt and corn stunt: Diseases of corn caused by molicutes/ Enfezamentos vermelho e pálido: Doenças em milho causadas por molicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sidnei Massola Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize Bushy Stunt and Corn Stunt are diseases of corn caused respectively by a phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and by Spiroplasma kunkelii. Both agents are restricted to the floem vessels of diseased plants. The leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the vector of the diseases. The diseases are very harmfull to corn crops and can cause severe losses. Their importance increased very much in the last years mainly due to the continuous crops, which allow the perpetuation of corn, pathogens and vector over the year. Diseased plants show shortening, redening or yellowing and excessive proliferation of ears, among others symptoms. However, symptoms are variable according to the causal agent, environmental conditions and corn genotype. Correct diagnosis of the diseases has been reached with ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” and PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”. The use of resistant genotypes of corn is the main strategy of control of the diseases.Os enfezamentos vermelho e pálido são doenças do milho causadas, respectivamente, por um fitoplasma (“maize bushy stunt phytoplasma” e pelo Spiroplasma kunkelii, organismos restritos ao floema das plantas infectadas. Ambas são transmitidas pela cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis. São doenças bastante destrutivas, podendo causar sérios prejuízos aos agricultores. A importância dessas doenças aumentou muito nos últimos anos, devido principalmente aos cultivos “safrinha”, que perpetuam o milho, os patógenos e o vetor no campo durante o ano todo. As plantas doentes exibem redução de crescimento, avermelhamento ou amarelecimento, proliferação excessiva de espigas pequenas e improdutivas, além de outros sintomas. No entanto, esses sintomas dependem do agente causal, condições climáticas e genótipo do milho. A diagnose correta tem sido feita por testes de ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” e por PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”, devido à complexidade da

  4. Partial Molecular Characterization Of Cowpea Stunt Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial molecular characterization of the coat protein of the cowpea stunt-causing isolates of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) from Arkansas and Georgia revealed that both isolates of CMV belong to CMV subgroup I and differ at eight nucleotides positions, resulting in two amino acids difference. There was only one amino ...

  5. Dietary determination of stunting and anaemia among pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morocco is undergoing nutrition transition with more than one third of women and children presenting anaemia while about 20% of children under the age of 15 years have stunted growth. Meanwhile the prevalence of obesity is increasing yearly by 0.5 to 1 point among women. Many nutritional strategies have been ...

  6. The effect of early childhood stunting on children's cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01). Results: Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of .... linked to poorer cognitive attainment later in life (22). .... to the questionnaires and organization of the field work.

  7. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). Conclusion: The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ...

  8. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  9. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  10. Has the prevalence of stunting in South African children changed in 40 years? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-06-05

    In the last 20 years, South Africa has experienced political, economic, and demographic transitions accompanied by an epidemiological transition. Like several sub-Saharan countries, the South African population is facing both under-and over-nutrition, and nutrition and lifestyle related chronic disease while the burden of infectious disease remains high. It is critical to understand these trends overtime in order to highlights the pitfalls and successful measures initiatives taken in the efforts to tackle malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the changes in the prevalence of stunting, a chronic form of undernutrition, in South Africa over 40 years, and to derive lessons from the South African experience, a country in an advanced process of transition in sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a systematic review of publications selected from PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. We included studies and surveys published between 1970 and 2013 if they reported the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under-6 years of age living in South Africa. We excluded studies conducted in health facility outpatients or hospital wards, or children with known chronic and acute infectious diseases. We extracted Date of data collection, study setting, ethnicity, age, sex, sample size, growth references/standards, diagnostic criteria for stunting and prevalence of stunting from each study. Over the last decade, the national prevalence of stunting has decreased. However, between and within provincial, age and ethnic group disparities remain. Unlike other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, no sex or rural/urban differences were found in preschool children. However, the analysis of long-term trends and identification of vulnerable groups is complicated by the use of different growth references/standards and sampling methods. Despite economic growth, political and social transitions, and national nutritional programs, stunting remains

  11. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted children had significantly higher body fat, WHtR and BMI than the non-stunted (Pchildren were classified based on their change in weight sd. Stunted children with no change in weight sd had higher mean body fat, BMI (Pchildren had higher BMI and WHtR than the non-stunted (both Pchildren had higher BMI than the non-stunted (Pfat in young children. Such a tendency, if continued during later childhood and adolescence, can increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases.

  12. Differences in Body Build in Children of Different Ethnic Groups and their Impact on the Prevalence of Stunting, Thinness, Overweight, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. What Explains Cambodia's Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, ("covariate effects" and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes ("coefficient effects"? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries.

  14. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  15. Birth interval and stunting in children under five years of age in Peru (1996-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, M; Gutiérrez, C; Alarcón, J; Dávila, M; Cunha, A J

    2017-01-01

    Examine the evolution of stunting in birth interval (BI), and associated factors from 1996 to 2014. Data were extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (DHS) for the years 1996, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 on children birth (≤24 months vs. >24 months) and others sociodemographic variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in logistic regression for the effect of BI and other variables on stunting by each survey year. Between 1996 and 2014, stunting declined in both BI groups: ≤24 months: 35.8% to 21.8%; >24 months: 29.5% to 14.3%. BI was associated with stunting after adjustment for other variables in each survey except 2005. Of the other factors, sex, birth order (fourth child or more), maternal education and poverty were independently associated with stunting in all survey years. Residence in rural areas and in Amazon forest and highland regions was associated with stunting 1996 and 2000. Maternal age was not independently associated with stunting. While stunting showed a decreasing trend from 1996 to 2014, birth interval exceeding 24 months exerted a protective effect on stunting across the years surveyed. Poverty, low maternal education and high birth order were associated with stunting in all survey years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Household Food Insecurity as a Predictor of Stunted Children and Overweight/Obese Mothers (SCOWT) in Urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2018-04-26

    (1) Background : The double burden of malnutrition has been increasing in countries experiencing the nutrition transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between household food insecurity and the double burden of malnutrition, defined as within-household stunted child and an overweight/obese mother (SCOWT). (2) Methods : A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban city of Surabaya, Indonesia in April and May 2015. (3) Results : The prevalence of child stunting in urban Surabaya was 36.4%, maternal overweight/obesity was 70.2%, and SCOWT was 24.7%. Although many households were food secure (42%), there were high proportions of mild (22.9%), moderate (15.3%) and severe (19.7%) food insecurity. In a multivariate logistic regression, the household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) category significantly correlated with child stunting and SCOWT. Compared to food secure households, mildly food insecure households had the greatest odds of SCOWT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.789; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.540⁻5.083), followed by moderately food insecure (aOR = 2.530; 95% CI = 1.286⁻4.980) and severely food insecure households (aOR = 2.045; 95% CI = 1.087⁻3.848). (4) Conclusions : These results support the hypothesis that the double burden of malnutrition is related to food insecurity, and the HFIAS category is a predictor of SCOWT.

  17. Stunting berhubungan dengan perkembangan motorik anak di Kecamatan Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta

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    Maria Goreti Pantaleon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting (short body length is a body condition that is very short until surpass deficit at 2 SD under median of body length or body height of the population that be an international reference. The cause of stunting is food consumption that is not balanced and infectious disease. Many studies showed the correlation between stunting and poor motoric and mental development in early childhood, and poor cognitive performance and school performance in later childhood. The national prevalence of stunting in 2013 was 37.2%, it increased compared to 2010 (35.6% and 2007 (36.8%.Objectives: To know the correlation between stunting incidence and the development of 6-23 months old children in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was observational study with cross sectional design. The sample size was 100 children, whose aged 6-23 months old. They consisted of 50 stunting children and 50 non-stunting children who were selected by consecutive sampling methods. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and assisted by psychologist to measure the development of the children. Stunting in 6-23 months old children was measured by indicator of body length for age (WHO 2005 and the measurement of development used method of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression test by 95% confidence interval.Results: Statistically, there was signifi cant correlation between stunting and motoric development of the toddler (p=0.002, but there was no significant correlation between stunting and the development of cognitive, language, socio- emotional, and adaptive of the toddler. The result of multivariate showed thatstunting and sex statistically had correlation to the motoric development (p<0.05.Conclusions: Stunting associated with children motoric development in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul,YogyakartaKEYWORDS: children development, stunting

  18. DETERMINAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 2-3 TAHUN DI TINGKAT PROVINSI (DETERMINANTS OF STUNTING IN CHILDREN 2-3 YEARS OF AGE AT PROVINCE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Prevalensi pendek (stunting pada balita masih 36,6 persen. Tingginya prevalensi stunting pada anak balita merupakan refleksi masalah gizi ibu selama kehamilan dan erat kaitannya dengan kemiskinan. Secara agregat, IPKM (Indeks Pembangunan Kesehatan Masyarakat merupakan indikator kemajuan pembangunan kesehatan dan IPM (Indeks Pembangunan Manusia termasuk salah satu dari 24 indikator dalam IPKM. Tujuan analisis: mempelajari determinan faktor yang menjadi pembeda terhadap tinggi rendahnya prevalensi stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Metode: analisis ini merupakan studi populasi. Data yang dianalisis adalah data agregat dari variabel IPKM, KEK pada ibu hamil dan rumah tangga defisit energi dari data Riskesdas 2007. Sementara variabel IPM dan kemiskinan tahun 2007 dari data BPS. Dalam analisis ini, stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun merupakan variabel terikat, sedangkan variabel lainnya merupakan variabel bebas. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah uji korelasi dan uji diskriminan. Hasil Analisis: Secara bivariat tidak ditemukan korelasi antara KEK pada bumil dengan stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun, namun ditemukan korelasi antara stunting dengan IPKM (r=-0,67; p=0,000, IPM (r=-0,52; p=0,002 dan kemiskinan (r=0,58;p=0,003. Hasil uji diskriminan menunjukkan bahwa IPKM adalah faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting rendah dan stunting tinggi pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Kontribusi varian IPKM terhadap perbedaan kedua kelompok stunting sebesar 34 persen. Fungsi diskriminan yang dihasilkan Z = -6.491 + 17.853 *IPKM dengan kemampuan prediksi sebesar 78,8 persen. Kesimpulan: IPKM merupakan faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting tinggi dan rendah pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi.     ABSTRACT Background: Stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age is still 36.6 percent, the high stunting in the age group shows that nutrition problem in mother during pregnancy is highly

  19. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Nurbaiti; Annis Catur Adi; Shrimarti R Devi; Timbuktu Harthana

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  20. Kebiasaan Makan Balita Stunting Pada Masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbaiti, Lina; Adi, Annis Catur; Devi, Shrimarti R; Harthana, Timbuktu

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  1. HUBUNGAN BBLR DAN ASI EKSLUSIF DENGAN KEJADIAN STUNTING DI PUSKESMAS LIMA PULUH PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Fitri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stunting is one of the long-term indicators for malnutrition. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia about 37.2%. Babies born with low birth weight is 10.2% and the achievement of exclusive breastfeeding is 30.2%. Survey in Limapuluh Health Centre Pekanbaru, from 18 children who perform measurements, obtained 13 infants suffered stunting. The result of interviews showed that three of them were born with low birth weight (BBLR and five are not given exclusive breastfeeding. This research is to find-out the correlation between low birth weight (BBLR and exclusive breastfeeding with stunting in Limapuluh Health Centre Pekanbaru in 2017.  This study was a quantitative analysis study used cross sectional strategy. Population consists of 300 people, sample consists of 75 people by accidental sampling technique. Analysis using univariat and bivariate. The result were 25 infant (33,3% are stunting, 22 infant (29,3% with low birth weight (BBLR and  not given exclusive breastfeeding are 55 infant (73,3%. There was a significant association between low birth weight (BBLR with stunting was obtained p value 0.000 and association between exclusive breastfeeding with stunting was obtained p value 0.021 its mean p<0,05. There is a relationship between BBLR and exclusive breastfeeding with stunting events, the Ha accepted.Stunting merupakan salah satu indikasi buruknya status gizi pada anak. Prevalensi stunting di Indonesia sebesar 37,2%. Angka kejadian bayi dengan BBLR sebanyak 10,2% dan pencapaian ASI ekslusif 30,2%. Survey di Puskesmas Lima Puluh kota Pekanbaru Provinsi Riau didapatkan dari 18 orang balita yang di ukur, 13 orang diantaranya mengalami stunting. Hasil wawancara memperlihatkan bahwa 3 orang diantaranya lahir dengan BBLR dan 5 orang tidak diberikan ASI ekslusif. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui hubungan berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR dan ASI ekslusif dengan kejadian stunting di Puskesmas Lima Puluh Pekanbaru. Jenis penelitian analitik kuantitatif

  2. Changes in parent motivation predicts changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI) and dietary intake among preschoolers enrolled in a family-based obesity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Jason; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Filigno, Stephanie S; Clifford, Lisa M; Connor, Jared M; Stark, Lori J

    2014-10-01

    To examine whether changes in parent motivation over the course of a pediatric obesity intervention are significantly associated with long-term changes in treatment outcomes.   Study hypotheses were tested with a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial (N = 42). Study analyses tested whether baseline to posttreatment change in total score for a self-report parent motivation measure (Parent Motivation Inventory [PMI]) was significantly associated with baseline to 6-month follow-up changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), dietary variables, and physical activity.   Increases in PMI were significantly associated with decreased zBMI, decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages.   Given that increases in parent motivation were associated with some treatment benefits, future research should evaluate the impact of directly assessing and targeting parent motivation on weight outcomes for preschoolers participating in a weight management program. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. PERAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP KEJADIAN BALITA PENDEK DI INDONESIA (THE CONTEXTUAL ROLE OF OCCURRENCE STUNTED ON CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihadi Suhadi

    2013-07-01

    ? Pasang Google Toolbar supaya Anda tidak perlu kesulitan lagi dengan kosakata bahasa asing.Bangun bisnis global Anda. Iklankan ke berbagai bahasa menggunakan Google Peluang Pasar Global. Kesimpulan: Variabel yang terkait dengan terjadinya anak balita pendek, yaitu pada level individu adalah konsumsi energi anak balita. Pada level rumah tangga, terutama adalah pola asuh anak, tinggi badan ibu, sanitasi, dan status ekonomi rumah tangga. Pada level provinsi adalah kemiskinan. Saran: Perlu kerjasama lintas sektor untuk memperbaiki variabel-variabel yang terkait, agar proporsi balita pendek turun. ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The prevalence of stunted in Indonesia is 36.8 percent. Children who have severe stunted IQ 11 points lower than children who were not stunted. This analysis looking for factors that cause stunted from the contextual (from level of individual, household, and the Province to the occurrence of stunted children under five. Objectives: To know the causes of the level of individuals, households, and the province on the occurrence of stunted children under five. Methods: Data used secondary data derived from data Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010, the tertiary data from BPS, IPKM, and IPM. The number of samples analyzed 9 897 children under five. The statistical analysis data used multilevel statistical model binary logistic regression. Results: Provincial levels have contributed 51.9 percent, 34.9 percent individuals, and households of 13.2 percent to the occurrence of stunted children under five. The proportion of stunted children under five was reduced from 44.5 to 42.5 percent if children under five improved energy consumption, to 40.8 percent if the household energy consumption improved, to 43.2 percent if the household economy improved, to 32.6 percent when corrected parenting, becomes 35.8 percent if the mother is not stunted, to 39.4 pecent when the mother's education improved, and becomes 41.4 percent if the poverty at the provincial level improved. Simak

  4. Lower waist circumference in mildly‐stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut‐off point than in non‐stunted counterparts.

  5. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  6. Progression of stunting and its predictors among school-aged children in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, J. F.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Mirel, L. B.; Terlouw, D. J.; Okello, N.; Vulule, J. M.; Hawley, W. A.; Nahlen, B. L.; ter Kuile, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess whether a cohort of school-aged children experiences progression of stunting over a 2-y-period of observation and (2) to identify baseline nutritional and body composition risk factors for the progression of stunting. As part of a large-scale,

  7. Maternal perception of sickness as a risk factor of stunting in children aged 2-5 years

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    Maria Fatima Dete Dellu

    2016-11-01

    Maternal perception of sickness was the most dominant risk factor of stunting in children 2-5 years of age. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address the range of raised issues and so combat stunting in children.

  8. Lactoferrin and lysozyme to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ulti...

  9. Status stunted dan hubungannya dengan perkembangan anak balita di wilayah pesisir Pantai Utara Kecamatan Lemahwungkuk Kota Cirebon

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    Alina Hizni

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: There was no association between stunted status and child development; however stunted status had greater risk for delay in language development, and risk factors dominantly affecting child development were occupation and education of mothers.

  10. Chronic stunting among under-5 children in Bangladesh: A situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major problem in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Chronic malnutrition is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five years. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality in the under-fives, chronic stunting remains a formidable challenge for the country. Based on an analysis of available secondary data, this paper illustrates the current status of chronic stunting in Bangladesh. Data on selected relevant indicators such as gender, urban/rural residence, level of mother’s education, and income by wealth quintiles were extracted from the Bangladesh Health and Demography Surveys from 2004, 2007, and 2011. The data clearly suggest a strong relationship between selected socio-economic variables and stunting among children under the age of five. In rural areas, stunting prevalence rate was found to be more than six times higher than in urban areas. Income inequality was also a significant predictor of stunting. Children from the lowest wealth quintile are twice as likely to be stunted as children from the highest wealth quintile (54% of children under five in the lowest quintile compared to 27% of their counterparts in the highest wealth quintile. Similarly, the level of mother’s education is strongly related to stunting: the higher the level of mothers’ education, the lower the prevalence rate of stunting among children under five. Since wealth or income is a strong predictor of place of residence (urban/rural as well as mothers’ level of education, it can be generally concluded that inequity is the primary determinant of stunting among children under five. Bangladesh must forcefully address inequity in order to tackle the overwhelming prevalence of stunting among children under five. Despite making impressive gains to improve major health and development indicators at the macro level, Bangladesh has so far failed to adequately address the underlying

  11. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  12. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Scale up of nutrition and health programs in Ethiopia and their overlap with reductions in child stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Matji, Joan; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chamois, Sylvie; Getahun, Zewditu; White, Jessica M; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed little since 2000, and the number of stunted children has increased. In contrast, Ethiopia is an example where the national stunting prevalence and number of stunted children have decreased consistently. We compare regional differences and temporal patterns in stunting with large-scale program coverage to identify where and when programs may have led to reductions in stunting. Data from three national demographic and health surveys and population statistics illustrate, at the regional level, where and when the prevalence and number of stunted children changed since 2000. Reports from large-scale nutrition and health programs were used to identify ecologic associations between geographic program coverage and reductions in stunting. From 2000 to 2005, the decline in the national stunting prevalence was mainly a result of reductions in Oromiya, SNNP and Tigray. Few nutrition programs had high coverage during this time, and economic growth may have contributed to stunting reduction by increasing household wealth and investments in sanitation. From 2005 to 2011, declines in stunting prevalence in Amhara, SNNP, Somali and Oromiya were largely responsible for national reductions. Numerous programs were implemented at scale and could have plausibly improved stunting. While ecologic relationships suggest that economic growth and large-scale programs may have contributed to the reduction in stunting in Ethiopia, stunting did not decrease in all regions despite increased program coverage expansion of the health system. Additional impact evaluations are needed identify the most effective programs to accelerate the reduction in the prevalence and number of stunted children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Early life risk exposure and stunting in urban South African 2-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemming, W; Kagura, J; Saloojee, H; Richter, L M

    2017-06-01

    Stunting is a measure of overall nutritional status and is a major public health concern because of its association with child mortality and morbidity and later adult performance. This study examined the effects of pregnancy events, birth characteristics and infant risk exposure on stunting at age 2 years. The study, established in 1990 in Soweto, an urban South African township, included 1098 mother-infant pairs enroled in the Birth to Twenty Plus longitudinal birth cohort study. In total, 22% of children were stunted at age 2 years, with males at greater risk than females [24.8 v. 19.4%, odds ratio (OR)=1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.83]. In unadjusted analysis, male sex, household socio-economic status (SES), overcrowding, maternal age, maternal education, single motherhood, ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age and duration of infant breastfeeding were all significantly associated with stunting. In multivariable analysis, higher birth weight was protective against stunting for both sexes. Higher maternal education was protective for females only (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.87), whereas wealthier household SES protected males (AOR for richest SES group=0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92). In this and other similar settings, current stunting prevention efforts focussing on primarily providing targeted proximal interventions, such as food supplements, risk undermining the critical importance of addressing key distal determinants of stunting such as SES and maternal education.

  15. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-05-01

    Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far‐reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high‐burden settings, such as South Asia and sub‐Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  17. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  18. Tubaramure, a Food-Assisted Integrated Health and Nutrition Program, Reduces Child Stunting in Burundi: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Olney, Deanna; Ruel, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with ∼3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Stunting (height-for-age z score effect in the T24 [7.4 percentage points (pp); P effect across arms were not significant (P > 0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01072279.

