Sims, Eva Nowakowski; Dodd, Virginia J Noland; Tejeda, Manuel J
This study used propositions from the social learning theory to explore the effects of the combined influences of child maltreatment, childhood witness to parental violence, sibling violence, and gender on dating violence perpetration using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (CTS2). A weighted scoring method was utilized to determine how severity of violence in the home impacts dating violence perpetration. Bivariate correlations and linear regression models indicate significant associations between child maltreatment, sibling violence perpetration, childhood witness to parental violence, gender, and subsequent dating violence perpetration. Multiple regression analyses indicate that for men, history of severe violence victimization (i.e., child maltreatment and childhood witness to parental violence) and severe perpetration (sibling violence) significantly predict dating violence perpetration.
Phillips, Debby A; Phillips, Kate H; Grupp, Kitty; Trigg, Lisa J
In this article, sibling violence and the silence surrounding it is explicated through professional literature and research findings, exemplars from clinical practice, and statistics. Theoretical positions and discourse analysis have been used to help explain how regular broken bones, bruises, lacerations, and verbal humiliation can be minimized as normal sibling rivalry or roughhousing, which does not cause serious consequences. Nursing should be on the front lines of ending practices of violence. Recognizing sibling violence as such is part of this work and is a social justice issue.
Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C
Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.
The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…
Hoffman, Kristi L.; Kiecolt, K. Jill; Edwards, John N.
This study develops and tests a theoretical model to explain sibling violence based on the feminist, conflict, and social learning theoretical perspectives and research in psychology and sociology. A multivariate analysis of data from 651 young adults generally supports hypotheses from all three theoretical perspectives. Males with brothers have…
Hoffman, Kristi L.
This study develops and evaluates a theoretical model based on social learning, conflict, and feminist perspectives to explain teenage sibling physical violence and psychological abuse. Using regression analysis and data from 796 young adults, considerable support is found for all three theoretical approaches and suggests an integrated model best predicts acts of violence and abuse among siblings. For physical violence, males and brothers had significantly higher rates. Spousal...
Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…
Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip
In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,
Desir, Michelle P; Karatekin, Canan
Parent- and sibling-directed aggression by minor children are two forms of family violence that often co-occur and have strong relations to prior exposure to domestic violence, yet are often overlooked in intervention efforts. In addition, current research does not examine these forms of family violence in tandem, and there is very limited research with samples exposed to domestic violence. To better understand how these forms of aggression operate within a domestic violence context, we interviewed 44 women residing in a domestic violence shelter with at least one child over 3.5 years of age who was aggressive toward them and/or siblings. Caregivers reported on their emotional reactions to children's parent-directed aggression and the types of and effectiveness of help they sought for parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression. In line with previous literature, caregivers endorsed a complex mix of emotional reactions to their children's parent-directed aggression, including anger, sadness, guilt, forgiveness, and worthlessness. In contrast to other studies, most caregivers (89%) had sought help for children's parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression and found it effective. Findings contribute to the literature on parent- and sibling-directed aggression and provide implications for how to effectively intervene.
Sin, Jacqueline; Jordan, Cheryl D; Barley, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Claire; Norman, Ian
Many people with severe mental illness (SMI) have siblings. Siblings are often both natural agents to promote service users' recovery and vulnerable to mental ill health due to the negative impact of psychosis within the family. Despite a wealth of research evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation for service users with SMI and their family members, in reducing relapse and promoting compliance with treatment, siblings remain relatively invisible in clinical service settings as well as in research studies. If psychoeducational interventions target siblings and improve siblings' knowledge, coping with caring and overall wellbeing, they could potentially provide a cost-effective option for supporting siblings with resulting benefits for service users' outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation compared with usual care or any other intervention in promoting wellbeing and reducing distress of siblings of people affected by SMI.The secondary objective was, if possible, to determine which type of psychoeducation is most effective. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and screened the reference lists of relevant reports and reviews (12th November 2013). We contacted trial authors for unpublished and specific data on siblings' outcomes. All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducational interventions targeting siblings of all ages (on their own or amongst other family members including service users) of individuals with SMI, using any means and formats of delivery, i.e. individual (family), groups, computer-based. Two review authors independently screened the abstracts and extracted data and two other authors independently checked the screening and extraction process. We contacted authors of trials to ascertain siblings' participation in the trials and seek sibling-specific data in those studies where siblings' data were grouped together with other participants' (most commonly other family members
The present study provides experimental data comparing emerging adults' attitudes toward dating and sibling violence in adolescence using a new methodology in which participants observe a violent interaction between adolescents. The reported amount of violence experienced in dating and sibling relationships among emerging adults is also compared.…
Tailor, Ketan; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Piotrowski, Caroline
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal stress, parenting behavior, and sibling adjustment in relation to child trauma symptoms in families with and without a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Maternal report was used to measure maternal stress and child trauma symptoms, whereas parenting behavior was assessed through an observational measure. Participants consisted of mothers with 2 school-age siblings recruited from the community. Results indicated that violent families reported higher levels of maternal stress and sibling trauma symptoms than nonviolent families, although no differences were found in parenting behavior. Sibling trauma symptoms and negative maternal behavior toward a sibling were strong predictors of trauma symptoms in younger siblings exposed to IPV but only modest predictors for older siblings. Moderator analyses showed that in IPV-affected families, the trauma symptoms of older siblings were related to the trauma symptoms of younger siblings when maternal stress was high. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Keywords: physical violence, psychological abuse, stalking, intimate partner, problem ... of violence in their current or most recent partnership (Gupta et al., 2008). .... of Violence Against Women Scale (SAVAWS), several studies have found ...
Hall, Sarah A; Rossetti, Zach
Siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often assume key roles to support their brothers and sisters. For people with more significant support needs, siblings may undertake additional roles and responsibilities throughout their lives. The purpose of the present study was to identify and describe the roles of adult siblings who have a brother or sister with severe IDD. Seventy-nine adult siblings from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with open-ended questions about the roles they play in their relationships with their brother or sister. Thematic analysis resulted in identification of several roles including caregiver, friend (social partner), advocate, legal representative, sibling (teacher/role model), leisure planner and informal service coordinator. Siblings assume key roles in the lives of people with IDD and need support from family and professionals to perform these roles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Castro, Roberto; Ruíz, Agustín
To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at public clinics in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were investigated. A severity index was built up. Logistic regression analysis was applied in order to identify the main variables associated to domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of domestic violence did not change significantly before and during pregnancy (32%). The prevalence of each type of violence remained the same. About 27% of women who reported violence during pregnancy did not have experience it before, and a comparable proportion had experienced violence before but not during pregnancy. The severity of emotional violence significantly increased during pregnancy (compared to the previous year) whereas the severity of physical violence decreased. Variables most clearly related to violence during pregnancy were: couple's past history of child abuse; women witnessing domestic violence during childhood; and violence in the year before pregnancy. Several risk scenarios were identified, which could be helpful for health care providers. The results showed that emotional violence is more prevalent than physical and sexual violence, allowing for a better understanding of this phenomenon.
Lohrer, Steven P; Lukens, Ellen P; Thorning, Helle
Siblings of persons with mental illness who assume primary caregiving roles experience substantial and tangible economic impacts associated with this responsibility. This study investigated mailed survey responses collected from 156 adult siblings of persons with mental illness from New York State to examine instrumental costs associated with providing support to siblings with illness. Genders of both siblings, severity of the relatives' mental illness, and number of surviving parents in the family distinguished those occupying primary caregiving responsibility from those not in primary roles. Current caregivers incurred greater instrumental costs in the form of financial expenses, time spent in care activities, and crisis involvement than did those who were not primary care providers. Additional demographic and behavioral factors related to siblings with and without illness were associated with specific dimensions of instrumental expenditure. As siblings become increasingly engaged in caregiving, social service professionals must assume leadership in promoting programs and policies that meaningfully support family involvement for relatives with mental illness.
Palmstierna, T; Olsson, D
To simultaneously evaluate actuarial and dynamic predictors of severe in-patient violence among women involuntarily admitted for severe drug abuse. All patients admitted to special facilities for involuntary treatment of absconding-prone, previously violent, drug abusing women in Sweden were assessed with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale, revised. Actuarial data on risk factors for violence were collected and considered in an extended Cox proportional hazards model with multiple events and daily assessments of the Broset Violence Checklist as time-dependent covariates. Low-grade violence and being influenced by illicit drugs were the best predictors of severe violence within 24 h. Significant differences in risk for violence between different institutions were also found. In-patient violence risk is rapidly varying over time with being influenced by illicit drugs and exhibiting low-grade violence being significant dynamic predictors. Differences in violence between patients could not be explained by patient characteristics.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore play phases, play themes, and play behaviors in the play therapy processes of two siblings who were child witnesses of marital violence. Consensus qualitative research method was adopted to analyze the data. The results showed four phases in the siblings’ play therapies: the exploratory phase, the trauma phase, the transformation phase, and the ending phase. Within the four phases, same themes that were identified for both siblings were “exploration” in the exploratory phase, “destruction” in the trauma phase, and “blessing” in the ending phase. Differences in play themes were also identified to include “interaction”, “chaos”, “defensiveness”, “threatening” for the older brother during the trauma phase, while the younger of the two displayed “hostility”, “violence/aggression”, and “repetition”. In the transformation phase, the older brother displayed themes of “healing”, “nurturing/tending”, while the younger brother displayed themes of “protection”, “construction”, and “creation”. For the ending phase, the younger brother also displayed themes of “separation” and “wistfulness”. Some recommendations for practitioners and further research in play therapy are provided.
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa C
This article explores how children see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence (DV) and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The 'voice' of children is largely absent from the DV literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children's own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently, existing models of children's social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children's experiences of DV and abuse, this article uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people's use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The article explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people's accounts and disrupts the taken-for-granted assumption that children's 'premature caring' or 'parentification' is (only) pathological in children's responses to DV. This has implications for understanding young people's experiences in the present and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Paveza, Gregory J.; And Others
Examined violence among 184 Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. Analysis of severe violence subscale of Conflict Tactics Scale indicated that 15.8 percent of patients had been violent in year since diagnosis; 5.4 percent of caregivers had been violent toward patient; and prevalence of violence was 17.4 percent. Variables most associated with…
Leyten, Q. H.; Barth, P. G.; Gabreëls, F. J.; Renkawek, K.; Renier, W. O.; Gabreëls-Festen, A. A.; ter Laak, H. J.; Smits, M. G.
Severe degenerative features of the nervous system of a hitherto unknown kind, associated with a neuromuscular disorder with histopathological features of congenital muscular dystrophy, are reported in two female siblings. The clinical profile was characterized by generalized hypotonia followed by
Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Zukerman, Gil; Zachor, Ditza A
Among typically developing children, having sibling relationships promotes the development of social skills. This is a retrospective study of the effect of having sibling/s on the severity of the clinical presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study included 112 children, 99 males and 15 females, mean age 29.6 ± 9.2 months, diagnosed with ASD. The study population was composed of a group of children with ASD who had older typically developing sibling/s (n = 56) pair-matched for age and cognitive level to a group of children with ASD without sibling/s. Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment using standardized tests. The group with older sibling/s had less severe observed social deficits (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Social Affect calibrated severity scales [ADOS-SA-CSS]) and fewer reported non-verbal communication impairments (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised [ADI-R]). Regression analyses revealed that, for the ADOS-SA-CSS, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe observed social affect deficits. This model explained 32.0 % of the variance. For the ADI-R communication scores, older age, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe reported non-verbal communication impairments. This model explained 33.0 % of the variance. The main finding in this study is that a familial factor, specifically having older sibling/s, was associated with better social communication abilities in children with ASD, in addition to age and cognitive ability. Having sibling/s may offer opportunities for the child with ASD to experience social interactions with children and to acquire communication skills.
Morales, Denixa; Esparza, Joshua; Kaur, Manjinder
This literature review examines different factors that influence adolescent delinquency such as sibling relationship quality, birth order, and normalization of violence. The review uses a psychosocial approach to observe how these factors can affect an adolescent’s behavior. This research will contribute to the field of Psychology by emphasizing that outcomes associated with adolescent delinquency can be traced to specific points. The main points of this research are further supported by the ...
Khalifeh, H; Moran, P; Borschmann, R; Dean, K; Hart, C; Hogg, J; Osborn, D; Johnson, S; Howard, L M
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population. Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾ 1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey. Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Fischer, Thea Kølsen
Human parechovirus (HPeV) is a cause of severe morbidity among infants and young children. To evaluate the associations between early environmental risk factors and HPeV infections, we carried out a nationwide cohort study linking registry data on birth and sibship characteristics with a laboratory surveillance database, covering all HPeV infections detected in Denmark during 2009-2012 among children sibling, the higher the risk of HPeV-3 as well as non-HPeV-3 infections, although the trend was strongest for HPeV-3 infections. Our study is the first to suggest that having a slightly older sibling increases the risk for severe neonatal HPeV infections. This new knowledge might lead to new preventive measures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde
Human parechovirus (HPeV) is a cause of severe morbidity among infants and young children. To evaluate the associations between early environmental risk factors and HPeV infections, we carried out a nationwide cohort study linking registry data on birth and sibship characteristics with a laborato...... for HPeV-3 infections. Our study is the first to suggest that having a slightly older sibling increases the risk for severe neonatal HPeV infections. This new knowledge might lead to new preventive measures........68, 95% confidence interval: 3.85, 19.53) of contracting HPeV-3 infections, but at no increased risk of contracting non-HPeV-3 infections. However, the shorter the age gap to the nearest older sibling, the higher the risk of HPeV-3 as well as non-HPeV-3 infections, although the trend was strongest...
McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.
Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…
Echeburua, Enrique; Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.
The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are…
McKinney, Christy M; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A; Okoro, Ngozi
Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). We analyzed data from a 1995 U.S. national population-based survey of couples > or = 18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild + severe ("severe") IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV.
Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden
Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.
Szumera, Edyta; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Potaczek, Tomasz; Sułko, Jerzy; Tęsiorowski, Maciej
The incidence of scoliosis among patients with certain systemic diseases is much higher than in the general population. Moreover, the onset of the scoliosis is in early childhood before the age of 5 and the deformity reaches extreme values. We present the clinical course of two siblings with multiple musculoskeletal deformities, osteoporosis, severe kyphoscolisis and an undiagnosed systemic disease. The onset of scoliosis was in the first months of life of both children, with a marked progression about the 8th month of life. Due to lower limb deformities, ambulation was delayed until the 5th year of life in the male sibling, and the girl remains non-ambulant. Both children had osteoporosis, which caused numerous fractures of the upper and lower limbs. Due to progression of the spinal deformity the boy underwent a posterior hemispondylodesis with instrumentation at the age of 7. The girl also underwent surgery at the age of 7, but instrumentation could not be placed successfully due to inadequate bone quality. The last follow-up to date has been at the age of 12 years for the female patient and 20 years for the male patient. The spinal deformity in the female has not progressed during the last 2-3 years. She has been on bisphosphonate therapy for two years and no new fractures have been noted. The male patient has undergone multiple surgeries for lower limb deformities and is an independent walker. His scoliosis remains stable, but a minor progression of kyphosis has been noted in the last year. The history of the two patients shows that not all early-onset deformities can be effectively treated and that osteoporosis is a crucial obstacle to this treatment.
Bacigalupo, Andrea; Socié, Gerard; Hamladji, Rose Marie
We have analyzed 1448 patients with acquired aplastic anemia grafted between 2005 and 2009, and compared outcome of identical sibling (n=940) versus unrelated donor (n=508) transplants. When compared to the latter, sibling transplants were less likely to be performed beyond 180 days from diagnosis.......04). In conclusion, in multivariate analysis, the outcome of unrelated donor transplants for acquired aplastic anemia, is currently not statistically inferior when compared to sibling transplants, although patients are at greater risk of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The use of peripheral blood grafts...
Kilmer, Ryan P; Cook, James R; Munsell, Eylin Palamaro; Salvador, Samantha Kane
This study builds on the scant research involving siblings of children with severe emotional disturbances (SED) and examines: associations between adversity experiences and adjustment among 5- to 10-year-old siblings, and relations among family resources, community life, and sibling adjustment. Caregivers from 100 families completed standardized indicators of sibling adjustment and scales reflecting multiple contextual variables. Results document negative associations between stress exposure and sibling adjustment. Regression models also indicate positive associations between the caregiver-child relationship and broader family resources on sibling behavioral and emotional strengths, even after accounting for adversity experiences; adversity exposure was the prime correlate in regression models involving sibling oppositional behavior. Analyses also suggest that strain related to parenting a child with SED is associated with sibling adjustment. This work documents the needs of these siblings and their family systems and highlights the relevance of not only core proximal influences (e.g., child-caregiver relationship) but also elements of their broader contexts. Implications and recommendations are described, including the need to support plans of care that involve services, supports, or preventive strategies for these siblings. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...
Saito, Mari; Yamagata, Takanori; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Shiba, Yusuke; Nagashima, Masako; Taniguchi, Shuhei; Jimbo, Eriko; Momoi, Mariko Y
Deletion of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B was detected in two male siblings and in their mother. The approximately 800-kb deletion, extending from about 43.0MB to 43.8MB, was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The MAOA and MAOB genes were included in the deletion, but the adjacent Norrie disease gene, NDP, was not deleted. The boys had short stature, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, episodes of sudden loss of muscle tone, exiting behavior, lip-smacking and autistic features. The serotonin levels in their cerebrospinal fluid were extremely elevated. Another set of siblings with this deletion was reported previously. We propose recognition of MAOA/B deletion syndrome as a distinct disorder. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ergöçmen, Banu Akadli; Yüksel-Kaptanoğlu, İlknur; Jansen, Henrica A F M Henriette
This study explores the severity and frequency of physical violence from an intimate partner experienced by 15- to 59-year-old women and their help-seeking behavior by using data from the "National Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey." Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the relationship between severity and frequency of violence and women's characteristics. Of all ever-partnered women, 36% have been exposed to partner violence; almost half of these experienced severe types of violence. Women used informal strategies to manage the violence instead of seeking help from formal institutions. Help-seeking behavior increases with increased severity and frequency of violence.
Hsieh, Matthew M; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Weitzel, R Patrick; Link, Mary E; Coles, Wynona A; Zhao, Xiongce; Rodgers, Griffin P; Powell, Jonathan D; Tisdale, John F
Myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for children with severe sickle cell disease, but toxicity may be prohibitive for adults. Nonmyeloablative transplantation has been attempted with degrees of preparative regimen intensity, but graft rejection and graft-vs-host disease remain significant. To determine the efficacy, safety, and outcome on end-organ function with this low-intensity regimen for sickle cell phenotype with or without thalassemia. From July 16, 2004, to October 25, 2013, 30 patients aged 16-65 years with severe disease enrolled in this nonmyeloablative transplant study, consisting of alemtuzumab (1 mg/kg in divided doses), total-body irradiation (300 cGy), sirolimus, and infusion of unmanipulated filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (5.5-31.7 × 10(6) cells/kg) from human leukocyte antigen-matched siblings. The primary end point was treatment success at 1 year after the transplant, defined as a full donor-type hemoglobin for patients with sickle cell disease and transfusion independence for patients with thalassemia. The secondary end points were the level of donor leukocyte chimerism; incidence of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease; and sickle cell-thalassemia disease-free survival, immunologic recovery, and changes in organ function, assessed by annual brain imaging, pulmonary function, echocardiographic image, and laboratory testing. Twenty-nine patients survived a median 3.4 years (range, 1-8.6), with no nonrelapse mortality. One patient died from intracranial bleeding after relapse. As of October 25, 2013, 26 patients (87%) had long-term stable donor engraftment without acute or chronic graft-vs-host disease. The mean donor T-cell level was 48% (95% CI, 34%-62%); the myeloid chimerism levels, 86% (95% CI, 70%-100%). Fifteen engrafted patients discontinued immunosuppression medication with continued stable donor chimerism and no graft-vs-host disease. The normalized hemoglobin and
Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J
Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.
Full Text Available This report documented the clinical and biochemical side effects on the first dose of intravenous zoledronic acid therapy in three siblings with severe osteogenesis imperfecta. Zoledronic acid was administered in 50 ml 0.9% saline solution over a period of 30 minutes. All patients had fever during the first 6 to 48 hours after the first infusion. There were no renal side effects, apart from asymptomatic hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia at 48 and 72 hours after zoledronic acid infusion. The minimal clinical side effects were easily manageable. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 127-30Keywords: zoledronic acid, osteogenesis imperfecta, side effects
Yablon, Yaacov B.
Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…
Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav
The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.
Sariaslan, A; Larsson, H; Fazel, S
Patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders (for example, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) have elevated risks of committing violent acts, particularly if they are comorbid with substance misuse. Despite recent insights from quantitative and molecular genetic studies demonstrating considerable pleiotropy in the genetic architecture of these phenotypes, there is currently a lack of large-scale studies that have specifically examined the aetiological links between psychotic disorders and violence. Using a sample of all Swedish individuals born between 1958 and 1989 (n=3 332 101), we identified a total of 923 259 twin-sibling pairs. Patients were identified using the National Patient Register using validated algorithms based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 8-10. Univariate quantitative genetic models revealed that all phenotypes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance misuse, and violent crime) were highly heritable (h(2)=53-71%). Multivariate models further revealed that schizophrenia was a stronger predictor of violence (r=0.32; 95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.33) than bipolar disorder (r=0.23; 0.21-0.25), and large proportions (51-67%) of these phenotypic correlations were explained by genetic factors shared between each disorder, substance misuse, and violence. Importantly, we found that genetic influences that were unrelated to substance misuse explained approximately a fifth (21%; 20-22%) of the correlation with violent criminality in bipolar disorder but none of the same correlation in schizophrenia (Pbipolar disordergenetically similar phenotypes as the latter sources may include aetiologically important clues. Clinically, these findings underline the importance of assessing risk of different phenotypes together and integrating interventions for psychiatric disorders, substance misuse, and violence.
Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S
South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.
Objective This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children’s adjustment problems in families characterized by men’s severe violence toward women. Methods Participants were 258 children and their mothers recruited from domestic violence shelters. Mothers and children completed measures of men’s IPV, women’s IPV, partner-child aggression, and mother-child aggression. Mothers provided reports of children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems; children provided reports of their appraisals of threat in relation to interparent conflict. Results After controlling for sociodemographics and men’s IPV: 1) each of the additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s IPV) was associated with children’s externalizing problems; 2) partner-child aggression was associated with internalizing problems; and 3) partner-child aggression was associated with children’s threat appraisals. The relation of mother-child aggression to externalizing problems was stronger for boys than for girls; gender differences were not observed for internalizing problems or threat appraisals. Conclusions Men’s severe IPV seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence, and these other forms appear to contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Parent-child aggression, and partner-child aggression in particular, are especially important. Systematic efforts to identify shelter children who are victims of parental violence seem warranted. Practice implications Men’s severe intimate partner violence seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women’s intimate partner violence), and these different forms of family violence all contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Treatment programs for
Van Deinse, Tonya B; Wilson, Amy Blank; Macy, Rebecca J; Cuddeback, Gary S
Women with severe mental illnesses face high rates of violence victimization, yet little is understood about the unique needs and challenges these women present to the domestic violence and behavioral health agencies that serve them. To help address this knowledge gap, focus groups were conducted with 28 staff members from local behavioral health and domestic violence service agencies. Results from this exploratory study suggest that women with severe mental illnesses who experience intimate partner violence face additional challenges that exacerbate behavioral health and domestic violence issues and put these women at greater risk for continued victimization. DV and behavioral health agency staff experience individual-, provider-, and system-level barriers to serving this high-risk, high-need population. Recommendations and implications for domestic violence and behavioral health providers are discussed.
Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Harakeh, Zeena; Overbeek, Geertjan
The present study examined the moderating effect of the quality of the sibling relationship on the longitudinal association of parental treatment with theft, vandalism, and violence in adolescence. Participants were 416 sibling pairs which were studied over a one-year period. The younger siblings were aged 13 to 15, the older siblings 14 to 17 at…
Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…
Marcelis, C.L.M.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Beemer, F.; Brunner, H.G.
We report two sisters born to consanguineous parents with an identical syndrome consisting of severe mental retardation and epilepsy, hypoplastic terminal phalanges, and anteriorly displaced anus. Further metabolic and genetic testing failed to detect the etiology. A whole genome linkage scan showed
Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Nolen, Willem A
Patients with bipolar disorder from the US have more early-onset illness and a greater familial loading for psychiatric problems than those from the Netherlands or Germany (abbreviated here as Europe). We hypothesized that these regional differences in illness burden would extend to the patients siblings. Outpatients with bipolar disorder gave consent for participation in a treatment outcome network and for filling out detailed questionnaires. This included a family history of unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and "other" illness elicited for the patients' grandparents, parents, spouses, offspring, and siblings. Problems in the siblings were examined as a function of parental and grandparental problems and the patients' adverse illness characteristics or poor prognosis factors (PPFs). Each problem in the siblings was significantly (pUS than in those from Europe. In the US, problems in the parents and grandparents were almost uniformly associated with the same problems in the siblings, and sibling problems were related to the number of PPFs observed in the patients. Family history was based on patient report. Increased familial loading for psychiatric problems extends through 4 generations of patients with bipolar disorder from the US compared to Europe, and appears to "breed true" into the siblings of the patients. In addition to early onset, a variety of PPFs are associated with the burden of psychiatric problems in the patients' siblings and offspring. Greater attention to the multigenerational prevalence of illness in patients from the US is indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Savage, Matthew W; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Lockwood Harris, Kate; Carlyle, Kellie E; Sheff, Sarah E
This study experimentally examines the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity of violence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) seriousness, sympathy toward the victim, and punishment preferences for the perpetrator. Participants (N = 449) were randomly assigned to a condition, exposed to a composite news story, and then completed a survey. Ratings of seriousness of IPV for stories with male perpetrators were significantly higher than ratings of seriousness for stories with female perpetrators. Men had significantly higher sympathy for female victims in any condition than for male victims in the weak or strong severity of violence conditions. Men's sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition did not differ from their sympathy for female victims. Women had the least sympathy for female victims in the weak severity condition and men in the weak or strong severity conditions. Women reported significantly higher sympathy for female victims in the strong and fatal severity of violence conditions. Women's ratings of sympathy for male victims in the fatal severity of violence condition were statistically indistinguishable from any other group. Participants reported stronger punishment preferences for male perpetrators and this effect was magnified among men. Theoretical implications are presented with attention provided to practical considerations about support for public health services.
Phillips-Green, Mary J.
Recently, sibling incest, a type of intrafamilial incest, has received notice from mental health professionals; however, many professionals still do not recognize the seriousness of the problem. This article reviews current research on the individual and family dynamics that allow sibling incest to occur, the effects of sibling incest on victims,…
Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S
We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.
McLaurin, Shamla L.
As various forms of interpersonal family violence receive more attention in the literature, sibling abuse is still in the background. Despite the increasing knowledge about the prevalence, causes, and effects of sibling abuse, many of us continue to relegate it to a childhood occurrence. Sibling abuse symptoms continue to go unrecognized and its demoralizing effects continue to be ignored (Wiehe, 1990). Minimization and denial of sibling abuse have also contributed to constraining the extent ...
"I Am Becoming More and More Like My Eldest Brother!": The Relationship Between Older Siblings, Adolescent Gambling Severity, and the Attenuating Role of Parents in a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Survey Study.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Siciliano, Valeria; Cutilli, Arianna; Molinaro, Sabrina
The present study examined the association between having older siblings who gamble and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and how parents (i.e., parental knowledge of their whereabouts) and peers might moderate such effects. Data were drawn from the ESPAD ® Italia2012 survey (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) comprising a nationally representative Italian sample of adolescents. The analysis was carried out on a subsample of 10,063 Italian students aged 15-19 years (average age = 17.10; 55 % girls) who had at least one older sibling and who had gambled at some point in their lives. Respondents' problem gambling severity, older gambler sibling, gambler peers, parental knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics were individually assessed. Multinomial logistic regression analyses including two- and three-way interactions were conducted. The odds of being an at-risk/problem gambler were higher among high school students with older siblings that gambled and those with peers who gambled. Higher parental knowledge (of who the adolescent was with and where they were in their leisure time) was associated with lower rates of at-risk/problem gambling. There was also an interaction between gamblers with older siblings and parental knowledge. The combination of having siblings who gambled and a greater level of parental knowledge was associated with lower levels of problem gambling. The present study confirmed the occurrence of social risk processes (older siblings and peers who gambled) and demonstrated that gambling among older siblings and peers represents an important contextual factor for increased at-risk/problem gambling. However, parental knowledge appears to be sufficient to counterbalance the influence of older siblings.
Katz, Carmit; Hamama, Liat
Siblings share a common and unique bond. It is one of the most enduring relationships during an individual's life span. Thus, the impact of child maltreatment on sibling relationships is an important area of research to explore. The current article carries out a scoping review targeted at determining the existing knowledge and then identifying research priorities within the field of sibling relationship in the context of child maltreatment. The method elaborates on the various stages that were taken to perform the scoping review, and later, the article provides three results for the readers: The first result is a detailed mapping of the existing literature in the area of sibling relationship in the context of maltreatment. The second result is a thorough thematic analysis that was carried out on this literature that focused on several relevant domains: sibling exposure to intimate partner violence, sibling relationship and experiences in the context of child maltreatment, risk assessment for siblings following maltreatment, and sibling relationships and out-of-home placement. The third result is a set of conclusions targeted mainly at recommending future directions to researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.
Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie
Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…
Reidy, Dennis E; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Kosson, David S; Kearns, Megan C; Smith-Darden, Joanne; Kiehl, Kent A
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community. In our review, we highlight evidence of a unique neurobiological predisposition that underlies the core affective deficits and describe contemporary accounts for the developmental processes leading to the antisocial behavior associated with psychopathy. Current evidence suggests that, for this subset of youth, the structure and function of neural circuitry supporting emotion processing, reward learning, decision making, and the development of emotion related to empathy may be crucial to understanding why they are at risk for violence. In particular, a reward dominant pattern of neurobehavioral conditioning may explain how these youth progress to some of the most severe and persistent forms of violence. However, this pattern of conditioning may also be essential to the primary prevention of such deleterious behavior. We suspect that effective strategies to prevent such violence may ultimately be informed by understanding these affective and motivational mechanisms.
Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating
Full Text Available Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV against women has been identified as a global health and development issue. We reported a case of GBV causing sever, multiple injuries in a middle-aged female. Case report: A 47-year-old woman presented to emergency room with disturbed level of consciousness, shortness of breath and multiple patches of skin discoloration. On examination, the patient was semi-conscious, with multiple ecchymosis and bilateral decreased air entry. Computed tomography scan of the neck and chest showed six rib fractures on the left side, and eight rib fractures on the right side, sternal fracture, manubriosternal dislocation, bilateral hemothorax, fracture of body of eleventh thoracic vertebra, and fracture of cervical spine of fifth and seventh vertebrae. The patient was intubated and admitted to intensive care unit. She was discharged with good health condition after 23 days of hospital admission. Conclusion: GBV is still a cause of severe trauma that puts the patient’s life at risk.
Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael; Nunes, Antônio Paulo
To evaluate the role of severe physical violence within intimate partners on the occurrence of vaginal bleeding during gestation in less privileged women. Health service survey. Three large public maternities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Five hundred and twenty-eight women who gave birth to full-term newborn infants were selected at random among the births that took place during the six months of fieldwork. Information on vaginal bleeding during gestation was obtained from medical records, pre-natal cards, and by means of a questionnaire addressed to the women giving birth. To collect severe physical violence data, use was made of the Portuguese version of the instrument Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, formally adapted for use in Brazil. Vaginal bleeding during gestation. After accounting for socio-economic, demographic, reproductive, and pregnant women's life-style variables, women who had been victims of two or more acts of severe physical violence were 2.74 (95% CI: 1.37-5.48) times more liable to present with vaginal bleeding during pregnancy than those who did not. Our findings suggest that physical violence increases the risk of vaginal bleeding in pregnancy. This result should encourage studies on whether intervention in violent relationships can reduce the risk of vaginal bleeding and other pregnancy complications.
Baumann, Miranda Lynne; Teasdale, Brent
In response to a spate of mass shootings, national debate over the root of America's gun violence epidemic has centered on mental illness. Consequently, calls have been made to legislatively restrict firearm access among individuals with mental illness to reduce gun violence. While there is a link between mental illness and suicide, a dearth of empirical evidence exists to inform public policy on the link between firearm access and mental illness. The current study addresses this gap by exploring the nature of firearm-related risk among disordered individuals as compared to others from the same communities. We examined a subsample of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, including 255 recently discharged psychiatric patients and 490 census-matched community residents. We conducted binomial logistic regressions to explore the impact of firearm access and patient status on violence and suicidality. In total, 15.3% reported firearm access, 23.5% violence, and 21.5% suicidality. Multivariate analyses revealed that, in the context of firearm access, patients were no more likely to perpetrate violence (OR=0.588; 95% CI=0.196-1.764) but were significantly more likely to report suicidality (OR=4.690; 95% CI=1.147-19.172). These results indicate that firearms constitute a serious risk factor for suicide, not violence, for disordered individuals. Thus, legislative efforts to reduce firearm-related risk among disordered individuals should focus on self-harm, not violence. Moreover, claims that mental illness is a principal cause of gun violence may reduce help-seeking among individuals at high risk for suicide. Researchers should devote further attention to addressing these claims empirically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paul Edgar Gray
Full Text Available Bi-allelic null mutations affecting UNC13D, STXBP2, or STX11 result in defects of lymphocyte cytotoxic degranulation and commonly cause familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL in early life. Patients with partial loss of function are increasingly being diagnosed after presenting with alternative features of this disease, or with HLH later in life. Here, we studied two sisters with lymphocyte degranulation defects secondary to compound heterozygote missense variants in UNC13D. The older sibling presented aged 11 with linear growth arrest and delayed puberty, 2 years prior to developing transient ischemic attacks secondary to neuroinflammation and hypogammaglobulinemia, but no FHL symptoms. Her geno-identical younger sister was initially asymptomatic but then presented at the same age with severe EBV-driven infectious mononucleosis, which was treated aggressively and did not progress to HLH. The sisters had similar natural killer cell degranulation; however, while cytotoxic activity was moderately reduced in the asymptomatic patient, it was completely absent in both siblings during active disease. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the age of 15, the older child has completely recovered NK cell cytotoxicity, is asymptomatic, and has experienced an exceptional compensatory growth spurt. Her younger sister was also successfully transplanted and is currently disease free. The current study reveals previously unappreciated manifestations of FHL in patients who inherited hypomorphic gene variants and also raises the important question of whether a threshold of minimum NK function can be defined that should protect a patient from serious disease manifestations such as HLH.
Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Van Den Eede, Filip
In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence, and 6% severe sexual violence in various sport settings. While the general literature has repeatedly shown that exposure to IV during childhood is associated with mental health problems in adulthood and to a lesser extent with reduced quality of life (QOL), these relationships have not been demonstrated in (former) athletes. Thus, the current study aims to assess the association of severe childhood IV in sport and adult wellbeing. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed in the same general population sample (N = 4043) using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) and QOL with the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Brèf). The association between severe IV in sport and adult wellbeing was investigated using multiple linear regression while controlling for demographics, recent life events, and relatives' psychological problems. We found severe sexual, physical, and psychological childhood IV in sport to be associated with more adult psychological distress and reduced QOL. Polyvictimization shows the strongest correlation with poorer wellbeing and QOL. Recent life events, relatives' psychological problems, marital status, and level of education were significant covariates in the psychological symptoms and QOL assessed. We hope that these new insights prompt sport administrators to implement broad spectrum child protection measures and raise the awareness of mental health professionals about the necessity to also screen for adverse childhood experiences in the sport context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schrezenmeier, H.; Passweg, J.R.; Marsh, J.C.; Bacigalupo, A.; Bredeson, C.N.; Bullorsky, E.; Camitta, B.M.; Champlin, R.E.; Gale, R.P.; Fuhrer, M.; Klein, J.P.; Locasciulli, A.; Oneto, R.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Socie, G.; Eapen, M.
We analyzed the outcome of 692 patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) receiving transplants from HLA-matched siblings. A total of 134 grafts were peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) grafts, and 558 were bone marrow (BM) grafts. Rates of hematopoietic recovery and grades 2 to 4 chronic
Spriggs, M; Savulescu, J
The Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority has given permission to allow tissue typing in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This is a new application of IVF. Not only will it allow parents to select an embryo free from serious genetic disease it will allow them to simultaneously select for a match so that the umbilical cord blood of the resulting baby can provide stem cells to treat an existing sibling who has a disease.
Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Chenping; Squarize, Cristiane H; Zou, Duohong
The oral conditions of adult edentulous patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) often lead to decreased physical and psychological health, and the negative effects can become as extreme as social and psychological isolation. However, restoring oral function of adult edentulous patients with ED using zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) remains challenging for dentists because of the severe atrophy of these patients' alveolar ridges. This report describes 2 cases of adult edentulous siblings with ED; they exhibited severe alveolar bone atrophy and were treated with ZIs and CIs as bases to augment the bone in their anterior jaws. For these patients, bone augmentation was completed with an autogenous fibular graft. Although there was mild evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, the bone augmentation procedures were successful in the 2 patients. Effective osseointegration of the implants was obtained. After placement, the functional and esthetic results of the oral rehabilitation were acceptable. More importantly, restoration of the patients' oral function enhanced their self-confidence and self-esteem. Therefore, restoring oral function in adult patients with ED and edentulous jaws using ZIs and CIs as the bases for bone augmentation is an effective approach. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, J; Fu, Y W; Liang, L J; Wang, Q; Han, L J; Zu, Y L; Zhang, Yanli; Zhu, X H; Yu, F K; Fang, B J; Wei, X D; Song, Y P
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(URD allo-HSCT) for children and adolescents with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Methods: Clinical data of 34 SAA children and adolescents undergoing allo-HSCT were retrospectively analyzed from October 2001 to October 2015. According to the source of donor, the patients were divided into matched sibling donor allo-HSCT group (MSD group) and unrelated donor group (URD group). The clinical outcome of SAA children and adolescents receiving URD allo-HSCT was assessed, and patients in MSD allo-HSCT group were enrolled as control at the same period. Results: The rate of hematopoietic reconstitution, the time of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, incidence of chimerism and graft rejection between two groups were not statistically different.The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in URD group was significantly higher than that in MSD group [42.9%(6/14) vs 10.5%(2/19), P =0.047]. The incidence of grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute GVHD and chronic GVHD in URD were higher than those in MSD group [21.4%(3/14) vs 5.3%(1/19), P =0.288; 35.7%(5/14) vs 5.3%(1/19), P =0.062, respectively], yet without significant difference between two groups. Other transplant-related complications including pulmonary complications, hemorrhagic cystitis, incidence of EBV and CMV reactivation and venous occlusive disease were comparable with two regimens. Estimated 5-years overall survival (OS) rate and disease free survival (DFS) rate were not statistically significant between URD group and MSD group [(84.4±6.6)% vs (89.4±7.1)%, (82.5±5.4)% vs (82.1±4.3)%; P =0.766, P =0.884, respectively]. Conclusions: By multivariate analysis, the outcome of URD allo-HSCT in SAA children and adolescent is similar to MSD allo-HSCT. It could be an alternative option as the first-line treatment for SAA children and adolescents without HLA matched sibling donors.
Ebens, Christen L; DeFor, Todd E; Tryon, Rebecca; Wagner, John E; MacMillan, Margaret L
Fanconi anemia (FA)-associated severe aplastic anemia (SAA) requires allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for cure. With the evolution of conditioning regimens over time, outcomes of alternative donor HCT (AD-HCT) have improved dramatically. We compared outcomes of HLA-matched sibling donor HCT (MSD-HCT; n = 17) and AD-HCT (n = 57) performed for FA-associated SAA at a single institution between 2001 and 2016. Overall survival at 5 years was 94% for MSD-HCT versus 86% for AD-HCT, neutrophil engraftment was 100% versus 95%, platelet recovery was 100% versus 89%, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 6% versus 12%, grade III-IV acute GVHD was 6% versus 4%, and chronic GVHD was 0 versus 7%, with no statistically significant differences by type of transplant. The use of UCB was associated with decreased rates of neutrophil recovery in AD-HCT and platelet recovery in both MSD-HCT and AD-HCT. A trend toward a higher serious infection density before day +100 post-HCT was observed in AD-HCT compared with MSD-HCT (P = .02). These data demonstrate that AD-HCT should be considered at the same time as MSD-HCT for patients with FA-associated SAA. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.
Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…
Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C
The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin
Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...
Fernandez Bridget A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe congenital neutropenia type 4 (SCN4 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the third subunit of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC3. Its core features are congenital neutropenia and a prominent venous skin pattern, and affected individuals have variable birth defects. Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4 is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in SLC45A2. Methods We report a sister and brother from Newfoundland, Canada with complex phenotypes. The sister was previously reported by Cullinane et al., 2011. We performed homozygosity mapping, next generation sequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing to identify mutations that cause the phenotype in this family. We have also summarized clinical data from 49 previously reported SCN4 cases with overlapping phenotypes and interpret the medical histories of these siblings in the context of the literature. Results The siblings’ phenotype is due in part to a homozygous mutation in G6PC3, [c.829C > T, p.Gln277X]. Their ages are 38 and 37 years respectively and they are the oldest SCN4 patients published to date. Both presented with congenital neutropenia and later developed Crohn disease. We suggest that the latter is a previously unrecognized SCN4 manifestation and that not all affected individuals have an intellectual disability. The sister also has a homozygous mutation in SLC45A2, which explains her severe oculocutaneous hypopigmentation. Her brother carried one SLC45A2 mutation and was diagnosed with “partial OCA” in childhood. Conclusions This family highlights that apparently novel syndromes can in fact be caused by two known autosomal recessive disorders.
Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O
Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults, we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206 from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.
Full Text Available Children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD may have serious behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and violence. However, the literature on ASD either overrules any correlation between aggression and ASD or maintains the fact that the efforts to link them have so far been inconclusive. Although severe forms of violence are extremely rare in children with autism, there are a few cases reported in the literature with significant harm to siblings. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with ASD who caused the death of his sibling by throwing her out of the window. Shared similarities of all defenestration cases indicate a pattern of high-risk behavior threatening the survival of minors. We recommend precautions against this high-risk behavior in children with ASD.
Ueno, Hiroki; Kobatake, Keitaro; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Morino, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi
Previous studies have shown widespread multisystem degeneration in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who develop a total locked-in state and survive under mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period of time. However, the disease progressions reported in these studies were several years after disease onset. There have been no reports of long-term follow-up with brain imaging of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an advanced stage of the disease. We report the cases of siblings with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with homozygous deletions of the exon 5 mutation of the gene encoding optineurin, in whom brain computed tomography scans were followed up for more than 20 years. The patients were a Japanese brother and sister. The elder sister was 33 years of age at the onset of disease, which began with muscle weakness of her left lower limb. Two years later she required mechanical ventilation. She became bedridden at the age of 34, and died at the age of 57. A computed tomography scan of her brain at the age of 36 revealed no abnormality. Atrophy of her brain gradually progressed. Ten years after the onset of mechanical ventilation, atrophy of her whole brain, including the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum, markedly progressed. Her younger brother was 36 years of age at the onset of disease, which presented as muscle weakness of his left upper limb. One year later, he showed dysphagia and dysarthria, and tracheostomy ventilation was performed. He became bedridden at the age of 37 and died at the age of 55. There were no abnormal intracranial findings on brain computed tomography scans obtained at the age of 37 years. At the age of 48 years, computed tomography scans showed marked brain atrophy with ventricular dilatation. Subsequently, atrophy of the whole brain rapidly progressed as in his elder sister. We conclude that a homozygous deletion-type mutation in the optineurin gene may be associated with widespread
Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae Wook; Jang, Pil-Sang; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack-Ki
We evaluated the results of a novel conditioning regimen of reduced dose cyclophosphamide (Cy, 25 mg/kg for four days), fludarabine (Flu, 30 mg/m(2) for four days), and rabbit ATG (2.5 mg/kg for three days) for allogeneic transplant of children with SAA, implemented since January 2009. Overall, 23 patients were treated with this regimen (16 male, seven female), including 10 diagnosed with VSAA. Donors included eight-MSD and 15 UD (five-matched UD, and 10 mismatched UD). All patients showed neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade 2 or above) and chronic GVHD was 26.1% and 8.7%, respectively. Estimated two-yr FFS and OS for the entire cohort was 90.3 ± 6.5%. Rates of TRM and graft failure were 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. No difference in OS was found according to disease severity (SAA vs. VSAA, p = 0.184), or according to donor type (MSD vs. UD, p = 0.699). Excellent outcomes of patients with VSAA underscore the efficacy of allogeneic transplant as a means of expediting hematopoietic recovery. Improved survival of UD transplant reaffirms its role as a valid therapeutic alternative in the absence of MSD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Whiteman, Shawn D; Becerra, Julia M; Killoren, Sarah E
Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence-sibling deidentification and social learning-that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and different attributes, attitudes, and behaviors. Recognizing the need to move past post hoc explanations, we suggest several directions for how these two influence processes can be measured directly in future work. Research on sibling influence also can be improved by integrating these theories and attending to their domains of influence.
Relation between childhood maltreatment and severe intrafamilial male-perpetrated physical violence in Chinese community: the mediating role of borderline and antisocial personality disorder features.
Liu, Na; Zhang, Yalin; Brady, Heward John; Cao, Yuping; He, Ying; Zhang, Yingli
This study investigates the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) features as mediators of the effects of childhood maltreatment on severe intrafamilial physical violence amongst Chinese male perpetrators. A cross-sectional survey and face-to-face interview were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment, personality disorder features, impulsivity, aggression, and severe intrafamilial physical violence in a community sample of 206 abusive men in China. The results suggest that ASPD or BPD features mediate between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence perpetration in Chinese abusive men. These findings may yield clinical and forensic implications for assessing the psychopathology of abusive men, and may steer the intervention of intimate partner violence. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M
Intimate partner violence is a threat to women's health. Relative to other racial/ethnic groups, African American and immigrant women are at an increased risk for violence. However, despite the growing presence of Caribbean Black immigrants in this country, few studies have examined the association between severe physical intimate partner violence (SPIPV) and the health of Caribbean Black women currently residing in the United States. This study examined the mental and physical health of U.S. Caribbean Black women with and without a history of SPIPV. We also explored the role of generational status-first, second, or third-in association with the physical and mental health of abused Caribbean Black women. Data from the National Survey of American Life, the largest and the only known representative study on Caribbeans residing in the United States, were analyzed. The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to determine DSM-IV mental disorders. The presence of physical health conditions was based on respondents' self-reports of physician diagnoses. The findings indicate an association between SPIPV and the mental and physical health status of U.S. Caribbean Black women. Rates of physical conditions and mental health disorders were generally higher among women with a history of SPIPV than those without a history. Generational status also played a role in women's health outcomes. The study has interventions and preventive implications for both detecting and addressing the health needs of U.S. Caribbean Black women who experience severe physical abuse by an intimate partner.