  19. DEFISIENSI VITAMIN A DAN ZINC SEBAGAIFAKTOR RISIKO TERJADINYA STUNTING PADA BALITA DI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

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    Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Children of 1 - 5 years old often face nutrition problems such as undernourishment, vitamin A and zinc deficiency, anemia, stunting and low mental development index (MDI. Vitamin A deficiency can cause growth disorder and declining zinc transport and mobilization in the heart meanwhile zinc is needed in retinol binding protein synthesis. If the deficiency lasts for long it can cause growth disorder as manifested in stunting incidence. To study vitamin A and zinc deficiency as risk factors for the incidence of stunting among underfives at Nusa Tenggara Barat. The study was analytic observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study were 327 underfives of 6 - 59 months at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. Nutrition status was assessed through measurement of anthopometry, retinol serum level using HPLC, zinc serum level using AAS and hemoglobin using hemoCue. Data of individual characteristics and rearing pattern were obtained through interview and nutrient intake were measured using recall 2 x 24 hours. Data analysis used bivariate technique for variable related to stunting, chi square test for category data, independent t-test for ratio and logistic regression test to measure risk of some variables simultaneously related to incidence of stunting. The result of bivariate analysis showed that was difference in age between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05 . In the group of underfives that were no longer breastfed there was difference in intake of zinc between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis showed that underfives that were no longer breastfed had risk 2 times greater for being stunted after the control of age, status of vitamin A and zinc. The effect is modified by age and breast-feeding. There was no evidence that showed that vitamin A and zinc deficiency among underfives were risk factors for the incidence of stunting. Variable that was individually as well as simultaneously

  20. Wasting and stunting – similarities and differences; policy and programmatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The terms wasting and stunting were introduced by Waterlow to differentiate among underweight children those with a low weight-for-height (wasted) from those with a low height-for-age (stunted). Wasting is often called acute malnutrition and stunting chronic malnutrition but these terms may be misleading, and may just reflect that it takes a longer time to diagnose linear growth retardation. These two forms of malnutrition are associated with changes in body composition with a reduced muscle mass but usually a normal brain size in relation to body weight. These changes are more pronounced but more easily corrected in wasting. The reduced muscle mass present in stunting may persist into adult life and may be associated with an increased fat mass. Muscle is the main store of amino-acids and other essential nutrients needed for the body’s immune response and is a major determinant of survival in infections. The low muscle mass observed in both stunting and wasting is likely to explain the association between these two conditions and increased mortality. Hence, health and nutrition programmes aiming to reduce mortality need to prevent both wasting and stunting, especially in young children who have a low muscle ass to start with. Children having an insufficient food intake lose weight and become wasted but also stop growing in height, becoming stunted if untreated. Growth in height resumes only after wasting has been at least partially corrected. Hence detecting and treating wasting in a timely fashion also helps to prevent stunting. The recent discovery that bone and body fat are both endocrine organs interacting with each other and that bone regulates energy metabolism through osteocalcin (a hormone produced by bone) may explain these observations. Stunting can also occur in the absence of wasting. A possible explanation is that linear growth requires synthesis of cartilage and bone tissues, which contain more phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur

  1. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK

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    Lina Nurbaiti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Community Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas in Sengkol, District of Central Lombok. This article concludes that there are diatery habit in Sasak people which became predisposing factors to the occurrence of stunting to the children in Sasak. Those are the lack of animal protein intake, mistreatment of breast milk pattern giving which causes failure to fulfill nutrition standard, and there are myth-related belief that opposes the principal of nutrition fulfillment in children.

  2. ANALISIS DETERMINAN DAN PENGARUH STUNTING TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR ANAK SEKOLAH DI KUPANG DAN SUMBA TIMUR, NTT

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    Intje Picauly

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research was conducted to find out determinant factors that can cause the incidence of stunting and how it may affect elementary school children performance. The research areas were selected based on the difference access of nutrition information. Kabupaten Sumba Timur and Kota Kupang were selected as research areas. Related primary data was taken covering anthropometric index namely body height for age (HFA; weight for age (WFA, and weight for height (WFH, and academic school performances before and after research treatment. Other data was collected by interview using questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to know determinant factors that may bring about stunting. The results showed that determinant factors of stunting were family income, mother’s nutrition knowledge, child care practices, the history of infection, immunization, protein intake, and mother education. While, stunted elementary school children had low academic performances. The higher level of stunting is the lower academic performance of elementary school children.Keywords: academic performances, determinant of Stunting, elementary school studentsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting serta dampaknya terhadap prestasi anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Kupang dan Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Lokasi penelitian sengaja diambil dua wilayah yang berbeda jangkauan informasi tentang gizi dan manfaatnya serta ketersediaan sarana prasarana yang dapat digunakan untuk pencapaian kondisi bebas masalah gizi. Subjek yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing sebanyak 265 siswa di Kota Kupang dan 274 di Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Adapun jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang meliputi data indeks antropometri (TB/U; BB/U; BB/TB dan data hasil pengukuran nilai siswa. Selain itu data–data lain dilengkapi dan diukur menggunakan instrumen kuesioner yang bersifat terstruktur. Analisis

  3. Dietetic determinants of zinc consumption in stunted children under five in maya communities from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Valle, Michele; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Coyoy, Wendy; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición; De León, Jorge; Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Flórez, Iván D.; Departamento de Pediatría y Puericultura, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the elements from feeding patterns that influence the intake and bioavailability of zinc in stunted children (SC) 1-5 years from Maya communities living in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 138 stunted children aged 1-5 years. It was applied: an inventory of zinc food sources availability, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, a questionnaire about living conditions. anthropometrics measurements and informat...

  4. Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover

    2000-01-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...

  5. ASUPAN SUPLEMEN BUKAN DETERMINAN KEJADIAN STUNTING ANAK BALITA (1-3 TAHUN

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    Didik Hariyadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Supplement Intake Not Determinants Stunting Events Children (1-3 Years. This study aims relationship supplement intake with the incidence of stunting among Children aged 1-3 years who live in urban areas Kubu Raya. An observational study with the cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in Kubu Raya in August to November 2014. Measurement of nutritional status using indicators PB/U. Supplement intake asked to interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test.The results showed the percentage of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the amount of 39.51%.The most consumed form of supplements which are of the type syrup as much as 34.6% of 82.7% respondents toddler supplements. No significant relationship exists between supplement intake with the incidence of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the urban area of Kubu Raya. Abstrak: Asupan Suplemen Bukan Determinan Kejadian Stunting Anak balita (1-3 Tahun. Penelitian ini bertujuan hubungan asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita usia 1-3 tahun yang tinggal di daerah urbanKubu Raya. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Kubu Raya pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Pengukuran status gizi menggunakan indikator PB/U. Asupan suplemen ditanyakan dengan wawancara. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Chi square.Hasil penelitian menunjukan persentase kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun yaitu sebesar 39,51%. Sebanyak 82.7% balita responden mengonsumsi suplemen, dengan bentuk suplemen yang terbanyak dikonsumsi adalah dari jenis sirup sebanyak 34.6%.Tidak ada hubungan yang bemakna antara asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun di daerah urban Kubu Raya.

  6. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Molecular diversity of Rice grassy stunt virus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Hoang-Anh; Nguyen, Doan-Phuong; Causse, Sandrine; Nguyen, Thanh-Duc; Ngo, Vinh-Vien; Hébrard, Eugénie

    2013-04-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) recently emerged on rice in Vietnam, causing high yield losses during 2006-2009. The genetic diversity of RGSV is poorly documented. In this study, the two genes encoded by each ambisense segment RNA3 and RNA5 of RGSV isolates from six provinces of South Vietnam were sequenced. P3 and Pc3 (RNA3) have unknown function, P5 (RNA5) encodes the putative silencing suppressor, and Pc5 (RNA5) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The sequences of 17 Vietnamese isolates were compared with reference isolates from North and South Philippines. The average nucleotide diversity among the isolates was low. We confirmed a higher variability of RNA3 than RNA5 and Pc3 than P3. No relationships between the genetic diversity and the geographic distribution of RGSV isolates could be ascertained, likely because of the long-distance migration of the insect vector. This data will contribute to a better understanding on the RGSV epidemiology in South Vietnam, a prerequisite for further management of the disease and rice breeding for resistance.

  8. World Perspective on the Epidemiology of Stunting between 1990 and 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Susan C; Cherian, Arlin Mary; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24.8 and 25%, respectively. Minimal declines were observed in Latin America and the Caribbean at 12.6%, in the Middle East and North Africa at 12.9%, and in sub-Saharan Africa at 13.4%. But because large populations of children under 5 years of age are distributed disproportionately, decreases in prevalence do not translate to fewer numbers of stunted children globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of stunted children increased by 12.4 million between 1990 and 2015. Adult height is dependent on nutrition-specific or nutrition-sensitive factors. Nutrition-specific factors can be targeted according to their impact at critical points of development and therefore offer multiple windows of opportunity for interventions. To date, many interventions focus on the first 1,000 days, but opportunities may extend into later childhood and adolescence.
. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

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    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA, a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  10. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Turner, John G

    2008-01-01

    When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  11. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

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    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  12. Berat badan lahir rendah berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Yeyen Supriyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is a growth impairment resulting from chronic malnutrition condition or prolonged infectious diseases. It may cause growth retardation, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia reached 37.2% where Special Region of Yogyakarta reached 27% and Bantul District was 18.08%. Low birth weight babies have a life chance, however, when they survive they are still vulnerable to diseases, growth retardation, and developmental disorders. Statistics showed that 90% low birth weight cases found in developing countries and the mortality rate was 35 times higher in infants with low birth weight compared to infants with normal birth weight. Objectives: To understand the relationship between weight low birth (BBLR and stunting in children 6-23 month in Sedayu District Bantul Yogyakarta.Methods: This study used observational research with cross-sectional design. The population in this study were parents and children from 6-23 months which were 1217 subjects. The sample used in this study as many as 190 subjects were selected by using proportional probability to size techniques. Data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results: Bivariate analysis showed that low birth weight infants was significantly related with stunting (OR= 6.16; 95% CI: 3.007-12.656. In other words, children born with low birth weight status had a chance 6.16 times greater to become stunting than the children who birth weight normal Conclusion: There was a relationship between low birth weight infants and stunting in children 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul District, Yogyakarta. KEYWORDS: low birth weight, stunting, children aged 6-23 months ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting adalah gangguan pertumbuhan yang terjadi akibat kondisi kekurangan gizi kronis atau penyakit infeksi kronis. Dampak yang ditimbulkan antara lain lambatnya pertumbuhan anak, daya tahan tubuh yang rendah, kurang kecerdasan dan produktivitas

  13. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemakor, Anthony; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2016-08-24

    Stunting indicates failure to attain genetic potential for height and is a well-documented indicator for poor growth. Depression is common in women of reproductive age and women's mental health problems may affect the growth of young children. We examined the association between maternal depression and stunting in mother-child pairs attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) in Northern Ghana. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed involving mothers (15-45 years) and their children (0-59 months) who attended CWC at Bilpeila Health Centre, Tamale, Ghana. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, maternal depression was measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Scale, and anthropometry was conducted on children following standard procedures. The association between maternal depression and child stunting was examined in logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence rates of child stunting and maternal depression were estimated at 16.1 and 27.8 % respectively in Northern Ghana. Mothers with depression when compared with those without depression tended to be younger, be currently unmarried, belong to the poorest household wealth tertile, and were more likely to have low birth weight babies, so these characteristics were adjusted for. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, children of depressed mothers were almost three times more likely to be stunted compared to children of non-depressed mothers (Adjusted OR = 2.48, 95 % CI 1.29-4.77, p = 0.0011). There is a high prevalence of depression among mothers in Northern Ghana which is associated with child stunting. Further studies are needed to identify the determinants of maternal depression and to examine its association with child stunting to inform nutrition programming.

  14. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, SV

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. Methods We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Results Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Conclusions Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing

  15. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing poverty and inequities. © The Author 2017

  16. Competition and Facilitation between a Disease and a Predator in a Stunted Prey Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Boerlijst

    Full Text Available The role of diseases and parasites has received relatively little attention in modelling ecological dynamics despite mounting evidence of their importance in structuring communities. In contrast to predators, parasites do not necessarily kill their host but instead they may change host life history. Here, we study the impact of a parasite that selectively infects juvenile prey individuals and prevents them from maturing into adults. The model is inspired by the Ligula intestinalis tape worm and its cyprinid fish host Rutilis rutilis. We demonstrate that the parasite can promote as well as demote the so-called stunting in its host population, that is, the accumulation of juvenile prey, which leads to strong exploitation competition and consequently to a bottleneck in maturation. If competition between infected and uninfected individuals is strong, stunting will be enhanced and bistability between a stunted and non-stunted prey population occurs. In this case, the disease competes with the predator of its host species, possibly leading to predator extinction. In contrast, if the competition between infected and uninfected individuals is weak, the stunting is relieved, and epi-zoonotic cycles will occur, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks. Here, the disease facilitates the predator, and predator density will be substantially increased. We discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics and structure of the natural Ligula-Roach system.

  17. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  18. Regulation of pathogenicity in hop stunt viroid-related group II citrus viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanwarakorn, K; Semancik, J S

    1998-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for two hop stunt viroid-related Group II citrus viroids characterized as either a cachexia disease non-pathogenic variant (CVd-IIa) or a pathogenic variant (CVd-IIb). Sequence identity between the two variants of 95.6% indicated a conserved genome with the principal region of nucleotide difference clustered in the variable (V) domain. Full-length viroid RT-PCR cDNA products were cloned into plasmid SP72. Viroid cDNA clones as well as derived RNA transcripts were transmissible to citron (Citrus medica L.) and Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. To determine the locus of cachexia pathogenicity as well as symptom expression in Luffa, chimeric viroid cDNA clones were constructed from segments of either the left terminal, pathogenic and conserved (T1-P-C) domains or the conserved, variable and right terminal (C-V-T2) domains of CVd-IIa or CVd-IIb in reciprocal exchanges. Symptoms induced by the various chimeric constructs on the two bioassay hosts reflected the differential response observed with CVd-IIa and -IIb. Constructs with the C-V-T2 domains region from clone-IIa induced severe symptoms on Luffa typical of CVd-IIa, but were non-symptomatic on mandarin as a bioassay host for the cachexia disease. Constructs with the same region (C-V-T2) from the clone-IIb genome induced only mild symptoms on Luffa, but produced a severe reaction on mandarin, as observed for CVd-IIb. Specific site-directed mutations were introduced into the V domain of the CVd-IIa clone to construct viroid cDNA clones with either partial or complete conversions to the CVd-IIb sequence. With the introduction of six site-specific changes into the V domain of the clone-IIa genome, cachexia pathogenicity was acquired as well as a moderation of severe symptoms on Luffa.

  19. Factors behind the success story of under-five stunting in Peru: a district ecological multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Segura, Eddy R; Niño de Guzman, Jessica; Rivera-Ch, María; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-01-19

    Stunting prevalence in children less than 5 years has remained stagnated in Peru from 1992 to 2007, with a rapid reduction thereafter. We aimed to assess the role of different predictors on stunting reduction over time and across departments, from 2000 to 2012. We used various secondary data sources to describe time trends of stunting and of possible predictors that included distal to proximal determinants. We determined a ranking of departments by annual change of stunting and of different predictors. To account for variation over time and across departments, we used an ecological hierarchical approach based on a multilevel mixed-effects regression model, considering stunting as the outcome. Our unit of analysis was one department-year. Stunting followed a decreasing trend in all departments, with differing slopes. The reduction pace was higher from 2007-2008 onwards. The departments with the highest annual stunting reduction were Cusco (-2.31%), Amazonas (-1.57%), Puno (-1.54%), Huanuco (-1.52%), and Ancash (-1.44). Those with the lowest reduction were Ica (-0.67%), Ucayali (-0.64%), Tumbes (-0.45%), Lima (-0.37%), and Tacna (-0.31%). Amazon and Andean departments, with the highest baseline poverty rates and concentrating the highest rural populations, showed the highest stunting reduction. In the multilevel analysis, when accounting for confounding, social determinants seemed to be the most important factors influencing annual stunting reduction, with significant variation between departments. Stunting reduction may be explained by the adoption of anti-poverty policies and sustained implementation of equitable crosscutting interventions, with focus on poorest areas. Inclusion of quality indicators for reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health interventions may enable further analyses to show the influence of these factors. After a long stagnation period, Peru reduced dramatically its national and departmental stunting prevalence, thanks to a combination

  20. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...

  1. Detection of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) by nucleic acid spot hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothma, G C

    1985-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) was extracted from Chrysanthemum stunt viroid-infected Chrysanthemum plants. The CSV was then purified to homogenicity from this extract by one cycle of non-denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis and was followed by one cycle of denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis. No pure circular CSV was obtained. The 3' terminal of purified ASBV was polyadenylated using poly (A) polymerase. The polyadenylated ASBV was used as a template to synthesise radioactively labelled single stranded ASBV cDNA using reverse transcriptase. The radioactively labelled recombinant DNA was hybridised to crude extracts from avocado leaves and chrysanthemum leaves. Autoradiography was employed to detect cDNA-RNA hybrids.

  2. ASUPAN SENG, KADAR SERUM SENG, DAN STUNTING PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DI PESISIR SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Pramono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc, and to analyze differences of zinc serum level between dietary zinc quintile and stunting status. A cross sectional study was conducted to 70 school children (9-12 years selected by simple random sampling. Height was measured by stadiometer and weight was measured using calibrated digital weight-scale. Zinc serum level was analyzed by Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS method, and dietary intake of zinc and iron was obtained using semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using Anova test. Seventy percent subjects were at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc based on Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut off and zinc serum levels among all subjects in this study were <65 μg/dl. There were 47.1% stunting children found in this study. Mean zinc serum levels significantly differences between dietary zinc quintile (p=0.000 and between stunting status (p=0.000. At risk inadequate dietary zinc still contributed to zinc deficiency in coastal school children population. Zinc status was significantly different between stunted and normal children.Keywords: coastal area, dietary zinc, EAR, stunting, zinc serum levelsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi risiko kurangnya asupan seng dan menganalisis perbedaan kadar serum seng antara kuintil asupan seng dan status stunting. Studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap 70 anak sekolah (9-12 tahun yang dipilih secara acak sederhana. Tinggi badan diukur dengan stadiometer dan berat diukur dengan menggunakan timbangan digital terkalibrasi. Kadar seng serum dianalisis dengan metode Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS, dan data asupan seng dan besi diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data dianalisis dengan metode analisis statistik Anova. Sejumlah 70% subjek berisiko kurangnya asupan seng makanan berdasarkan

  3. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  4. Economic inequality and child stunting in Bangladesh and Kenya: an investigation of six hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, Gary W

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with the increasing focus on issues of equity in developing countries, I extend the literature analyzing the relationship between economic inequality and individual health to the developing world. Using survey data from Bangladesh and Kenya with economic status measured by a wealth index and with three different geographic definitions of community, I analyze six competing hypotheses for how economic inequality may be related to stunting among children younger than 5 years old. I find little support for the predominant hypothesis that economic inequality as measured by a Gini index is an important predictor of individual health. Instead, I find that the difference between a household's wealth and the mean household wealth in the community is the measure of economic inequality that is most closely related to stunting in these countries. In particular, a 1 standard deviation increase in household wealth relative to the community mean is associated with a 30–32 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Bangladesh and a 16–21 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Kenya.

  5. Short-term protein intake and stimulation of protein synthesis in stunted children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G. M.; Oudshoorn, Johanna H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Schilte, Piet; Ruiter, An F. C.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Endert, Erik; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Heymans, Hugo S. S.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stunted children with cystic fibrosis (CF) have less net protein anabolism than do children without CF, and the result is retarded growth in the CF patients. It is not known whether protein intake above that recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation would further stimulate whole-body

  6. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under

  7. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  8. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  9. Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijra Hijra

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increased the risk of stunting in 12-24 months old children by 8.26. This study confirms the need to scale up interventions during the first 2 years of life, including appropriate infant feeding practices.

  10. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may

  11. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency,

  12. Perspective: The potential role of essential amino acids and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathogenesis of child stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missi...

  13. FAKTOR PENENTU STUNTING ANAK BALITA PADA BERBAGAI ZONA EKOSISTEM DI KABUPATEN KUPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmanu Cahyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze difference and compare the determinants of stunting among under five years children considering different ecosystem in Kupang. It is an observational study using case control of under five children with and without stunting. There were 132 subjects chosen from lowland, middleland region, and mountainous ecosystem zones. Data was analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. The analysis resumes that determinants of stunting in lowland area is energy intake (p=0.002; OR=0.059; 95%CI:0.010-0.359, energy intake is a protective factor, in the middleland region is love and cares (p=0.002; OR=9.247; 95%CI:2.213-38.644 and sanitation (p=0.046; OR=2.832; 95%CI:1.020-7.860. Furthermore, the environmental sanitation as the factor in mountainous area (p=0.034; OR=3.978; 95%CI:1.112-14.230. The impact of stunting if left untreated will cause problems for generation in the future, for example impairment of mental development and physical growth, and it will end in poverty and the threat of life survival, so it need a proper intervention to handle it.Keywords: determinants, ecosystem zone, stuntingABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis gambaran dan membandingkan pengaruh variabel faktor penentu stunting anak balita pada berbagai zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang. Jenis penelitian menggunakan desain observational dengan rancangan case control antara kelompok balita stunting dan normal. Jumlah subjek penelitian ini sebanyak 132 subjek yang terbagi pada tiga zona ekosistem dataran rendah, dataran sedang, dan pegunungan pada bulan Maret 2015. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik Berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor penentu stunting pada zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang adalah sanitasi lingkungan (p=0,002; OR=2,307; 95%CI:0,120-0,721, dan kejadian sakit (p=0,007; OR=0,294; 95%CI:0,120-0,721; di zona ekosistem dataran rendah adalah asupan energi (p=0,002; OR=0

  14. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  15. Development of nutritionally at-risk young children is predicted by malaria, anemia, and stunting in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritionally at-risk children suffer delays in physical growth and motor and language development. Infectious diseases such as malaria pose an additional risk. We examined the cross-sectional relationships among malaria infection, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), motor ...

  16. Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu; Irie, Yuki; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-05-01

    To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010. A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators. Child stunting was associated with the child's sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents' education, maternal tobacco use and mother's birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use. Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition.

  17. The effectiveness of nutrition education for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2016-06-08

    Nutrition transition in developing countries were induced by rapid changes in food patterns and nutrient intake when populations adopt modern lifestyles during economic and social development, urbanization and acculturation. Consequently, these countries suffer from the double burden of malnutrition, consisting of unresolved undernutrition and the rise of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition tends to be highest for moderate levels (third quintile) of socioeconomic status. Evidence suggests that modifiable factors such as intra-household food distribution and dietary diversity are associated with the double burden of malnutrition, given household food security. This article describes the study protocol of a behaviorally based nutrition education intervention for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition. NEO-MOM is a randomized controlled trial with a three-month behavioral intervention for households involving pairs of 72 stunted children aged 2-5 years old and overweight/obese mothers (SCOWT) in urban Indonesia. The SCOWT pairs were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a comparison group that received usual care plus printed educational materials. The intervention consisted of six classroom sessions on nutrition education and home visits performed by trained community health workers using a motivational interviewing approach. The primary outcomes of this study are the prevalence of double burden of malnutrition as measured in SCOWT, child's height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and maternal body mass index (BMI). Because previous studies are mainly observational in nature, this study advances understanding of the double burden of malnutrition through a fully powered randomized controlled trial. The intervention assists participants in self-administered goal setting to improve diet and child feeding behaviors by improving self-efficacy. Maternal self

  18. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  19. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  20. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  1. Ketahanan pangan rumah tangga berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrin Masrin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Food is one of human basic needs. If it is not fullfilled, both in their number and quality in the individual and household level will disturb the achievement of the life quality that are health, active, and sustainable and able to rise various health and nutrition problems. Stunting in children 6-23 monthswas one of chronical nutrition problems that was caused by access and afford to the food still low.Objectives: To analyze the correlation between food security of the household and stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was an observational study with case-control design. The samples of the study were 126 children aged 6-23 months, each for case, and control group. The samples were chosen by total sampling method. Data were analyzed by using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate. Statistic test in bivariate analysis used chi-square test and in multivariate analysis used logistic regression test.Results: Bivariate analysis showed that food security of the household had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months (p=0.04, OR=2.70, 95% CI:0.94-8.77. The confounding variable which had significant correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months were mother height (p=0.00, OR=2.03, 95% CI:1.14-3.65 and low birth weigth history (p=0.03, OR=3.02, 95% CI:0.98-11.04. Multivariate analysis by controlling mother height and low birth weigth history in children aged 6-23 months,showed that household food security had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged their 6-23 months (p=0.05, OR=2.62, 95% CI:0.97-7.12.Conclusions: There was significant correlation between household food security and stunting incidence in children aged at their 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.KEYWORDS: household food security, stunting, children aged in 6-23 monthsABSTRAKLatar belakang: Pangan merupakan salah satu

  2. Freshwater Clams (Pilsbryoconcha Exilis) as an Potential Local Mineral Sources in Weaning Food to Overcome Stunting in Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. R.; Anjani, Gemala; Wijayanti, Hartanti Sandi; Nuryanto

    2018-02-01

    Based on a preliminary survey in Grobogan Central Java, one of the local food that has a prospective nutrient content developed is freshwater clams. Results of PSG report in 2015, especially in Grobogan district with stunting problem of 31.5% consisting of 7.2% very short and 24.1% short. From the stunting event factor, the role of weaning food in the form of baby porridge is the most important component in the fulfillment of infant nutrition. The research is divided into two stages of the research is the initial stage to make the formulation process by way of freshwater clams, nutrient analysis, and formula calculation. The second stage is the process of formulation weaning food by way of formula making, nutrient analysis, and acceptance test of weaning food on the baby slurry is substituted by the freshwater clams. The influence statistically different substitution of freshwater clams on protein content (p=0.014), fat (p=0,041), carbohydrate (p=0,039), water (p=0,0001), ash (p=0.0001), iron (p=0.0001), and zinc (p=0.0001). There is no influence substitution of freshwater clams on energy content (p=0,129) and fiber (p=0,225). The percentage of favorite level on the acceptance test of color (p=0,005) and taste (p=0,006) was statistically different, but there was no difference flavour (p=0,913) and texture (p=0,198). freshwater clams flour is rich in iron and zinc content, so it can serve as local food, especially in Grobogan Central Java as a stunting handling. Obtained from the results of several formulations substituted of freshwater clams in formulation 2 is a formula that can meet the standards of KEPMENKES except on the content of protein and moisture content. Formula 2 acceptable to the panelists, except for the assessment of taste.

  3. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  4. Relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting in South Asia: Insights from nationally representative data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rockli; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Corsi, Daniel J; Aguayo, Víctor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh (2014), India (2005), Nepal (2011), and Pakistan (2013), and from the National Nutrition Survey for Afghanistan (2013). In the mutually adjusted logistic regression model for 3,159 infants aged 6-8 months, short maternal stature (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.93-4.46) and lack of complementary foods (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) were associated with significantly higher risk of stunting. For 18,586 children aged 6-23 months, the strongest correlates of child stunting were: maternal height (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.82-4.03), household wealth (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72-2.94), maternal BMI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), minimum dietary diversity (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), maternal education (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.56), and age at marriage (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30). Full vaccination and minimum dietary frequency were also found to be important for severe stunting for children of this age group. Some differences were found in the relative ordering and statistical significance of the correlates in country-specific analyses. Our findings indicate that comprehensive strategies incorporating a broader progress

  5. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  6. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  7. Effect of parental formal education on risk of child stunting in Indonesia and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

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    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Sun, Kai; Sari, Mayang; Akhter, Nasima; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-01-26

    Child stunting is associated with poor child development and increased mortality. Our aim was to determine the effect of length of maternal and paternal education on stunting in children under the age of 5 years. Data for indicators of child growth and of parental education and socioeconomic status were gathered from 590,570 families in Indonesia and 395,122 families in Bangladesh as part of major nutritional surveillance programmes. The prevalence of stunting in families in Indonesia was 33.2%, while that in Bangladesh was 50.7%. In Indonesia, greater maternal formal education led to a decrease of between 4.4% and 5% in the odds of child stunting (odds ratio per year 0.950, 95% CI 0.946-0.954 in rural settings; 0.956, 0.950-0.961 in urban settings); greater paternal formal education led to a decrease of 3% in the odds of child stunting (0.970, 0.967-0.974). In Bangladesh, greater maternal formal education led to a 4.6% decrease in the odds of child stunting (0.954, 0.951-0.957), while greater paternal formal education led to a decrease of between 2.9% and 5.4% in the odds of child stunting (0.971, 0.969-0.974 in rural settings; 0.946, 0.941-0.951 in urban settings). In Indonesia, high levels of maternal and paternal education were both associated with protective caregiving behaviours, including vitamin A capsule receipt, complete childhood immunisations, better sanitation, and use of iodised salt (all peducation are strong determinants of child stunting in families in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

  8. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

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    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  9. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  10. [Coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children in south-western Benin households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Bernard; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Saizonou, Jacques; Makoutodé, Patrick Charles; Mongbo Adé, Virginie; Guedègbé Capo-Chichi, Justine; Dona Ouendo, Marius-Edgard

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children (DBM / SCOM) in south-western Benin households. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2015 on 357 mother-child pairs randomly selected by a two-stage sampling technique in the city of Comè and its surroundings. Data on socio-economic factors, family, health care, dietary quality were collected by questionnaires, observation and documentary review. Anthropometric measurements were performed in mothers and children. A logistic regression analysis model was used to search for determinants of the coexistence of the two aspects of malnutrition. 19.3% of mothers were overweight and 5.7% were obese. 46% of children were stunted. The prevalence of DBM / SCOM was 11.5%. The main factors associated with DBM/SCOM were the child's age, the mother's occupation, ethnicity, social status and educational level, and the size, economic level, transportation means and food insecurity of the household. A high frequency of the coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunting was observed in Comè households. Interventions based on the identified determinants are needed to act simultaneously on the double burden of malnutrition in Comè.

  11. An analysis of cross sectional survey data of stunting among Palestinian children less than five years of age.

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    Gordon, Nahida H; Halileh, Samia

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects.

  12. PENGARUH DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA PADA TUMBUH KEMBANG ANAK BALITA GIZI BURUK YANG DIRAWAT JALAN [The effect of DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA on growth and development of outpatient rehabilitation of children under-five with severe malnutrition

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    Astuti Lamid1, , , , dan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA on growth and development of outpatient rehabilitation of children under five with severe malnutrition. Sample was children whose age from 6 to 24 months suffering from severe malnutrition with weight /age index of WHO standard of Z score 0,05.

  13. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

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    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  15. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children.

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    Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Barr, Dana B; Debes, Frodi

    2006-03-01

    To examine possible effects on blood pressure, neurological function, and neurobehavioral tests in school-aged children with and without prenatal pesticide exposure in an area where stunting is common. In a community of Northern Ecuador with intensive floriculture and a high female employment rate, we invited 79 children attending the 2 lowest grades of a public school for clinical examinations. In addition to a thorough physical examination, we administered simple reaction time, Santa Ana dexterity test, Stanford-Binet copying, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Digit Spans forward. Maternal interview included detailed assessment of occupational history to determine pesticide exposure during pregnancy. Recent and current pesticide exposure was assessed by erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity and urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites. All eligible children participated in the study, but 7 children were excluded from data analysis due to other disease or age >9 years. A total of 31 of the remaining 72 children were classified as stunted based on their height for age. Maternal occupational history revealed that 37 children had been exposed to pesticides during development. After confounder adjustment, prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure than in the controls. On neurological examination, 14 exposed children and 9 controls showed > or =1 abnormalities. Of 5 neurobehavioral tests, the Stanford-Binet copying test showed a lower drawing score for copying designs in exposed children than in controls. Stunting was associated with a lower score on this test only, and both risk factors remained statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and social confounders. Increased excretion of dimethyl and diethyl metabolites of organophosphates was associated with increased reaction time and no other outcomes. Prenatal pesticide exposure may cause lasting

  16. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

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    Deepthi Kattula

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India.A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL, the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting.The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%. Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%.There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  17. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p early childbearing was not the sole pathway through which girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

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    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  19. The relationship between agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity, household food security, and stunting of children in rural Kenya.

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    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie A; Du Plessis, Lissane

    2017-03-01

    The study was to determine the role of Dietary diversity (DD), household food security (HFS), and agricultural biodiversity (AB) on stunted growth in children. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers and anthropometric measurements of children 24-59 months old. HFS was assessed by household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS). A repeated 24-h recall was used to calculate a dietary diversity score (DDS). Agricultural biodiversity (AB) was calculated by counting the number of edible plants and animals. The study was undertaken in resource-poor households in two rural areas in Kenya. Mothers/Care givers and household with children of 24-59 months of age were the main subjects. The prevalence of underweight [WAZ children with stunted growth were significantly different in DDS ( P  = 0.047) after the rainy season and HFIAS ( P  = 0.009) in the dry season, but not with AB score ( P  = 0.486). The mean AB for households with children with stunted growth were lower at 6.8, compared to 7.0 for those with normal growth, however, the difference was insignificant. Data indicate that households with children with stunted growth and those without are significantly different in DDS and HFIAS but not with AB. This suggests some potential in using DDS and HFIAS as proxy measures for stunting.

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

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    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  2. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

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    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  3. Riwayat gizi buruk masa lalu (stunted tidak berhubungan dengan prestasi belajar siswa SD di Kabupaten Sikka Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Tobianus Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The main nutritional problem existed in Sikka District was high prevalence of stunting in children (49.6%. Sikka District Health Office data at 2009 and 2010 confirmed that Mego Subdistrict was categorized as area in which the citizens (particularly infants had high risk experiencing health and nutritionissues with percentage of 43.3 in 2009 and 42.3 in 2010. Elementary school student’s passing percentage at Mego Subdistrict in education year of 2009/2010 placed in rank of 15 of 21 subdistricts in Sikka District.Objectives: To determine the association between history of malnutrition (stunted and academic achievement of elementary school students at Sikka District, NTT.Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional study design. Sample of this research were 3rd grade elementary school students who met inclusive and exclusive criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used ini this research.Results: Research result showed that bivariatelly stunted condition affects study achievement (p=0.027. External factors affecting study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001, father’s education (p=0.001 and child’s intelligence (p=0.027. Multivariatelly, most affective factor in student’s study achievement at Mego Subdistrict was parent’s education. The most dominant factor affecting elementary student’s study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001.Conclusions: Most students suffering stunted had low study achievement (87.2% and stunted had no significant relation to study achievement. Student’s study achievement was affected by parent’s education.KEYWORDS: stunted, study achievementABSTRAKLatar belakang: Masalah gizi utama yang ada di Kabupaten Sikka adalah tingginya balita dengan status pendek dan sangat pendek yang mencapai 49,6%. Data Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sikka tahun 2009 dan 2010 menyatakan bahwa Kecamatan Mego dikategorikan sebagai wilayah dengan masyarakat

  4. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

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    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Kim, Jeong Im; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Anderson, Nickolas A; Ximenes, Eduardo; Maeda, Junko; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2014-05-15

    Lignin is a phenylpropanoid-derived heteropolymer important for the strength and rigidity of the plant secondary cell wall. Genetic disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a means to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but frequently results in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here we show that the phenotype of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant is dependent on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex, Mediator. Disruption of the Mediator complex subunits MED5a (also known as REF4) and MED5b (also known as RFR1) rescues the stunted growth, lignin deficiency and widespread changes in gene expression seen in the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant ref8, without restoring the synthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits. Cell walls of rescued med5a/5b ref8 plants instead contain a novel lignin consisting almost exclusively of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin subunits, and moreover exhibit substantially facilitated polysaccharide saccharification. These results demonstrate that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits are largely dispensable for normal growth and development, implicate Mediator in an active transcriptional process responsible for dwarfing and inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, and suggest that the transcription machinery and signalling pathways responding to cell wall defects may be important targets to include in efforts to reduce biomass recalcitrance.

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  7. Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus: A New Polerovirus Infecting Cool-Season Food Legumes in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Lesemann, D-E; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H J

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Serological analysis of diseased chickpea and faba bean plantings with yellowing and stunting symptoms suggested the occurrence of an unknown or uncommon member of the family Luteoviridae in Ethiopia. Degenerate primers were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral coat protein (CP) coding region from both chickpea and faba bean samples. Cloning and sequencing of the amplicons yielded nearly identical (96%) nucleotide sequences of a previously unrecognized species of the family Luteoviridae, with a CP amino acid sequence most closely related (identity of approximately 78%) to that of Groundnut rosette assistor virus. The complete genome (5,900 nts) of a faba bean isolate comprised six major open reading frames characteristic of polero-viruses. Of the four aphid species tested, only Aphis craccivora transmitted the virus in a persistent manner. The host range of the virus was confined to a few species of the family Fabaceae. A rabbit antiserum raised against virion preparations cross-reacted unexpectedly with Beet western yellows virus-like viruses. This necessitated the production of murine monoclonal antibodies which, in combination with the polyclonal antiserum, permitted both sensitive and specific detection of the virus in field samples by triple-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of the characteristic field and greenhouse symptoms in chickpea, the name Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus is proposed for this new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae).

  8. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  9. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  10. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, James A; Ngari, Moses; Thitiri, Johnstone; Mwalekwa, Laura; Timbwa, Molline; Hamid, Fauzat; Ali, Rehema; Shangala, Jimmy; Mturi, Neema; Jones, Kelsey D J; Alphan, Hassan; Mutai, Beatrice; Bandika, Victor; Hemed, Twahir; Awuondo, Ken; Morpeth, Susan; Kariuki, Samuel; Fegan, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study in four hospitals in Kenya (two rural hospitals in Kilifi and Malindi, and two urban hospitals in Mombasa and Nairobi) with children aged 60 days to 59 months without HIV admitted to hospital and diagnosed with SAM. We randomly assigned eligible participants (1:1) to 6 months of either daily oral co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (given as water-dispersible tablets; 120 mg per day for age malnutrition (kwashiorkor), and 1221 (69%) were stunted (length-for-age Z score child-years of observation, 122 (14%) of 887 children in the co-trimoxazole group died, compared with 135 (15%) of 891 in the placebo group (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·71-1·16, p=0·429; 16·0 vs 17·7 events per 100 child-years observed (CYO); difference -1·7 events per 100 CYO, 95% CI -5·8 to 2·4]). In the first 6 months of the study (while participants received study medication), 63 suspected grade 3 or 4 associated adverse events were recorded among 57 (3%) children; 31 (2%) in the co-trimoxazole group and 32 (2%) in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·58-1·65). The most common adverse events of these grades were urticarial rash (grade 3, equally common in both groups), neutropenia (grade 4, more common in the co-trimoxazole group), and anaemia (both grades equally common in both groups). One child in the placebo group had fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis with concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia. Daily co

  12. Impact of low-weight severity and menstrual status on bone in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Nurgun; Becker, Kendra; Slattery, Meghan; Tulsiani, Shreya; Singhal, Vibha; Thomas, Jennifer J; Coniglio, Kathryn; Lee, Hang; Miller, Karen K; Eddy, Kamryn T; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2017-04-01

    Clinicians currently use different low-weight cut-offs both to diagnose anorexia nervosa (AN) and to determine AN severity in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of existing cut-offs and severity criteria by determining which are most strongly associated with risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Height adjusted BMD Z scores were calculated for 352 females: 262 with AN and 90 healthy controls (controls) (12-20.5 years), using data from the BMD in Childhood Study, for the lumbar spine, whole body less head, and total hip. For most cut-offs used to define low weight (5th or 10th BMI percentile, BMI of 17.5 or 18.5, and 85 or 90% of median BMI), AN had lower BMD Z scores than controls. AN at >85 or >90% expected body weight for height (EBW-Ht) did not differ in BMD Z scores from controls, but differed significantly from AN at ≤85 or ≤90% EBW-Ht. Among AN, any amenorrhea was associated with lower BMD. AN had lower BMD than controls across DSM-5 and The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) severity categories. The SAHM moderate severity classification was differentiated from the mildly malnourished classification by lower BMD at hip and spine sites. Amenorrhea and %EBW-Ht ≤ 85 or ≤ 90% are markers of severity of bone loss within AN. Among severity categories, BMI Z scores (SAHM) may have the greatest utility in assessing the degree of malnutrition in adolescent girls that corresponds to lower BMD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted-obese subjects

  14. Management of severe malnutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for length or < -3 Z-score) and/or oedema.1 The global estimate ... years who could benefit from the investment. ... policies to address poverty, trade and agriculture, opportunities that ... diseases which is leading to a vicious cycle of increased expenditure, .... however to the RUTF are the high cost of the product, sharing of.

  15. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Guerrant

    Full Text Available Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6-26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old, and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption; and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA (suggesting impaired defenses. In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation. Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1 functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2 structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3 systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how

  16. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  17. Association of urban slum residency with infant mortality and child stunting in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15-1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.

  18. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  19. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  20. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  1. Cauliflower is a new host of a subgroup 16SrVII-B phytoplasma associated with stunting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauliflower stunt has occurred with high levels of incidence and provoked significant yield reduction in Brazilian crops. Phytoplasmas belonging to the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrXV-A were previously reported in association with the disease. In 2014, plants with typical symptoms of the disease were...

  2. Drosophila insulin release is triggered by adipose Stunted ligand to brain Methuselah receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoue, Renald; Meschi, Eleonora; Agrawal, Neha; Mauri, Alessandra; Tsatskis, Yonit; McNeill, Helen; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-09-30

    Animals adapt their growth rate and body size to available nutrients by a general modulation of insulin-insulin-like growth factor signaling. In Drosophila, dietary amino acids promote the release in the hemolymph of brain insulin-like peptides (Dilps), which in turn activate systemic organ growth. Dilp secretion by insulin-producing cells involves a relay through unknown cytokines produced by fat cells. Here, we identify Methuselah (Mth) as a secretin-incretin receptor subfamily member required in the insulin-producing cells for proper nutrient coupling. We further show, using genetic and ex vivo organ culture experiments, that the Mth ligand Stunted (Sun) is a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells. Therefore, Sun and Mth define a new cross-organ circuitry that modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomy of Cycas necrotic stunt virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S S; Karasev, A V; Ieki, H; Iwanami, T

    2002-11-01

    Cycas necrotic stunt virus (CNSV) is the only well-characterized virus from gymnosperm. cDNA segments corresponding to the bipartite genome RNAs (RNA1, RNA2) were synthesized and sequenced. Each RNA encoded a single polyprotein, flanked by the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCR) and followed by a poly (A) tail. The putative polyproteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2 had sets of motifs, which were characteristic of viruses in the genus Nepovirus. The polyproteins showed higher sequence identities to Artichoke Italian latent virus, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus and Tomato black ring virus, all of which belong to subgroup b of the genus Nepovirus, than to other nepoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein also showed closer relationships with these viruses than other viruses. The data obtained supported the taxonomical status of CNSV as a definitive member of the genus Nepovirus, subgroup b.

  4. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE OF STUNTED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDERGOING NUTRITIONAL RECOVERY TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaíse Morais; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Azevedo, Maria de Lourdes da Silva Gomes de; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo

    2018-01-01

    To determine if the treatment of stunted children offered at a specialized center influences their cognitive performance. Two groups of children from vulnerable families were selected, one consisting of stunted children being treated at the Nutrition Education and Recovery Center (CREN), and the other group of eutrophic children from a local, public day care center. At CREN, children are treated in a day-hospital system (9 hours/day, 5 days/week), receiving medical, nutritional and psycho-pedagogical support. All children were submitted to the Denver-II Development Screening Test and had their development and the height-for-age index assessed at 3 moments: at the beginning of the follow-up, and after 6 and 12 months. The socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria, was assessed at the beginning of the follow-up. Data were treated by prevalence ratios for cross-sectional baseline analysis, using the Poisson regression, and by pooled prevalence ratios for longitudinal analysis, using a generalized equation estimation model, both adjusted by age, sex and economic status. Seventy-four children were included, 37 for each group. There were no differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status between groups. In the longitudinal analysis, the CREN group showed better performance in the personal-social domain (pooled prevalence ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval - 95%IC 0.82-0.95), with no differences in the other domains. The treatment offered at CREN satisfactorily improved the social skills of the treated children, without changing other domains.

  5. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily M; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Thumbi, Samuel M; Montgomery, Joel M; Palmer, Guy H; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; Walson, Judd L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008-2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  6. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments: a case study from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23 months) under-nutrition and maternal over-weight and obesity in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Anthropometric measures were collected in 446 mother-infant dyads in a metropolitan population of mixed indigenous (Maya) and non-indigenous descent in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Children were identified as stunted based on a height for age <-2 below the WHO reference median and maternal overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥25. Stunted children with an overweight/obese mother were compared to other children who were not stunted and/or who did not have an overweight/obese mother. The prevalences of stunting (38%) and maternal overweight/obesity (45%) were high, but just 17% of the mother and child pairs were dual burden. The socio-demographic characteristics of stunted children were not influenced by maternal overweight or obesity. Policies are needed to address under-nutrition as well as preventing obesity and obesity-related chronic disease risks of stunted children and their mothers.