Banda, Devender R.
Fifteen intervention studies were reviewed that included children with autism and their typical siblings. Overall, results across several studies reveal that siblings can have positive impacts on social and communication skills in children with autism. However, methodological variations and mixed results in studies that included siblings as…
Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth
Siblings of handicapped children may have adjustment problems associated with increased family responsibilities, increased parental expectations, and perceived parental neglect in favor of the disabled sibling. Problems may be related to socioeconomic status; family size; age, sex, and birth order of the sibling; and severity of the handicap. (GDC)
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Previous studies have shown widespread multisystem degeneration in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who develop a total locked-in state and survive under mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period of time. However, the disease progressions reported in these studies were several years after disease onset. There have been no reports of long-term follow-up with brain imaging of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an advanced stage of the disease. We report the cases of siblings with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with homozygous deletions of the exon 5 mutation of the gene encoding optineurin, in whom brain computed tomography scans were followed up for more than 20 years. Case presentation The patients were a Japanese brother and sister. The elder sister was 33 years of age at the onset of disease, which began with muscle weakness of her left lower limb. Two years later she required mechanical ventilation. She became bedridden at the age of 34, and died at the age of 57. A computed tomography scan of her brain at the age of 36 revealed no abnormality. Atrophy of her brain gradually progressed. Ten years after the onset of mechanical ventilation, atrophy of her whole brain, including the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum, markedly progressed. Her younger brother was 36 years of age at the onset of disease, which presented as muscle weakness of his left upper limb. One year later, he showed dysphagia and dysarthria, and tracheostomy ventilation was performed. He became bedridden at the age of 37 and died at the age of 55. There were no abnormal intracranial findings on brain computed tomography scans obtained at the age of 37 years. At the age of 48 years, computed tomography scans showed marked brain atrophy with ventricular dilatation. Subsequently, atrophy of the whole brain rapidly progressed as in his elder sister. Conclusion We conclude that a homozygous deletion
Bossche, S. van den
Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the
Emery, Robert E.
Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence, particularly its effects on children. But there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Advances recommendations for further research.…
O’Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Groen, Wouter; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of ASD ratings were analysed by studying the relationship between ASD ratings and grey matter volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom count and total brain volume. ASD ratings were significantly elevated in participants with ADHD relative to controls and unaffected siblings. For the entire group (participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and TD controls), mixed effect models revealed that the left caudate nucleus volume was negatively correlated with ASD ratings (t = 2.83; P = 0.005). The current findings are consistent with the role of the caudate nucleus in executive function, including the selection of goals based on the evaluation of action outcomes and the use of social reward to update reward representations. There is a specific volumetric profile associated with subclinical ASD-like symptoms in participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus being of critical importance in predicting the level of ASD-like symptoms in all three groups. PMID:27806078
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar si el embarazo es un factor de riesgo o un factor de protección frente a la violencia doméstica y comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la violencia que sufren las mujeres embarazadas antes y durante el embarazo. MÉTODOS: Encuesta realizada a una muestra de 468 mujeres atendidas en consulta prenatal en su tercer trimestre de embarazo por los servicios de la Secretaría de Salud del estado de Morelos (México. Se exploró violencia emocional, física y sexual. Se construyó un índice para valorar la severidad. Se identificaron las variables más asociadas a la violencia durante el embarazo. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia total no cambió significativamente antes y durante el embarazo (32%. La prevalencia de cada uno de los tres tipos de violencia se mantuvo asimismo sin cambios. El 27% de las mujeres que tuvieron violencia durante el embarazo no la tuvieron antes del mismo; una proporción equivalente tuvieron violencia antes del embarazo pero no durante el mismo. La severidad de la violencia emocional se incrementó significativamente durante el embarazo (en comparación con el año previo, mientras que la severidad de la violencia física disminuyó. Variables asociadas a la violencia durante el embarazo: violencia en la infancia de la pareja; ; que la mujer haya presenciado violencia en casa durante su infancia; y violencia en el año previo al embarazo. Se presentan diversos escenarios de riesgo útiles para los prestadores de servicios. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia emocional durante el embarazo predomina por encima de la violencia fisica y sexual. Diferenciarlas contribuye a esclarecer la complejidad del fenómeno.OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. METHODS: There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at
Full Text Available The article offers a reflection on sibling relationships starting from fairy tales. Their archetypical meaning and educative value are particularly analyzed. A selection of fairy tales having sibling relationships as their central theme is discussed.
Lacey, Krim K; Parnell, Regina; Mouzon, Dawne M; Matusko, Niki; Head, Doreen; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S
Black women continue to have rates of mental health conditions that can be negative for their well-being. This study examined the contribution of social and contextual factors and severe physical intimate partner violence on the mental health of US Black women (African-American and Caribbean Black). Data were largely collected via in-person community interviews at participants' homes. We studied 3277 African-American and Black Caribbean women from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the largest and most complete sample of Blacks residing in the USA. Key outcomes included an array of psychiatric disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Bivariate results revealed noticeably high rates of any anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, any substance disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, suicide ideation and attempts, and any overall mental disorder among African-American women relative to Caribbean Black women. Multiple social and contextual factors were associated with various mental disorders among both sets of Black women in multivariate models, with the most consistent associations found for severe physical intimate partner violence. Everyday discrimination was associated with anxiety disorders (95% AOR=2.08 CI 1.23 to 3.51), eating disorders (95% AOR=2.69 CI 1.38 to 5.22), and any disorder (95% AOR=2.18 CI 1.40 to 3.40), while neighbourhood drug problems contributed to mood (95% AOR=1.19 CI 1.04 to 1.36), substance disorders (95% AOR=1.37 CI 1.11 to 1.69) and any disorder (95% AOR=1.18 CI 1.03 to 1.34). Severe physical intimate partner violence, discrimination, and to a lesser extent, neighbourhood problems are important predictors of Black women's health, findings that inform intervention and clinical services tailored to meet the needs of Black women from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under
Ermer, Ashley E; Roach, Andrea L; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence
In this mixed methods study, we explored how gender of an aggressor and the levels of aggression (i.e., yelling, throwing a drink, slapping, and punching) influenced attitudes about (a) public displays of intimate partner violence (IPV) and (b) bystander intervention. A feminist-informed, social constructionist perspective guided the study. Participants ( N = 562) responded online to randomly assigned factorial vignettes. Participants ranged in age between 18 and 70 years. The majority were female, self-identified as heterosexual, and identified as White. Logistic regressions revealed that participants significantly viewed aggression as unacceptable, especially in cases of more severe and male-perpetrated aggressions. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed that participants significantly thought bystanders or friends of the couple should intervene, especially in cases of male-perpetrated and/or more severe aggression. Analyses of qualitative responses indicated that participants viewed aggression as never okay, as poor communication, as justified if provoked, and discussed the gendered double standard of aggression (i.e., men should not be aggressive because they could cause more harm than females and female-perpetrated aggression is minor, in comparison). Regarding attitudes about bystander intervention, analyses of qualitative responses indicated that aggression severity, issues surrounding relationship privacy, factors relevant to the situation (e.g., if the event occurred once or repeatedly), perceptions that help was needed (e.g., if the victim was hurt), and the bystander's relationship with the victim (i.e., friend or not) were important to consider when thinking about the decision to intervene in public acts of violence. These findings have implications for bystander intervention programs and for how individuals view public acts of IPV.
Movies appeal as a subject of psychoanalytical art interpretation due to their structural closeness to "scenical understanding" and enrich our Insight into human relationships. The movie Das Pest is worth seeing because of its particular aesthetic form and because of its message about sibling relationships. According to the assessment of film journalists the movie shows the dismantling of middle class society and the reinscenation of destructive violence. In this author's interpretation, however, the movie leads out of passing violence on through the generations and herein differs from numerous current movies about siblings. The movie is about the process of a constructive development in the reciprocal relationships between four siblings and shows this in the formal structure of a film. With countertransference and our "viewing habits" the author discusses why this development could be overlooked. The movie shows neither a sibling fixation nor an idealization of sibling love as a regressive, timeless topos, but rather a horizontal relationship process. This is open towards partners and allows for a conciliatory attitude towards the parents. The movie is able to show this process conclusively under the burden of intergenerational violence and in its creativity enriches our image of sibling relationships.
Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.
This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…
Lundberg, Patric; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Thorson, Anna Ekéus; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Allebeck, Peter
We investigated prevalence of past-year sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) in Uganda, and compared results to general population estimates. We also investigated whether persons with SMI reporting sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure were more likely to be HIV-infected. We included 602 persons consecutively discharged from Butabika Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, February to April 2010. We asked about past-year number of sexual partners and condom use. We assessed sexual violence with the World Health Organization Violence Against Women Instrument. We performed HIV testing. We used data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey for comparison. Women with SMI had more sexual risk behavior and more sexual violence exposure than women in the general population. We found no difference in sexual risk behavior in men. Sexual risk behavior was associated with HIV infection in men, but not women. Sexual violence exposure was not associated with HIV infection in women. Findings suggest that SMI exacerbates Ugandan women's sexual vulnerability. Public health practitioners, policymakers, and legislators should act to protect health and rights of women with SMI in resource-poor settings.
Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila
The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to
DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; Cole, Trevor T; Kaplan, Stephanie P
Previous research indicates self-efficacy may function as a protective factor for survivors of partner violence (PV), including coping self-efficacy specific to domestic violence. We hypothesized that domestic violence coping self-efficacy would moderate the association between recent PV and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of incarcerated women, such that the association between PV and PTSD would be strongest at low levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. Participants (N = 102) were incarcerated women who reported PV in the year prior to incarceration. They were aged 19-55 years (M = 33.57, SD = 9.32), identified predominantly as European American (84.3%), American Indian (15.7%), and Hispanic (14.7%), with 80.4% completing high school or more in terms of education. Participants responded to self-report measures of PV, trauma history, domestic violence coping self-efficacy, and current PTSD symptoms. In a series of sequential regression analyses, PV (β = .65, sr(2) = .06, p = .017) was significantly associated with current PTSD symptoms above and beyond past trauma history (β = .37, sr(2) = .14, p violence coping self-efficacy (Domestic Violence Coping Self-Efficacy × Partner Violence; β = -.54, sr(2) = .03, p = .044). The relationship between PV and PTSD symptoms was greatest at low and average levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy and nonsignificant at high levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing domestic violence coping self-efficacy in incarcerated women with recent PV, given that domestic violence coping self-efficacy appeared to be protective against symptoms of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Zerubavel, Noga; Messman-Moore, Terri L; DiLillo, David; Gratz, Kim L
Betrayal trauma theory proposes a relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and dissociation, suggesting that dissociation among victims of IPV may function to restrict awareness of abuse in order to preserve attachments perceived as vital. We investigated two factors that may moderate the relation between IPV and dissociation-childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity and fear of abandonment-among 348 women currently in a relationship. The relation between frequency of IPV (sexual and physical) and dissociation (amnesia and depersonalization) was moderated by CSA severity and fear of abandonment. Specifically, among women with clinically relevant fear of abandonment, the strength of the relation between IPV and dissociation became stronger as CSA severity increased. This study is the first to demonstrate the moderating roles of fear of abandonment and CSA history in the relation between IPV and dissociation among women. Findings suggest that it may be important to target fear of abandonment in interventions with IPV victims who have a CSA history. Results suggest that fear of abandonment warrants greater attention in research on IPV revictimization.
Doody, Mairéad A; Hastings, Richard P; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M
There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with adult siblings with (N=63) and without (N=123) intellectual disability were explored. Contact, warmth, conflict, and rivalry were measured using questionnaires available as an on-line survey. Expressed emotion was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample over the telephone to establish an independently coded measure of criticism from the participant towards their sibling. Overall, there were few group differences in contact and sibling relationship. There was less telephone contact in the intellectual disability group, and less reported warmth in the relationship with siblings with intellectual disability although this was mainly associated with severe/profound intellectual disability. Exploratory analyses were conducted of the correlates of sibling relationships in both the intellectual disability and control groups. These analyses revealed a small number of different associations especially for conflict, which was lower when either the participant or sibling was younger in the control group but associated with relative age in the intellectual disability group.
Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K
Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.
Kaas-Hansen, Benjamin Skov; Hansen, Ole Ingemann
force (p = 0.013), whilst the opposite was the case for strangulation (p blunt trauma or strangulation, and a difference between females and males was found in the distribution of lesions by trauma force (p ... temporal changes in severity (p = 0.464) were found. Finally, the number of cases involving other tools decreased (p = 0.045) whilst the number of cases involving knives showed an upward trend (p = 0.061). Discussion: Victims in this study were older, the severity of their injuries greater...
Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya
HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women.
Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura
Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…
Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I
Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work
Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Howie, Linsey; McGorry, Patrick; Wade, Darryl
Research and clinical practice in first-episode psychosis (FEP) has predominantly focused on parents and partners and has neglected siblings needs. This study aims to characterize the sibling relationship in FEP and to examine the illness-related variables that influence this relationship. Survey methodology explored the experience of 157 siblings during the first 18 months of their brother or sister's treatment. The Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire was used to measure the warmth, conflict, and rivalry within the relationship. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between illness characteristics and sibling relationship. When the young person experiencing FEP had a period of untreated psychosis longer than six months, required more than one hospital admission, had persisting psychotic symptoms, continued to use substances, and/or had a history of physical violence, warmth within the sibling relationship deteriorated. Regression analysis revealed that a history of violence was a significant predictor of the warmth, conflict, and rivalry within the sibling relationship. Suicide attempts were a significant predictor of conflict. This study has established associations between the sibling relationship and illness-related variables. This study promotes consideration of the importance of including siblings in early intervention. Given the powerful role this relationship can have as a protective factor, this study could inform future interventions involving siblings.
Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline
This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...
Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.
Remschmidt, H; Schmidt, M H; Strunk, P
Violence in families is rather frequent. Different forms of violent acts can be distinguished: violence between partners, violence between parents and children, violence among siblings, and violence against elder family members. This report gives an overview--with the emphasis on violence in families--of the work of the "Violence Commission" of the Federal Government. This commission worked out proposals for intervention in the case of intrafamiliar violence as well as for prevention. Two proposals of the commission are explained in detail: (1) Rejection of violence and prohibition of corporal punishment in education and (2) punishability of conjugal violation.
Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert
In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.
Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander
We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806
Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.
Nilton E. Montoya
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the magnitude and distribution by sex of domestic or family violence (between partners, siblings, and from parents to children in Medellin, Colombia and nine surrounding municipalities (Medellin metropolitan area, 2003-2004. Methods: Household survey to a representative multistage sample to non institutionalized population, within 12 and 60 years of age, in the urban area of each municipality. Results: Verbal or psychological aggression and victimization: 64% and 61%, physical violence without physical injury: 17% and 14%, physical violence with physical injury: 2% and 3% between intimate partners. Intimate partners’ aggression and victimization do no differentiate by sex. Verbal, psychological and physical aggression from parents toward children is 60%, and physical aggression with physical injury is near 10%. 55% of families reported fights among siblings, and 3% with physical injury. Medellin has the highest rates of family or domestic violence compared with the other municipalities of Aburra Valley. Domestic violence charge is very low (5-20%, and masculine victims rather prefer not to report. Conclusions: We suggest not to ground public policies on current statistics, but to establish a system of periodic surveys, representative of general population or families. It seems important to have two different types of interventions: domestic or family violence prevention considering family as a unit that interacts with the surrounding; and rehabilitation of chronic and severe domestic aggressors.
Nylenna, Magne; Breivik, Noralv; Heiberg, Arvid; Larsen, Øivind
Was district medical officer Jensen the first doctor to describe patients with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) in Volda in 1830? A case series of four siblings with the same disease written by district medical officer Peter Jensen (1799-1832) in Aalesund in 1830, was published in the Norwegian medical journal Eyr in 1832. The children, who were healthy almost up to school age, developed dystonic involuntary movements and deformities in all extremities, lost their ability to speak and were emaciated before they died at around the age of nine years. Further information about the family and a fifth affected child has been found in the parish records. The clinical picture is consistent with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN), a rare condition with basal ganglia iron deposition, described in 1922 by the German neuropathologists Julius Hallervorden (1882-1965) and Hugo Spatz (1888-1969). The disease was formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, but because of the medical activities undertaken by these two researchers before and during the Second World War, this eponym is no longer recommended.
Sıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih; Legendre, Maria; Amselem, Serge; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Savaş Erdeve, Senay; Oçal, Gönül
Patients with growth hormone releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) mutations exhibit pronounced dwarfism and are phenotypically and biochemically indistinguishable from other forms of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). We presented here two siblings with clinical findings of IGHD due to a nonsense mutation in the GHRHR gene who reached their target height in spite of late GH treatment. Two female siblings were admitted to our clinic with severe short stature at the age of 13.8 (patient 1) and 14.8 years (patient 2). On admission, height in patient 1 was 107 cm (-8.6 SD) and 117 cm (-6.7 SD) in patient 2. Bone age was delayed in both patients (6 years and 9 years). Clinical and biochemical analyses revealed a diagnosis of complete IGHD (peak GH levels on stimulation test was 0.06 ng/mL in patient 1 and 0.16 ng/mL in patient 2). Patients were given recombinant human GH treatment. Genetic analysis of the GH and GHRHR genes revealed that both patientscarried the GHRHR gene mutation p.Glu72X (c.214 G>T) in exon 3 in homozygous (or hemizygous) state. After seven years of GH treatment, the patients reached a final height appropriate for their target height. Final height was 151 cm (-1.5 SD) in patient 1 and 153 cm (-1.2 SD) in patient 2. In conclusion, genetic analysis is indicated in IGHD patients with severe growth failure and a positive family history. In spite of the very late diagnosis in these two patients who presented with severe growth deficit due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations in GHRHR, their final heights reached the target height.
Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H
This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Feinberg, Mark E; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Cumsille, Patricio
Studied here were the links between sibling differences in trajectories of change in the qualities of parent-child relationships and the qualities of sibling relationships across a 2-year period in adolescence. Participants were first- and second-born siblings (M age = 14.94 years for firstborns and M age = 12.46 years for secondborns) from 185 predominantly White, working and middle-class families. In home interviews, siblings reported on their dyadic family relationships. For reports of parent-child warmth but not parent-child conflict, results were consistent with sibling differentiation theory: Increasing differences between siblings over time in parent-child warmth were linked to trajectories of increasing warmth and decreasing conflict in the sibling relationship as reported by firstborns, and increasing warmth in the sibling relationship as reported by secondborns. The findings support the view that sibling differentiation may be a strategy for managing sibling conflict and rivalry.
Peters, Erica N.; Khondkaryan, Enna; Sullivan, Tami P.
Women who experience recurrent intimate partner violence (IPV) may use alcohol or drugs because they expect that these substances will help them cope with the negative physical and psychological sequelae of IPV. However, expectancies for alcohol and drug use have not been explored among this population of women. We used the Relaxation and…
Full Text Available The author presents learning in private relationships between adult siblings. A concept of a family as microculture is presented, which is a source for giving explanation for random and opportunist learning. The author has used a biographic method of research. Using thematic life stories, which she has familiarized herself with through thematicalbiographical interviews is a basis to establish which events have served for learning in relationships between siblings.
Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone
This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children.
... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.
Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.
Havermans, T; Wuytack, L; Deboel, J; Tijtgat, A; Malfroot, A; De Boeck, C; Proesmans, M
To asses self-reported quality of life (QoL) and perception of impact of illness on siblings of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The Child Health Questionnaire was used to assess QoL. The Sibling Perception Questionnaire was used to assess impact of illness. Siblings of children with CF (n= 39) rated their QoL higher than siblings of healthy children on most QoL domains (e.g. Physical Functioning, Behavior, Mental Health). Siblings older than the child with CF reported a higher impact of CF than younger siblings. Perceived impact of illness was higher when the child with CF had been hospitalized or was intermittent or chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Siblings of children with CF reported a good QoL. QoL and impact of illness were related to indices of CF severity. Insight into sibling-issues helps CF teams to provide family-oriented care. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Silove, Derrick; Liddell, Belinda; Rees, Susan; Chey, Tien; Nickerson, Angela; Tam, Natalino; Zwi, Anthony B; Brooks, Robert; Sila, Lazaro Lelan; Steel, Zachary
Little is known about the effect of recurrent episodes of communal violence on mental health in countries recovering from mass conflict. We report results of a 6-year longitudinal study in post-conflict Timor-Leste assessing changes in mental health after a period of communal violence. We assessed 1022 adults (600 from a rural village, 422 from an urban district) exposed to mass conflict during the Indonesian occupation after independence in 2004, and again in 2010-11, following a period of internal conflict. We took a census of all adults living at the two sites. The survey included measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe distress, traumatic events, poverty, ongoing conflict, and injustice. 1247 (80%) of 1554 invited adults participated in the baseline survey. 1038 (89% of those eligible) were followed up. The analysis included 1022 people who had sufficient data at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder increased from 23 of 1022 (2.3%) in 2004, to 171 of 1022 (16.7%) in 2010. The prevalence of severe distress also increased, from 57 of 1022 (5.6%) in 2004, to 162 of 1022 (15.9%) in 2010. Both these outcomes were associated with disability at follow-up. Having post-traumatic stress at follow-up was associated with being a woman (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.32), experience of human rights trauma (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.47), or exposure to murder (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) during the Indonesian occupation (1975-99), human rights trauma during the period of internal violence in 2006-07 (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.03), and ongoing family or community conflict (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.80) or preoccupations with injustice for two or three historical periods (OR 4.06, 2.63-6.28). Severe distress at follow-up was associated with health stress (OR 1.47, 1.14-1.90), exposure to murder (OR 1.57, 1.27-1.95), and natural disaster (OR 1.65, 1.03-2.64) during the Indonesian occupation, conflict-related trauma during the internal
Full Text Available Progeria, also known as Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, is an extremely rare, severe genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is not seen in siblings of affected children although there are very few case reports of progeria affecting more than one child in a family. Here we are presenting two siblings, a 14-year-old male and a 13-year-old female with features of progeria, suggesting a possible autosomal recessive inheritance.