  7. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  8. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  9. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  10. Breast Feeding, Sex and Body Composition as Correlates of Stunting Among Kenyan Children at 6 and 15 Months of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyole, Silvenus; Omollo, Selina; Skau, Jutta; Michaelsen, Kim; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Kinyuru, John; Owuor, Bethuel; Estambale, Benson; Owino, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction and objective: Stunting is prevalent in young children in low-income countries, and has detrimental effects on psychomotor development and later working capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body composition (fat-free mass and fat mass), breastfeeding and sex with stunting in Kenyan children aged 6 and 15 months Subjects and Method: As part of a nutrition trial conducted in Western Kenya, 449 six months old infants were recruited if MUAC≥11.5 cm. At six and 15 months of age, weight, recumbent length, skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured. Deuterium oxide dilution method was used to determine body fat and fat-free-mass. A predose saliva sample was taken prior to a dose to the infant of 0.5 g deuterium oxide per kg of body weight. Postdose saliva samples were taken after 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Deuterium enrichment was measured using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer. Linear regression was used to assess the association of sex, breastfeeding, fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of stunting Results: At 6 months, males had FMI being 14.03 kg/m2 (95% CI 13.80; 14.26) compared to females at 13.67(95% CI 13.40; 13.94). At 15 months males had an FMI of 14.74(95% CI 14.48; 14.99) while females had 14.41(95% CI 14.18; 14.64). At age 6 and 15 months, females had a lower -0.45 (95% CI -2.37; 1.46) kg/m2 and -0.36 (95% CI -0.59;-0.13) kg/m2 FFMI compared to girls, respectively. Stunting was not associated with body composition at neither 6 nor 15 months. Those who stopped breastfeeding before 15 months (11.1%) had a 0.01(95% CI 0.002; 0.02) kg/m2 lower FFMI when they reached 15 months. Conclusion: Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher FFMI in early infancy in resource poor settings .Stunting was associated with lower FMI at the age of 6 months but not at 15 months. Wasting was associated with a deficit

  11. Les coulisses du sublime Behind the scenes of the sublimeMovie stunts, machinery, special effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Grimaud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toute cascade de cinéma peut être perçue comme une configuration expérimentale posant au spectateur un problème d’attribution. Le cinéma livre en effet depuis ses origines une course frénétique pour rendre visuellement plausibles des actions physiquement impossibles en camouflant leurs conditions de réalisation. Qui est à l’origine de quoi ? Y a-t-il procédé et lequel ? L’acteur était-il soutenu par des machines ou par des câbles ? A-t-il effectué la cascade lui-même ? etc. Or l’acte impossible que le plateau prétend réaliser n’est jamais simplement attribuable à l’acteur, aux techniciens ou à la caméra. Il n’est jamais non plus complètement réductible à du trucage. À la fois de l’ordre de la performance physique (mais pas uniquement, un brin machinique, en grande partie collective (ou distribuée, l’effet de virtuosité au cinéma reste par ailleurs toujours inachevé sans la perception d’un spectateur pour donner à la cascade sa continuité finale. En examinant comment les cascades se font, camouflent et confondent le spectateur sur leurs sources et leur processus, cet article explore les enjeux de cette virtuosité hybride et compliquée qui arrache de façon optique l’acte à ses conditions matérielles d’exécution.Cinema is engaged from its origins in a frantic race to make physically impossible actions visually plausible by camouflaging their conditions of application. Who is at the origin of what? Is there a method and which one? Was the actor supported by machines or by cables? Did he perform the stunt himself? etc. But the impossible act which the set contends to achieve is never simply due to the actor, the technicians or the camera. It is also never completely reducible to special effects. Both physical performance (but not only, a strand machinic and largely collective (or distributed, the effect of virtuosity in movies is also still incomplete without the perception of an

  12. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS

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    Edyta Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys, aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as moderate (10°–39° or severe (≥40°. Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI, corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR and waist/hip ratio (WHR were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT, fat-free mass (FFM and predicted muscle mass (PMM were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05. Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05. The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01. Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children.

  13. Decreasing stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru: results of the Good Start in Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Cornale, Guido; Ugaz, María Elena; Arias, Lena

    2009-03-01

    The rates of stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru are among the highest in South America. There is little scaled-up experience on how to solve these problems countrywide. To evaluate the Good Start in Life Program during the period from 2000 to 2004. Data on weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, urinary iodine, and age were obtained from children under 3 years of age during two transverse surveys in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the program covered 75,000 children, 35,000 mothers, and 1 million inhabitants from 223 poor communities. The rate of stunting decreased from 54.1% to 36.9%, the rate of iron-deficiency anemia decreased from 76.0% to 52.3%, and the rate of vitamin A deficiency decreased from 30.4% to 5.3% (p anemia, and vitamin A deficiency at the national scale in Peru and many other countries.

  14. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  15. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  16. An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Grisham, Thomas; Slawsky, Erik; Narine, Lutchmie

    2017-06-01

    A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access. Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97); n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to living in a community with sanitation access. For children without household-level sanitation access, living in communities with 0% sanitation access was associated with higher odds of stunting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any

  17. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  18. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  19. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  20. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

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    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  1. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

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    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd, a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1 were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants.

  2. Role of growth hormone in stunted head growth after cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, P E; Shalet, S M; Price, D A; Surtees, R A; Pearson, D

    1987-10-01

    The head sizes of 38 patients, growth hormone (GH) deficient following craniospinal (n = 26) or cranial irradiation (n = 12), have been assessed before (n = 38) and on completion of GH therapy (n = 15) or at the end of a similar period of observation without GH (n = 7). These results were compared to the change in head size seen in idiopathic GH deficiency following GH therapy (n = 14). Before GH therapy, the latter had small heads (mean occipitofrontal circumference SD score (SDS) -1), which were relatively large compared to the height deficit (height SDS (CA) -4.7), and they exhibited catch-up growth with GH (delta occipitofrontal circumference SDS + 0.7, final occipitofrontal circumference SDS -0.2). In contrast, over a similar period all patients, who previously had received cranial irradiation in the dosage range 2700-4750 centi-Geigy, irrespective of the radiation schedule or GH treatment, showed a decrease in occipitofrontal circumference SDS (mean delta -0.9), a significant difference to the expected head growth of normal children over a similar period (p less than 0.01). We have noted that restricted head growth occurs in the years following cranial irradiation and is unaffected by GH therapy. Earlier work has shown that cranial irradiation may impair intelligence. The exact relationship between intellectual impairment and stunted head growth remains to be determined.

  3. Stunting, selenium deficiency and anemia are associated with poor cognitive performance in preschool children from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S

    2016-04-12

    Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.

  4. Modelling the Ecological Comorbidity of Acute Respiratory Infection, Diarrhoea and Stunting among Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Manda, Samuel O; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007-2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared component model was fitted to the residual spatial components of the three health conditions. Risk maps of the common spatial effects at 1×1 km resolution were derived. The empirical correlations of the enumeration area proportion were 0.37, 0.63 and 0.66 for ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. Spatially, the posterior residual effects ranged 0.03-20.98, 0.16-6.37 and 0.08-9.66 for shared component between ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. The analysis showed clearly that the spatial shared component between ARI, diarrhoea and stunting was higher in the southern part of the country. Interventions aimed at controlling and mitigating the adverse effects of these three childhood health conditions should focus on their common putative risk factors, particularly in the South in Somalia.

  5. Tomato bushy stunt virus and DI RNAs as a model for studying mechanisms of RNA virus replication, pathogenicity and recombination. Final technical report for 1994--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, T.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Jackson, A.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1997-12-31

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a small icosahedral virus with a very broad host-range. The symptoms of systemic infection range from mild mosaic to severe necrosis that often results in death. The genome of TBSV is composed of a single plus stranded RNA molecule with five genes. Two 5 inch genes are translated from the viral RNA, and the remaining three are translated from two subgenomic RNAs. Prior to the DOE supported studies, TBSV gene function had been assigned solely on the basis of sequence similarity with other virus genes of known function. The two 5 inch proximal genes (p33 and p92) were thought to be involved in viral replication, the middle gene encoded the capsid protein (p41), but no clear function was assigned to two nested 3 inch genes (p19 and p22), although it was suggested that at least one could be involved in movement. This research has determined the roles of each of the viral genes in the infection process, and the authors have obtained considerable genetic information pertinent to the contributions of the coat protein and the nested genes to the disease phenotypes observed in several host plants. They have also identified another genetic element with a short open reading frame in the 3 inch-noncoding region of the genome that provides a host-dependent replication function.

  6. Faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak umur 6-36 bulan di Wilayah Pedalaman Kecamatan Silat Hulu, Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan Barat

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    Siti Wahdah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting in children under five is an indicator of nutritional status that can reflect problem of overall social economic condition in the past. Stunting that occurs in childhood is a risk factor of increasing in mortality rate, low cognitive capability and motoric development, and improper physical function. The incidence of stunting is associated with many factors such as family environment (education, occupation, income, rearing pattern, eating pattern, and number of family members, nutritional factors (exclusivebreastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding, genetic factor, infection disease, and the incidence of low birth weight. The scope of stunting in 2010 were 35,6% and 39,7% in Indonesia and Province of Kalimantan Barat.Objectives: To identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of stunting in children of 6-36 months in Silat Hulu District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat.Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross sectional design. Population of the study were all of underfi ves children at remote area of Subdistrict of Silat Hulu, District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat. Data analysis used chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify themost dominantly determinant stunting variable.Results: The incidence of stunting was significantly associated with occupation of mother, height of father, height of mother, income, number of family members, rearing pattern, and exclusive breastfeeding supplementation (p<0.05. The incidence of stunting was not associated with occupation of father, eating pattern, duration of breastfeeding, infection disease, and education of mother (p>0.05.Conclusions: Factors associated with the incidence of stunting were the work of mothers, rearing pattern, family income, number of household members, father’s height, maternal height, and exclusive breastfeeding. The most dominant determinant of risk factors on the

  7. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  8. Inadequate dietary intake is not the cause of stunting amongst young children living in an informal settlement in Gauteng and rural Limpopo Province in South Africa: the NutriGro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, M; Amissah, A; Kleynhans, I C; Albertse, E; MacIntyre, U E

    2007-04-01

    To measure dietary intakes of young children aged 12-24 months and to determine the impact of poor diets on stunting. A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was adapted, tested and standardised. Trained enumerators conducted in-depth interviews with the mothers/caregivers of the children. Forty stunted children in urban informal settlements and 30 stunted children in rural areas were selected and pair-matched with controls. The data were captured on the Food Finder Program of the Medical Research Council. In both urban and rural areas, the diet of stunted and non-stunted groups did differ significantly and all diets were of poor nutritional quality. Diets in both areas resembled the recommended prudent diet, i.e. low in fat and high in carbohydrates. Poor quality diets were not the primary cause of stunting.

  9. A baixa estatura leve está associada ao aumento da pressão arterial em adolescentes com sobrepeso La baja estatura leve está asociada al aumento de la presión arterial en adolescentes con sobrepeso Mild stunting is associated with higher blood pressure in overweight adolescents

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2012-01-01

    de baja estatura leve con sobrepeso presentaron mayor PAS que los de estatura normal y sobrepeso. Esos hallazgos confirman que la baja estatura leve aumenta el riesgo futuro de hipertensión y esas alteraciones son evidentes en individuos jóvenes.BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that pre/postnatal undernutrition leads to higher risk of non communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether overweight adolescents with mild stunting [height-for-age Z scores (HAZ in the range -2] have higher blood pressure than overweight individuals with normal stature (HAZ >-1. MEHTODS: Participants were classified as mildly stunted or of normal stature, and further stratified according to body mass index-for-age percentiles as overweight, normal or underweight. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DPB blood pressures were determined according to guidelines, and abdominal fat was analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Mild stunted overweight individuals showed higher DBP values (p=0.001 than their underweight counterparts (69.75 ± 12.03 and 54.46±11.24 mmHg, respectively, but similar to those of normal BMI. No differences were found in DBP values of normal, overweight and underweight individuals among the normal stature groups. An increase in SBP (p=0.01 among mild stunted individuals was found when those with overweight were compared to their underweight and normal BMI counterparts (114.70 ± 15.46, 97.38 ± 10.87 and 104.72 ± 12.24 mmHg, respectively. Although no differences were observed in the means of SBP between mild stunting and normal stature groups, a significant intercept was found (p=0.01, revealing higher SBP among stunted individuals. There was a correlation between SBP and abdominal fat (r=0.42, ρ=0.02 in the stunted group. CONCLUSION: Stunted individuals with overweight showed higher SBP than those of normal stature and overweight. These findings confirm that mild stunting increase the risk of future

  10. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults.

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    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score). Twenty-one adults (66.2±1.1 years; BMI=35.3±0.9 kg/m2) with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/week at about 85% HRmax) and provided a LoGIx (n=11) or HiGIx (n=10) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and nonesterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. LoGIx and HiGIx diets decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (pdiets decreased the Z-score similarly as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TGs, FPG and WC (pdiet tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared with the LoGIx diet (p=0.06). Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces the severity of the metabolic syndrome whether individuals were randomized to a HiGIx or a LoGIx diet.

  11. Riwayat pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak 24–59 bulan di Biboki Utara, Timor Tengah Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Christin Debora Nabuasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0

  12. TNF promoter polymorphisms and modulation of growth retardation and disease severity in pediatric Crohn's disease.

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    Levine, Arie; Shamir, Raanan; Wine, Eytan; Weiss, Batya; Karban, Amir; Shaoul, Ron R; Reif, Shimon S; Yakir, Benjamin; Friedlander, Marcello; Kaniel, Yael; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther

    2005-07-01

    Delayed growth is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Multiple factors have been shown to affect growth in this situation, the most prominent being the presence and severity of inflammation and inadequate nutritional intake. Inflammation, anorexia, and weight loss are all manifestations of circulating TNF-alpha, which is elevated in CD. The ability to secrete TNF-alpha may be affected by polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha promoter. The aim of our study was to determine whether growth retardation and disease severity in pediatric onset CD are affected by TNF promoter genotype. Genotyping for TNF-alpha and NOD2/CARD15 single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed in 87 patients with detailed growth records. Parameters including disease location and disease severity were recorded, and the effect of these polymorphisms on Z-scores for height and weight at disease onset and during follow-up were analyzed. Lower age of onset was linked to more height retardation, while the presence of colonic disease and the absence of ileal disease were more likely to predict the absence of growth retardation. The presence of two polymorphisms thought to decrease circulating TNF-alpha was associated with higher mean Z-scores for height and a trend toward less growth retardation. Two other polymorphisms were modestly associated with disease severity. Polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha promoter may independently modulate growth and disease severity in pediatric onset CD. The effect of these polymorphisms does not appear to be mediated via weight loss, and is relatively modest.

  13. Relationship between severe obesity and gut inflammation in children: what's next?

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    Assante Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary evidence suggests an association between obesity and gut inflammation. Aims To evaluate the frequency of glucose abnormalities and their correlation with systemic and intestinal inflammation in severely obese children. Patients and Methods Thirty-four children (25 males; median age 10.8 ± 3.4 yrs with severe obesity (BMI >95% were screened for diabetes with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, systemic inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP and gut inflammation with rectal nitric oxide (NO and faecal calprotectin. Results BMI ranged from 23 to 44 kg/m2, and BMI z-score between 2.08 e 4.93 (median 2.69 ± 0.53. Glucose abnormalities were documented in 71% of patients: type 2 diabetes in 29%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG in 58%, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in 37.5%. Thirty-one patients (91% were hyperinsulinemic. CRP was increased in 73.5% with a correlation between BMI z-score and CRP (p 0.03. Faecal calprotectin was increased in 47% patients (mean 77 ± 68, and in 50% of children with abnormal glucose metabolism (mean 76 ± 68 μg/g, with a correlation with increasing BMI z-score. NO was pathological in 88%, and in 87.5% of glucose impairment (mean 6.8 ± 5 μM. Conclusions In this study, the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in obese children is higher than in other series; furthermore, a correlation is present between markers of systemic and intestinal inflammation and glucose abnormalities.

  14. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

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    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal

  15. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

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    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  16. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

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    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

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    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  18. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

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    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  19. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

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    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  20. Trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian pre-schoolers from 1991 to 2011: findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Valdivia, Martín

    2014-11-01

    To examine trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian children, using 2006 WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study criteria. Trend analyses using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from Demographic and Health Surveys (1991-2011). We performed logistic regression analyses of stunting and overweight trends in sociodemographic groups (sex, age, urban-rural residence, region, maternal education and household wealth), adjusted for sampling design effects (strata, clusters and sampling weights). Peru. Children aged 0-59 months surveyed in 1991-92 (n 7999), 1996 (n 14 877), 2000 (n 11 754), 2007-08 (n 8232) and 2011 (n 8186). Child stunting declined (F(1, 5149) = 174·8, P ≤ 0·00) and child overweight was stable in the period 1991-2011 (F(1, 5147) = 0·4, P ≤ 0·54). Over the study period, levels of stunting were highest in rural compared with urban areas, the Andean and Amazon regions compared with the Coast, among children of low-educated mothers and among children living in households in the poorest wealth quintile. The trend in overweight rose among males in coastal areas (F(1, 2250) = 4·779, P ≤ 0·029) and among males in the richest wealth quintile (F(1, 1730) = 5·458, P ≤ 0·020). The 2011 levels of stunting and overweight were eight times and three and a half times higher, respectively, than the expected levels from the 2006 WHO growth standards. The trend over the study period in stunting declined in most sociodemographic subgroups. The trend in overweight was stable in most sociodemographic subgroups.

  1. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

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    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  2. South Africa's nutritional transition: overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in female primary school learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Tathiah, N; Moodley, I; Mubaiwa, V; Denny, L; Taylor, M

    2013-06-27

    Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- and undernutrition (nutritional transition) can exist in communities. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition among female learners in the Nongoma and Ceza districts in Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We performed a secondary analysis of anthropometric data collected during the 2011 HPV Vaccination Demonstration Project. School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. We found evidence of both under- and overnutrition. Overall, 9% of female learners were overweight, 3.8% obese, 4% underweight and 9.2% stunted (using WHO/NCHS criteria). The highest levels of stunting were in the 11 - 12-year age groups, of underweight in the 10-year age group, of overweight and obesity in the 9 - 10-year age groups. Moreover, a proportion of underweight (17.4%), overweight (11.1%) and obese (22.9%) learners were also stunted. Our study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity, wasting and stunting of female learners in KZN and suggests the presence of a nutritional transition in these rural communities; however, further studies are needed. Our findings emphasise the need for health promotion and education programs in schools.

  3. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

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    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  4. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

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    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  5. A combined intervention of zinc, multiple micronutrients, and albendazole does not ameliorate environmental enteric dysfunction or stunting in rural Malawian children in a double-blind randomized controlled trial

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    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. We tested whether ...

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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    Ali, W.; Ayub, A.; Hussain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  7. Nucleotide sequence analyses of genomic RNAs of peanut stunt virus Mi, the type strain representative of a novel PSV subgroup from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.; Xu, Z.; Goldbach, R.W.; Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Peanut stunt virus strain Mi (PSV-Mi) from China was determined and compared to other viruses of the genus Cucumovirus. The tripartite genome of PSV-Mi encoded five open reading frames (ORFs) typical of cucumoviruses. Distance analyses of four ORFs indicated that

  8. Molecular detection and characterization of Hop stunt viroid sequence variants from naturally infected pomegranate (Punica granatum L. in Tunisia

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    Faten GORSANE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian pomegranate Hop stunt viroid (HSVd variants are described. Dot-blot hybridization, S-Page, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of RNA extracts from infected tissues were carried out. Results obtained by these techniques were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. The genetic diversity among the Tunisian variants was investigated, which also involved analysis of sequences of previously described HSVd variants from Tunisian citrus var. clementine and fig, and from fruit trees from other Mediterranean countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian pomegranate HSVd variants were clustered into two groups: a cachexia strain within the citrus type group and a recombinant citrus-plum type group. Results also showed a high haplotype diversity which was not related either to the host or to the geographical origin. Selective neutrality and genetic network tests suggest that the HSVd isolates have spread rapidly.

  9. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; PRwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

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    Kerry L M Wong

    Full Text Available Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA. Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10 and quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII and concentration index (CIX.In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kerry L M; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-01-01

    Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous. We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10) and quintiles (Q1 and Q5) were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX). In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels. Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  12. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on under-five mortality and stunting: Analysis of data from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Nutrition interventions may have favourable as well as unfavourable effects. The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat, with early prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation, reduced infant mortality and were reported to be very cost-effective. However, the multiple micronutrients (MMS supplement was associated with an increased risk of stunted growth in infancy and early childhood. This unfavourable outcome was not included in the previous cost-effectiveness analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the MINIMat interventions remain cost-effective in view of both favourable (decreased under-five-years mortality and unfavourable (increased stunting outcomes.Pregnant women in rural Bangladesh, where food insecurity still is prevalent, were randomized to early (E or usual (U invitation to be given food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μg of folic acid. E reduced stunting at 4.5 years compared with U, MMS increased stunting at 4.5 years compared with Fe60, while the combination EMMS reduced infant mortality compared with UFe60. The outcome measure used was disability adjusted life years (DALYs, a measure of overall disease burden that combines years of life lost due to premature mortality (under five-year mortality and years lived with disability (stunting. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated using cost data from already published studies.By incrementing UFe60 (standard practice to EMMS, one DALY could be averted at a cost of US$24.When both favourable and unfavourable outcomes were included in the analysis, early prenatal food and multiple micronutrient interventions remained highly cost effective and seem to be meaningful from a public health perspective.