Alexander C Tsai
Full Text Available Violence against women by intimate partners remains unacceptably common worldwide. The evidence base for the assumed psychological impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV is derived primarily from studies conducted in high-income countries. A recently published systematic review identified 13 studies linking IPV to incident depression, none of which were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed longitudinal data collected during the course of a 3-y cluster-randomized trial with the aim of estimating the association between IPV and depression symptom severity.We conducted a secondary analysis of population-based, longitudinal data collected from 1,238 pregnant women during a 3-y cluster-randomized trial of a home visiting intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Surveys were conducted at baseline, 6 mo, 18 mo, and 36 mo (85% retention. The primary explanatory variable of interest was exposure to four types of physical IPV in the past year. Depression symptom severity was measured using the Xhosa version of the ten-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In a pooled cross-sectional multivariable regression model adjusting for potentially confounding time-fixed and time-varying covariates, lagged IPV intensity had a statistically significant association with depression symptom severity (regression coefficient b = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.61-1.47, with estimates from a quantile regression model showing greater adverse impacts at the upper end of the conditional depression distribution. Fitting a fixed effects regression model accounting for all time-invariant confounding (e.g., history of childhood sexual abuse yielded similar findings (b = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13-1.96. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicated that a one-standard-deviation increase in IPV intensity was associated with a 12.3% relative increase in depression symptom severity over the same time period. The most important limitations of our study
Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria
This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.
Full Text Available Siblings of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are an important source of family caregiving. Unfortunately, limited information is available about sibling caregivers because existing studies have focused on other family relationships such as parents, spouses, and children. To fill the knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to describe Korean sibling caregivers’ experience with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Guided by Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methodology, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with eight individuals who have a sibling (1 diagnosed with schizophrenia and (2 hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit. We discerned six key themes: sorrow, burnout, shame, different perspectives in life, acceptance, and responsibility. We categorized these themes into three groups: suffering, hope, and responsibility and obligation. Sibling caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experience a mixture of several emotions. Participants loved their brother or sister with schizophrenia, but at the same time they felt shame and fear. While they were burdened by the responsibilities of caregiving, they remained loyal to their sibling with schizophrenia, continuing to help their siblings reach their full potential. Although participants were confused about the symptoms of schizophrenia, they were committed to learning more about the illness. Because we conducted the current study in Korea, the findings of this study may be unique to Korea culture. Further studies are needed to compare and contrast nuanced differences in sibling caregivers’ experience among different cultural groups.
Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna
Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581
Hughes, Claire; McHarg, Gabrielle; White, Naomi
Sibling relationships are characterized by familiarity and emotional intensity. Alongside frequent shared play, sibling interactions feature complementary interactions (e.g. teaching, caregiving) reflecting age-related asymmetries in socio-cognitive skills. These aspects may underpin sibling influences on prosocial behavior: theoretical accounts of social influences on prosocial behavior highlight emotion sharing, goal alignment, the intrinsically rewarding nature of social interaction, and scaffolding of social norms. Taking a fine-grained approach to prosocial behavior, we examine these processes in relation to sibling influences on children's comforting, sharing, and helping. Emergent themes include: developmental change in the nature of sibling influences on prosocial behavior, the need to consider sibling influences in the wider family context, and the importance of individual differences in the quality of sibling relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S
Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...
... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...
Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…
The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.
Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…
To summarize the main points concerning sibling influence: 1. That siblings play a causal role in the development of aggressive behavior, in children's style of conflict behavior and in cooperative fantasy play is strongly suggested by recent research. 2. Marked problems in the sibling relationship are indicative of other problems, but a causal role for siblings is not established, other than for aggressive behavior. 3. Family factors are closely involved in the quality of sibling relationships--and thus in sibling influence, namely differential parental behavior, and the emotional climate of the family. That is, it is important not to consider the sibling relationship in isolation from other family relationships. 4. Studies of families under stress indicate heightened importance of these family factors. 5. It is likely, but not yet established, that later-born siblings are influenced by first-born in socio-cognitive development and gender identity. 6. Finally it should be noted that an important theme in current research on siblings is a concern with the question of why siblings develop to be so different from one another. It has been shown that the major source of environmental influence on the development of individual differences is within-family rather than between-family differences in experience (Plomin & Daniels, 1987). The different experiences each sibling may have within their relationship is one potential source of such differential environmental influence. Thus documenting the influence of siblings upon each other takes on added significance: By clarifying the extent and nature of this influence we will gain not only useful clinical information but illumination on a developmental principle of very general significance.
Karina Carlesso Pagliarin
Full Text Available TEMA: terapia fonológica em irmãos com desvio fonológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: participaram da pesquisa dois irmãos, S1 e S2, do sexo masculino e feminino, respectivamente. O S1, 6:6 de idade, apresentava desvio fonológico de grau severo e foi tratado pelo modelo de Oposições Mínimas e o S2, 4:8 de idade, com desvio fonológico de grau moderado-severo foi tratado pelo Modelo de Oposições Máximas. Ambos os sujeitos realizaram 25 sessões de fonoterapia. RESULTADOS: o S2 obteve uma melhor evolução terapêutica comparado ao S1. O S1 apresentou generalização a itens não utilizados no tratamento e o S2 apresentou generalização dentro de uma classe de sons. CONCLUSÃO: os modelos utilizados são eficazes, pois proporcionaram a ocorrência de generalizações e a melhora do sistema fonológico de ambos os sujeitos. No entanto os fatores ambientais podem ter limitado a evolução do tratamento, uma vez que as crianças apresentavam substituições semelhantes na fala o que favorecia a manutenção da alteração.BACKGROUND: phonological therapy in siblings with phonological disorder. PROCEDURE: the sample was composed of two brothers, S1 and S2, male and female, respectively. S1, age 6:6-year-old, with severe phonological disorder, was treated by Minimal Opposition model and S2, age 4:8-year-old, with moderate-severe phonological disorder, was treated by Maximal Opposition model. Both subjects have had 25 sessions of speech therapy. RESULTS: S2 got better development compared to S1. S1 showed generalization to untreated items and S2 showed generalization within a sound class. CONCLUSION: the used models are effective, because they provided the occurrence of generalizations and the improvement of the phonological system of both subjects. However, environmental factors may have limited the progress of treatment, since that the children had similar substitutions in the speech that favored the maintenance of the change.
This review examines studies on the impact of parenting on the development of children's sibling relationships. The studies link several parenting factors to sibling relationship development. The main findings are that differential parenting, marital discord and the expression of emotion through anger or depression can have an adverse impact on siblings. However, most of the research is primarily correlational and the causal factors involved in the nature of sibling interactions are both nuan...
Prescott, Carol A; Achorn, Deanna Lyter; Kaiser, Ashley; Mitchell, Lindsey; McArdle, John J; Lapham, Susan J
Project TALENT is a US national longitudinal study of about 377,000 individuals born in 1942-1946, first assessed in 1960. Students in about 1,200 schools participated in a 2-day battery covering aptitudes, abilities, interests, and individual and family characteristics (Flanagan, 1962; www.projectTALENT.org). Follow-up assessments 1, 5, and 11 years later assessed educational and occupational outcomes. The sample includes approximately 92,000 siblings from 40,000 families, including 2,500 twin pairs and 1,200 other siblings of twins. Until recently, almost no behavior genetic research has been conducted with the sample. In the original data collection information was not collected with the intent to link family members. Recently, we developed algorithms using names, addresses, birthdates, and information about family structure to link siblings and identify twins. We are testing several methods to determine zygosity, including use of yearbook photographs. In this paper, we summarize the design and measures in Project TALENT, describe the Twin and Sibling sample, and present our twin-sib-classmate model. In most twin and family designs, the 'shared environment' includes factors specific to the family combined with between-family differences associated with macro-level variables such as socioeconomic status. The school-based sampling design used in Project TALENT provides a unique opportunity to partition the shared environment into variation shared by siblings, specific to twins, and associated with school- and community-level factors. The availability of many measured characteristics on the family, schools, and neighborhoods enhances the ability to study the impact of specific factors on behavioral variation.
Reviews and considers the developmental implications of recent evidence on the nature of sibling interaction from observational studies of preschool children. Argues that, in contrast to complementary interaction, sibling influence is most plausibly associated with reciprocal interaction and with sociocognitive development. (Author/RH)
Noël, L; de Maynadier, L
As professionals working in a specialised unit for prepubescent anorexic children, we are very often concerned with the siblings of our young patients who are daily faced with anorexia nervosa. Although it is an undeniable subject of prevention, research on the topic remains scarce. Based on our clinical experience, this article thus proposes to give a few landmarks to health professionals likely to support these siblings in order to prevent anxious and depressive disorders as well as eating disorders. If guided, supported and informed on anorexia nervosa, siblings can adopt adequate coping strategies when confronted to their sibling's anorexic cognitions and behaviours. We also encourage parents to pay close attention to the needs of their other children, especially to remain receptive to the youngest ones or, if unavailable to find adult carers (grandparents, family, friends). We also guide these children, who are eager to help their anorexic sibling, to remain in a brotherly role. Siblings must be informed about anorexia nervosa. Such information enables them to have a better understanding of their sister's thoughts and attitudes. It also leads to a better understanding of the reasons why anorexia has such a significant impact on family routine, among other things by reducing parental availability. Beyond enabling siblings to adopt adequate coping strategies, such provision of support also contributes to the prevention of mental illness and the maintenance of adequate sibling and family relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The parent of the child with autism is faced with many home management challenges, not the least of which is the achievement of intra-family harmony among siblings. Sibling rivalry occurs in all families. However, the presence of a child with autism may, in some instances, intensify this rivalry. In this article, the author provides tips for…
Baskett, Linda Musun
This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain
.006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...
Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.
Kvas, A; Seljak, J
Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt
This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...
Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E
Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occl...
Kippen, Rebecca; Walters, Sarah
Evidence drawn from nineteenth-century Belgian population registers shows that the presence of similarly aged siblings competing for resources within a household increases the probability of death for children younger than five, even when controlling for the preceding birth interval and multiple births. Furthermore, in this period of Belgian history, such mortality tended to cluster in certain families. The findings suggest the importance of segmenting the mortality of siblings younger than five by age group, of considering the presence of siblings as a time-varying covariate, and of factoring mortality clustering into analyses.
Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela
Sibling relationships are usually lifelong and reciprocal. They can assume particular significance when a brother or sister has a learning disability. Until recently, adult siblings of people with disabilities such as severe autism have been ignored by policy, practice and research. This qualitative study contributes to an emerging literature by exploring how adult siblings, who have a brother or sister with autism (plus learning disability) and living in England, give meaning to their family (and caring) relationships and engage with service delivery. We spoke to 21 adult siblings using semi-structured interviews and met with 12 of their siblings with autism. Our analysis, using a broad narrative approach, demonstrates the continuity of the sibling relationship and an enduring personalised commitment. The nature of this relationship, however, is sensitive to context. How non-disabled adult siblings relate to their childhood experience is fundamental when making sense of this, as is their need to fulfil other social and family obligations, alongside their 'sense of duty' to support their disabled brother or sister. Sibling experience was further mediated by negotiating their 'perceived invisibility' in social care policy and practice. Our work concludes that by understanding the way relationships between siblings have developed over time, adult siblings' contribution to the lives of their brother or sister with autism can be better supported for the benefit of both parties. Such an approach would support current policy developments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Riggio, Heidi R.
This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…
Voorpostel, Marieke; Blieszner, Rosemary
Using a Dutch national sample containing 1,259 triads (two siblings, one parent), we examined whether practical support and emotional support between siblings are enhanced by intergenerational solidarity and how this differs for brothers and sisters. Sibling support was affected by sibling dyad
Lindell, Anna K.; Campione-Barr, Nicole
During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little…
Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Lehoux, Pascale M.
Studied sibling-directed self-disclosure of 40 preadolescents through interviews, a questionnaire, and subjects' daily diaries. Found that warmth in sibling relationship was most strongly associated with sibling disclosure, but not with rivalry, conflict, or power. Daily sibling disclosures were more strongly associated with reports of unhappy…
Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.
This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…
Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.
Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä
Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...
Wolfe, Barbara; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.
Developmental disabilities and severe mental illness are costly to the affected individual and frequently to their family as well. Little studied are their nondisabled siblings. Here we examine major life course outcomes (education, employment, and marriage) of these siblings in adulthood using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our sample comprises 113 individuals with developmental disabilities and 337 of their nondisabled siblings; 97 individuals with mental illness and 235 of their nondisabled siblings; and 17,126 unaffected comparison group members. We find that siblings of individuals with mental illness have less education and less employment than the unaffected comparison group, whereas those who have a sibling with developmental disabilities had normative patterns of education and employment, but less marriage and more divorce. Robustness tests incorporating genetic data do not change the conclusions based on the nongenetic analyses. PMID:24607704
... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...
Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...
Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...
Incledon, Emily; Williams, Lauren; Hazell, Trevor; Heard, Todd R; Flowers, Alexandra; Hiscock, Harriet
This article reviews the literature on modifiable factors associated with mental health in siblings of children with chronic illness. Three clinical databases were searched. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several key themes emerged from the review. Better sibling mental health was associated with camp attendance, perceived parent/peer support, illness education and enhancing control through cognitive coping strategies and routine. Parental and sibling psychoeducation interventions and social support may enhance children's mental health when their sibling has a chronic illness. © The Author(s) 2013.
Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...
Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...
Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; Howie, Linsey; McGorry, Patrick
Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP) upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP. Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving. Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving. Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to improve outcomes for
Full Text Available Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP.Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI. Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving.Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving.Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to
O'Brien, Karen; Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C
Research indicates that having child siblings is positively associated with theory of mind (ToM) in typically developing children. As ToM is important to everyday social behaviours it is important to extend this research to examine whether there are similar sibling effects for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Theory of mind and executive functioning abilities of 60 children clinically diagnosed with ASD were assessed with batteries of standard tasks. Verbal mental age (VMA) and severity of autism symptoms were also measured together with number of child-aged siblings (1 to 12 years) and position in the sibling constellation. Having older siblings was a significant negative predictor of ToM performance for children with ASD, even after controlling for age, VMA, executive function and autism symptom severity. A weaker ToM benefit of younger siblings was not statistically significant independently of control variables. In sharp contrast to findings for typically developing preschoolers, having an older sibling was a disadvantage for ToM development in children with ASD. Conceivably, older siblings may over-compensate for their younger ASD siblings in social interactions, thereby limiting opportunities for social-cognitive growth. Parental attitudes, family resources, cultural norms and access to educational interventions may also conceivably be relevant and clearly warrant further research. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Bárbara Yadira García Sánchez
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to relect upon the history of the ield of contemporary family and its changes from the revolution of youth in 1960s until the irst decade of the XXIst century. This historical approach is linked to the study of relations of violence inside the family context. The implementation of certain theoretical and methodological concepts allowed us to establish a contrast between several time periods, starting from the present and going back to situations of the past, following the track of micro social conlicts expressed in violence toward parental igures, as well as in violence between siblings, all of which are analyzed as typologies of what has been called domestic violence. The theoretical relection is supported by some approaches of Pierre Bourdieu regarding the reproduction of symbolic violence, and more speciically, the strategies of its reproduction in the ield of family. We emphasize on the strategies of symbolic, ethicaland educational inversion. The data used to support this article is taken from the database of two research projects on school violence in Bogota between 2009 and 2015.
Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.
Schonfeld, Irvin Sam
The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…
Meera, G; Prabhavathy, D; Jayakumar, S; Tharini, GK
Naxos disease is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We report two siblings with Naxos disease with right middle lobe syndrome in one of them. PMID:21188028
Kratcoski, P C
This study explored violent behavior of high school students toward their parents, using a self-report questionnaire. The families of the students were characterized as having high, moderate, or low levels of family functioning, and these levels were correlated with the amount of violent behavior manifested by the youths. It was found that violence by young people toward their parents tended to be concentrated in households with strong manifestations of intra-family violence or aggression between the parents, between parents and children, and between siblings. Low levels of family functioning, characterized by disagreements over money matters, inappropriate disciplining of children, few share activities, and alcohol abuse, also correlated strongly with youth violence toward parents. It was also found that youths involved in deviant peer group activity had higher levels of violence toward parents than youths who were not involved in this way.
Meyer, Katherine A.; Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.
Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be at an increased risk of adjustment problems. To examine possible predictors of adjustment difficulties in siblings, 70 mothers with at least one child with ASD and one typical child completed surveys of symptom severity in the child with ASD, impact of the child with ASD on the…
Houtzager, B. A.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Caron, H. N.; Last, B. F.
Several studies have been conducted on sibling psychosocial adaptation to cancer in a brother or sister, but little is known on how the long-term adaptation of siblings to the illness develops. The concept quality of life has primarily been applied in research on the effects of chronic illness on
van Berkel, Sheila R; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David
This study examined how the combination of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment is related to mental health problems and delinquency in childhood and adolescence. Co-occurrence, additive associations, and interactive associations of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment were investigated using a sample of 2,053 children aged 5-17 years from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. The results provide primarily evidence for additive associations and only suggest some co-occurrence and interactive associations of sibling victimization and child maltreatment. Evidence for co-occurrence was weak and, when controlling for the other type of maltreatment, only found for neglect. Sibling victimization was related to more mental health problems and delinquency over and above the effect of child abuse and neglect. Moderation by sibling victimization depended on child age and was only found for the relation between both types of child maltreatment by parents and delinquency. For mental health, no interactive associations were found. These results highlight the unique and combined associations between sibling victimization on child development.
van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Boniface, David; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane
Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding. To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood. Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs. Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD. A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins. In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months. A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker
Jensen, Alexander C; Pond, Amanda M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M
Siblings play an important role in relational and individual development throughout adolescence and beyond through several mechanisms. Central to this role and the mechanisms of sibling influence is the notion that siblings provide a constant and meaningful frame of reference for social comparison. This study examined the role of sibling social comparison orientation, or the tendency of siblings to compare themselves to one another, on youths' depressive symptoms and family relationships, both directly and by moderating links with parental differential treatment. Participants included 338 youth (M age = 18.34, SD = 1.03; 52 % female). Using hierarchical ordinary least squares regression, we found that a higher sibling social comparison orientation was linked with more depressive symptoms, warmer sibling relationships, and more sibling conflict. Additionally, sibling social comparison orientation moderated links of parental differential treatment with depressive symptoms and prosocial behavior toward family members such that effects were more salient for those with a high comparison orientation. The discussion focuses on the role of sibling comparison in the ways that siblings influence one another's development.
Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.
The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…
Escala de violencia e índice de severidad: una propuesta metodológica para medir la violencia de pareja en mujeres mexicanas Violence scale and severity index: a methodological proposal for measuring violence by the partner in Mexican women
correspondientes a violencia económica, quedando un total de 19 reactivos a los que se les aplicaron los pesos obtenidos en el jueceo. El puntaje mínimo fue 0 y el máximo fue de 354. A través de la clasificación propuesta, se calcularon las siguientes prevalencias: 21% sufrió, en los últimos 12 meses, algún tipo de violencia por parte de su pareja actual. La violencia por tipos se distribuyó de la siguiente manera: psicológica 18.5%; física 10.1%; física severa 6.7%; y sexual 7%. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala de violencia desarrollada demostró ser un instrumento útil y confiable para medir la violencia masculina ejercida en las relaciones de pareja. Así entonces, se sugiere ampliar su uso en otras mediciones nacionales y locales para permitir la comparación posterior de los resultados.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a scale to assess violence by the male partner against women. An index of severity of the emotional and physical damage was also designed to assess the intensity of the violent actions against women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of a total of 26 042 women who participated as respondents in the National Survey on Violence against Women (ENVIM per its abbreviation in Spanish conducted in Mexico during 2003. Respondents were all users of health services provided by the Mexican government. The questionnaire was organized into 17 sections, one of which was a 27-item scale to assess partner violence. The purpose of this scale was to measure the type (physical, emotional, sexual and financial and degree of violence based on severity. A severity index was constructed based on two procedures: 1 the validity, reliability, and factor analyses of the scale and 2 the assessment of severity by expert judges who assigned a value to each item of the scale. RESULTS: The validity and reliability results indicated this scale has adequate internal validity (Cronbach's Alpha=0.99. The factor analysis with Varimax rotation yielded a four-factor solution. The
Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.
This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…
Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina; Nocentini, Annalaura
This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and…
Braconnier, Megan L.; Coffman, Marika C.; Kelso, Nicole; Wolf, Julie M.
Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings…
The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…
Smith, L O; Elder, J H; Storch, E A; Rowe, M A
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be a stressor for family members yet there is little published research on the impact of having a child with ASD on their typically developing (TD) adolescent siblings. According to Antonovsky's salutogenic model, a strong sense of coherence leads to the view that the stressor is a manageable challenge rather than a burden and promotes healthier adaptation. This study examines the relationship between stress, TD sibling resources and the sense of coherence in TD siblings. This quantitative mail-based study uses a survey methodology, analysing the responses of TD adolescent siblings (n = 96) of individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified to several rating scales. Adolescent siblings, ages 11 to 18 years, completed the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experience (ACOPE), Network of Relationship Inventory - Social Provision Version (NRI-SPV), Youth Self Report (YSR), and Sense of Coherence (SOC) instruments; parents completed the Child Autism Rating Scale - 2nd Edition (CARS-2). The salutogenesis model was used to guide and inform this research. Findings suggested the following: (a) the stress of ASD severity and resource of adjustment are related in TD adolescent siblings; (b) TD sibling adjustment has a strong relationship with sense of coherence levels; and (c) a greater number of positive coping strategies buffer TD sibling coherence levels when ASD severity scores are high. ASD severity and TD adolescent sibling resources influence sense of coherence in adolescent TD siblings of individuals with ASD. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin
Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.
Wallace, Lacey N
Sibling substance use is a known correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet, not all siblings are equally influential. Sibling influence has been found to vary by age gap, sex, and birth order. Little research, however, has investigated whether siblings' peer context is also a source of variation. The present study tested whether more popular siblings were more influential for adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data were obtained from sibling pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Findings indicate that older siblings have more influence on younger sibling marijuana use when they have more friends. These findings contribute to prior work examining which siblings are more influential and highlight the need to consider siblings as part of a greater peer context.
Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion
Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…
Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In  it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...
Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole
During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little is known about relationship factors that may explain this shift in power dynamics, however. The present study therefore examined longitudinal changes in adolescents' and their siblings' perceptions of sibling relative power from age 12 to 18 (n = 145 dyads), and examined whether different levels of sibling relationship positivity and negativity, as well as sibling structural variables, indicated different over-time changes in relative power. Multilevel models indicated that adolescents reported significant declines in their siblings' relative power across adolescence, with older siblings relinquishing the most power over time. However, only siblings with less positively involved relationships reported declines in relative power, suggesting that siblings who maintain highly involved relationships may not become more egalitarian during adolescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.
Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…
Dunn, Judy; Munn, Penny
Examines the capability and motivation of 18- and 24-month-old infants to share, help, comfort, and cooperate with their older siblings; the frequency of such prosocial behavior by both siblings; and the children's response to sibling distress. The relationship between prosocial and conflict behavior was also studied. (HOD)
Calladine, Carole E.
Identifies three styles of sibling rivalry and three parent leadership styles, discussing parental mediation of sibling disputes through contracting and providing examples of group discipline techniques that facilitate development of less negative forms of rivalry and that support positive sibling bonding. (RH)
Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia
Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…
Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann
Visualizing complex roots of a quadratic equation has been a quest since the inception of the Argand plane in the 1800s. Many algebraic and numerical methods exist for calculating complex roots of an equation, but few visual methods exist. Following on from papers by Harding and Engelbrecht (A. Harding and J. Engelbrecht, "Sibling curves and…
ODCs and intellectual disability were present in both patients. The younger sibling an 8‑year‑old girl later presented to the eye clinic with a 5‑month history of poor ... the 5th–7th week of intrauterine life. It ... of 2 months for a severe febrile illness, and multiple .... multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients.