  14. Vitamin D status is associated with underweight and stunting in children aged 6-36 months residing in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Rana R; Holick, Michael F; Sempértegui, Fernando; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Estrella, Bertha; Moore, Lynn L; Fox, Matthew P; Hamer, Davidson H

    2017-11-22

    There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Vitamin A, Zinc and Pneumonia study. Children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine a vitamin D cut-off specific for our endpoints. Associations between serum 25(OH)D and underweight (defined as weight-for-age Z-score≤-1) and stunting (defined as height-for-age Z-score≤-2) were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Children residing in five low-SES peri-urban neighbourhoods near Quito, Ecuador. Children (n 516) aged 6-36 months. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 58·0 (sd 17·7) nmol/l. Sensitivity analysis revealed an undernutrition-specific 25(OH)D cut-off of DDD levels were more likely to be stunted (aOR=2·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 4·7). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were more common in underweight and stunted Ecuadorian children.

  15. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

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    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  16. Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score < -2, and 30.2% were mild-to-moderately stunted or length-for-age Z score < -1. Stunting status was significantly associated with motor and phonetic language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hubungan sosial ekonomi, pola asuh, pola makan dengan stunting pada siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Lut Tawar, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Aramico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: High prevalence of stunted children that indicates nutrition problem in Indonesia is a chronic problem associated with poverty, low education, and lack of service and environmental health. The low birth weight infant will have an impact on growth disorders in children.      Objectives: To identify association between social economic aspect of the family, rearing pattern, eating pattern and stunting in elementary school children in Lut Tawar Subditrict Central Aceh Regency.Methods: The study were analytic observational with cross sectional design and qualitative method. Data were obtained through observation and interview using questionnaire. Samples were 378 children from 11 elementary school in Lut Tawar Subdistrict Central Aceh Regency. Samples were selected by proportional random sampling. Analysis used chi-square at confi dence interval 95%. Number of samples were 378 children.Results: There were association between maternal education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=4.06; father education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=3.37; number of underfi ves with nutritional status (p=0.007 OR=2.71; income of parent and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=7.8; rearing pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=8.07; eating pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=6.01. There were dominant association between rearing pattern and nutritional status with OR 8, between eating patern,income of parent and nutritional status with OR of 6.01 There were no association between acces and utilization of health service and nutritional status (p=0,78 OR=0,93.Conclusions: There were signifi cant association between rearing pattern, eating pattern, and nutritional status.KEYWORDS: stunting, rearing pattern, eating patternABSTRAKLatar belakang: Tingginya prevalensi anak pendek yang menunjukkan masalah gizi di Indonesia merupakan masalah kronis yang berkaitan dengan kemiskinan, rendahnya pendidikan, dan kurang memadainya pelayanan

  18. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet. PMID:23036993

  19. PENGEMBANGAN FORMULA SIRUP ZINK DARI EKSTRAK IKAN BILIH (Mystacoleucus- padangensis SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF SUPLEMENTASI ZINK ORGANIK PADA ANAK PENDEK (STUNTED USIA 12-36 BULAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yuniritha

    2015-03-01

      The extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis zinc syrup is made from basic ingredient of bilih fish which contains 27,8 mg zinc/100 gram syrup. It is much higher than other food zinc source. The use of the extract of bilih fish as an alternative of organic zinc supplementation can be used for those who have zinc deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to be studied as an alternative intervention program for stunting in children aged 12-36 months. This objective of this study is to develop zinc formula syrup from the extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis as an organic zinc supplementation for stunted children. This laboratory experimental research is begun by extracting the fish bilih using a standard method. The extract of bilih fish is formulated in the form of suspension syrup, at the laboratory of Biology and Liquid Preparation in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. The extract of bilih fish is very high in zinc content (161, 97 mg/100 gram, with main preparation of Zinc Citrate, Vitamin A and protein, added with simplex syrup (64%, CMC-Na, Citric Acid, fruit flavor and food color subtances. This supplement syrup formula is based on International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG, with 3 best formulas based on organoleptic test, formula F 4.1, F 2.2 and F 2.3. The zinc syrup formula from extract of bilih fish could be an alternative of organic zinc supplementation to address zinc deficiency in stunted children. Keywords: extract bilih, zinc supplementation, stunting

  20. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3′UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age. PMID:26010155

  1. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  2. The effect of adding zinc to vitamin A on IGF-1, bone age and linear growth in stunted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Merryana; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was conducted with children in Mojo village, Surabaya City. Children aged 48 to 60 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A plus zinc sulfate (n=12) or a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A (n=12) plus placebo six days a week for six months. Children were evaluated weekly for nutrient intake and for IGF-1, C-reactive protein levels, gamma globulin levels, serum zinc, serum retinol, bone age and the index height for age at six months. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the serum retinol level (pbone age (p<0.01), and gamma globulin level (p<0.04) and a significant decrease in the amount of infection/inflammation measured by CRP level (p<0.001). There was also a significant correlation between CRP level and height for age (p<0.01), and between gamma level and height for age (p<0.01). These results suggest that combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation reduces the risk of infection and increases linear growth among children, and thus may play a key role in controlling infection and stunted growth for children under five years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Yeast as a model host to study replication and recombination of defective interfering RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panavas, Tadas; Nagy, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) RNA associated with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a plus-strand RNA virus, requires p33 and p92 proteins of TBSV or the related Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), for replication in plants. To test if DI RNA can replicate in a model host, we coexpressed TBSV DI RNA and p33/p92 of CNV in yeast. We show evidence for replication of DI RNA in yeast, including (i) dependence on p33 and p92 for DI replication; (ii) presence of active CNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in isolated membrane-containing preparations; (iii) increasing amount of DI RNA(+) over time; (iv) accumulation of (-)stranded DI RNA; (v) presence of correct 5' and 3' ends in DI RNA; (vi) inhibition of replication by mutations in the replication enhancer; and (vii) evolution of DI RNA over time, as shown by sequence heterogeneity. We also produced evidence supporting the occurrence of DI RNA recombinants in yeast. In summary, development of yeast as a host for replication of TBSV DI RNA will facilitate studies on the roles of viral and host proteins in replication/recombination

  4. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assessthe amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women.

  5. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women

  6. Characterization of a Syrian Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus strain and production of polyclonal antibodies for its detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen ALNAASAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with two primer sets of luteoviruses was used to characterize an isolate of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSv, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae (SC402-08 collected from Lattakia, Syria, during the 2007‒2008 chickpea growing season. Sequence analysis revealed that the coat protein gene of the isolate shared nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 97 to 98% with the CpCSv isolates from Egypt, morocco and Syria. The capsid protein was separated as a protein of approximately 20 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was visually detected by its reaction with CpCSV monoclonal antibody in Western blot. SC402-08 isolate of CpCSV was purified from faba bean-infected plants, and yielded 112–182 μg of purified virions kg-1 of infected tissue. The purified preparation was injected into a white rabbit, and an antiserum was obtained and used to detect CpCSv in infected tissues by tissue-blot immunoassay. The antiserum obtained was able to detect CpCSv by the immunoassay up to a dilution of 1:1,024,000.

  7. Cultivated grapevines represent a symptomless reservoir for the transmission of hop stunt viroid to hop crops: 15 years of evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kawaguchi-Ito

    Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.

  8. Household food (in)security and nutritional status of urban poor children aged 6 to 23 months in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Maurice; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2015-10-13

    Millions of people in low and low middle income countries suffer from extreme hunger and malnutrition. Research on the effect of food insecurity on child nutrition is concentrated in high income settings and has produced mixed results. Moreover, the existing evidence on food security and nutrition in children in low and middle income countries is either cross-sectional and/or is based primarily on rural populations. In this paper, we examine the effect of household food security status and its interaction with household wealth status on stunting among children aged between 6 and 23 months in resource-poor urban setting in Kenya. We use longitudinal data collected between 2006 and 2012 from two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers and their new-borns were recruited into the study at birth and followed prospectively. The analytical sample comprised 6858 children from 6552 households. Household food security was measured as a latent variable derived from a set of questions capturing the main domains of access, availability and affordability. A composite measure of wealth was calculated using asset ownership and amenities. Nutritional status was measured using Height-for-Age (HFA) z-scores. Children whose HFA z-scores were below -2 standard deviation were categorized as stunted. We used Cox regression to analyse the data. The prevalence of stunting was 49 %. The risk of stunting increased by 12 % among children from food insecure households. When the joint effect of food security and wealth status was assessed, the risk of stunting increased significantly by 19 and 22 % among children from moderately food insecure and severely food insecure households and ranked in the middle poor wealth status. Among the poorest and least poor households, food security was not statistically associated with stunting. Our results shed light on the joint effect of food security and wealth status on stunting. Study findings underscore the need for social protection policies to

  9. Impact of obesity on bone mass throughout adult life: Influence of gender and severity of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Mura, Thibault; Leprieur, Elodie; Avignon, Antoine; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Sultan, Ariane

    2016-09-01

    Obesity improves areal bone mineral density (aBMD). However, it is unknown whether gender, ageing or the severity of obesity could modulate this effect and whether different bone sites are similarly affected. The aim of this observational study was to model the aBMD variation in obese patients from peak bone period to old age according to gender, bone localisation and severity of obesity. Five hundred and four obese patients (363 women, 72%) with a mean BMI of 38.5 ± 6.0 kg/m2, aged from 18.1 to 81.9 years (mean age 49.6 ± 14.6 years) were recruited. The whole body (WB), hip, lumbar spine (L1–L4) and one-third radius aBMDs were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Z-scores were significantly increased, above the age- and gender-related mean, both for women and men at WB (respectively 0.79 SD and 0.32 SD), hip (1.09 SD and 1.06 SD), one-third radius (1.70 SD and 0.45 SD) and L1–L4 levels (0.86 SD for women only). The improvement of Z-scores was significantly more marked in women compared to men at all bone sites, hip excepted. Furthermore, differences compared with normal values were significantly accentuated by ageing, without noticeable gender effect. In women, regardless of BMI and bone site, Z-scores were higher than normal values, this difference being most marked at WB, L1–L4 and hip levels for obese patients with a BMI above 40 kg/m2. Lean mass, but not fat mass, was independently associated with aBMD in men and women. This study demonstrated for the first time that obesity induces an improvement of aBMD, which is modulated by bone site location, severity of obesity, age and gender. The accentuation of peak bone mass combined with a reduction of bone loss rate with ageing may explain why obese patients present a lower prevalence of osteoporosis.

  10. Earlier introduction of aguitas is associated with higher risk of stunting in infants and toddlers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; van der Starre, Robine E; van Beusekom, Ilse; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2013-03-01

    In many cultures, simple herbal infusions, thin gruels, or sweetened water (agüitas in Guatemalan parlance) are given to infants and toddlers. Formative research has shown that the use of agüitas in early child feeding is deeply embedded in Guatemalan culture. We examined the prevalence and timing of the introduction of agüitas during early life in a low-income population of metropolitan Quetzaltenango in relation to stunting in children. Responses from 456 mothers of children aged 5-23 mo were analyzed by using logistic regression to explore relations between linear growth (stunting), diarrhea, and age at the first introduction of agüitas. A total of 358 of 456 infants (79%) were agüita users independent of sex or ethnicity. Of infants given agüitas, one-fourth of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 2.9 wk of age, and one-half of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 9 wk of age. Subjects introduced to agüitas before 2.9 wk of age were 1.8 times more likely to be stunted (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8; P = 0.03) irrespective of ethnicity. Children who had ever been given agüitas were twice as likely to have also had diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3) and more likely to have needed medical attention for diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.2), but diarrheal experience was independent of stunting. Because of the early introduction of agüitas and the high prevalence of stunting in Guatemala, longitudinal studies are urgently needed to clarify the causal relations. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial register as NTR3273 for 5-mo-olds and Nederlands Trial register as NTR3292 for infants ≥6 mo.

  11. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  12. Herança da resistência ao enfezamento em milho Inheritance of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trevizoli Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a herança da resistência ao complexo de enfezamento em milho e determinar as melhores fontes de resistência entre as linhagens estudadas. Foram realizadas as análises dialélica e médias de gerações em linhagens de milho. Para a análise dialélica, foram cruzadas 12 linhagens de milho, em dialélico parcial. Para análises de médias de gerações, foram cruzadas três linhagens resistentes e quatro suscetíveis, para a obtenção das gerações F1, F2, RCP R e RCP S. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos em Jaboticabal, SP. A incidência de enfezamento foi avaliada no estádio fenológico R3. Efeitos significativos quanto à capacidade geral de combinação e capacidade específica de combinação foram obtidos, o que indicou que, no controle do caráter enfezamentos, estão envolvidos tanto os efeitos aditivos quanto os de dominância. Análises de médias de gerações mostraram a presença de poucos genes envolvidos com o controle da resistência, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, o que permite a seleção de genótipos resistentes. As linhagens L02, L03 e L05 poderão ser utilizadas como fontes de resistência, em futuras combinações híbridas.The objectives of this work were to determine the inheritance of resistance to corn stunt and determine the best resistance sources among the studied inbred lines. Diallel analysis and generation means were made for corn inbred lines. For the diallel analysis, twelve corn-inbred lines were crossed, in a partial diallel scheme. For the analyses of generation means, three resistant inbred lines and four susceptible ones were crossed, to obtain the F1, F2, RCP R and RCP S generations. The experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Corn sfunt incidence was evaluated at the phenological phase R3. Significant effects for CGC and CEC were obtained, which indicated that both additive and dominance effects were involved in corn expression of

  13. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  14. Inpatient treatment of children and adolescents with severe obesity in the Netherlands: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga; Benninga, Marc A; Beelen, Anita; van der Palen, Job; Tamminga-Smeulders, Christine; Tijssen, Jan G P; van Aalderen, Wim M C

    2014-09-01

    Severe childhood obesity has become a major health problem, and effective, evidence-based interventions are needed. The relative effectiveness of inpatient compared with ambulatory treatment remains unknown. To determine whether an inpatient treatment program is more effective than an ambulatory treatment program at achieving a sustained weight loss in children and adolescents with severe obesity. We conducted a randomized clinical trial with a 2-year follow-up at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity in the Netherlands. We recruited 90 children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] z score, ≥3.0 or >2.3 with obesity-related health problems). Patients were randomly assigned to an inpatient (6 months of hospitalization on working days) or an ambulatory (12 days of hospital visits at increasing intervals during a 6-month period) treatment program. Both treatment programs involved an intensive, family-based, lifestyle intervention, including exercise, nutritional education, and behavior modification for the patients and their caregiver(s). Change in BMI z score. Secondary outcomes included fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and lipid levels, insulin sensitivity, liver function test results, waist circumference, blood pressure, body composition, and aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption, Vo₂). Outcomes were analyzed by intention to treat. Immediately after treatment, reductions in the BMI z score were significantly larger for the inpatient than the ambulatory groups (mean [SE] difference, -0.26 [0.12; 95% CI, -0.59 to -0.01]; P = .04). Change from baseline for the BMI z score in the inpatient group was -18.0% (P = .001) immediately after treatment, -8.5% (P = .008) at 18 months, and -6.3% (P = .38) at 30 months; in the ambulatory group, changes from baseline were -10.5% (P = .001), -6.2% (P = .39), and -1.5% (P > .99), respectively. The favorable outcomes

  15. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations...... between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. RESULTS: At all ages, length showed consistently...

  16. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77

  17. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Proaño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS Determinar las ingestas nutricionales en los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer y su respectivo crecimiento en el primer mes de vida. Adicionalmente, identificar factores para un desenlace negativo en el periodo neonatal de esta población. METODOS Estudio de serie de casos desarrollado en un hospital de tercer nivel en Lima, Perú desde 2011 a 2012. La información se obtuvo de las historias médicas. No se utilizó un protocolo de nutrición durante el estudio. La ingesta diaria del volumen, la energía y las proteínas fue registrada al igual que el puntaje z del peso de manera semanal. Se utilizó regresión logística para identificar factores asociados a un desenlace adverso, que se define como mortalidad neonatal o restricción de crecimiento extrauterino en los primeros 28 días de vida. RESULTADOS Luego del criterio de selección, se incluyeron a 76 participantes. Las ingestas nutricionales fueron similares a los valores descritos en la literatura, pero la ingesta proteica fue sub óptima durante las cuatro semanas. El puntaje z del peso al nacer se asocia con un desenlace adverso (p=0,035. Se determinó que un puntaje z menor de 1,09 predice un desenlace negativo con un área bajo la curva ROC de 96,8% (93,5%, 100%, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. CONCLUSIÓN Las ingestas proteicas fueron sumamente deficientes en este estudio. Sin embargo, un desenlace adverso se asocia más a un pobre puntaje z al nacer que a factores relacionados a la nutrición.

  18. The effectiveness of the Spanish banking reform application of Altman’s Z-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntoung A. T. Lious

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis which causes bankruptcy around the world, Spain was placed at the top list because of the crucial state of its banking. This lead to a call to ensure adequate bank capitalization and reduce uncertainty regarding the strength of their balance sheets. In the light of recent event, the important of knowing the financial position of banks is imperative to shareholders. Thus, the aim of this study is to affirm the validity of Altman Z”-Score model as a predictors of the uncertainty regarding financial sector in Spain. This study takes into consideration two periods: before the banking reform and after the banking reform. It requires 30 financial institutions in Spain both big as well as small. Ratio analysis was carried out on the 30 banks before and after the reforms for five years prior to their bankruptcy or nationalisation as the Z” Score model has predictive power of up to five years before the reforms

  19. The effectiveness of the Spanish banking reform application of Altman’s Z-Score

    OpenAIRE

    Ntoung A. T. Lious; Puime G. Felix; Miguel A. C. Cibran

    2016-01-01

    The recent financial crisis which causes bankruptcy around the world, Spain was placed at the top list because of the crucial state of its banking. This lead to a call to ensure adequate bank capitalization and reduce uncertainty regarding the strength of their balance sheets. In the light of recent event, the important of knowing the financial position of banks is imperative to shareholders. Thus, the aim of this study is to affirm the validity of Altman Z”-Score model as a predictors of the...

  20. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  1. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  3. Stunted by climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    With expertise in geography and human health, Marta Jankowska and David López-Carr worked with a team of specialists in climate science, statistics, demography and policy to study climate change impacts on child malnutrition in Mali.

  4. Using Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS)-based analysis in the development of regional risk adjustment tools to trend quality in a voluntary trauma system: the experience of the Trauma Foundation of Northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C; Barnoski, A; Tinnell, C; Fallon, W

    2000-04-01

    Presently, no trauma system exists in Ohio. Since 1993, all hospitals in Cuyahoga County (CUY), northeast Ohio (n = 22) provide data to a trauma registry. In return, each received hospital-specific data, comparison data by trauma care level and a county-wide aggregate summary. This report describes the results of this approach in our region. All cases were entered by paper abstract or electronic download. Interrater reliability audits and z score analysis was performed by using the Major Trauma Outcome Study and the CUY 1994 baseline groups. Risk adjustment of mortality data was performed using statistical modeling and logistic regression (Trauma and Injury Severity Score, Major Trauma Outcome Study, CUY). Trauma severity measures were defined. In 1995, 3,375 patients were entered. Two hundred ninety-one died (8.6%). Severity measures differed by level of trauma care, indicating differences in case mix. Probability of survival was lowest in the Level I centers, highest in the acute care hospitals. Outcomes z scores demonstrated survival differences for all levels. In a functioning trauma system, the most severely injured patients should be cared for at the trauma centers. A low volume at acute care hospitals is desirable. By using Trauma and Injury Severity Score with community-specific constants, NE Ohio is accomplishing these goals. The Level I performance data are an interesting finding compared with the data from the Level II centers in the region

  5. Higher household expenditure on animal-source and nongrain foods lowers the risk of stunting among children 0-59 months old in Indonesia: implications of rising food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mayang; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Akhter, Nasima; Kraemer, Klaus; Semba, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Because the global financial crisis and high food prices affect food consumption, we characterized the relationship between stunting and nongrain food expenditure at the household level among children 0-59 mo old in Indonesia's rural and urban poor population. Expenditure and height-for-age data were obtained from a population-based sample of 446,473 children in rural and 143,807 in urban poor areas in Indonesia. Expenditure on food was grouped into categories: animal, plant, total nongrain, and grain. The prevalence of stunting in rural and urban poor areas was 33.8 and 31.2%, respectively. In rural areas, the odds ratios (OR) (5th vs. first quintile) for stunting were similar for proportion of household expenditure on animal (0.87; 95% CI = 0.85-0.90; P global crises.

  6. Technical modification enabling pulmonary valve-sparing repair of a severely hypoplastic pulmonary annulus in patients with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroki; Ota, Noritaka; Murata, Masaya; Tosaka, Yuko; Ide, Yujiro; Tachi, Maiko; Sugimoto, Ai; Sakamoto, Kisaburo

    2013-06-01

    Although pulmonary valve-sparing repair is preferable for patients with tetralogy of Fallot, the repair of very small pulmonary valves is challenging. The present study evaluates our modification for preserving severely hypoplastic pulmonary valves in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Sixty-eight consecutive patients who underwent complete repair of a tetralogy of Fallot between 2005 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pulmonary atresia, absence of a pulmonary valve, atrioventricular septal defect and/or subarterial ventricular septal defect were excluded. There were 19 (28%) patients with a severely hypoplastic pulmonary annulus determined by preoperative echocardiography (z-score -4 group. In the z tetralogy of Fallot could not be applied in all patients, this strategy enabled acceptable growth of the valve annulus, with only mild stenosis during the early to mid-term follow-up. This modification seems to be an option, even for a very small pulmonary valve.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  9. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  10. Nutritional status and intelligence quotient of primary schoolchildren in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijarotimi, O S; Ijadunola, K T

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 402 children (10-15 years) randomly selected from twelve public and private primary schools in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on children's demographic features and parent's socio-economic characteristics. The subject's weight, height, height-for-age and weight-for-height z-score were measured and determined respectively. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices consisted of 60 questions was administered in a quiet classroom within 60 minutes to assess intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children. The means of measured parameters were: age, 11.5 +/- 0.08 years; weight, 33.3 +/- 0.35 kg; height, 1.4 +/- 0.0 m; height-for-age z-score, -0.003 +/- 0.04; weight-for-height z-score -7.2E-7 +/- 0.1 and IQ, 20.9 +/- 0.56 (34.8%). The occupations of the children's parents were civil service (43.3%), petty business (21.9%), farming (15.8%), vocational jobs (16.0%) and none (3.2%). The majority of the parents (31.8%) had secondary school education. Parents with no formal education, primary education, tertiary education and higher degrees accounted for 7.2%, 30.6%, 22.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Monthly incomes ranged between $38.5 and 230.8. Weight-for-height z-score of the children showed that 49.8% were normal, 40% mildly wasted, 9.7% moderately wasted and 0.5% severely wasted. Height-for-age z-score was 50% normal, 35.1% mildly stunted, 13.4% moderately stunted and 1.5% severely stunted. IQ scores were 5% superior 11.2% above average, 11.4% average, 8.2% below average and 64.2% intellectual deficit. The interrelationship between height-for-age, IQ and socio-demographic characteristics showed that there were insignificant differences between the age groups, gender and socio-economic status of the pupils. Conclusively, this study showed that the proportion of malnourished and intellectual deficit among the studied population were high. However, it is not clear whether

  11. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  12. Tracheostomy for Severe Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Christopher J; Amin, Julian D; Isaiah, Amal; Valdez, Tulio A; Jeyakumar, Anita; Smart, Suzanne E; Pereira, Kevin D

    2017-08-01

    Objectives (1) To describe characteristics of pediatric patients undergoing tracheostomy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (2) To highlight perioperative events and outcomes of the procedure. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Four tertiary care academic children's hospitals. Subjects and Methods Twenty-nine children aged tracheostomy for severe OSA, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >10, were included in the study. Data on patient characteristics, polysomnographic findings, comorbidities, and perioperative events and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results Twenty-nine patients were included. Mean age at tracheostomy was 2.0 years (95% CI, -2.2 to 6.2). Mean body mass index z score was -1.2 (95% CI, -4.9 to -2.5). Mean preoperative AHI was 60.2 (95% CI, -15.7 to 136.1). Mean postoperative intensive care unit stay was 23.2 days (95% CI, 1.44-45.0). One procedure was complicated by bronchospasm. Thirteen patients had craniofacial abnormalities; 10 had a neurologic disorder resulting in hypotonia; and 5 had a diagnosis of laryngomalacia. Mean follow-up was 30.6 months (95% CI, -10.4 to 71.6). Six patients were decannulated, with a mean time to decannulation of 40.8 months (95% CI, 7.9-73.7). Five patients underwent capped sleep study prior to decannulation with a mean AHI of 6.6 (95% CI, -9.9 to 23.1) and a mean oxygen nadir of 90.0% (95% CI, 80%-100%). Conclusion OSA is an uncommon indication for tracheostomy in children. Patients who require the procedure usually have an associated syndromic diagnosis resulting in upper airway obstruction. The majority of children who undergo tracheostomy for OSA will remain dependent at 24 months.

  13. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  14. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  15. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on `Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition` held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers Refs, figs, tabs, graphs

  16. Bacterial communities found in placental tissues are associated with severe chorioamnionitis and adverse birth outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan M Doyle

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Bacterial infection and the subsequent inflammatory response are recognised as an important cause of preterm birth. It is hypothesised that these organisms ascend the cervical canal, colonise placental tissues, cause chorioamnionitis and in severe cases infect amniotic fluid and the foetus. However, the presence of bacteria within the intrauterine cavity does not always precede chorioamnionitis or preterm birth. Whereas previous studies observing the types of bacteria present have been limited in size and the specificity of a few predetermined organisms, in this study we characterised bacteria found in placental tissues from a cohort of 1391 women in rural Malawi using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that specific bacteria found concurrently on placental tissues associate with chorioamnionitis and delivery of a smaller newborn. Severe chorioamnionitis was associated with a distinct difference in community members, a higher bacterial load and lower species richness. Furthermore, Sneathia sanguinengens and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius found in both matched participant vaginal and placental samples were associated with a lower newborn length-for-age Z-score. This is the largest study to date to examine the placental microbiome and its impact of birth outcomes. Our results provide data on the role of the vaginal microbiome as a source of placental infection as well as the possibility of therapeutic interventions against targeted organisms during pregnancy.

  17. Diverting Ileostomy for the Treatment of Severe, Refractory, Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Elizabeth C; Dawany, Noor; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar; Mattei, Peter; Albenberg, Lindsey; Kelsen, Judith R

    2017-09-01

    Diverting ileostomy is used as a temporizing therapy in patients with perianal Crohn disease; however, little data exist regarding its use for colonic disease. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of diversion in severe refractory colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a pediatric population. Retrospective study of patients who underwent diverting ileostomy at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2000 to 2014 for the management of severe, refractory colonic IBD. Clinical variables were compared in the 1 year before ileostomy and 1 year after diversion. Surgical and disease outcomes including changes in diagnosis were reviewed through 2015. Twenty-four patients underwent diverting ileostomy for refractory colonic disease. Initial diagnoses were Crohn disease in 10 (42%), ulcerative colitis in 1 (4%), and IBD-unclassified in 13 patients (54%). Comparing data before and after surgery, there were statistically significant improvements in height and weight velocities, height velocity z score, blood transfusion requirement, hemoglobin, and hospitalization rates. Chronic steroid use decreased from 71% to 22%. At the conclusion of the study, 10 patients had undergone subsequent colectomy, 7 had successful bowel reanastomosis, and 7 remain diverted. Seven patients (29%) had a change in diagnosis. There were 13 surgical complications in 7 subjects, including prolapse reduction, stoma revision, and resection of ischemic bowel. In pediatric patients with refractory colonic IBD, diverting ileostomy can be a successful intervention to induce clinical stability. Importantly, diversion is a steroid-sparing therapy and allows additional time to clarify the diagnosis.

  18. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  19. Microscopia electrônica de microrganismos do tipo micoplasma nos tecidos de milho afetado pelo enfezamento e nos órgãos da cigarrinha vectora portadora Electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like organisms in corn stunt - Infected plant tissues and in the organs of the leafhopper vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Kitajima

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames electrono-microscópicos de tecido foliar ou radicular de milho (Zea maysL. afetado pelo enfezamento do milho, tanto a forma vermelha como a pálida, e de órgãos da cigarrinha vectora, Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W., portadora, demonstraram a ocorrência de corpúsculos pleomórficos, do tipo micoplasma, consistentemente associados a essa anomalia. Não se notou diferença na morfologia entre os microrganismos do tipo micoplasma associados às duas formas do enfezamento da planta nem tampouco entre estes e os presentes no inseto vector. Verificou-se também que na planta esses corpúsculos do tipo micoplasma ocorriam somente nos vasos crivados, e que no inseto eles se achavam presentes em diversos tipos de tecidos de diferentes órgãos - tubo digestivo, músculo, túbulos de Malphigi, epiderme, gânglio nervoso, glândula salivar, tecido adiposo. Nas células do inseto, os corpúsculos ocorriam dispersos no citoplasma ou em cavidades limitadas por membrana.Corn stunt in São Paulo State is usually of minor importance during normal summer crops but might induce significant losses if corn is planted late in the season. It is transmitted by leaf - hopper Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W. and two different forms of this disease have been recognized the chlorotic, similar to the Rio Grande type of the U.S., and the red, resembling the Mesa Central type of Mexico. Electron microscopic examination of tissues from both affected plants or leafhopper reared on diseased plants, demonstrated the presence of pleomorphic, mycoplasma-like bodies, consistently associated with the corn stunt, which probably represent the causal agent the latter. No significant difference could be observed in the morphology of these mycoplasma-like bodies associated with the two disease types or with the insect vector. In the affected plants, these corpuscles were only found in the sieve tubes; in the insect body they were detected in several types of tissues of different organs

  20. Effective treatment of severe pregnancy and lactation-related osteoporosis with teriparatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Aydin, Cevdet; Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy or lactation-related osteoporosis (PLO) is a very rare and debilitating condition which is usually diagnosed during the last trimester of the pregnancy or early postpartum period. Herein, we report a case with severe PLO and multiple vertebral compression fractures that were successfully treated with teriparatide. Twenty-three-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic two months after her first spontaneous vaginal delivery with the complaint of severe back pain. Bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and low T- and Z-scores were observed in lumbar vertebrae. In vertebral MRI, severe height loss was detected in thoracic (T) 5,7,10,11,12 vertebrae. After exclusion of the other possible causes of OP, she was diagnosed to have PLO and the lactation was stopped. She was treated with calcium 1000 mg/day, cholecalciferol 800 mg/day and teriparatide 20 µg/day. At the 12th and 18th month of therapy, BMD was increased by 8% and 27%, respectively, at the lumbar spine and pain was completely relieved in few months. There are pharmacological therapy modalities that can be used in PLO. Bisphosphonates are effective, but there are some concerns that they accumulate in bone and may expose fetus in subsequent pregnancies. Teriparatide is a strong candidate to be the optimal medical therapy in severe cases since it is effective and safe.

  1. Microbiota is immature in moderate and severe acute malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Globally 19 million under-five children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) while 51.5 million children have moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). These two conditions, together known as acute malnutrition, are responsible for 14.6% of all under-five deaths. Case fatality rate can be reduced with treatment of SAM, which however, is not readily available everywhere. Even with effective treatment, recovery can be slow and relapse not uncommon. Lack of nutrients is one of the causes of acute malnutrition but other factors including infections, inter- and intra-generational factors are also believed to play important roles in the etiology. The gut microbiota is another factor; however its relationship with nutritional interventions and therapeutic response is poorly understood. We studied the gut microbiota of children suffering from severe and moderate acute malnutrition in Bangladesh. Children with SAM were studied during the acute phase, nutritional rehabilitation and follow up in icddr,b Hospital, Dhaka. During the nutritional rehabilitation phase, the children were randomized to either RUTF or a combination of local diets (khichuri and halwa). Children with MAM were randomly selected from a birth cohort in a slum settlement and so were healthy controls. Gut microbiota were identified using 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from the healthy control children. ‘Relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ were computed from a model developed from the age-discriminatory bacterial species identified in the healthy and acutely malnourished children. The index and the Z-score compare maturation of an acutely malnourished child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronological age. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with relative immaturity of the gut microbiota. Moreover, treatment with either RUTF or the local diets is associated with incomplete recovery of

  2. Hubungan Frekuensi Sarapan dan Konsumsi Jajan dengan Z-score Imt/u pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar

    OpenAIRE

    Lani, April; Margawati, Ani; Fitranti, Deny Yudi

    2017-01-01

    Background:Nutritional status is a measure of a person's body condition that can be seen from the food consumed and the use of nutrients in the body. Skipping breakfast and consuming high calorie snack foods can lead to overweight and obesity. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between frequency of breakfast and snack consumption with BMI-for-age Score in elementary school children. Confounding variables in this research are physical activity and energy intake.Method:This wa...

  3. A mixed methods study to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in Districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumra Kureishy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and child malnutrition is widely prevalent in low and middle income countries. In Pakistan, widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are the main contributors to poor health, low survival rates and the loss of human capital development. The nutritional status trends among children exhibit a continuous deteriorating with rates of malnutrition exceeding the WHO critical threshold. With the high prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition, it is important to identify effective preventative approaches, especially for reducing stunting in children under-five years of age. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting in children under-five years. Methods A mixed methods study design will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan. The study will include cross sectional surveys, a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation. The study participants will be pregnant women, lactating mothers and children under-five years. The cross-sectional surveys will be conducted with 7360 study participants at baseline and endline. For the randomized control trial, 5000 participants will be recruited and followed monthly for compliance of food-based supplements, dietary diversity, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels will be measured at baseline, quarterly and at endline. The interventions will consist of locally produced lipid-based nutrient supplement (Wawamum for children 6–23 months, micronutrient powders for children 24–59 months, and wheat soya blends for pregnant and lactating mothers. Government lady health workers will deliver interventions to participants. The effectiveness of the project will be measured in

  4. Severe Aplastic Anemia (SAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Print this page My Cart Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease ... leukemia (ALL) Other diseases What is severe aplastic anemia (SAA)? SAA is a bone marrow disease. The ...

  5. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  6. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Rydberg

    Full Text Available Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity.We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001.Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  7. Controle químico da cigarrinha-do-milho e incidência dos enfezamentos causados por molicutes Chemical control of corn leafhopper and incidence of corn stunting diseases caused by mollicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência do tratamento inseticida de sementes de milho no controle de Dalbulus maidis e na redução da incidência de enfezamentos em viveiro telado e em campo. Foram realizados dois experimentos; no experimento 1, em viveiro telado, sementes de milho foram tratadas com imidacloprid e thiamethoxan e, nessas plantas, cigarrinhas sadias, cigarrinhas infectantes com fitoplasma ou com espiroplasma foram confinadas. Avaliaram-se eficiência de controle, incidência de plantas com enfezamentos, altura das plantas e produção de grãos. No experimento 2, em campo, imidacloprid e thiamethoxan foram utilizados em tratamento de sementes e pulverizações aos 10 e 20 dias após a semeadura. A incidência de enfezamentos e a produção de grãos foram avaliadas. Em viveiro telado, os produtos imidacloprid e thiamethoxan proporcionaram controle de adultos de D. maidis acima de 50%, até o trigésimo dia, e reduziram a incidência de doenças e danos no crescimento e produção das plantas infectadas expostas às cigarrinhas infectantes aos dois dias após a emergência. Em campo, não foi constatada redução na incidência de enfezamentos ou ganho em produção, possivelmente devido ao fluxo migratório de cigarrinhas infectantes.The objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of maize seed treatment on Dalbulus maidis control, and its effect on corn stunting diseases incidence, at screenhouse and at field. Two experiments were carried out. In the experiment 1 ( screenhouse, maize seeds were treated with imidacloprid or with thiamethoxan. Healthy leafhoppers, phytoplasma infective leafhoppers, and spiroplasma infective leafhoppers were confined in plants. Efficiency of control, incidence of plants with corn stunting diseases, plant height, and grain production were evaluated. In the experiment 2 (field imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were used for seed treatment and sprayed at 10 and 20 days after sowing

  8. Body Composition and Catch-up in Height after Treatment of Malnourished Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaloo, Asha; Morris, Richard; Forrester, Terrence; Reid, Marvin; Wootton, Steve; Jackson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and Objectives: The use of enriched diets to promote rapid catch-up-growth and the delay in catch-up in length/height relative to catch-up in weight may be associated with excess adiposity and poor lean tissue deposition. We aimed to assess lean mass (LM) during treatment of Jamaican malnourished children and to investigate if stunted malnourished children remained stunted as adults. Methods: All participants were managed in hospital and in accordance with WHO guidelines. Diagnosis (marasmus, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor) was based on the Welcome Classification. LM was estimated from total body water(TBW)in 44 children (group 1), aged 3 to 32 months, during the stabilization period, mid catch-up growth and on achieving at least 90% of reference weight-for-length using deuterium dilution technique. Length-for-age (LAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were determined in another group of 168 malnourished children (group 2) on admission, aged 3 to 33 months, and when they attained adulthood. LAZ was calculated using recent WHO child growth standards. Results: Data are mean ± SD. The participants included moderately and severely malnourished children based on weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ). In group 1, after initial stabilization intake increased to 685 ± 101 kJ/kg/d and 3.7 ± 0.6 g protein/kg/d resulting in rapid weight gain (16.5 ± 5.1 g/kg/d) and catch-up in weight over 20 ± 10 d. Consequently, WLZ at admission (non-oedematous: -3.0 ± 0.2; oedematous: -2.1 ± 0.2) improved to -0.48 ± 0.2. At recovery in weight, LM was consistent with reported values in normal children (71% to 92 % of body weight and 11 to 15 kg/m2) but the children remained stunted (LAZ: -3.3 ± 3.2). Insecurity of TBW measurement and estimating LM in the acute malnourished state and during rapid growth limits the ability to capture changes in lean and fat during rehabilitation. Similar to group 1, WLZ in group 2 was -3.2 ± 1.3 on admission; -0.6 ± 1 at recovery

  9. Effect of temperature on the pathogenesis, accumulation of viral and satellite RNAs and on plant proteome in peanut stunt virus and satellite RNA-infected plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eObrępalska-Stęplowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing plant development in natural and diseased conditions. The growth rate of plants grown at 27°C is more rapid than for plants grown at 21°C. Thus, temperature affects the rate of pathogenesis progression in individual plants. We have analyzed the effect of temperature conditions (either 21°C or 27°C during the day on the accumulation rate of the virus and satellite RNA (satRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected by peanut stunt virus (PSV with and without its satRNA, at four time points. In addition, we extracted proteins from PSV and PSV+satRNA-infected plants harvested at 21 dpi, when disease symptoms began to appear on plants grown at 21°C and were well developed on those grown at 27°C, to assess the proteome profile in infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants grown at these two temperatures, using 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approaches. The accumulation rate of the viral RNAs and satRNA was more rapid at 27°C at the beginning of the infection and then rapidly decreased in PSV-infected plants. At 21 dpi, PSV and satRNA accumulation was higher at 21°C and had a tendency to increase further. In all studied plants grown at 27°C, we observed a significant drop in the identified proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism at the proteome level, in comparison to plants maintained at 21°C. On the other hand, the proteins involved in protein metabolic processes were all more abundant in plants grown at 27°C. This was especially evident when PSV-infected plants were analyzed, where increase in abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and folding was revealed. In mock-inoculated and PSV-infected plants we found an increase in abundance of the majority of stress-related differently-regulated proteins and those associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, in PSV+satRNA-infected plants the shift in the

  10. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  11. Severe zinc responsive dermatosis in a litter of Pharaoh Hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gregory A; Crow, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    A litter of 3-month-old Pharaoh Hound puppies presented to the referring veterinarian with severe generalized erythematous-crusted papules with pruritus, accompanied by exfoliation and erythema of footpads, inappetence, lethargy, and retarded growth. Three of 5 puppies (2 male and 1 female) were affected. Representative areas were biopsied from 1 affected male puppy and were routinely processed. Histologically, there was marked epidermal hyperplasia with a disorganized appearance of the epidermis and massive parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, compatible with zinc-responsive dermatosis. Low serum zinc concentrations were documented, and the affected animals partially responded to intravenous zinc supplementation but did not respond to oral supplementation. One male puppy died as a result of unrelated causes and was necropsied. The remaining 4 puppies were followed over 2 years. Growth was stunted, and enamel hypoplasia of permanent dentition developed compared with unaffected littermates. Intravenous zinc supplementation at 3-4 week intervals was required to prevent further skin lesion development. One dog died at 3 years of age of renal failure.

  12. Quantifying and exploiting the age dependence in the effect of supplementary food for child undernutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinda Lakkam

    Full Text Available Motivated by the lack of randomized controlled trials with an intervention-free control arm in the area of child undernutrition, we fit a trivariate model of weight-for-age z score (WAZ, height-for-age z score (HAZ and diarrhea status to data from an observational study of supplementary feeding (100 kCal/day for children with WAZ [Formula: see text] in 17 Guatemalan communities. Incorporating time lags, intention to treat (i.e., to give supplementary food, seasonality and age interactions, we estimate how the effect of supplementary food on WAZ, HAZ and diarrhea status varies with a child's age. We find that the effect of supplementary food on all 3 metrics decreases linearly with age from 6 to 20 mo and has little effect after 20 mo. We derive 2 food allocation policies that myopically (i.e., looking ahead 2 mo minimize either the underweight or stunting severity - i.e., the sum of squared WAZ or HAZ scores for all children with WAZ or HAZ [Formula: see text]. A simulation study based on the statistical model predicts that the 2 derived policies reduce the underweight severity (averaged over all ages by 13.6-14.1% and reduce the stunting severity at age 60 mo by 7.1-8.0% relative to the policy currently in use, where all policies have a budget that feeds [Formula: see text]% of children. While these findings need to be confirmed on additional data sets, it appears that in a low-dose (100 kCal/day supplementary feeding setting in Guatemala, allocating food primarily to 6-12 mo infants can reduce the severity of underweight and stunting.

  13. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of a novel laparoscopic gastrostomy technique in children with severe epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh; Wells, Jonathan; Jones, Rosie; Browne, Fiona; Moss, Celia; Parikh, Dakshesh

    2014-05-01

    Supplementing nutrition in children with severe epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is challenging because of skin and mucosal fragility. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is contraindicated in EB, whereas more invasive open surgical gastrostomy placement can be complicated by chronic leakage. The aim of the study was to review the efficacy and acceptability, in children with severe EB, of our modified 2-port laparoscopic approach using the Seldinger technique with serial dilatation and tube insertion through a peel-away sheath. Retrospective review of children with EB who underwent laparoscopic feeding gastrostomy at our centre since 2009. Seven children (6 severe generalised recessive dystrophic EB, 1 non-Herlitz junctional EB; 2 girls, 5 boys) underwent modified laparoscopic gastrostomy placement at median age 4.85 years (range 1.0-8.8), with fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux in 1 case, with follow-up for 0.3 to 3.9 years. The procedure was well tolerated with oral feeds usually given after 4 hours and whole protein gastrostomy feeds within 24 hours in 6 patients. Improved growth was reflected in mean weight and height z scores: -1.36 (range -2.6 to 0.5) to -0.61 (range -2.34 to 2.0) and -1.09 (range -2.42 to 1.0) to 0.71 (range -1.86 to 1.0), respectively. Postoperatively, 5 patients experienced minor local complications: minimal leakage without skin damage in 3 and transient peristomal granulation rapidly responsive to topical treatment in 2; this followed acute gastrostomy site infection in 1. There was no leakage after the immediate postoperative period. We conclude that our less-invasive laparoscopic gastrostomy technique is effective and better tolerated in children with severe EB, at least in the medium term, than open gastrostomy placement. Longer follow-up is required.

  15. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  16. Psychosocial stimulation interventions for children with severe acute malnutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Allison I; Bandsma, Robert H; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Voskuijl, Wieger P; Potani, Isabel; van den Heuvel, Meta

    2017-06-01

    The WHO Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children include a recommendation to provide sensory stimulation or play therapy for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This systematic review was performed to synthesize evidence around this recommendation. Specifically, the objective was to answer the question: "In children with severe acute malnutrition, does psychosocial stimulation improve child developmental, nutritional, or other outcomes?" A review protocol was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016036403). MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched with terms related to SAM and psychosocial stimulation. Studies were selected if they applied a stimulation intervention in children with SAM and child developmental and nutritional outcomes were assessed. Findings were presented within a narrative synthesis and a summary of findings table. Quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Only two studies, both non-randomized controlled trials, met the selection criteria for this review. One was conducted in Jamaica (1975) with a follow-up period of 14 years; the other was done in Bangladesh (2002) with a six-month follow-up. At the individual study level, each of the included studies demonstrated significant differences in child development outcomes between intervention and control groups. Only the study conducted in Bangladesh demonstrated a clinically significant increase in weight-for-age z-scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. The evidence supporting the recommendation of psychosocial stimulation for children with SAM is not only sparse, but also of very low quality across important outcomes. High-quality trials are needed to determine the effects of psychosocial stimulation interventions on outcomes in children

  17. Moderate Malnutrition in Children Aged 0-5 in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiroski, Igor; Memeti, Shaban

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Undernutrition indicates a lack of the necessary energy, macro or micronutrients in person’s dietary intake. FAO reported that one in seven people in the world do not get enough food to be healthy and lead an active life. The objective of our survey was to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among children aged 0-5 in Macedonia. Methods: Nationally representative household survey was conducted and data for 1376 children under the age of 5 was gathered. The survey included two samples, one for general population and separate one for Roma population living in Roma settlements. Roma children had higher prevalence of undernutrition in previous surveys. The data was gathered in the frames of UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster survey in 2011. WHO Child Growth Standards were used to assess the nutritional status. Results: Out of general sample children 4.9% were moderately stunted (between -3 and -2 z-scores of height-for-age index), 5.6% boys and 4.3% girls. The percentage of moderately stunted children was over three times higher in the poorest wealth quintile compared to the richest one (7.2% and 2.0% respectively). In general population of children 1.8% were moderately wasted (between -3 and -2 z-scores of weight-for-height index), 2.2% boys and 1.4% girls. Wasting was also 3 times more prevalent in children from the poorest households compared to the richest ones (3.5% and 0.6% respectively). As for the Roma children, 16.5% of them were moderately stunted (21.1% boys, 12% girls) and 4.5% moderately wasted (4.3% boys, 4.7% girls). Nearly 10 times more moderately stunted Roma children were present in the poorest wealth quintile compared to the richest one (28.7% and 3.5% respectively). Conclusions: The results of the survey indicate low prevalence of undernutrition in the general population of children under 5 years of age in Macedonia which is in acceptable ranges defined by the WHO (<20% for stunting, <5% for wasting). Results for the

  18. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  19. Growth and market integration in Amazonia: a comparison of growth indicators between Shuar, Shiwiar, and nonindigenous school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Pryor, George; Pozo, José; Tiwia, Washington; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2009-01-01

    We describe and compare the growth of three groups of juveniles, aged 0-18, who experience different degrees of market integration and acculturation in the Ecuadorian Amazon. These include 1,384 indigenous Shuar from the Upano Valley of Ecuador and surrounding areas, 570 nonindigenous colono (or colonist) children from the same area, and 42 Shiwiar from the interior of Ecuador. We use differences between these populations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) z-scores to assess the effects of changing subsistence patterns on Shuar growth and nutrition. Although, for all three groups, mean height-for-age z-scores were negative, Shuar z-scores were significantly lower than either colono or Shiwiar z-scores. Mean weight-for-age z-scores were also negative for Shuar and colono juveniles, while mean BMI-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores were greater than zero for all three groups. Using NHANES standards, 41% of male and 38% of female Shuar were classified as stunted, versus 16% of male and 20% of female colonos. Compared to Shuar, colonos were three times less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.33, P < 0.01) and Shiwiar were eight times less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.13, P = 0.01). These differences suggest that changes in diet have negatively affected Shuar growth and nutrition.

  20. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  1. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  2. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  3. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  4. Children with severe Osteogenesis imperfecta and short stature present on average with normal IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Höbing, Laura; Cassens, Julia; Schoenau, Eckhard; Semler, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by bone fragility and short stature. Data about IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels are rare in OI. Therefore IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels in children with different types of OI were investigated. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels of 60 children (male n=38) were assessed in a retrospective cross-sectional setting. Height/weight was significant different [height z-score type 3 versus type 4: p=0.0011 and weight (p≤0.0001)] between OI type 3 and 4. Mean IGF-I levels were in the lower normal range (mean±SD level 137.4±109.1 μg/L). Mean IGFBP-3 measurements were in the normal range (mean±SD 3.105±1.175 mg/L). No significant differences between OI type 3 and 4 children have been observed (IGF-I: p=0.0906; IGFBP-3: p=0.2042). Patients with different severities of OI have IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in the lower normal range. The type of OI does not significantly influence these growth factors.

  5. WHO 2006 child growth standards: implications for the prevalence of stunting and underweight-for-age in a birth cohort of Gabonese children in comparison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Decker, Marie-Luise; Goesch, Julia; Poetschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kombila, Davy; Fortin, Julien; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of children being stunted and underweight-for-age at 3, 9 and 15 months in Lambaréné, Gabon, using the WHO child growth standards released in 2006 as compared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 and the National Center for Health

  6. Velvet bean severe mosaic virus: a distinct begomovirus species causing severe mosaic in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Kumar, Yogesh; Hallan, Vipin; Zaidi, A A

    2011-08-01

    Velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC] is one of the most important medicinal plants. It is used to treat many ailments, but is widely used for the treatment especially for Parkinson's disease because of the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in it. It was noticed in last 5 years that the plants in the field showed severe mosaic, downward curling of the leaves, stunting, etc. This is consistently observed over the years in India. The disease was transmitted by whiteflies and by grafting and the causal agent was found to be a bipartite begomovirus. The whole genome was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using ϕ-29 DNA polymerase and characterized. DNA-A and DNA-B shared a 124-nucleotide (nt) long highly conserved (98%) common region (CR). Comparisons with other begomovirus showed that DNA-A sequence has highest identity (76%) with an isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV; AY937195) reported from India. This data suggested that the present isolate is a new species of genus Begomovirus for which the name "Velvet bean severe mosaic virus" (VbSMV) is proposed. DNA-B has a maximum sequence identity of 49% with an isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV; AM932426) reported from India. Infectious clones consisting of a 1.7 mer partial tandem repeat of DNA-A and a dimer of DNB-B were constructed and agro-inoculated to Macuna pruriens (L.) DC plants, which showed field observed symptoms 24 days post-infiltration (dpi). In phylogenetic analysis, DNA-A and DNA-B of the present isolate grouped with DNA-A of different begomoviruses reported from fabaceous crops. The study presents first ever molecular evidence of any disease in velvet bean and whole genome analysis of the causative virus which is a distinct bipartite species of Begomovirus.

  7. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use...... the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  8. Alguns fatores associados a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e déficit de peso em menores de 5 anos Some risk factors associated with overweight, stunting and wasting among children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia R. Vitolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar fatores socioeconômicos e outras condições de vida familiar associadas a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e baixo peso para a estatura em menores de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliou 3.957 crianças entre 1 mês e 5 anos de idade durante campanha nacional de imunização no município de São Leopoldo (RS em 2002. As condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento das áreas de abrangência das unidades de saúde foram agrupadas por análise de cluster dos setores do censo populacional de 2001. RESULTADOS: Déficit de peso para estatura ocorreu em 2,6% das crianças, baixa estatura em 9,1% e excesso de peso em 9,8%. A regressão logística multivariada sugere que os fatores associados à chance de excesso de peso foram: área de condições socioeconômicas alta (RC = 1,47; IC95% 1,09-1,96, filhos únicos (RC = 1,44; IC95% 1,00-2,07 e peso ao nascer ≥ 2.500 g (RC = 2,21; IC95%1,27-3,83. A chance de déficit de peso associou-se ao baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 3,46; IC95% 2,06-5,80 e idade da mãe OBJECTIVE: To explore whether socioeconomic and sanitary conditions, maternal and child factors are associated with overweight, stunting, and wasting in children under five year old in the city of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,957 children aged 1 month to 5 years conducted in all primary care services of the city during the National Children's Vaccination Day in 2002. Maternal and child factors were assessed by a questionnaire. Children's height and weight were measured. Cluster analysis was used to group the areas served by the primary care services according to socioeconomic and sanitary conditions of the census tracts assessed by the 2001 National Census. RESULTS: Wasting was observed in 2.6% of children, stunting in 9.1% and overweight in 9.8%. The multivariable logistic regression model suggests that overweight was associated with higher socioeconomic status and better sanitation of

  9. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  10. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  11. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  12. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluación de la severidad, proporcionalidad y riesgo de muerte de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso con restricción del crecimiento fetal: análisis multicéntrico sudamericano An assessment of the severity, proportionality and risk of mortality of very low birth weight infants with fetal growth restriction: a multicenter South American analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Grandi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 evaluar la severidad y la proporcionalidad de los PEG para diferentes grados de prematurez; 2 estimar el riesgo de mortalidad de los PEG según la severidad y proporcionalidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño observacional y analítico. Población: todos los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso (RNMPB entre 25 y 36 semanas que mantiene el grupo NEOCOSUR (n = 1.518. Índices antropométricos: a peso de nacimiento (PN 0,55 y la transformación z del índice ponderal (Ponderal Index, PI = g/cm³ x 100. Restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU asimétrico: score z OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical severity and proportionality of small for gestational age, very low birth weight neonates (< 1,500 g and to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with the condition of being small for gestational age according to the degree of severity and proportionality. METHODS: Observational design. All of the NEOCOSUR Collaborative Group's very low birth weight infants (25-36 weeks' gestation were included (n = 1,518. Anthropometric indices: birth weight < 3rd and 10th percentile. Severity (fetal growth ratio = observed weight/mean birth weight for gestational age; no growth restriction: fetal growth ratio 0.90-1.10, mild: fetal growth ratio 0.80-0.89, moderate: fetal growth ratio 0.75-0.79 and severe: fetal growth ratio < 0.75. Proportionality: coefficient of bimodality and z score for ponderal index (PI = g/cm³ *100. Neonatal mortality until discharge. RESULTS: < 3rd percentile: 13.5% (p < 0.001; < 10th percentile: 31% (p < 0.001; fetal growth ratio: 0.90±0.21 (p < 0.001, mild restriction: 20.8%, moderate restriction: 8.7% and severe restriction: 32.6%. Coefficient of bimodality: 0.53; PI z score < -1: 8%. Maternal hypertensive disease was systematically associated with being small for gestational age (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 0.86-1.67, fetal growth ratio < 0.89 (aOR 1.71, 1.24-2.36 and PI z score < -1 (aOR 1.60, 1.03-2.41. Adjusted odds ratios

  14. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  15. Is mid-upper arm circumference alone sufficient for deciding admission to a nutritional programme for childhood severe acute malnutrition in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Engy; Zachariah, Rony; Shams, Zubair; Vernaeve, Lieven; Alders, Petra; Salio, Flavio; Manzi, Marcel; Allaouna, Malik; Draguez, Bertrand; Delchevalerie, Pascale; Harries, Anthony D

    2013-05-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) identify different populations of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with only some degree of overlap. In an urban slum in Bangladesh, we conducted a prospective cohort study on children assessed as being severely malnourished by WHZ (115 mm), to: 1. Assess their nutritional outcomes, and 2. Report on morbidity and mortality. Children underwent 2-weekly prospective follow-up home visits for 3 months and their anthropometric evolution, morbidity and mortality were monitored. Of 158 children, 21 did not complete follow-up (six were lost to follow-up and 15 changed residence). Of the remaining 137 children, nine (7%) required admission to the nutrition programme because of: MUAC dropping to <115 mm (5/9 children), weight loss ≥ 10% (1/9 children) and severe medical complications (3/9 children, of whom one died). Of the remaining 128 children who completed follow-up, 91 (66%) improved in nutritional status while 37 (27%) maintained a WHZ of <-3. Cough was less frequent among those whose nutritional status improved. It seems acceptable to rely on MUAC as a single assessment tool for case finding and for admission of children with SAM to nutritional programmes.

  16. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  17. Severe congenital neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tidwell et al1 demonstrate that mutations in the start codon (protein synthesis is initiated at the codon ATG) of neutrophil elastase (ELANE) result in the production of N-terminally truncated elastase, which mislocates to the nucleus and results in severe congenital neutr...... neutropenia (SCN)....

  18. Severe asthma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciznar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma are clinically, physiologically and biologically a heterogeneous group. About half of children referred for medical examination for severe asthma have true severe, therapy resistant asthma. The rest of referred patients have difficult to treat asthma. Symptoms persist mostly due to drug non-compliance, inappropriate inhalation technique, persistent environmental exposures or co-morbid conditions. Compared with adults have children more frequently atopic form of severe asthma. This is associated with eosinophilia in peripheral blood and sensitization to inhaled allergens. The IgE levels are high. Therapy of co-morbidities and improvement of treatment compliance lead in most cases to full asthma control. Proportion of children will benefit from biologics like anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, administered by subcutaneous injections in 2 to 4 week intervals. By this therapy it is not only possible to suppress symptoms, but also decrease the total steroid dose and the risk of adverse effects associated with its long-term administration. By achieving a full asthma control we lower future risk of exacerbations and probably improve long-term prognosis of disease, frequently persisting for the rest of life. (author)

  19. Use of BMI as marker of adiposity in a metabolic syndrome severity score: derivation and validation in predicting long-term disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Filipp, Stephanie L; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Estimates of adiposity in evaluating the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have traditionally utilized measures of waist circumference (WC), whereas body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used clinically. Our objective was to determine if a MetS severity Z-score employing BMI as its measure of adiposity (MetS-Z-BMI) would perform similarly to a WC-based score (MetS-Z-WC) in predicting future disease. To formulate the MetS-Z-BMI, we performed confirmatory factor analysis on a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis on MetS-related data for 6870 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2010. We then validated this score and compared it to MetS-Z-WC in assessing correlations with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using Cox proportional hazard analysis of 13,094 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Jackson Heart Study. Loading factors, which represent the relative contribution of each component to the latent MetS factor, were lower for BMI than for WC in formulating the two respective scores (MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC). Nevertheless, MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC exhibited similar hazard ratios (HR) toward future disease. For each one standard-deviation-unit increase in MetS-Z-BMI, HR for CHD was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65, 1.88) and HR for T2DM was 3.39 (CI 3.16, 3.63) (both p BMI scores in their associations with future CHD and T2DM. A MetS severity Z-score utilizing BMI as its measure of adiposity operated similarly to a WC-based score in predicting future CHD and T2DM, suggesting overall similarity in MetS-based risk as estimated by both measures of adiposity. This indicates potential clinical usefulness of MetS-Z-BMI in assessing and following MetS-related risk over time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10–19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. Methods In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10–19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. Results The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10–14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15–19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children’s growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10–19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and over- nutrition, which should be considered in

  1. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Marjan; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahereh; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-09-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10-19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10-19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10-14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15-19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P < 0.001). The mean BMI-for-age, and the average height-for-age of Iranian children aged 10-19 years were lower than the WHO 2007 and United states Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC2000) references. The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children's growth. Similar to most low

  2. Effect of community-based food supplementation on improving growth of underweight children under five years of age in West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Bhakti Pulungan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of underweight children in West Nusa Tenggara is as high as 30%. This region had the third largest number of stunted children in the country. The local government has attempted to tackle this problem by providing supplementary food to underweight children. Objective To assess the success of the community-based food supplementation program onimproving children’s growth in West Nusa Tenggara. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study for 10 months in Paruga District Primary Health Care Unit, Bima, West Nusa Tenggara, in year 2012. Children were given supplementary food according to the Ministry of Health’s guidelines, consisting of formula milk, high calorie biscuits, and a 60-day supply of eggs, estimated to be sufficient to normalize their weights, for their age and sex.  A child’s weight and height were measured every 3 months and the results plotted on WHO growth charts for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (nutritional status. Z-score -2 SD was classified as normal for all three categories. Results Twenty-five children under five years of age participated in this study. Subjects’ median age was 29 months. None of the subjects had normal weight-for-age Z-score at the beginning of the study. Eighty-four percent (21/25 of the subjects were severely underweight. Only 8% (2/25 of the subjects had normal height-for-age Z-score and 88% (22/25 of them were severely stunted. However, 80% (20/25 of subjects had normal nutritional status (weight-for-height. Changes in weight-for-age Z-score varied throughout the study. The highest median score was in the tenth month of follow up (-3.82. The highest median height-for-age score and weight-for-height score were also in the last month of follow up. At the end of the study, only one subject had normal weight-for-age score (4% and none of the subjects had normal height-for-age scores.   Conclusion The 10-month supplementary food program for under

  3. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA: the CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansourian Marjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10–19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. Methods In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10–19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. Results The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44% participants aged 10–14 years , and 3118 (58% with 15–19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%, 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%, and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P  Conclusions The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children’s growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10–19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and

  4. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  6. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  7. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  9. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engebretsen Ingunn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. Methods A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0–11 months pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ, length-for-age (LAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ. Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ Results The prevalences of wasting and stunting were 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Diarrhoea during the previous 14 days was associated with wasting in the crude analysis, but no factors were significantly associated with wasting in the adjusted analysis. The adjusted analysis for stunting showed associations with age and gender. Stunting was more prevalent among boys than girls, 58.7% versus 41.3%. Having brothers and/or sisters was a protective factor against stunting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8, but replacement or mixed feeding was not (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.1. Lowest household wealth was the most prominent factor associated with stunting with a more than three-fold increase in odds ratio (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6–7.8. This pattern was also seen when the mean LAZ was investigated across household wealth categories: the adjusted mean difference between the top and the bottom wealth categories was 0.58 z-scores, p Conclusion Sub-optimal infant feeding practices after birth, poor

  10. Ghrelin and PYY levels in adolescents with severe obesity: effects of weight loss induced by long-term exercise training and modified food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Carine; Mougin, Fabienne; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nicolet-Guénat, Marie; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated (a) changes in ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations during a weight reduction programme and (b) baseline ghrelin and PYY levels as predictors of weight loss in 32 severely obese adolescents (BMI z score = 4.1). Subjects spent an academic year in an institution for childhood obesity. Fasting ghrelin and PYY, leptin, insulin levels and insulin resistance were measured at baseline (month 0) and during the programme (months 3, 6, 9). In addition, 15 normal-weight teenagers served as reference for the baseline assessments. At baseline, obese teenagers had lower ghrelin and PYY concentrations than normal-weight adolescents (P modification, there was a significant decrease in body weight among obese teenagers, associated with an increase in ghrelin (apparent from month 6; P modification. However, higher baseline PYY tended to correlate with greater anthropometrical changes (P < 0.1). In adolescents with severe obesity, a long-term combination of supervised aerobic exercises and a balanced diet led to weight reduction and increased ghrelin concentrations, without any change in PYY concentrations. Moreover, baseline PYY concentrations might be considered as predictors of weight loss.

  11. Severe fuel damage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1987-10-01

    After the descriptions of the generation of a Severe Fuel Damage Accident in a LWR the hypothetical course of such an accident is explained. Then the most significant projects are described. At each project the experimental facility, the most important results and the concluding models and codes are discussed. The selection of the projects is concentrated on the German Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS), tests performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and smaller projects in France and Great Britain. 25 refs., 26 figs. (Author)

  12. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  13. Several crimes solved

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2007-01-01

    A member of a contractor's personnel suspected of having committed several thefts in and around Building 180 has recently been questioned by the French police. He was immediately tried by the court in Bourg-en-Bresse and sentenced to six months in prison, with a requirement to serve at least three months. His arrest was facilitated, among other things, by a video recording, fast and detailed statements to the CERN Fire Brigade and close collaboration between the members of the personnel concerned, the Reception and Access Control Service and the police. Several laptops and other items of electronic equipment were seized during a search of the culprit's home. A stolen digital camera has yet to be returned to its owner as he has not reported the theft to the CERN Fire Brigade and the police. The person concerned is therefore requested to go to the Gendarmerie in Saint-Genis-Pouilly with the necessary proof of ownership. In addition, the French authorities have informed CERN that the presumed authors of the a...

  14. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  15. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z-scores

  16. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  17. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Longitudinal Study of Slum-Dwelling Bangladeshi Children: Association with Severe Malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonum S Korpe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of infectious diarrhea in young children worldwide, and is a significant contributor to under-five mortality. Current treatment options are limited in young children. In this study, we describe the natural history of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a birth cohort of children in Bangladesh and evaluate for association with malnutrition.This is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 392 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children followed over the first two years of life from 2008 to 2014. Children were monitored for diarrheal disease, and stool was tested for intestinal protozoa. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 3-month intervals. A subset of Cryptosporidium positive stools were genotyped for species and revealed that C. hominis was isolated from over 90% of samples. In the first two years of life, 77% of children experienced at least one infection with Cryptosporidium spp. Non-diarrheal infection (67% was more common than diarrheal infection (6.3% although 27% of children had both types of infection. Extreme poverty was associated with higher rates of infection (chi-square, 49.7% vs 33.3%, p = 0.006. Malnutrition was common in this cohort, 56% of children had stunted growth by age two. Children with Cryptosporidium spp. infection had a greater than 2-fold increased risk of severe stunting at age two compared to uninfected children (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.17, 6.15, p = 0.019 independent of sex, income, maternal body-mass index, maternal education and weight for age adjusted z (WAZ score at birth.Cryptosporidium infection is common (77% in this cohort of slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children, and both non-diarrheal and diarrheal infections are significantly associated with a child's growth at 2 years of age.

  18. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Longitudinal Study of Slum-Dwelling Bangladeshi Children: Association with Severe Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpe, Poonum S; Haque, Rashidul; Gilchrist, Carol; Valencia, Cristian; Niu, Feiyang; Lu, Miao; Ma, Jennie Z; Petri, Sarah E; Reichman, Daniel; Kabir, Mamun; Duggal, Priya; Petri, William A

    2016-05-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of infectious diarrhea in young children worldwide, and is a significant contributor to under-five mortality. Current treatment options are limited in young children. In this study, we describe the natural history of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a birth cohort of children in Bangladesh and evaluate for association with malnutrition. This is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 392 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children followed over the first two years of life from 2008 to 2014. Children were monitored for diarrheal disease, and stool was tested for intestinal protozoa. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 3-month intervals. A subset of Cryptosporidium positive stools were genotyped for species and revealed that C. hominis was isolated from over 90% of samples. In the first two years of life, 77% of children experienced at least one infection with Cryptosporidium spp. Non-diarrheal infection (67%) was more common than diarrheal infection (6.3%) although 27% of children had both types of infection. Extreme poverty was associated with higher rates of infection (chi-square, 49.7% vs 33.3%, p = 0.006). Malnutrition was common in this cohort, 56% of children had stunted growth by age two. Children with Cryptosporidium spp. infection had a greater than 2-fold increased risk of severe stunting at age two compared to uninfected children (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.17, 6.15, p = 0.019) independent of sex, income, maternal body-mass index, maternal education and weight for age adjusted z (WAZ) score at birth. Cryptosporidium infection is common (77%) in this cohort of slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children, and both non-diarrheal and diarrheal infections are significantly associated with a child's growth at 2 years of age.

  19. CANDU severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a EU member since January first 2007. This country faces now new challenges which imply also the nuclear power reactors now in operation. Romania operates since 1996 a CANDU nuclear power reactor and soon will start up a second unit. In EU PWR reactors are mostly operated, so that the Romania's reactors have to meet EU standards. Safety analysis guidelines require to model severe accidents for reactors of this type. Starting from previous studies a thermal-hydraulic model for a degraded CANDU core was developed. The initiating event is assumed to be a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator and coolant and the failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 1000 deg. C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the decay heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) uncover, then disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. All the quantity of calandria moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield water tank surrounding the calandria vessel. The thermal hydraulics phenomena described above are modeled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. (authors)

  20. Characteristics of severe anemia and its association with malaria in young children of the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Fryauff, David J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Koram, Kwadwo A; Binka, Fred N; Nkrumah, Francis K; Utz, Greg C; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2002-10-01

    Severe anemia is thought to be the principal underlying cause of malaria death in areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission such as the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana. Factors associated with severe anemia in young children, 6-24 months old, were elucidated by analyzing results of 2 malaria-associated anemia surveys (1996, 2000), separated by 4 years, but conducted in the same community and at the same seasonal time point. Age-adjusted comparison confirmed that the proportion of severely anemic children and overall mean hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the November 2000 sample were significantly improved over those of the 1996 sample (17.5 versus 26.4%, P = 0.03; Hb 7.5 versus 6.9 g/dL, P = 0.002). Weight-for-age Z-scores also indicated a significant improvement in the 2000 sample (-1.93 versus -2.20, P or = 6.0 g/dL, those with severe anemia (Hb < 6.0 g/dL) were older, more frequently parasitemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.35), more often febrile (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.71-3.48), and predominantly male (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.05-2.13). An association was identified in both surveys between severe anemia and residence in the northern part of the district, but no clear link was observed in relation to irrigation. Blood transfusions, a likely surrogate index of severe anemia in young children, followed a distinct seasonal pattern. Evidence suggests that dramatic peaks and troughs of severe anemia are regular and possibly predictable events that may be used to gauge the health and survival of young children in this area.

  1. Levosimendan treatment of severe acute congestive heart failure refractory to dobutamine/milrinone in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić Sergej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Levosimendan is a novel positive inotropic agent which, improves myocardial contractility through its calcium-sensitizing action, without causing an increase in myocardial oxygen demand. Also, by opening ATP-sensitive potassium channels, it causes vasodilatation with the reduction in both afterload and preload. Because of the long halflife, its effects last for up 7 to 9 days after 24-hour infusion. Case report. We presented three patients 2, 15 and 17 years old. All the patients had severe acute deterioration of the previously diagnosed chronic heart failure (dilatative cardiomyopathy; univentricular heart with bidirectional Glenn anastomosis and restrictive bulboventricular foramen; bacterial endocarditis on artificial aortic valve with severe stenosis and regurgitation. Signs and symptoms of severe heart failure, cardiomegaly (cardio-thoracic index 0.65 and left ventricular dilatation (end-diastolic diameter z-score 2.6; 4.1 and 4.0 were confirmed on admission. Also, myocardial contractility was poor with ejection fraction (EF - 27%, 25%, 35%, fractional shortening (FS - 13%, 11%, 15% and stroke volume (SV - 40, 60, 72 mL/m2. The treatment with standard intravenous inotropic agents resulted in no improvement but in clinical deterioration. Thus, standard intravenous inotropic support was stopped and levosimendan treatment was introduced. All the patients received a continuous 24-h infusion 0.1 μg/kg/min of levosimendan. In a single patient an initial loading dose of 11 μg/kg over 10 min was administrated, too. Levosimendan treatment resulted in both clinical and echocardiography improvement with the improved EF (42%, 34%, 44%, FS (21%, 16%, 22% and SV (59, 82, 93 mL/m2. Hemodynamic improvement was registered too, with the reduction in heart rate in all the treated patients from 134-138 bpm before, to less than 120 bpm after the treatment. These parameters were followed by the normalization of lactate levels. Nevertheless, left

  2. An Adolescent Case of Citrin Deficiency With Severe Anorexia Mimicking Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satsuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Inui, Akio; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a 12-year-old female citrin-deficient patient presenting with severe anorexia and body weight loss, mimicking the restricting type of anorexia nervosa (AN). She showed normal development until age 10 years when she started to play volleyball at school. She then became gradually anorexic, and her growth was stunted. At age 12, she was admitted to hospital because of severe anorexia and thinness. She was first thought to have AN, and drip infusion of glucose solution and high-calorie drinks were given, but her condition deteriorated further. She had a history of neonatal hepatitis and was therefore suspected to have citrin deficiency (CD). Genetic analysis of SLC25A13 revealed that she was compound heterozygous for 851del4 and IVS16ins3kb, and a diagnosis of CD was made. A low-carbohydrate diet with oral intake of arginine and ursodeoxycholic acid was started, and her condition gradually improved. The clinical features in our patient were similar to those of AN, and therefore AN may also be an important clinical sign in adolescent patients with CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Treatment of severe tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurikainen, E; Johansson, R; Akaan-Penttilä, E; Haapaniemi, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1995-96 we selected a group of 26 patients who were suffering from severe invalidating idiopathic tinnitus (IT) in order to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitation and some alternative therapies. All patients were assessed thoroughly by means of audiology and radiology regarding any objective cause for the symptom. In order to help patients control their symptom by increasing knowledge and adding supportive elements, they were given basic education (presentations of the anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing system, psychological and social aspects of IT, guided and non-guided group discussions, relaxation therapy, physiotherapy, music therapy) for 4 months, comprising one 2-h session bi-weekly. This type of group therapy was found to be extremely helpful, although no objective evaluation revealed effects on IT sensation (VAS) or psychometric measures (SLC-90). In a second limb of the study, the same patients attended a 6-day intensive course in a spa. The purpose was to evaluate the possible usefulness of the widely recommended alternative therapies for IT. All patients had an opportunity to sample the treatments. Six months later only a few had tried any of these treatments, but all reported that the lessons were the most helpful in association with supportive group discussions. The results indicated that none of these therapies can be recommended, based on rational medical practise.

  4. Zinc as an adjunct therapy in the management of severe pneumonia among Gambian children: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Stephen; Bottomley, Christian; Chimah, Osaretin; Ideh, Readon; Ebruke, Bernard; Okomo, Uduak; Onyeama, Charles; Donkor, Simon; Rodrigues, Onike; Tapgun, Mary; Janneh, Marie; Oluwalana, Claire; Kuti, Bankole; Enwere, Godwin; Esangbedo, Pamela; Doherty, Conor; Mackenzie, Grant; Greenwood, Brian; Corrah, Tumani; Prentice, Andrew; Adegbola, Richard; Zaman, Syed

    2018-06-01

    The benefit of zinc as an adjunct therapy for severe pneumonia is not established. We assessed the benefit of adjunct zinc therapy for severe pneumonia in children and determined whether the study children were zinc deficient. This was a randomized, parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an allocation ratio of 1:1 conducted in children with severe pneumonia to evaluate the efficacy of daily zinc as an adjunct treatment in preventing 'treatment failure' (presence of any sign of severe pneumonia) on day-5 and day-10 and in reducing the time to resolution of signs of severe pneumonia. Six hundred and four children 2-59 months of age presenting with severe pneumonia at six urban and rural health care facilities in The Gambia were individually randomised to receive placebo (n = 301) or zinc (n = 303) for seven days. To determine if the study children were zinc deficient, supplementation was continued in a randomly selected subgroup of 121 children from each arm for six months post-enrolment, and height-gain, nutritional status, plasma zinc concentrations, and immune competence were compared. Percentage of treatment failure were similar in placebo and zinc arms both on day 5 (14.0% vs 14.1%) and day 10 (5.2% vs 5.9%). The time to recovery from lower chest wall indrawing and sternal retraction was longer in the placebo compared to zinc arm (24.4 vs 23.0 hours; P  = 0.011 and 18.7 vs 11.0 hours; P  = 0.006 respectively). The time to resolution for all respiratory symptoms of severity was not significantly different between placebo and zinc arms (42.3 vs 30.9 hours respectively; P  = 0.242). In the six months follow-up sub-group, there was no significant difference in height gain, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores, mid upper arm circumference, plasma zinc concentrations, and anergy at six months post-enrolment. In this population, zinc given as an adjunct treatment for severe pneumonia showed no benefit in treatment

  5. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sarah; Mody, Aaloke; Hornik, Christoph; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiyimba, Tonny; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; Bartlett, John; St Peter, John V; Newgard, Christopher B; Freemark, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. To identify and target those at highest risk, there is a critical need to characterize biomarkers that predict complications prior to and during treatment. We used targeted and nontargeted metabolomic analysis to characterize changes in a broad array of hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and metabolites during treatment of severe childhood malnutrition. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were studied at presentation to Mulago Hospital and during inpatient therapy with milk-based formulas and outpatient supplementation with ready-to-use food. We assessed the relationship between baseline hormone and metabolite levels and subsequent mortality. Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in the study; a subset was followed up from inpatient treatment to the outpatient clinic. Inpatient and outpatient therapies increased weight/height z scores and induced striking changes in the levels of fatty acids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammatory cytokines, and various hormones including leptin, insulin, GH, ghrelin, cortisol, IGF-I, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY. A total of 12.2% of the patients died during hospitalization; the major biochemical factor predicting mortality was a low level of leptin (P = .0002), a marker of adipose tissue reserve and a critical modulator of immune function. We have used metabolomic analysis to provide a comprehensive hormonal and metabolic profile of severely malnourished children at presentation and during nutritional rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that fatty acid metabolism plays a central role in the adaptation to acute malnutrition and that low levels of the adipose tissue hormone leptin associate with, and may predict, mortality prior to and during treatment.

  6. Warren shunt combined with partial splenectomy in children with extra-hepatic portal hypertension, massive splenomegaly and severe hypersplenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO is one of the most often causes of portal hypertension in children. Objective. Establishing the importance of shunt surgery in combination with partial spleen resection in selected pediatric patients with EHPVO, enormous splenomegaly and severe hypersplenism. Methods. Distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS with partial spleen resection was performed in 22 children age from 2 to 17 years with EHPVO. Indications for surgery were pain and abdominal discomfort caused by spleen enlargement, as well as symptomatic hypersplenism with leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The partial spleen resection was performed by ligation of blood vessels to caudal two thirds of the spleen. After ischemic parenchymal demarcation transection with electrocautery LigaSure was performed with preservation of 20-30% of spleen tissue, and then Warren DSRS was created. Platelet and leucocytes counts and liver function tests were obtained before, one month and one year after surgery. Growth was assessed with SD scores (Z scores for height, weight and body mass index at the time of surgery and one year later. Results. In all patients postoperative period was without significant complications. Platelets and leucocytes counts were normalized. Patency rate of shunts was 100%. Two significant shunts stenosis were observed and successfully treated with percutaneous angioplasty. During the follow-up period (1 to 9 years all patients were asymptomatic, with improved quality of life and growth. Conclusion. Results of our study indicate that shunt surgery with a partial spleen resection is an effective and safe procedure for patients with enormous splenomegaly and severe hypersplenism caused by EHPVO.

  7. Morbidity of severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, J G

    2001-10-01

    Although obesity is an easy diagnosis to make, its etiologies, pathophysiology, and symptomatology are extraordinarily complex. Progress in surgical technique and anesthesiological management has substantially improved the safety of performing operations on the severely obese in the last 20 years. These improvements have occurred more or less empirically, without a full understanding of etiology or pathophysiology, although this has advanced concomitantly with improvements in practice. This review has attempted to provide a framework to facilitate progress in the neglected areas of patient selection and choice of operation, in an effort to improve long-term outcome. Despite the disparate etiologies of obesity and its diverse comorbidities and complications, there are unifying interdependent pathogenetic mechanisms of great relevance to the practice of antiobesity surgery. The rate of eating, whether driven by HPA dysfunction, ambient stress, or related hereditary susceptibility factors including the increased energy demands of an expanded body fat mass, participates in a cycle that results in disordered satiety (see Fig. 3). This leads to substrate overload, causing extensive metabolic abnormalities such as atherogenesis, insulin resistance, thrombogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This interpretation of the pathophysiology of obesity ironically accords with the original meaning of the word obesity: "to overeat." The ultimate solution to the problem of obesity--preventing it--will not be forthcoming until the food industry is forced to lower production and change its marketing strategies, as the liquor and tobacco industries in the United States were compelled to do. This cannot occur until the large and fast-growing populations of industrialized nations become educated in the personal implications of the energy principle. Regardless of whether school curricula are modified to prioritize health education, the larger problems of cultural and economic change remain for

  8. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchao; Yu, Lu; Jin, Linhong; Wang, Wenli; Zhao, Qi; Ran, Longlu; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Rong; Wei, Yongtian; Yang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Enlong; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y.), incidence of infected plants (I.I.P.), virus load (V.L.), disease index (D.I.), and insect quantity (I.Q.) per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1) and Liangyou2186 (L2186) were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties' SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ).

  9. Intestinal mucosal permeability of severely underweight and nonmalnourished Bangladeshi children and effects of nutritional rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Nahar, Baitun; Hamadani, Jena D; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Roy, Anjan Kumar; Brown, Kenneth H

    2010-11-01

    Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) intestinal permeability tests were completed to compare the intestinal function of severely underweight children recovering from diarrhea and other illnesses and of nonmalnourished children from the same communities, and to evaluate the effects of food supplementation, with or without psychosocial stimulation, on the changes in intestinal function among the underweight children. Seventy-seven malnourished children completed intestinal permeability studies at baseline and 3 months after receiving 1 of the following randomly assigned treatment regimens: group-C--fortnightly follow-up at community-based follow-up units, including growth monitoring and promotion, health education, and micronutrient supplementation, n = 17; group-SF--same as group-C plus supplementary food (SF) to provide 150 to 300 kcal/day, n = 23; group-PS--same as group-C plus psychosocial stimulation (PS), n = 17; or group-SF + PS--same as group-C plus SF and PS, n = 20. Seventeen nonmalnourished children were included as comparison subjects. The malnourished children's mean ± SD initial age was 13.1 ± 4.0 months, their mean weight-for-age z score was -3.82 ± 0.61, and their median (interquartile range) urinary L/M recovery ratio was 0.16 (0.10-0.28). Eighty-four percent of the children had L/M ≥ 0.07, suggestive of impaired intestinal function. The median L/M of the malnourished children was significantly greater than that of 17 relatively well-nourished children (median 0.09; interquartile range 0.05-0.12; P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of the severely malnourished children by treatment group. Following treatment, the L/M ratio improved in all of the groups (P sugar permeability, is impaired among severely underweight children. Intestinal permeability improves in relation to weight gain, but intestinal mucosal recovery is not specifically related to the types or amount of food supplementation or PS provided in this trial.

  10. Mitral-valve repair versus replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Michael A; Parides, Michael K; Perrault, Louis P; Moskowitz, Alan J; Gelijns, Annetine C; Voisine, Pierre; Smith, Peter K; Hung, Judy W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Puskas, John D; Argenziano, Michael; Gammie, James S; Mack, Michael; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G; Ferguson, T Bruce; Horvath, Keith A; Geller, Nancy L; Miller, Marissa A; Woo, Y Joseph; D'Alessandro, David A; Ailawadi, Gorav; Dagenais, Francois; Gardner, Timothy J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Michler, Robert E; Kron, Irving L

    2014-01-02

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with a substantial risk of death. Practice guidelines recommend surgery for patients with a severe form of this condition but acknowledge that the supporting evidence for repair or replacement is limited. We randomly assigned 251 patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation to undergo either mitral-valve repair or chordal-sparing replacement in order to evaluate efficacy and safety. The primary end point was the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) at 12 months, as assessed with the use of a Wilcoxon rank-sum test in which deaths were categorized below the lowest LVESVI rank. At 12 months, the mean LVESVI among surviving patients was 54.6±25.0 ml per square meter of body-surface area in the repair group and 60.7±31.5 ml per square meter in the replacement group (mean change from baseline, -6.6 and -6.8 ml per square meter, respectively). The rate of death was 14.3% in the repair group and 17.6% in the replacement group (hazard ratio with repair, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 1.47; P=0.45 by the log-rank test). There was no significant between-group difference in LVESVI after adjustment for death (z score, 1.33; P=0.18). The rate of moderate or severe recurrence of mitral regurgitation at 12 months was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (32.6% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in the rate of a composite of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, in functional status, or in quality of life at 12 months. We observed no significant difference in left ventricular reverse remodeling or survival at 12 months between patients who underwent mitral-valve repair and those who underwent mitral-valve replacement. Replacement provided a more durable correction of mitral regurgitation, but there was no significant between-group difference in clinical outcomes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of

  11. The role of ethnic and rural discrimination in the relationship between income inequality and health in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to understand in the ways in which income inequality can affect children's health (z-score of stunting) in Guatemala. We postulate that there are several transmission channels through which income inequality can affect health and that the children's ethnic and rural origins influence the size and direction of this effect. The methodology employed is systems of simultaneous equations (three-stage least squares and generalized method of moments). Our results highlight the importance of rural and indigenous characteristics in the relationship between income inequality and child health and indicate that the most important transmission channels are household income levels and maternal education. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Effects of childhood malnutrition on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaya, A L [Centro de Recuperacao e Educacao Nutricional - CERN, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Depto. de Fisiologia, Disc. de Fisiologia Endocrina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Roberts, S B [USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Tufts University, Boston, MA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Studies in humans and animals have lent support to the theory that early undernutrition can promote later obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate the effects of stunting, indicative of previous malnutrition on the increase risk factors for these diseases. The population studied will be 100 school age boys and girls (8-10 y) divided into two groups: stunted (-1.0 to -2.5 z score of height-for-age) but of normal weight-for-height ({+-} 0.5 z score of NCHS); and control having normal height-for-age and weight-for-height ({+-} 0.5 z score of NCHS). Differences in body composition, food intake, blood parameters (fasting glucose and insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucagon, salivary cortisol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, free-fat acids and IGF-1) and blood pressure will be evaluated. (author)

  13. Effects of childhood malnutrition on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.; Roberts, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in humans and animals have lent support to the theory that early undernutrition can promote later obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate the effects of stunting, indicative of previous malnutrition on the increase risk factors for these diseases. The population studied will be 100 school age boys and girls (8-10 y) divided into two groups: stunted (-1.0 to -2.5 z score of height-for-age) but of normal weight-for-height (± 0.5 z score of NCHS); and control having normal height-for-age and weight-for-height (± 0.5 z score of NCHS). Differences in body composition, food intake, blood parameters (fasting glucose and insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucagon, salivary cortisol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, free-fat acids and IGF-1) and blood pressure will be evaluated. (author)

  14. Prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in South-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie; Obu, Herbert A; Odetunde, Odutola I; Chinawa, Awoere T

    2014-09-11

    Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition where the weight for age, height for age and weight for height indices are below -2 Z-score of the NCHS reference. It has posed a great economic burden to the developing world. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in Abakiliki in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional studies that assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 1-5 years attending nursery and primary schools. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. A total of 616 children aged one to 5 years were enrolled into this study. Three hundred and sixty-seven (59.6%) were males while 249 (40.4%) were females. Sixty of the 616 children (9.7%) had acute malnutrition based on WHZ-score. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was present in 33 children (5.3%) while 27 (4.4%) had severe acute malnutrition. The prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition using z-score is 9.7% and 4.4% respectively while that of stunting is 9.9% with a male preponderance.

  15. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  16. Effect of inoculum density and soil tillage on the development and severity of rhizoctonia root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

    2008-03-01

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause substantial yield losses in direct-seeded cereal crops compared with conventional tillage. To investigate the mechanisms behind this increased disease, soils from tilled or direct-seeded fields were inoculated with Rhizoctonia spp. at population densities from 0.8 to 250 propagules per gram and planted with barley (Hordeum vulgare). The incidence and severity of disease did not differ between soils with different tillage histories. Both R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae stunted plants at high inoculum densities, with the latter causing pre-emergence damping-off. High inoculum densities of both species stimulated early production of crown roots in barley seedlings. Intact soil cores from these same tilled and direct-seeded fields were used to evaluate the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from colonized oat seeds. Growth of R. oryzae was not affected by previous tillage history. However, R. solani AG-8 grew more rapidly through soil from a long-term direct-seeded field compared to tilled soils. The differential response between these two experiments (mixed, homogenized soil versus intact soil) suggests that soil structure plays a major role in the proliferation of R. solani AG-8 through soils with different tillage histories.

  17. Severity parameters for steam cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bijl, J.L.M