Skinner, Ann T; Oburu, Paul; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bacchini, Dario
This study examines parents' and children's exposure to short-term political violence and the relation between childrearing violence and child adjustment following widespread violence that erupted in Kisumu, Kenya after the disputed presidential election in December 2007. Mothers of 100 Luo children (mean age = 8.46 years, 61% female) reported on their own use of childrearing violence at Time 1, approximately 4 months after the disputed election, and again at Times 2 ( n = 95) and 3 ( n = 95), approximately 12 and 24 months later, respectively. At Time 2, mothers reported about post-election violence directed at them and about their children's exposure to post-election violence. Children reported about their own externalizing behaviors at Times 1, 2, and 3. Children's exposure to post-election violence was related to Time 2 externalizing behavior, and childrearing violence at Time 1 predicted child externalizing behavior at Time 2. Exposure to post-election violence was not directly related to either childrearing violence or children's externalizing behavior by Time 3, although children's externalizing at Time 2 predicted more childrearing violence at Time 3. These results support earlier work that links childrearing violence and children's exposure to political violence with increases in child externalizing behavior, but examined these links in the under-studied area of short-term political violence. Even though sudden and severe political violence may subside significantly in weeks or months, increased attention to long-term effects on parenting and child adjustment is warranted.
Long, Kristin A; Pariseau, Emily M; Muriel, Anna C; Chu, Andrea; Kazak, Anne E; Alderfer, Melissa A
Although many siblings experience distress after a child's cancer diagnosis, their psychosocial functioning is seldom assessed in clinical oncology settings. One barrier to systematic sibling screening is the lack of a validated, sibling-specific screening instrument. Thus, this study developed sibling-specific screening modules in English and Spanish for the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT), a well-validated screener of family psychosocial risk. A purposive sample of English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with cancer (N = 29) completed cognitive interviews to provide in-depth feedback on the development of the new PAT sibling modules. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, cleaned, and analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Items were updated iteratively according to participants' feedback. Data collection continued until saturation was reached (i.e., all items were clear and valid). Two sibling modules were developed to assess siblings' psychosocial risk at diagnosis (preexisting risk factors) and several months thereafter (reactions to cancer). Most prior PAT items were retained; however, parents recommended changes to improve screening format (separately assessing each sibling within the family and expanding response options to include "sometimes"), developmental sensitivity (developing or revising items for ages 0-2, 3-4, 5-9, and 10+ years), and content (adding items related to sibling-specific social support, global assessments of sibling risk, emotional/behavioral reactions to cancer, and social ecological factors such as family and school). Psychosocial screening requires sibling-specific screening items that correspond to preexisting risk (at diagnosis) and reactions to cancer (several months after diagnosis). Validated, sibling-specific screeners will facilitate identification of siblings with elevated psychosocial risk.
Ferguson, Christopher J.
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in…
Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M
To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross-lagged links between parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings' grade point averages (GPAs), and cross-lagged links between differences in siblings' GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07), and secondborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) from 388 European American families on 3 annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings' average grades and prior differences in performance, parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings' relative school performance, however, did not predict parents' beliefs about differences between siblings' competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings' interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sin, Jacqueline; Moone, Nicki; Harris, Paul
The growth of early intervention in psychosis services (EIPS) has prompted needed research to provide a robust evidence base to underpin practice. The typical service model embraces key psychosocial interventions, including family interventions. A literature review revealed a number of relevant studies that recognized the role of siblings in families affected by severe mental illness or mental impairment, but little was found about the impact of first-episode psychosis on siblings. To address this apparent oversight, we conducted a study to gain an understanding of sibling experiences. Ten siblings (ages 16 to 30) with a brother or sister diagnosed with first-episode psychosis took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The key findings were grouped in regard to emotional impact, relationships in the family, and siblings' roles and coping patterns. The study also revealed that families are able to identify positive gains out of a fundamentally negative experience.
Stader, David L.
Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…
Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.
Ferguson, Christopher J
The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth.
Kiprono Samson K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.
Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E
Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.
Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava
Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.
Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta
Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and
Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative
Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Taft, Angela; McDonald, Susan; Pollock, Wendy; Roque Henriquez, Joel Christian
Maternal mortality is a potentially preventable public health issue. Maternal morbidity is increasingly of interest to aid the reduction of maternal mortality. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are an important part of the global burden of maternal morbidity. Social determinants influence health outcomes of pregnant women. Additionally, intimate partner violence has a great negative impact on women's health and pregnancy outcome. However, little is known about the contextual and social aspects of obstetric patients treated in the ICU. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the social determinants and exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric patients admitted to an ICU. A systematic search will be conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, LILACS and SciELO from 2000 to 2016. Studies published in English and Spanish will be identified in relation to data reporting on social determinants of health and/or exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric women, treated in the ICU during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of the end of pregnancy. Two reviewers will independently screen for study eligibility and data extraction. Risk of bias and assessment of the quality of the included studies will be performed by using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Data will be analysed and summarised using a narrative description of the available evidence across studies. This systematic review protocol will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Since this systematic review will be based on published studies, ethical approval is not required. Findings will be presented at La Trobe University, in Conferences and Congresses, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42016037492. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hilton Saggau, Emil
Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...
Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...
... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...
... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...
Eckstein, Katharina; Šerek, Jan; Noack, Peter
Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other's intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings' intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings' attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings' intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings' intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings' social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra, Julia M.; Killoren, Sarah E.
Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence--sibling deidentification and social learning--that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and…
Lanthier, Richard P
Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes.
Love, V.; Richters, L.P.H.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Machalicek, W.A.
Objective: Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. Methods: This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n 44). Sibling relationships were
Kim, Sangwon; Lee, Yanghee
Many things can harm children's well-being. Among them, exposure to parental violence makes children vulnerable and often leads to aggression and/or depression. However, not all children who have suffered parental violence show aggressive behavior or depressive mood. Social capital, defined as resources accruing from interpersonal relationships, was proposed to significantly mediate the relationships among adverse experiences and their negative impacts. In previous studies, social capital accrued from parents played a positive role for children in violent situations, but children exposed to parental violence need alternative sources of social capital. This study targeted fourth-grade Korean children and aimed to identify and test the role of various forms of social capital to help children overcome negative consequences from parental violence. Siblings, friends, teachers, neighbors, and online acquaintances were sources of social capital, and the results showed that social capital from siblings, teachers, neighbors, or online acquaintances mediated in the relationships between parental violence and aggressive behavior. In addition, social capital from siblings and online acquaintances mediated in the relationships between parental violence and depressive mood. The findings have implications in terms of intervention. It is suggested that multiple forms of social capital from children's immediate environments are helpful in their adaptation from exposure to parental violence, and thus, relationship-based interventions are recommended.
Andrea F. Mello
Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.
Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M
Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gamble, Wendy C.; Card, Noel A.; Yu, Jeong Jin
Self-representations play an important role in adolescent development. This study compared self-representations for siblings and explored whether sibling relationship characteristics are associated with similarities or differences in sibling self-concepts. We examined self-representations of 438 adolescent sibling dyads (M age younger sibling =…
Adriana Cristine Fonseca Mozzambani
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de sintomas psicopatológicos em mulheres vítimas de violência doméstica (VD que procuraram uma delegacia de defesa da mulher. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas mulheres com idade entre 20 e 50 anos que deram entrada em uma delegacia da mulher com queixa de VD. Durante a entrevista, todas foram submetidas ao Relatório de Indicadores Sociais e preencheram os seguintes instrumentos de autoaplicação: Inventário de Depressão de Beck, Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version e o Questionário de Experiências Dissociativas Peritraumáticas (todos em língua portuguesa. Foram usadas notas de corte a partir dos estudos de validação desses instrumentos para categorizar indivíduos com alta probabilidade de apresentar transtorno depressivo maior, transtorno de ansiedade, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático, ou alta/baixa dissociação peritraumática. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 17 mulheres com idade média de 34,7±7,7 anos. O tempo médio de duração da violência foi de 9,1±8,7 anos. Do total de mulheres, 53% eram vítimas de agressão excessiva e 84% eram ameaçadas de morte pelo companheiro; em 71% dos casos, os companheiros eram usuários de drogas. Além disso, 53% das mulheres afirmaram ter sofrido VD na infância. Do total da amostra, 89% tiveram grande probabilidade de apresentar transtorno depressivo maior, 94% transtorno de ansiedade, 76% transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e 88% apresentaram elevados níveis de experiências dissociativas peritraumáticas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de VD que dão entrada em delegacias de defesa da mulher têm alta probabilidade de apresentar morbidade psiquiátrica, assim como alterações cognitivas que as impossibilitam de sair do ciclo da violência.OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of psychopathological symptoms in women victims of domestic violence who seek help at police units offering women's protective
Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M
The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.
A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.
Lashewicz, Bonnie; Keating, Norah
From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.
Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P
This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Friedrich, Rose Marie; Lively, Sonja; Rubenstein, Linda M
This study examined the helpfulness of coping strategies and the relative importance of mental health services in coping with schizophrenia from the perspective of siblings. This article presents selected survey data from a national study of 746 respondents that investigated the impact of schizophrenia on siblings' lives. The authors developed the Friedrich-Lively Instrument to Assess the Impact of Schizophrenia on Siblings (FLIISS), a closed-ended questionnaire that included questions about coping strategies and mental health services. Respondents identified services for the ill sibling, including symptom control, adequate housing, and long-term planning, as more important than direct services for themselves. The top-ranked coping strategies were education about schizophrenia, a supportive family, and seeing the ill sibling suffer less because symptoms were controlled. Understanding that families were not to blame for schizophrenia was the most helpful coping strategy for nearly three-fourths of siblings. Siblings had little contact with providers in the past; yet the majority of siblings wanted providers to be available to answer questions and clarify their role in future care. At the time of the study, respondents provided social support and helped with crises, but few coordinated the total care. Siblings identified multiple ways that providers can support and assist them in coping with the impact of schizophrenia. Education and support for siblings without schizophrenia and services for their ill siblings will become increasingly important for the well-being of siblings as they are faced with the responsibility of being the primary caregivers in the future.
Doody, Mairead A.; Hastings, Richard P.; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M.
There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with…
Yang, Hui-Chuan; Mu, Pei-Fan; Sheng, Ching-Ching; Chen, Yi-Wei; Hung, Giun-Yi
When there is a child with cancer in the family, the entire family is affected. Childhood cancer is a highly stressful experience that affects the adaptation of family member to psychosocial tasks. Many of the family stresses and changes that accompany childhood cancer have a severe impact on siblings. An understanding of the experiences and needs of such siblings is vital. The aim of this study was to understand the nature of the overall experiences of a child who has a brother or sister with cancer. Searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Eric, and Chinese electronic periodical services identified 10 qualitative studies that were published between 1960 and 2013. An appraisal of the primary studies was carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Siblings of children with cancer were found to have experienced 4 themes: (1) the disintegration of life, (2) marginalization within their family relationships, (3) self-transcendence during the normalization of family relationships, and (4) maintenance of family integrity and family normality. Siblings of children with cancer experience a great deal of chaos in their family life, and this affects their self-esteem and family intimacy. Being with the sick child may help siblings understand the sick child's suffering and experiences. The findings of this review provide evidence to help health professionals to assess the needs of the siblings to enhance their sense of self within the family. Providing the siblings with suitable resources should result in better adjustment.
Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Gogtay, Nitin
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that has a strong genetic basis. Converging evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder, with earlier onset cases resulting in more profound brain abnormalities. Siblings of patients with schizophrenia provide an invaluable resource for differentiating between trait and state markers, thus highlighting possible endophenotypes for ongoing research. However, findings from sibling studies have not been systematically put together in a coherent story across the broader age span. We review here the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings of patients with schizophrenia from childhood to adulthood, by reviewing sibling studies from both childhood-onset schizophrenia, and the more common adult-onset schizophrenia. When reviewed together, studies suggest that siblings of patients with schizophrenia display significant brain abnormalities that highlight both similarities and differences between the adult and childhood populations, with shared developmental risk patterns, and segregating trajectories. Based on current research it appears that the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings are likely to be an age-dependent endophenotype, which normalize by the typical age of onset of schizophrenia unless there has been more genetic or symptom burdening. With increased genetic burdening (e.g. discordant twins of patients) the grey matter abnormalities in (twin) siblings are progressive in adulthood. This synthesis of the literature clarifies the importance of brain plasticity in the pathophysiology of the illness, indicating that probands may lack protective factors critical for healthy development. PMID:23698280
Ghaleb D. Almutairi
Aug 6, 2012 ... health care provider, rather violence in her home.11,12. Most primary ... of physicians and nurses working in the selected centers was. 239 and ... several methods were used to verify data entry. ..... Gender-based violence,.
Widmer, Eric D.; Weiss, Christopher C.
Examined role of support from a well-adjusted older sibling for positive adjustment of disadvantaged inner-city adolescents. Found that sibling support was nonsignificantly related to delinquency, academic success, and mental health for younger siblings. Only when accompanied by a positive image of their older sibling was support associated with…
Lilleør, Helene Bie
in the educational decision, which is consistent with a human capital portfolio theory of risk diversification and which cannot be explained by sibling rivalry over scarce resources for credit constrained households. The paper thus provides a complementary explanation to why enrolment rates in developing countries......Primary school enrolment rates are continuously low in many developing countries. The main explanation in the economic literature on schooling is focused on credit constraints and child labour, implying that the indirect cost of schooling in terms of foregone earnings is too high. This paper...
Nitsch, Aïda; Faurie, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi
Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions. PMID:23173210
Sandu Mihaela Luminița
Full Text Available The effects of domestic violence phenomenon and its severity were recently acknowledged worldwide, most European Union countries faced with significant increase in cases of domestic violence. Due to the inefficient public social services in combating and preventing domestic violence, services like this are taken mostly by civil society. However, help victims of domestic violence, there are several protection services, and a range of social services targeting the aggressors.
Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.
Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…
Rocío del Carmen Serrano Barquín
Full Text Available In this paper we make some reflections on the ways and means used by young men and women to communicate and interact college online and in social networks. In this sense, it is argued that youth socialization from electronic communication contributes to the manifestation of covert acts, sometimes symbolic violence foster or harsh environments, even at the level of representation of that identity. Expand knowledge and achievements that have such networks in youth socialization processes is an important contribution to the field of communication, new technologies and of course the violence.
Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy
Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…
Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)
Pavao, Joyce Maguire; St. John, Melissa; Cannole, Rebecca Ford; Fischer, Tara; Maluccio, Anthony; Peining, Suzanne
The growing literature on sibling relationships throughout their lifespans is of great importance to those working in the child welfare system, and in adoption services in particular. Sibling bonds are important to all of us, but they are particularly vital to children from disorganized or dysfunctional families. These relationships assume even…
... roles and responsibilities that may change when a sibling dies. You may take on new responsibilities, such as becoming the oldest child or an only child to whom family members look for leadership. This change can cause you ... cancer. Because you and your siblings share many of the same genes, it is ...
Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Lempers, Jacques D.
Utilizing longitudinal, 3-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, and target children) in 374 families, the potential effects of sibling relationships on adolescent development across early and middle adolescence were investigated. Adolescents who perceived their sibling relationships more positively at Time 1 tended to…
Liska, Victoria D.
This paper describes the feelings and needs of children who have siblings with disabilities from the point of view of a woman who has a brother with an intellectual disability. Eight lessons that adult siblings can teach professionals about the significant, often forgotten, family role they play are outlined, supported by descriptive quotations…
Schleien, Sara; Ross, Hildy; Ross, Michael
When children apologize, they accept responsibility for wrongdoings and act to reconcile social relationships. Apologies to siblings were coded in 40 families that were observed for 9 h when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years old, and again 2 years later. We found that sibling apologies were rare, generally simple in form, and more frequent after…
Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol
Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…
Johnson, Toni Cavanagh; Huang, Bevan Emma; Simpson, Pippa M.
A questionnaire was given to 500 mental health and child welfare professionals asking for maximum acceptable ages for siblings to engage jointly in certain family practices related to hygiene, affection, and privacy. A large proportion of respondents felt it was never acceptable for siblings to take showers together (40%), kiss on the mouth (37%),…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.
Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…
Larson, Mary S.
Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…
Kramer, Laurie; Baron, Lisa A.
Parental appraisals of their children's sibling relationships, and their standards for sibling relationships, were assessed. Although parents reported most concern about their children's Agonism and Rivalry/Competition, the largest discrepancies between parental standards and observations involved behaviors reflecting Warmth. Results endorse…
Goebel, Barbara L.
First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…
Stähr, Kerstin; Kuechler, Alma; Gencik, Martin; Arnolds, Judith; Dendy, Meaghan; Lang, Stephan; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana
Whether the origin of severe hearing loss in Refsum's syndrome is caused by cochlear impairment or retrocochlear degeneration remains unclear. This case report aims to investigate hearing performance before and after cochlear implantation to shed light on this question. Also, identification of new mutations causing Refsum's syndrome would be helpful in generating additional means of diagnosis. A family of 4 individuals was subjected to genetic testing. Two siblings (56 and 61 years old) suffered from severe hearing and vision loss and received bilateral cochlear implants. Genetic analysis, audiological outcome, and clinical examinations were performed. One new mutation in the PHYH gene (c.768del63bp) causing Refsum's disease was found. Preoperative distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPAOEs) were absent. Postoperative speech perception in Freiburger speech test was 100% for bisyllabic words and 85% (patient No. 1) and 65% (patient No. 2), respectively, for monosyllabic words. Five years after implantation, speech perception remained stable for bisyllabic words but showed decreasing capabilities for monosyllabic words. A new mutation causing Refsum's disease is presented. Cochlear implantation in case of severe hearing loss leads to an improvement in speech perception and should be recommended for patients with Refsum's disease, especially when the hearing loss is combined with a severe loss of vision. Decrease of speech perception in the long-term follow-up could indicate an additional retrocochlear degeneration.
Ying Li, Eria Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Ming-Fang; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Wu, Yu-Yu
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral problems and parenting style among children with autism and their siblings in an ethnic Chinese population. A total of 151 children with DSM-IV autistic disorder, aged 3-12, 134 siblings without autism, and 113 normally developing controls were recruited. Both parents reported their parenting styles and psychological status and mothers also reported children's behavioral problems. Children with autism had significantly more severe behavioral problems and obtained less affection and more overprotection and authoritarian controlling from their parents than the other two groups. Compared to the controls, unaffected siblings showed some behavioral problems, and obtained less maternal care. Withdrawal and attention, social, and thought problems were the most associated behavioral syndromes to distinguish children with autism from those without. In addition to children with autism, who have a wide range of behavioral problems and impaired parent-child interactions, their siblings may be at risk for such problems.
... violence often starts with emotional abuse. You may think that behaviors like calling you names or insisting on seeing you ... in immediate danger, dial 911. If you are thinking about ending an abusive ... in mind: - Create a safety plan, like where you can go if you are in ...
This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…
This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins. Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 4/4/2011.
I Ketut Agus Indra Adhiputra
Full Text Available Post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD is a disorder that is fairly common in thecommunity. Every event in the life will have its own meaning in later, especially eventsthat occur in childhood. Data in the U.S. showed 60% men and 50% women have atraumatic experience, which develops into PTSD approximately 6.7% of the entirepopulation. While data from the Indonesian National Commission of Women, since 20072010there has been 91311 cases of sexual violence against women, as well as cases ofchild sexual abuse reported to reach 250 cases. Presenting symptoms can range fromanxiety disorders, depression, until psychotic. The severity of symptoms depends on eachself-defense mechanism thus the PTSD symptoms are very diverse.
Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.
Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080
Impact of violence against women on severe acute maternal morbidity in the intensive care unit, including neonatal outcomes: a case-control study protocol in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lima, Peru.
Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Pollock, Wendy E; McDonald, Susan J; Taft, Angela J
Preventing and reducing violence against women (VAW) and maternal mortality are Sustainable Development Goals. Worldwide, the maternal mortality ratio has fallen about 44% in the last 25 years, and for one maternal death there are many women affected by severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) requiring management in the intensive care unit (ICU). These women represent the most critically ill obstetric patients of the maternal morbidity spectrum and should be studied to complement the review of maternal mortality. VAW has been associated with all-cause maternal deaths, and since many women (30%) endure violence usually exerted by their intimate partners and this abuse can be severe during pregnancy, it is important to determine whether it impacts SAMM. Thus, this study aims to investigate the impact of VAW on SAMM in the ICU. This will be a prospective case-control study undertaken in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lima-Peru, with a sample size of 109 cases (obstetric patients admitted to the ICU) and 109 controls (obstetric patients not admitted to the ICU selected by systematic random sampling). Data on social determinants, medical and obstetric characteristics, VAW, pregnancy and neonatal outcome will be collected through interviews and by extracting information from the medical records using a pretested form. Main outcome will be VAW rate and neonatal mortality rate between cases and controls. VAW will be assessed by using the WHO instrument. Binary logistic followed by stepwise multivariate regression and goodness of fit test will assess any association between VAW and SAMM. Ethical approval has been granted by the La Trobe University, Melbourne-Australia and the tertiary healthcare facility in Lima-Peru. This research follows the WHO ethical and safety recommendations for research on VAW. Findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the
Impact of violence against women on severe acute maternal morbidity in the intensive care unit, including neonatal outcomes: a case–control study protocol in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lima, Peru
Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Pollock, Wendy E; McDonald, Susan J; Taft, Angela J
Introduction Preventing and reducing violence against women (VAW) and maternal mortality are Sustainable Development Goals. Worldwide, the maternal mortality ratio has fallen about 44% in the last 25 years, and for one maternal death there are many women affected by severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) requiring management in the intensive care unit (ICU). These women represent the most critically ill obstetric patients of the maternal morbidity spectrum and should be studied to complement the review of maternal mortality. VAW has been associated with all-cause maternal deaths, and since many women (30%) endure violence usually exerted by their intimate partners and this abuse can be severe during pregnancy, it is important to determine whether it impacts SAMM. Thus, this study aims to investigate the impact of VAW on SAMM in the ICU. Methods and analysis This will be a prospective case-control study undertaken in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lima-Peru, with a sample size of 109 cases (obstetric patients admitted to the ICU) and 109 controls (obstetric patients not admitted to the ICU selected by systematic random sampling). Data on social determinants, medical and obstetric characteristics, VAW, pregnancy and neonatal outcome will be collected through interviews and by extracting information from the medical records using a pretested form. Main outcome will be VAW rate and neonatal mortality rate between cases and controls. VAW will be assessed by using the WHO instrument. Binary logistic followed by stepwise multivariate regression and goodness of fit test will assess any association between VAW and SAMM. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the La Trobe University, Melbourne-Australia and the tertiary healthcare facility in Lima-Peru. This research follows the WHO ethical and safety recommendations for research on VAW. Findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:29540421
Adolfo, Eldrigde; Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi; Nyström, Daniel; Utas, Mats
In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategie...
Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina
This study extends research on sibling conflict strategies and outcomes by examining unique and interactive associations with age, relative birth order, sibling relationship quality, and caregivers' interventions into conflict. Each of 62 sibling dyads (older sibling mean age = 8.39 years; younger sibling mean age = 6.06 years) discussed 1 recurring conflict alone (dyadic negotiation) and a 2nd conflict with their primary parental caregiver (triadic negotiation). Negotiations were coded for children's conflict strategies, outcomes, and caregiver interventions; each family member provided ratings of sibling relationship quality. Results revealed that age was associated with siblings' constructive strategies, particularly in the dyadic negotiation. With age controlled, younger siblings referred more frequently to their own perspective. Caregivers' future orientation in the triadic negotiation was associated with children's future orientation in the dyadic negotiation; however, this association was most evident when sibling relationship quality was high. Similarly, caregivers' past orientation was positively associated with dyadic compromise, especially when relationship quality was high. Results reveal the value of simultaneously considering associations among parental, affective, and developmental correlates of sibling conflict strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Nyberg, E; Stieglitz, R-D; Flury, M; Riecher-Rössler, A
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Domestic violence is common and can lead to severe physical and psychological problems. Thus, we have investigated the frequency of occurrence, forms and risk factors of domestic violence against female patients on a crisis intervention ward. 115 women were screened with the "screening spouse violence" (SPG) and the "index of spouse abuse" (ISA). The life time prevalence concerning spouse violence was 70 %. Out of 74 women who were currently living in a relationship 28 (38 % )were victims of violence in the last 12 months prior to their admission. Women who experienced violence had a significantly lower level of education. Screening for domestic violence in female patients in the field of crisis intervention and psychiatry should become a standard of "good clinical practice". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Shishir Ram Shetty
Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a hereditary disorder characterized by increased tendency for bone fractures due to high fragility. The clinical and radiological features of OI manifest in different age groups, although the disease is congenital in nature. Besides bone fragility, features like laxity of the ligaments, blue sclera, growth retardation, and scoliosis are also observed. In severe cases, respiratory distress and death have been reported. The most important oral finding in OI is the presence of yellowish-brown-coloured brittle teeth characteristic of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Genetic factors play a very important role in the pathogenesis of OI either as a dominant or recessive factor. When a child has OI, there is a 25% chance of the sibling to have the same disorder. We report two cases of OI in siblings born to parents with a history of consanguineous marriage. The clinical and radiological features of the two cases are described in detail.
Arnold, Catherine K.; Heller, Tamar; Kramer, John
This qualitative study examines the support needs of adult siblings of people with developmental disabilities. A survey completed by 139 siblings of people with developmental disabilities captured the needs of adult siblings through 2 open-ended questions. A grounded theory approach was used, and the sibling responses anchored the analysis,…
Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke
This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…
Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael
A study examined the basis of "theory of mind" (ToM) reasoning in 20 native signers (ages 4-8) of British Sign Language. Children and their siblings were given a measure of the quality of sibling relations. Sibling quality as perceived by siblings predicted children's ToM score over age and referential communication. (Contains…
Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.
Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…
Smith, Marilyn E.
This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…
Love, Victoria; Richters, Lotte; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Machalicek, Wendy
Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n = 44). Sibling relationships were compared on four factors and 16 sub-scales of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire-Revised. Results showed significant differences in mean scores on each of the four factors (i.e. Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Rivalry and Dominance/Nurturance) and most of the sub-scales. ANCOVAs showed that demographic variables (number of siblings, living in a two-parent vs single parent household, gender, participant's age, place of residence) did not influence significant differences in sibling relationships between the two groups. Having a brother or sister with Angelman syndrome may influence the way in which the sibling perceives the sibling relationship. This may have important implications for family-centred intervention for this population.
M Srinivasa Raju
Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare disorder transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin aging, and malignant tumor development. The frequency of this disorder is approximately 1 case per 250.000 population. Two important causes of mortality are metastatic malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here xeroderma pigmentosum in three siblings presenting with variable expressions is reported. The seventy of the condition was more in one of the more sun exposed sibling and had more signs of malignant lesions. Intraoral pigmentation was also present in all the three siblings.
Caswell, Clayton C; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G; Murphy, Erin R
Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators.
Full Text Available Small RNA molecules (sRNAs are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators.
Messerschmidt, James W.
In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…
Staffo, Donald F.
Discusses the serious problem of criminal violence in the personal lives of athletes, suggesting strategies that physical educators, coaches, and school systems can implement with young athletes which could reduce the incidence and severity of violence later in life (e.g., teaching unconditional respect for others, continually reinforcing social…
Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw
It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…
Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele
Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…
Karin eKeller; Karin eKeller; Larissa Maria Troesch; Alexander eGrob
We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical...
Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL
Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...
The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on siblings and sibling relationships. To outline the importance of this under-researched field the review details the link between sibling relationship quality and individual psychosocial outcome. Initial research into the area started with investigations of the influence of structural variables and temperament on sibling relationship quality but found that they explained only a small proportion of the variance in sibling relationship q...
Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J; Bartholow, Bruce D; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J; Ybarra, Michele
Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy. Still, to more fully understand the potential for long-term harm from media violence exposure, the field is greatly in need of additional large-sample, high-quality, longitudinal studies that include validated measures of media violence exposure and measures of other known violence risk factors. Also, although several high-quality media violence intervention studies have been conducted, larger-scale studies with more comprehensive and longer-term assessments are needed to fully understand long-term effects and to inform the development of tools that will help to reduce problems associated with aggression and violence. The evidence that violent screen media constitutes a causal risk factor for increased aggression is compelling. Modern social-cognitive theories of social behavior provide useful frameworks for understanding how and why these effects occur. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A
The purpose of this analysis was (1) to provide the rates of dating violence victimization among a national sample of Latino adolescents, (2) to determine the degree to which different forms of dating violence victimization co-occurred for this sample, and (3) to determine how much dating violence victimization overlapped with other forms of non-partner-perpetrated victimization. This analysis used data from the Dating Violence Among Latinos Study, which surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating violence and non-partner-perpetrated victimization. We calculated victimization rates and relative risk ratios to evaluate the co-occurrence among different forms of dating violence victimization as well as the co-occurrence of dating violence and other forms of victimization. Results show elevated rates of dating violence victimization compared with previous studies, which is primarily accounted for by psychological dating violence. The rate of dating violence appears to precipitously increase starting around ages 13 and 14 years and is consistently higher for boys. Each type of dating violence was significantly associated with other forms of dating violence (e.g., physical and psychological). Dating violence was significantly associated with experiencing conventional crime, peer or sibling victimization, and nonpartner sexual victimization as well as being a polyvictim. The results support the importance of early prevention efforts with Latino youth and addressing dating violence with both sexes. Furthermore, dating violence should be seen as a potential risk marker for youth who are experiencing multiple forms of victimization. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these
Sibling relationships may be relevant to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), yet little research has focused on this aspect of the disorder. A narrative study of four women in various stages of recovery from AN is described and results relevant to sibling relationships are presented, enriched by published anecdotes and case studies. The anorexic interviewees described much antagonism and rivalry and little warmth and intimacy between themselves and their siblings. They seemed to feel they did not belong sufficiently in their families and other social settings despite a strong desire to belong. The sample is small, reports subjective and retrospective and no control group was included. It is suggested that anorexic girls often feel emotionally isolated from and misunderstood by siblings, who may have much to contribute to the process of therapy and recovery.
Malm, Eva; Ponjavic, Vesna; Möller, Claes; Kimberling, William J; Andréasson, Sten
To characterize visual function in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome. Thirteen patients with phenotypically different subtypes of Usher syndrome, including 3 families with affected siblings, were selected. Genetic analysis and ophthalmological examinations including visual fields, full-field electroretinography (ERG), multifocal electroretinography (mf ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were assessed. The patients' degree of visual handicap was evaluated by a questionnaire (ADL). Twelve of thirteen patients were genotyped as Usher 1B, 1D, 1F, 2A, 2C or 3A. In 12 of 13 patients examined with ERG the 30 Hz flickering light response revealed remaining cone function. In 3 of the patients with Usher type 1 mf ERG demonstrated a specific pattern, with a sharp distinction between the area with reduced function and the central area with remaining macular function and normal peak time. OCT demonstrated loss of foveal depression with distortion of the foveal architecture in the macula in all patients. The foveal thickness ranged from 159 to 384 µm and was not correlated to retinal function. Three siblings shared the same mutation for Usher 2C but in contrast to previous reports regarding this genotype, 1 of them diverged in phenotype with substantially normal visual fields, almost normal OCT and mf ERG findings, and only moderately reduced rod and cone function according to ERG. Evaluation of visual function comprising both the severity of the rod cone degeneration and the function in the macular region confirm phenotypical heterogeneity within siblings and between different genotypes of Usher syndrome.
Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko
Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...
Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra
Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Witte, Susanne; Fegert, Jörg M; Walper, Sabine
Siblings share the same environment and thus potentially a substantial number of risk factors for child maltreatment. Furthermore, the number of siblings and the sibling constellation itself might pose a risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about the likelihood that more than one child in a family is maltreated and which factors increase the risk. This study sought to investigate similarities and differences in maltreatment in siblings and risk factors associated with the maltreatment of more than one child from the same family. Data on maltreatment during childhood and adolescence, family background, and sibling constellation were collected from 870 pairs of siblings. In the dyadic analyses, siblings reported similar maltreatment experiences, especially when any type of maltreatment was considered. Parents' mental health problems were significant predictors for maltreatment of at least one sibling. Father's mental health problems were predictive of maltreatment of both or only the younger sibling, mother's mental health problems of both or only the older sibling. Closeness in age and same gender of siblings did not emerge as a consistent predictor. The increasing number of siblings was a risk factor for any type of maltreatment of both siblings. The results highlight the need for preventive measures for families with a large number of children and with parents with mental health problems as well as a repeated risk assessment of all siblings in a family when one sibling was maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edelman, Andrew J.
The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…
Horoz, Ozden O.; Mungan, Neslihan O.; Yildizdas, Dincer; Hergüner, Özlem; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kör, Deniz; Waterham, Hans; Coskun, Turgay
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS) is a rare and severe neurometabolic disease. We present two siblings with BVVLS with a novel homozygous mutation in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54) gene. The first sibling was admitted with respiratory insufficiency and required mechanical ventilation. After
Anderson, Craig A; Berkowitz, Leonard; Donnerstein, Edward; Huesmann, L Rowell; Johnson, James D; Linz, Daniel; Malamuth, Neil M; Wartella, Ellen
Research on violent television and films, video games, and music reveals unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts. The effects appear larger for milder than for more severe forms of aggression, but the effects on severe forms of violence are also substantial (r = .13 to .32) when compared with effects of other violence risk factors or medical effects deemed important by the medical community (e.g., effect of aspirin on heart attacks). The research base is large; diverse in methods, samples, and media genres; and consistent in overall findings. The evidence is clearest within the most extensively researched domain, television and film violence. The growing body of video-game research yields essentially the same conclusions. Short-term exposure increases the likelihood of physically and verbally aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, and aggressive emotions. Recent large-scale longitudinal studies provide converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in childhood with aggression later in life, including physical assaults and spouse abuse. Because extremely violent criminal behaviors (e.g., forcible rape, aggravated assault, homicide) are rare, new longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to estimate accurately how much habitual childhood exposure to media violence increases the risk for extreme violence. Well-supported theory delineates why and when exposure to media violence increases aggression and violence. Media violence produces short-term increases by priming existing aggressive scripts and cognitions, increasing physiological arousal, and triggering an automatic tendency to imitate observed behaviors. Media violence produces long-term effects via several types of learning processes leading to the acquisition of lasting (and automatically accessible) aggressive scripts, interpretational schemas, and aggression-supporting beliefs
O' Brien, Irene; Duffy, Anita; Nicholl, Honor
Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child's siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: 'siblings', 'chronic illness', 'disability', 'cancer', 'sibling relations', 'sibling adjustment', 'coping', 'family-centred care', 'sibling interventions', 'camps', 'autism', 'Down's syndrome'. Seventeen research studies in total were reviewed. This review focuses on three sibling groups related to children suffering from autism, cancer and Down's syndrome, and are discussed under the following headings: sibling adjustment; family functioning and sibling's coping resources; and intervention programmes. The literature revealed that siblings of children with Down's syndrome were well adjusted to living with their brother or sister. However, there was conflicting information on the adjustment of siblings of children with cancer and autism. An awareness of the harmful effect that living with childhood illness and disability can have on some siblings is essential to enable healthcare professionals to provide supportive interventions to protect siblings' physical and emotional wellbeing.
Wahed, Tania; Bhuiya, Abbas
Violence against women is a common and insidious phenomenon in Bangladesh. The types of violence commonly committed are domestic violence, acid throwing, rape, trafficking and forced prostitution. Domestic violence is the most common form of violence and its prevalence is higher in rural areas. A higher prevalence of verbal abuse than physical abuse by partners has been observed. The reasons mentioned for abuse were trivial and included questioning of the husband, failure to perform household work and care of children, economic problems, stealing, refusal to bring dowry, etc. The factors associated with violence were the age of women, age of husband, past exposure to familial violence, and lack of spousal communication. The majority of abused women remained silent about their experience because of the high acceptance of violence within society, fear of repercussion, tarnishing family honour and own reputation, jeopardizing children's future, and lack of an alternative place to stay. However, severely abused women, women who had frequent verbal disputes, higher level of education, and support from natal homes were more likely to disclose violence. A very small proportion of women approached institutional sources for help and only when the abuse was severe, became life threatening or children were at risk. Interestingly, violence increased with membership of women in micro-credit organizations initially but tapered off as duration of involvement increased. The high acceptability of violence within society acts as a deterrent for legal redress. Effective strategies for the prevention of violence should involve public awareness campaigns and community-based networks to support victims.
Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings' support and academic engagement and younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender…
Giallo, Rebecca; Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Minett, Belinda; Kapoor, Aparna
Background: There is increasing interest in the experiences and well-being of siblings growing up with a brother or sister with a disability in Australia. However, research to date has primarily obtained parent reports of sibling adjustment and mental health. Therefore, the aim of the current study was threefold: (1) to report on the mental health…
Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
We investigated sibling relationships and wellbeing in adolescents and adults with a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adolescents engaged in more shared activities than did adults. Adolescents reported greater social support, greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and less use of problem-focused coping than adults. In…
Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina
Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…
Azmitia, Margarita; Hesser, Joanne
Found that, in unstructured building sessions, kindergartners were more likely to observe, imitate, and consult their second- or third-grade siblings than their older peers. Older siblings were also more likely to provide additional explanations and positive feedback than older peers when instructing younger children. (MDM)
Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina
Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated with positive conflict processes. Younger siblings' second-order false belief scores were negatively associated with constructive conflict strategies, and older siblings' narrative self-referential focus was negatively associated with compromise. Associations between younger children's social understanding (conflict interpretation and narrative perspective references) and siblings' dyadic conflict behavior were moderated by relationship quality. Results suggest that links between social understanding and conflict behavior should be considered in conjunction with the quality of children's relationships.
Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti
A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA.
Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj
The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...
Lombardi, E L; Wilchins, R A; Priesing, D; Malouf, D
There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or through volunteers, and made available upon the World Wide Web. A sample of 402 cases was collected over the span of 12 months (April 1996-April 1997). We found that over half the people within this sample experienced some form of harassment or violence within their lifetime, with a quarter experiencing a violent incident. Further investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident. Economic discrimination was related to transgendered people's experience with violence. Therefore, both hate crimes legislation and employment protections are needed for transgendered individuals.
Full Text Available Parental differential treatment is an important feature of non-shared family environment which contributes to the development of behavioural differences between siblings growing up in the same family. To investigate the frequency, direction, and patterns of parental differential treatment of siblings in Slovene families, mothers and fathers of 93 sibling-pairs in early/middle childhood provided self-reports in a two-wave longitudinal study. Most of the parents reported on low levels of differential treatment, predominantly expressing somewhat more affection and control towards the older than towards the younger sibling. Over a one-year time period, the average frequency of parental differential treatment did not change significantly, whereas the stability was estimated as moderate for maternal and low for paternal assessments. Maternal and paternal self-ratings were moderately correlated. However, the mothers reported on somewhat higher levels of differential control and (only in wave 1 affection than the fathers. Nearly half of the families were characterized by a congruent pattern of parental differential treatment indicating that both parents showed more affection and control towards the older of the two siblings. A complementary family pattern reflecting an opposite direction of maternal and paternal differential treatment emerged in approximately a quarter of the participating families.
Mark, Katharine M; Pike, Alison; Latham, Rachel M; Oliver, Bonamy R
We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study). Contrary to expectations, no mean level differences emerged when monozygotic twin pairs, dizygotic twin pairs, and non-twin pairs were compared on their sibling relationship quality. Behavioural genetic analyses also revealed that the sibling bond was modestly to moderately influenced by the genetic propensities of the children within the dyad, and moderately to substantially influenced by the shared environment common to both siblings. In addition, for sibling negativity, we found evidence of twin-specific environmental influence-dizygotic twins showed more reciprocity than did non-twins. Our findings have repercussions for the broader application of results from future twin-based investigations.
Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert
This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra Bernard, Julia M.; McHale, Susan M.
Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study explored the nature and correlates of 2 processes of sibling influence--social learning and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included 2 adolescent-age siblings (M = 16.29 years for older siblings and M = 12.59 years for younger siblings,…
Kao, B; Romero-Bosch, L; Plante, W; Lobato, D
This qualitative study explored the experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities. Parents and typically developing siblings from 15 Latino families with a child with a developmental disability participated in separate interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, domains reflecting siblings' relationships, emotional experiences and communication about the disability were identified. The child's need for caregiving was a prominent topic in the sibling and parent narratives. Parents reported concerns about siblings' experience of differential treatment, whereas siblings reported concerns about restricted social activities because of their brother/sister. Including multiple informants revealed commonalities and differences in parents' and siblings' perspectives on the impact of a child's disability. The importance of considering sibling adaptation in sociocultural context is discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... problem. If this happens, seek help from a mental health professional for your child. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: August 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Sibling Rivalry Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children ...
Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Boer, Frits; Markus, Monica T.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Maingay, Ragna; Borst, Sophie R.
There is a paucity of knowledge on the role of sibling relationships in internalizing disorders. Research in nonclinical populations suggests an association between internalizing problems in children and negative sibling interactions. Further, an association is reported between internalizing
Brenøe, Anne Ardila
of the younger siblings' gender allows me to estimate the causal effect of having an opposite compared to same sex sibling. Overall, having an opposite sex sibling makes educational choices more gender-stereotypical for both genders. Having an opposite sex sibling reduces women's probability to enroll in any......-parent interactions. Parents with mixed sex children gender-specialize their parenting more and spend more quality time with their same sex child than parents with same sex children. Moreover, I show that young boys with an opposite sex sibling are exposed to more gender-stereotypical behavior within the family than......This paper studies how sibling gender composition affects preferences for education within Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). To identify the causal effect of sibling gender, I focus on a sample of firstborn children who all have a younger biological sibling. The randomness...
Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert
Although sibling interactions play an important role in children’s early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions. PMID:29543814
Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.
Wang, Jicai; Cao, Hongbao; Liao, Yanhui; Liu, Weiqing; Tan, Liwen; Tang, Yanqing; Chen, Jindong; Xu, Xiufeng; Li, Haijun; Luo, Chunrong; Liu, Chunyu; Ries Merikangas, Kathleen; Calhoun, Vince; Tang, Jinsong; Shugart, Yin Yao; Chen, Xiaogang
Among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, approximately 20%-33% are recognized as treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients. These TRS patients suffer more severely from the disease but struggle to benefit from existing antipsychotic treatments. A few recent studies suggested that schizophrenia may be caused by impaired synaptic plasticity that manifests as functional dysconnectivity in the brain, however, few of those studies focused on the functional connectivity changes in the brains of TRS groups. In this study, we compared the whole brain connectivity variations in TRS patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Connectivity network features between and within the 116 automated anatomical labeling (AAL) brain regions were calculated and compared using maps created with three contrasts: patient vs. control, patient vs. sibling, and sibling vs. To evaluate the predictive power of the selected features, we performed a multivariate classification approach. We also evaluated the influence of six important clinical measures (e.g. age, education level) on the connectivity features. This study identified abnormal significant connectivity changes of three patterns in TRS patients and their unaffected siblings: 1) 69 patient-specific connectivity (PCN); 2) 102 shared connectivity (SCN); and 3) 457 unshared connectivity (UCN). While the first two patterns were widely reported by previous non-TRS specific studies, we were among the first to report widespread significant connectivity differences between TRS patient groups and their healthy sibling groups. Observations of this study may provide new insights for the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of TRS.
Full Text Available Among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, approximately 20%–33% are recognized as treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS patients. These TRS patients suffer more severely from the disease but struggle to benefit from existing antipsychotic treatments. A few recent studies suggested that schizophrenia may be caused by impaired synaptic plasticity that manifests as functional dysconnectivity in the brain, however, few of those studies focused on the functional connectivity changes in the brains of TRS groups. In this study, we compared the whole brain connectivity variations in TRS patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Connectivity network features between and within the 116 automated anatomical labeling (AAL brain regions were calculated and compared using maps created with three contrasts: patient vs. control, patient vs. sibling, and sibling vs. control. To evaluate the predictive power of the selected features, we performed a multivariate classification approach. We also evaluated the influence of six important clinical measures (e.g. age, education level on the connectivity features. This study identified abnormal significant connectivity changes of three patterns in TRS patients and their unaffected siblings: 1 69 patient-specific connectivity (PCN; 2 102 shared connectivity (SCN; and 3 457 unshared connectivity (UCN. While the first two patterns were widely reported by previous non-TRS specific studies, we were among the first to report widespread significant connectivity differences between TRS patient groups and their healthy sibling groups. Observations of this study may provide new insights for the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of TRS.
Anzures, Gizelle; Goyet, Louise; Ganea, Natasa; Johnson, Mark H
Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication abilities. While unaffected relatives lack severe deficits, milder impairments have been reported in some first-degree relatives. The present study sought to verify whether mild deficits in face perception are evident among the unaffected younger siblings of children with ASD. Children between 6-9 years of age completed a face-recognition task and a passive viewing ERP task with face and house stimuli. Sixteen children were typically developing with no family history of ASD, and 17 were unaffected children with an older sibling with ASD. Findings indicate that, while unaffected siblings are comparable to controls in their face-recognition abilities, unaffected male siblings in particular show relatively enhanced P100 and P100-N170 peak-to-peak amplitude responses to faces and houses. Enhanced ERPs among unaffected male siblings is discussed in relation to potential differences in neural network recruitment during visual and face processing.
Herberman Mash, Holly B; Fullerton, Carol S; Ursano, Robert J
This study examined the association between types of loss (i.e., sibling or close friend) and relationship quality (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief, depression, somatic symptoms, and world assumptions in bereaved young adults. Participants were 107 young adults aged 17-29 years who were either bereaved or had never experienced a loss. Among bereaved participants, 66 lost a close friend and seven lost a sibling within the past 3 years (M = 1.63 years). Nineteen percent of the young adults met criteria for complicated grief and 31% had mild to severe depression. Participants with a deceased sibling reported greater depth in the relationship as compared to those who lost a friend. They were also more likely to have complicated grief (57% versus 15%) and report significantly higher levels of grief, depression, and somatic symptoms. Those who lost a sibling reported a lower sense of meaningfulness and benevolence of the world and self-worth as compared with those who lost a close friend or had not experienced a loss. Complicated grief and depression are common among bereaved young adults. Sibling loss is particularly distressing to young adults, due in part to the high level of relationship depth, and is associated with increased psychological and physical symptoms postloss. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The birth of a disabled child is a critical event that places all the members of the family in a condition of great vulnerability. When talking about families with a disabled child, attention is usually focused on the parents. Siblings tend to play a marginal role, as shown in the referred literature, in this specific field of investigation. Communicating diagnosis to siblings means involving them in the process of family change, making them active players rather than “spectators” in their own “existential niche”. Communication of diagnosis is a delicate, continuous process that has to be tackled appropriately, using targeted words and educational actions. Children need help in accepting and welcoming their disabled sibling, with all his/her characteristics (and deficits, through a balanced, pondered approach that includes both the dimension of co-development and the acknowledgement of problematic situations.
Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S
By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.
Stockley, P; Parker, G A
Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals.
The thesis "Sibling Constellation Effects on Learning and Career Aspirations of Pupils" is aimed at the description of a relationship between birth order and personality development. It also deals with the general characteristics of sibling constellation and its historical development. It points out the importance of sibling constellation in human life and presents the personality description with regard to birth order in relation to parents, siblings, peers, education and occupation. The the...
John Leonardo Díaz Galvis
Full Text Available In this article we try to summarize the principal concepts around the biological and psychological contributions that explain the juvenile violence. In the genetic part we talk about adoption, twins studies and the genes that had been related with violence. In the area of neurotransmitters we selective talk about serotonine. We outline the relationship between sexual y physical abuse with violence and the link of those that consume alcohol and drugs with violence conducts. We also briefly view the roll of TV and radio with juvenile violence. Finally the article describes the different kinds of treatment of violence.
Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan
The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Werner, Helene; Zahn, Salome; Titze, Karl; Walitza, Susanne; Zulauf Logoz, Marina
Several studies have indicated only a modest concordance of attachment security in siblings in infancy. Until now, very little was known about the concordance of siblings’ attachment security beyond infancy, as assessed by the attachment story completion task. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the concordance of attachment representations of 38 first-born (4–7 years) and 38 second-born (3–5 years) siblings living in middle-class two-parent families. Personality factors and the level ...
Jennifer M. Brown
Full Text Available The influence of birth order on personality has been studied for several decades, but little research has been conducted on the association between sibling position and risk tolerance. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between being an only child and risk-taking attitudes. Data from the 2010 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 sample was used to test the hypotheses that only children and first borns are similar, only children exhibit a lower risk tolerance when compared to those with siblings, and only children exhibit a lower risk tolerance when compared to those with siblings when first borns are removed and only borns are compared with later borns. Results did show that only children are similar to first borns in nearly every domain of risk tolerance considered. Furthermore, they do not exhibit dramatically different risk attitudes than those with siblings when the variables of sex, locus of control, and net worth are controlled.
Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Eckhardt, Christopher I
Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behaviour among male offenders (e.g. Scott and Wolfe, 2003; Eckhardt et al., 2004), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behaviour are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994; Archer, 2002). We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behaviour (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment engagement among the high-risk group of male offenders who report concordant relationship
Gossrau-Breen, Diana; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard
This study explored the links between having older siblings who get drunk, satisfaction with the parent-adolescent relationship, parental monitoring, and adolescents' risky drinking. Regression models were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3725 8th to 10th graders in Switzerland (mean age 15.0, SD = .93) who indicated having older siblings. Results showed that both parental factors and older siblings' drinking behaviour shape younger siblings' frequency of risky drinking. Parental monitoring showed a linear dose-response relationship, and siblings' influence had an additive effect. There was a non-linear interaction effect between parent-adolescent relationship and older sibling's drunkenness. The findings suggest that, apart from avoiding an increasingly unsatisfactory relationship with their children, parental monitoring appears to be important in preventing risky drinking by their younger children, even if the older sibling drinks in such a way. However, a satisfying relationship with parents does not seem to be sufficient to counterbalance older siblings' influence.
Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A
This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities.
Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying
The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…
Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Doppelt, Osnat; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.
Background: Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism was examined, to explore their risk or resilience to effects of genetic liability and environmental factors involved in having a sibling with autism. Method: Social-emotional adjustment, behavior problems, socialization skills, and siblings' relationships were compared…
Wilson, Anne E.; Smith, Melissa D.; Ross, Hildy S.; Ross, Michael
We investigated children's personal representations of significant sibling conflicts. Forty pairs of siblings were interviewed separately about the same disputes. Although they described the same episodes, both older (M age = 7.0) and younger (M age = 4.4) siblings ascribed more serious transgressions to their opponents than to themselves. They…
Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy
The study of siblings has become increasingly central to developmental science. Sibling relationships have unique effects on development, and sibling designs allow researchers to isolate causal mechanisms in development. This volume emphasizes causal mechanisms in the social domain. We review the preceding chapters in relation to six topics: a…
Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.
Background: Siblings may support each other, but also reveal fierce rivalry and mutual aggression. Supportive sibling relationships have been linked to the development of psychosocial competence of children. In the present longitudinal study, we will focus on the development of perceived support in sibling dyads and on the influence of sibling…
Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…
Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; McGorry, Patrick; Howie, Linsey
This paper reviews the evidence on the significance of sibling inclusion in family interventions and support during early psychosis. This narrative review presents the current research related to the importance of family work during early psychosis, the needs and developmental significance of siblings during adolescence and early adulthood, the protective effects of sibling relationships, and the characteristics of early psychosis relevant to the sibling experience. It will also review the evidence of the sibling experience in chronic physical illness and disability, as well as long-term psychotic illness. Despite the evidence that working with families is important during early psychosis, siblings have been largely ignored. Siblings are an important reciprocal relationship of long duration. They play an important role in development during adolescence and early adulthood. These relationships may be an underutilized protective factor due to their inherent benefits and social support. Developmental theories imply that early psychosis could negatively impact the sibling relationship and their quality of life, effecting personality development and health outcomes. The evidence shows that adolescent physical illness or disability has a significantly negative impact on the sibling's quality of life and increases the risk for the onset of mental health issues. Long-term psychotic illness also results in negative experiences for siblings. Current evidence shows that siblings in early psychosis experience psychological distress and changes in functional performance. Further research using standard measures is required to understand the impact early psychosis has on the sibling relationship and their quality of life. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
However, Jewish dimensions (particularly ethnic dimensions) of Paul's sibling language still remain unexplored in current scholarship. Furthermore, scholars have not drawn much attention to how Jewish letter writers use sibling terms in their letters. This article offers a new interpretation on Paul's sibling language in light of ...
Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.
This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of
Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer
The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.
Cicirelli, Victor G.
One hundred sixty sibling pairs from two child families were sampled for sibling interaction behaviors as they relate to measures of categorization style. The study provides additional evidence of the importance of a child's siblings to his cognitive development. (Editor/RK)
Atkins, Dale V.
The author describes the concerns and needs of siblings of hearing-impaired children, offering practical suggestions for parents, educators, and mental health and community service workers. Examples of successful programs for siblings that provide emotional support, training and information about their siblings' disability, and effective…
Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan
The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…
Derkman, Marleen M. S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; van der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental support to be associated with each other.…
Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.
Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental
Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.
Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents’ development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent–child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental
Sawai, Misae; Kato, Daiki
This study examined the factor structure of sibling relationships in Japanese female university students. Two hundred and fifteen Japanese female university students participated in this study. The Adult Sibling Relationship Scale (ASRQ, Stocker et al., 1997) was used to measure sibling relationship cognition. The model was constructed as a result…
McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Whiteman, Shawn D.
The authors review the literature on sibling relationships in childhood and adolescence, starting by tracing themes from foundational research and theory and then focusing on empirical research during the past 2 decades. This literature documents siblings' centrality in family life, sources of variation in sibling relationship qualities, and the…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Christiansen, Abigail
This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M = 17.34; second-born age M = 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their…
Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.
Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…
Full Text Available Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting several skeletal manifestations and congenital heart malformations. Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome comprises of a tetrad of clinical manifestations of chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cardiac defects. Here, we are presenting a very rare case of Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome in siblings.
This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the
In investigating patterns of family relationships conducive to creativity, several inventory-type personality tests and a questionnaire about family relationships and childhood interests were sent to 99 Mills College alumnae 5 years after their graduation and to the siblings of 51 of them. All had been tested, while seniors, for personality and…
Schagen, S.E.E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blanchard, R.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born,
To define the profile of female victims of conjugal violence examined in the Legal Medicine emergency unit of the Hotel-Dieu hospital in Paris. A self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions was distributed to 100 victims. The 100 victims replied: 86 cases of violence took place usually in the home, 78 episodes of violence were multiple and complaints were rarely lodged after the first episodes. Mental and sexual violence were severe and unrecognized. Eighty women interviewed suffered from mental violence. In 43 cases, alcohol played a determining role in the onset of such violence. Female victims of conjugal violence do not have a specific profile. The law of silence persists, but the increase in the number of complaints from North African and African women is encouraging for the future.
To explore the naming, or classification, of physical assaults by a partner as 'intimate partner violence' during emergency department consultations. Research continues to evidence instances when intimate partner physical violence is 'missed' or unacknowledged during emergency department consultations. Theoretically, this research was approached through complexity theory and the sociology of diagnosis. Research design was an applied, descriptive and explanatory, multiple-method approach that combined qualitative semistructured interviews with service-users (n = 8) and emergency department practitioners (n = 9), and qualitative and quantitative document analysis of emergency department health records (n = 28). This study found that multiple classifications of intimate partner violence were mobilised during emergency department consultations and that these different versions of intimate partner violence held different diagnostic categories, processes and consequences. The construction of different versions of intimate partner violence in emergency department consultations could explain variance in people's experiences and outcomes of consultations. The research found that the classificatory threshold for 'intimate partner violence' was too high. Strengthening systems of diagnosis (identification and intervention) so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence' would reduce the incidence of missed cases and afford earlier specialist intervention to reduce violence and limit its harms. This research found that identification of and response to intimate partner violence, even in contexts of severe physical violence, was contingent. By lowering the classificatory threshold so that all incidents of partner violence are named as 'intimate partner violence', practitioners could make a significant contribution to reducing missed intimate partner violence during consultations and improving health outcomes for this population. This
Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan
Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…
Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.
This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…
Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.
This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…
Recchia, Holly E.; Witwit, Ma-ab
This study examined parents' and children's descriptions of older and younger siblings' conflict goals in the late preschool and middle childhood years, and how these attributions were related to sibling relationship quality. Parents and 4- to 10-year-old children from 62 families were interviewed separately about siblings' motivations in two…
Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.
The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…
Kidwell, Jeannie S.
Examined the effect of the sibling structures of number and spacing, sex composition, and birth order on adolescents' perceptions of the power and support dimensions of parental behavior. Results suggest that research focusing on birth order must control for number of siblings, spacing, and sex composition of siblings. (Author)
... for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition). Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are ... Gynecologists (FIGO) and the UN Joint Programme on Essential Services Package for Women Subject to Violence. (1) ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
... Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 American ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...
Full Text Available Background: Eighty-two percent of children under age 18 live with at least one sibling, and the sibling relationship is typically the longest-lasting family relationship in an individual's life. Nevertheless, siblings remain understudied in the family demography literature. Objective: We ask how having a sibling structures children's time spent with others and in specific activities, and how children's time and activities with siblings vary by social class, gender, and age. Methods: We use time diary data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS, comparing the time use of children with and without siblings and presenting regression-adjusted descriptive statistics on patterns among those with siblings. Results: Children with siblings spend about half of their discretionary time engaged with siblings. They spend less time alone with parents and more time in unstructured play than those without siblings. Brothers and more closely spaced siblings spend more time together and more time in unstructured play. For example, boys with at least one brother spend five more hours per week with their siblings and over three more hours per week in unstructured play than boys with no brothers. Conclusions: The presence and characteristics of siblings shape children's time use in ways that may have implications for child development. Contribution: This is the first study to use children's time diary data to examine how the presence and characteristics of siblings structure ways in which children spend their time. This contributes to our broader understanding of sibling relationships and family dynamics.
McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.
A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737
Vivona, Jeanine M
Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the sister relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.
James W. Messerschmidt
Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.
Arcaute-Velazquez, Fernando Federico; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Noyola-Vilallobos, Héctor Faustino; Espinoza-Mercado, Fernando; Rodríguez-Vega, Carlos Eynar
Extreme violence events are consequence of current world-wide economic, political and social conditions. Injury patterns found among victims of extreme violence events are very complex, obeying several high-energy injury mechanisms. In this article, we present the basic concepts of trauma kinematics that regulate the clinical approach to victims of extreme violence events, in the hope that clinicians increase their theoretical armamentarium, and reflecting on obtaining better outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.
Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...
Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.
Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...
Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child–parent, child–sibling, and child–peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multi-method strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed.
Rosenberg, B. G.
Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…
McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
Unlike much previous research on sibling relationships, which emphasizes the congruence across various types of family experiences, the research described in this article explored between-family differences in patterns of experiences within families. The work is built upon Bronfenbrenner's ecological model and Magnusson's interactional…
van der Pol, Lotte D.; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
The current study focuses on the effects of sibling gender configuration on family processes during early childhood. In a sample of 369 two-parent families with two children (youngest 12 months, oldest about 2 years older), both siblings’ noncompliant and oppositional behaviors and fathers’ and
Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper
School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.
Children Today, 1994
Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)
Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta
Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior
This paper discusses school violence, examining pertinent research, media, and policy documents. Section 1 examines the evolution of terminologies related to youth violence. Section 2 explains that when reviewing researchers' conclusions on school violence, it is important to consider the role perception had in determining those views. Section 3…
May 4, 2016 ... While several studies have been conducted on gender-based violence in ... Members of the GESTES research team present findings to Canadian ... women and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime.
Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M
The current study explored whether older sibling mentalization moderated the relationship between familial risk for internalizing symptoms and the development of future internalizing problems in the younger siblings, referred to as target children. Data were collected on 397 older siblings at Time 1 (T1) when target children were newborn and their older siblings were on average 2.61 years old (SD = .75). Target children were on average 1.60 years old at Time 2 (T2). Internalizing problems were assessed via mother and partner reports. Familial risk was operationalized as the average of all older siblings' level of internalizing problems. Older sibling mentalization, indexed by internal state talk and reasoning, was observed and coded during a sibling pretend-play interaction at T2. Results revealed a significant interaction between familial risk of internalizing problems and older siblings' mentalizing abilities, showing that familial risk was related to target children's internalizing problems in the absence of sibling mentalization. Familial risk was not associated with target children's internalizing problems when siblings demonstrated mentalizing abilities. Findings support the need to consider sibling mentalization as a protective factor for children's internalizing problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Livingston, Jennifer A; Eiden, Rina D; Lessard, Jared; Casey, Meghan; Henrie, James; Leonard, Kenneth E
Family processes in early life have been implicated in adolescent involvement in teen dating violence, yet the developmental pathways through which this occurs are not well understood. In this study, etiological pathways from parental psychopathology and marital conflict in infancy to involvement in dating violence in late adolescence were examined in a sample of children at high-risk due to parental alcohol problems. Families (N = 227) recruited when the child was 12 months of age were assessed at 12-, 24-, 36-months, kindergarten, 6th, 8th, and 12th grades. Slightly more than half of the children were female (51%) and the majority were of European American descent (91%). Parental psychopathology in infancy was indirectly associated with teen dating violence in late adolescence via low maternal warmth and self-regulation in early childhood, externalizing behavior from kindergarten to early adolescence, and sibling problems in middle childhood. Marital conflict was also indirectly associated with teen dating violence via child externalizing behavior. Maternal warmth and sensitivity in early childhood emerged as an important protective factor and was associated with reduced marital conflict and increased child self-regulation in the preschool years as well as increased parental monitoring in middle childhood and early adolescence. Family processes occurring in the preschool years and in middle childhood appear to be critical periods for creating conditions that contribute to dating violence risk in late adolescence. These findings underscore the need for early intervention and prevention with at-risk families.
Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.
This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with...
Hames, Annette; Appleton, Richard
There is conflicting evidence about the impact of disability upon siblings, and very little research on the siblings of children with epilepsy. There is some evidence that siblings who have less accurate information exhibit more distress. The aim of this study was to assess siblings' response to having a brother or sister with epilepsy and to begin to develop information for them. Parents of children attending paediatric neurology outpatient departments were invited to participate in a pilot study. Parents who consented to take part were asked if they had previously received information for siblings. Parents and siblings participated in a semi-structured interview and siblings were also invited to submit a personal account of living with a brother or sister who had epilepsy. Twenty-five families with a child with epilepsy aged 2.5-15 years initially agreed to take part. None of the families stated that they had ever seen or received any information specifically for siblings. Fourteen siblings from the 25 families, aged 8-25 years, provided a personal account of what it was like living with a brother or sister with epilepsy. Siblings' accounts included both negative and positive feelings, and specifically feelings of care and love for their sibling. This initial study suggests that siblings of children with epilepsy have many positive but also early negative feelings. The results are limited by the size of the study, the fact that most siblings were older sisters, and the mean time since diagnosis was 6 years. Finally, it is hoped that the personal accounts collected in this study will be published for the benefit of other siblings of children with epilepsy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon
This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Frederiksen, Marie Louise; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving
AIM: To describe the prevalence of adolescents' exposure to different types of violence (at home and outside the home) and associations between severe violence and alcohol consumption, taking account of gender and the influence of other factors. METHODS: A multimedia computer-based survey amongst...... a nationally representative sample of 9th grade pupils included comprehensive data on exposure to physical violence, use of alcohol and additional socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Analyses included gender disaggregated cross tabulations and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Around 9.3% of girls and 12.......3% of boys reported being victims of physical violence within the last 12 months. Also, 2.7% of girls and 3.5% of boys reported severe violence. Gender differences existed in place of occurrence; girls were more frequently assaulted at home, boys outside the home. Alcohol was only associated with violence...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women’s economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. RESULTS: Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56% were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%.For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 & 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. CONCLUSIONS: Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV.
I. V. Leontyeva
Full Text Available The paper presents a clinical observation of two siblings with Danon's disease (lysosome-associated cardiomyopathy verified by genetic examination. Heart lesion in Danon's disease bears a phenotypic similarity to the primary forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; in this connection the correct etiology of the disease has remained long unestablished. The presence of laboratory markers as the significantly raised levels of transaminases, creatine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase was as a guide for suspecting the metabolic origin of the disease. Two siblings with a similar LAMP gene mutation were observed to have a different clinical course: a severer clinical course of cardiomyopathy with extreme myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial electric instability, and mental development retardation in one case and a more favorable course in the other; although a 2-year follow-up also revealed negative changes. For the prevention of sudden cardiac death, a cardioverter defibrulator was implanted and continuous therapy with p-adrenoblockers was performed. The specific feature of the cases was no symptoms of skeletal myopathy, moderate mental retardation only in the elder brother, no evidence of an accessory atrioventricular junction despite the fact that there were ECG manifestations of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta
It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847
Tomeny, Theodore S; Ellis, Brandi M; Rankin, James A; Barry, Tammy D
Research on adult typically-developing (TD) siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities remains limited, and outcomes for TD siblings appear to vary widely. For the current study, 82 adult TD siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) completed questionnaires about themselves and their affected sibling. Results of this study suggest that the attitudes possessed by adult TD siblings are important to consider when understanding adult TD sibling outcomes. Specifically, data indicate that higher levels of positive sibling relationship attitudes are related to TD siblings providing more aid/support to their sibling with a disability, along with having higher levels of general life satisfaction, and negatively related to levels of stress and depressive symptoms among TD siblings. Consistent with previous child research, siblings of individuals with ASD reported fewer positive sibling relationship attitudes compared to siblings of individuals with ID. Finally, group membership related to aid provided, depressive symptoms, and stress of TD siblings indirectly through sibling relationship attitudes. Overall, results indicate that sibling relationship attitudes may be particularly important to consider when conceptualizing sibling relationships when one sibling has an intellectual or developmental disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by various dermatological and systemic manifestations such as lipoatrophy, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatomegaly, acanthosis nigricans, and acromegaloid features. BSCL type 2 is more common and severe, with onset in the neonatal period or in early infancy. The locus for BSCL2 has been identified on chromosome 11q13. Early recognition and differentiation from other congenital generalized lipodystrophies help in the initiation of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures such as lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy that helps postpone the onset of metabolic syndrome. We report BSCL type 2 in two siblings with several cutaneous manifestations like acanthosis nigricans, hypertrichosis, prominent subcutaneous veins, and increased lanugo hair.
Whiteman, Shawn D; Zeiders, Katharine H; Killoren, Sarah E; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A
A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other's health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths' deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk-taking behaviors in two home interviews across a 2-year span. A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings' perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings' deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings' subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings' earlier and younger siblings' later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings' earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nastasić, Petar; Hrnčić, Jasna; Brkić, Miroslav
The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics appro...
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Habel, Ute; Wagels, Lisa; Ellendt, Sinika; Scheller, Maryse; Evler, Aynur; Bergs, René; Clemens, Benjamin; Pütz, Annette; Kohn, Nils; Schneider, Frank
Violence has many faces and often results in a variety of consequences. Some studies indicated different types of violence and health consequences in men and women. However, it is still unclear whether this is reflected in clinical context, for example in a patient sample of a German university hospital. The primary goal of the present study was to analyze associations of violence with health, gender and social, economic, job-related, psychological and physical consequences. In addition, the effects of psychological treatment were examined. One line of research refers to the survey of more than 5000 patients of the university hospital Aachen, evaluating violence experience and several health complaints anonymously. Another line of research deals with detailed interviews with victims of violence and their experienced consequences. A final data source stems from the evaluation of psychological counseling of patients with prior experience of violence. Changes in subjectively perceived depressive symptoms and acceptance of the treatment are evaluated. Experience of violence increases the risk for several health problems, especially the experience of multiple types of violence. The interviews showed that more than 60% of the victims had a clinical diagnosis--independent of sex. The risk for a clinical diagnosis increased with multiple violence experiences during childhood. Patients with a clinical diagnosis indicated more subjective consequences of violence, and consequences of violence were more pronounced in patients that experienced multiple types of violence. The good acceptance as well as the effects on symptomatology and other relevant therapeutic variables provides a first indication for a successful treatment of victims of violence in a clinical context.
... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...
Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne; Barrera, Maru; Streiner, David L; Feldman, Brian M
The reproductive safety of selective reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants needs to be established to provide optimal control of maternal depression while protecting the fetus. To define a child's neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure to SRIs and to account for genetic and environmental confounders in a sibling design using the Toronto Motherisk prospective database. Intelligence and behavior of siblings prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs were assessed by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist, and Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and subsequently compared. Mothers, diagnosed with depression using DSM-IV, were assessed for intelligence quotient (IQ) and for severity of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Prenatal drug doses and durations of exposure, child's age, child's sex, birth order, severity of maternal depression symptoms, and Full Scale IQ, the primary outcome measure, of both the mother and the child were considered in the analyses. Forty-five sibling pairs (ages 3 years to 6 years 11 months, prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs) did not differ in their mean ± SD Full Scale IQs (103 ± 13 vs 106 ± 12; P = .30; 95% CI, -7.06 to 2.21) or rates of problematic behaviors. Significant predictor of children's intelligence was maternal IQ (P = .043, β = 0.306). Severity of maternal depression was a significant predictor of Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing (P = .019, β = 0.366), Externalizing (P = .003, β = 0.457), and Total scores (P = .001, β = 0.494). Drug doses and durations of exposure during pregnancy did not predict any outcomes of interest in the exposed siblings. SRI antidepressants were not found to be neurotoxic. Maternal depression may risk the child's future psychopathology. The sibling design in behavioral teratology aids in separating the effects of maternal depression from those of SRIs, providing stronger
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66, or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4 predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79. Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.
Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L
Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings along with parent reports and standardized assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings' motor skills and the sibling relationship were also collected until the infants were 18months old. The motor skills, age, and sex of the older siblings were not significantly related to any measure of infant motor development. A significant correlation was revealed between perceived agonism between siblings and infant fine motor skills at 18months, suggesting the importance of considering reciprocal effects of motor development on sibling relationships. Overall, the suggestion that older siblings may provide a good model of motor skills for infants is not supported by the current data. In the future, it will be important to assess the dynamic interactions between different factors in predicting infant motor development, allowing early identification of motor difficulties, which could affect other areas of cognitive development and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison
Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.
Although sibling relationships can be considered as one of the most durable and intensive relationships, not much research in developmental psychology and family research has been done on this issue. The strong focus on parents, more specifically on mothers, stood in the way of adequate conceptualization and understanding of the function and contribution of siblings to individual development and family interaction. In this contribution a conceptualization of sibling relationships is presented. Siblings as objects of aggressive and sexual feelings as well as the function of siblings in the family system, for example, as parentification and negative identity is emphasized. In addition, the different qualities of sibling relationships, for example, envy, rivalry, similarity, and difference, are emphasized. The function of siblings as love objects is stressed, and the role of siblings as support as well as teaching object is illustrated. Finally, it is emphasized that, similar to relationships between parents and child, the quality of sibling relationships changed over time and leads, for example, to a detachment between sibling relationships during adolescence.
Long, Kristin A; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald
Examine general emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. 200 siblings (ages 8-15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling-Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling-parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling-parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings' risk for emotional adjustment difficulties.
Boomsma, Jacobus J; Beekman, Madeleine; Cornwallis, Charlie K
Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. The paper by Nowak et al. has the evolution of eusociality as its title, but it is mostly about something else. It argues against inclusive fitness theory and offers an alternative modelling approach...... that is claimed to be more fundamental and general, but which, we believe, has no practical biological meaning for the evolution of eusociality. Nowak et al. overlook the robust empirical observation that eusociality has only arisen in clades where mothers are associated with their full-sibling offspring; that is......, in families where the average relatedness of offspring to siblings is as high as to their own offspring, independent of population structure or ploidy. We believe that this omission makes the paper largely irrelevant for understanding the evolution of eusociality....
Cicirelli, Victor G.; And Others
This study identified behaviors of sibling pairs interacting on a cognitive task and related these behaviors to sibling structure variables (age and sex of each sibling and age spacing between them) and to measure of cognitive abilities of the younger sibling. Subjects were 160 sibling pairs randomly selected from appropriate subpopulations of…
Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt
Although sibling structure influences some aspects of adolescents' well-being, including deviance and educational achievement, little research has explored the association between sibling structure and adolescents' mental health. This study explores how sibling structure (the number of siblings, full versus step- or half-siblings, the relative age…
Lockwood, Rebecca L.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Cohen, Robert
Examined links between children's sibling and peer relationships. Found that sibling warmth was associated with more positive peer relations; sibling conflict was associated with both positive and negative peer outcomes, independent of sibling warmth; and sibling relationships were not more strongly associated with measures of friendships quality…
Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.
In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…
Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne
Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.
Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.
Rutstein, Robert P
Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925
Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen
By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...
Son, Joshua S; Zheng, Ling J; Rowehl, Leahana M; Tian, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhu, Wei; Litcher-Kelly, Leighann; Gadow, Kenneth D; Gathungu, Grace; Robertson, Charles E; Ir, Diana; Frank, Daniel N; Li, Ellen
In order to assess potential associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, functional GI disorders and fecal microbiota, we recruited simplex families, which had only a single ASD proband and neurotypical (NT) siblings, through the Simons Simplex Community at the Interactive Autism Network (SSC@IAN). Fecal samples and metadata related to functional GI disorders and diet were collected from ASD probands and NT siblings of ASD probands (age 7-14). Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) were assessed using the parent-completed ROME III questionnaire for pediatric FGIDs, and problem behaviors were assessed using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). Targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were conducted on selected taxa implicated in ASD, including Sutterella spp., Bacteroidetes spp. and Prevotella spp. Illumina sequencing of the V1V2 and the V1V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes from fecal DNA was performed to an average depth of 208,000 and 107,000 high-quality reads respectively. Twenty-five of 59 ASD children and 13 of 44 NT siblings met ROME III criteria for at least one FGID. Functional constipation was more prevalent in ASD (17 of 59) compared to NT siblings (6 of 44, P = 0.035). The mean CBCL scores in NT siblings with FGID, ASD children with FGID and ASD without FGID were comparably higher (58-62 vs. 44, P siblings. There was no significant difference in ASD severity scores between ASD children with and without FGID. No significant difference in diversity or overall microbial composition was detected between ASD children with NT siblings. Exploratory analysis of the 16S rRNA sequencing data, however, identified several low abundance taxa binned at the genus level that were associated with ASD and/or first order ASD*FGID interactions (FDR <0.1).
van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.
The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore
Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A
There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming 'child household heads'. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...
Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda
This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of parent-child relationship quality (acceptance and differential treatment over dimensions of the quality of sibling relationships (warmth and conflict and psychological adjustment in 69 adolescent sibling dyads. The effects of parent-child relationships were evaluated both at the individual and dyadic levels. In older siblings, the father-child relationship had a significant effect on both their perception of warmth in the sibling relationship and psychological adjustment. In younger siblings, there was a significant dyadic effect of the older sibling’s perceived acceptance by mother on their perception of warmth in the sibling relationship. Results are analyzed based on the literature and questions for future research are proposed.
Buhrmester, D; Furman, W
Children in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 were administered the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire. Relationships were rated as progressively more egalitarian across the 4 grade groups, with adolescents reporting less dominance and nurturance by their older siblings than younger participants. Adolescents also reported less companionship, intimacy, and affection with siblings than younger participants reported. Levels of perceived conflict with younger siblings were moderately high across all 4 grades, whereas ratings of conflict with older siblings were progressively lower across the 4 grades. The findings suggested that sibling relationships: (a) become more egalitarian and less asymmetrical with age, (b) become less intense with age, and (c) encompass experiences that are partially determined by the child's standing in the family constellation.
Schachter, F F
A four-member family structure consisting of two siblings contrasting in personality (sibling deidentification) and each identified with a different parent (split-parent identification) was recently reported (15). In well-functioning families, this tetrad or quadrangle is wide-spread in the first pair of siblings in the family and tends to be more common in same-sex pairs, suggesting that sibling deidentification is designed to mitigate the relatively intense sibling rivalry characteristic of these pairs and hence to maintain family harmony. In this collated case report, deidentification is found to follow the same pattern in 39 clinic first pairs. However, contrasting attributes are varied and nonevaluative in nonclinic pairs but mainly "good-bad" in clinic pairs, with polarization extreme. Results suggest that nonclinic siblings negotiate their identity (being) much as they negotiate about possessions (having) and that negotiations are blocked in clinic pairs, freezing mythic devil or angel identity. Intervention is directed at dislodging this block.
Shah, N M; Menon, I
"Despite the creation of specific norms, procedures, and institutions to protect women migrant workers, serious gaps remain. Statistics for measuring violence are not compiled comprehensively or regularly. Two occupations that increase the risk of violence are domestic service and entertainment-related services. Migration through illegal channels and trafficking also increase the risk. This article suggests a list of indicators to measure violence of three major types: (1) economic, (2) social/psychological, and (3) physical/sexual. Evidence from several countries to document instances of violence is reviewed. Major policy issues for the sending and receiving countries are outlined, and some recommendations for addressing such violations are made." excerpt
Rauscher, Emily; Conley, Dalton; Siegal, Mark L
While research consistently suggests siblings matter for individual outcomes, it remains unclear why. At the same time, studies of genetic effects on health typically correlate variants of a gene with the average level of behavioral or health measures, ignoring more complicated genetic dynamics. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we investigate whether sibling genes moderate individual genetic expression. We compare twin variation in health-related absences and self-rated health by genetic differences at three locations related to dopamine regulation and transport to test sibship-level cross-person gene-gene interactions. Results suggest effects of variation at these genetic locations are moderated by sibling genes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, this evidence is consistent with frequency dependent selection and suggests much genetic research may violate the stable unit treatment value assumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prinz, Ronald J; Feerick, Margaret M
The papers in this special issue of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review provided an overview of what is known about children's exposure to domestic violence, and include indications of gaps in extant research. These gaps and research needs are summarized in this conclusion. Specifically, there is need for further research in several broad areas: definition and measurement of children's exposure to domestic violence; development of research methods and statistical designs that provide detailed information and provide for evidence of intervention effectiveness; impact of domestic violence on parenting and family functioning; the role of child factors and exposure to violence factors in predicting developmental risk and resilience; medical and health consequences of exposure to violence; and the nature of child-system interaction in response to domestic violence. Research needs in these areas are discussed in greater detail, and specific questions are raised for further development.
Guenther, A; Trillmich, F
Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Fujii, Chiyo
There have been several violence-related deaths in Japan due to family violence by persons with severe mental illness against their caregivers. However, it is not often acknowledged that these violent acts are mainly directed at family members. This study aimed to clarify what acts of violence family caregivers experienced from their relative with schizophrenia, and how frequently these violent incidents occurred in their lifetime. We also examined caregivers' thoughts of death about themselves and their relatives, as well as their consultation efforts and escape from the violence perpetrated by their relative. Of the 277 caregivers, 87.7% had experienced psychological violence and 75.8% had experienced physical violence perpetrated by their relative. Of 210 caregivers who had experienced physical violence, 26.7% had thought of murder-suicide and 31.0% had wished for their relative's death. Family violence by persons with schizophrenia is not rare but a common occurrence in Japan and may have fatal consequences.
Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison
Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N=22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n=13) or a comparison (n=9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5–11 years placed together in a foster home. The Siblings, Parent, and Joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73%. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre-and post-intervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At post-intervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p<.001) and negative (p<.05) interaction quality, and lower sibling conflict during play (p <.01) than comparison pairs. Foster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p <.001). Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p <.05). Data suggest that the PSB intervention is a promising approach to reduce conflict and promote parental mediation which together may reduce
Wenk, Robert E; Shao, Alison
Older and younger siblings occasionally attempt to impersonate parent and child to expedite immigration under US family-based visa policies. The rate with which full siblings escape detection by current relationship tests is unknown. Retrospective study of full-sibling immigrant pairs was undertaken to determine the proportion that show insufficient genetic evidence to exclude parentage. Sibship and parentage indices (SI and PI) were compared/case in unexcluded sibling cases and true parent-child cases. Alleles shared per short-tandem-repeat locus were compared in sibling and parent-child pairs. The proportion of successful parentage fraud by siblings was estimated from the parentage exclusion rate among immigrants and the proportion of sibships without genetic inconsistencies (GIs). When 11 to 25 independent loci were tested per two-sibling case to verify or refute parentage, tests failed to demonstrate any GI in 9% and PI was greater than SI in seven of 10 of these cases. Another 29% of full-sibling pairs demonstrated insufficient evidence (fewer than two GIs) to exclude parentage. Thus, 0.4% of sibling pairs could falsely claim a parent-child relationship and show no GIs. Another 1.4% could make that false claim and not present sufficient evidence to be excluded. At present, with no evidence of parentage exclusion in a full-sibling pair, the relative magnitudes of PI and SI are misleading relationship indicators because too few loci are examined and rates of sharing one and two alleles/locus vary greatly in parentage and sibling pairs. Only evidence of exclusion ascertains false parentage claims by siblings. Nevertheless, the expected rate of successful fraud is quite low. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
藤田, 文; Aya, Fujita
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the sibling relationship on the adolescents' social skills in friendship. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduate students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sibling relationship and their social skills in friendship. Their sibling relationship was categorized eight types; close, intimate, hostile, dominate, intimate-hostile, intimate-dominate, hostile-dominate, separate. The result showed that the students ...
Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer
Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...
Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…
Regan, Mary Elana
Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…
Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna
Recent studies on mental health consequences of violence against women and girls were reviewed in a range of situations. Although several studies continued to show cross-sectional associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and mental health outcomes, a few prospective studies showed a robust association between CSA and depression. Studies on the impact of dating violence are still at a nascent stage and focus on antecedents of violence rather than its consequences. Women at higher risk, such as adolescents, migrants, the homeless, and women in the perinatal period have been studied and specific vulnerabilities identified. Women reporting bidirectional violence had higher rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cumulative violence, severity of violence, and recent violence are associated with higher morbidity. Studies among women in conflict zones have emphasized the role of different forms of sexual and physical violence on mental health. Newer emerging areas that need more research include mental health consequences of women in conflict zones and among same sex relationships. There are also few studies on the violence experience of both older women and adolescents. The need to better delineate the psychopathology of complex manifestations of PTSD is underscored.
Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...
Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David
While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...
Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær
The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....
O' Brien, Irene
BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\
Sun, Yuelian; Wu, Chunsen; Arah, Onyebuchi A
PURPOSE: Cancer and birth defects cluster in families more often than expected by chance, but the reasons are neither well known nor well studied. METHODS: From singletons born alive in Denmark between 1 January 1977 and 31 December 2007, we identified children who had no congenital malformations...... but had a full or half sibling with a congenital malformation (CM) diagnosed in the first year of life; this constituted the exposed group, while children whose siblings had no such condition constituted a reference group. We estimated cancer risks for children who had a full sibling or a half sibling...
Kirstilä, V; Sewón, L; Laine, J
The periodontal status and treatment of three teenagers in a Finnish family with familial neutropenia is described. The mother was also diagnosed with neutropenia. At initial examination, the 15-year-old male and the 10-year-old female had severe periodontitis, whereas the 13-year-old male had oral ulcerations but no significant periodontal disease. The two siblings with periodontitis were treated and followed approximately 5 years. It was concluded that periodontal therapy including scaling, surgery, and use of antimicrobial agents can be successful in patients with familial neutropenia, and that such patients are not necessarily candidates for full mouth extraction. The role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in which was used in the treatment of these patients remains to be established.
Full Text Available Hitherto a single species of Doridicola Leydig (Poecilostomatoida: Rhynchomolgidae has been found reported in association with gorgonians in Europe: Doridicola botulosus (Stock and Kleeton, 1963, living on the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis (Esper, 1791. During a survey along the Iberian Mediterranean coast, several specimens of D. botulosus were collected from its reported host. Furthermore, an undescribed species of Doridicola was discovered living in association with Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, a Mediterranean gorgonian usually living in overlaps with that of E. singularis. Although the new species is close to D. botulosus, they differ in the oral appendages. A common origin of these two species was suggested. This is a good example of sibling species produced by the colonisation of two hosts with overlapping habitats
Alexander, Pamela C.; And Others
Investigated intergenerational transmission of violence among college students in dating relationships (n=380). Severe abuse by his father predicted a man's violent behavior. Witnessing marital violence predicted a woman's liberal attitudes and a man's conservative attitudes. Discrepancy in attitudes toward women and particularly a woman's liberal…
Background:Domestic violence is any intentional abuse of a family member mostly women by a partner which causes pain or injury. It is a growing phenomenon and is affected by several social variables. In pregnancy, domestic violence causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and other reproductive health consequences to ...
Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.
This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…
Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...
Ostermeyer, Britta; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Sorrentino, Renee; Booth, Brad D
The three widely known stalker classifications assist in categorizing stalkers, which allows for better management of violence risk. Although 80% of stalking is done by men, women also engage in stalking, and their violence risk should not be underestimated. Juvenile stalkers do exist and juvenile stalking is also associated with violence. Clinicians can become a victim of stalking and may become victims of stalking by proxy, a special type of stalking behavior where the stalker involves other people or agencies to communicate with or track their victim. A careful stalking violence risk assessment is essential in the intervention and risk management process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration...... of violence, vold, and similar concepts, the paper aims to open a new ethnolinguistic research agenda for the study of negative sociality constructs and the positive value system hidden in such concepts. The Danish ethnosyntax of vold ‘violence, abuse’ hidden in compound morphology is scrutinized. Focusing...
Twemlow, S W
This paper demonstrates that several psychoanalytic models taken together converge to collectively explain school violence and power struggles better than each does alone. Using my own experience in doing psychoanalytically informed community intervention, I approach the problem of school violence from a combination of Adlerian, Stollerian, dialectical social systems, and Klein-Bion perspectives. This integrated model is then applied to the Columbine High School massacre in Littleton, Colorado.
Maria Helena Hasselmann
program related to family violence and severe childhood malnutrition. Its aim is to evaluate the reliability of the data collection process in a case-control study. Four components of the main instrument are addressed: (a CTS (Conflict Tactics Scales used to measure violence at the family level; (b CAGE (Cut-down; Annoyed; Guilty & Eye-opener questionnaire used to gnage suspicion of drinking problems; NSDUQ (Non-student Drugs Use Questionnaire used to indicate illicit drug consumption; and (d heigth/lenght measurements. METHOD: Stability (intra-observer or test-retest reliability and equivalence (inter-observer reliability were evaluated for the cited components (a, (b and (c. Information was replicated among the first 50 subjects selected for the underlying case-control study. The Kappa index (k was used in the analysis. A pseudo-Bayes adjustment was carried out in order to handle estimation problems. Regarding (d, only equivalence was evaluated (n=73, using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient as the estimator. RESULTS: By and large, all components showed acceptable stability and equivalence. Regarding stability, the estimates of k were around 0.70, 0.78 and 0.85, for CTS, CAGE e NSDUQ, respectively. With respect to equivalence, k was 1.0 for CTS and NSDUQ and 0.75 for CAGE. Equivalence for height/length estimated through the ICC was 0.99. Nevertheless, some deviant situations were detected and are further discussed. The results point to an adequate standardization of observers and reflect the good quality of the data collection procedure concerning the main study, encouraging the research team to press forward with greater assurance.
Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca
Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lee, Ming-Been
The literature has documented maternal distress and behavioral problems among children with Down syndrome (DS), however, little is known about paternal adjustment and behavioural problems among the siblings of children with DS. Here, we examined parental psychopathology, parenting style and emotional/behavioral problems among children with DS, their siblings, and controls in Taiwan. We recruited 45 families of children with DS (age, 2-4 years) and 50 families of normally developing children (age, 3-5 years). If there were more than two children in the case family, the sibling whose age was closest to the child with DS was recruited (age, 3-8 years). Both parents completed self-administered measures of their personality characteristics, psychopathology, family functioning, parenting styles, and child behavioral problems, using the Chinese versions of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, Brief Symptom Rating Scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Child Behavioral Checklist, respectively. Children with DS demonstrated significantly more severe symptoms than normal children of a wide range of behavioral problems such as attention problems, delinquency, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, and withdrawal compared with the other two groups, and obtained similar parental treatment, except for paternal overprotection. Their parents suffered from more psychopathology and their mothers were less often employed than their counterparts. The siblings of children with DS obtained less overprotection from their mothers than children with DS and less maternal care and control than normal children. There was no difference in emotional/behavioral problems between the siblings and normal controls. Our findings suggest that in addition to the physical, educational and psychological needs of children with DS, the psychological care of their mothers, fathers and siblings also needs to be evaluated. Moreover, parenting
Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline
Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…
Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L
Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower
Thomas V. Pollet
Full Text Available Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610, we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.
Pollet, Thomas; Nettle, Daniel
Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610), we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.
Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm
Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yılmaz, Özge; Türkeli, Ahmet; Karaca, Özlem; Yüksel, Hasan
Yılmaz Ö, Türkeli A, Karaca Ö, Yüksel H. Does having an asthmatic sibling affect the quality of life in children? Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 274-280. Chronic illness in a family member leads to deterioration of quality of life in other members of that family. We aimed to investigate the influence of having an asthmatic sibling on a child`s quality of life (QoL). We enrolled 2-12 year aged healthy children with an asthmatic sibling in the study group and healthy children with a healthy sibling in the control group of this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic characteristics of children and disease severity characteristics of asthmatic siblings were recorded. All parents filled in Turkish generic PedsQLTM short form appropriate for the child`s age group. Study and control groups had 114 children each. Total PedsQLTM scores were not significantly different in any of the age groups (p=0.23, p=0.13, p= 0.11 respectively). Emotional PedsQLTM sub-scores in children with an asthmatic sibling were significantly worse (83.0±16.5 vs 91.6±10.9 in the 2-4 year age group, 72.0±17.8 vs 92.2±11.6 in the 5-7 year age group, 73.7±24.1 vs 88.7±14.8 in the 8-12 year age group respectively, p≤0.002 for all). Similarly, psychosocial sub-score was significantly lower in the 2-4 and 5-7-year-olds but not the 8-12 year old groups (p=0.01, p=0.01, p=0.08 respectively). In conclusion, healthy children with asthmatic siblings have significantly lower emotional QoL and this needs to investigated for other chronic diseases in further research.
McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.
A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…
Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan fenomena yang terjadi pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 kecamatan Tembalang kota Semarang yang mengalami sibling rivalry. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui apakah konseling kelompok dapat mengatasi sibling rivalry pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian eksperiment dengan desain penelitian one group pre-test dan pos-test design. Subyek penelitian ini, siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 yang memiliki tingkat sibling rivalry tinggi yang diperoleh dari hasil DCM dan rekomendasi dari guru kelas yaitu terjaring 10 siswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan skala psikologis berupa skala sibling rivalry. Analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis data deskriptif persentase dan uji wilcoxon. Hasil penelitian menunjukan sibling rivalry siswa sebelum diberi perlakuan berupa konseling kelompok dalam kategori tinggi (75.14%. Setelah diberikan konseling kelompok menunjukkan perbedaan, dilihat dari hasil pos test rata-rata sibling rivalry siswa menurun yaitu berada pada kategori rendah (42,95%. Hal tersebut menunjukan bahwa sibling rivalry dapat diatasi melalui layanan konseling kelompok This research was conducted based on phenomena that occur in grade VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 Tembalang Semarang who experienced sibling rivalry. The purpose of this research is to find out if counseling groups can overcome sibling rivalry at grade VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. This type of research is research research design alphabets experiment one group pre test and post test design. The subject of this study, students of class VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 that has a high level of sibling rivalry that results obtained from DCM and the recommendations of the master class that is netted 10 students. Method of data collection using a scale of psychological scale in the form of sibling rivalry. Data analysis data analysis techniques using a descriptive percentage and wilcoxon test. The research results
Klemm, Bonita; And Others
Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…
In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.
... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...
Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah
Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447
Schnapp, Benjamin H; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shah, Anar D; Fant, Abra L; Gisondi, Michael A; Shah, Kaushal H; Lech, Christie A
Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe "Occasionally," "Seldom" or "Never" while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.
Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan
To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65+/-4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants' homes. Demographic data were obtained by fill-in forms. We found a statistically significant relationship among the types of violence and annual income, type of family, education and occupation level of women, education level of perpetrators, watching violent films, and childhood experience of emotional abuse or negligence. Fifty-two percent of women were exposed to at least one type of violence. Verbal violence was the most frequent type of violence (53.8%), followed by physical violence (38.3%). About 45% of women exposed to violence were in the 30-34 age group, 41.6% completed only primary schools, 73.6% were housewives, 91.7% were married, 71.0% had been exposed to violence during their childhood, and 45.2%, had been exposed to violence several times in a month. Economic problems were reported as the most important reason for domestic violence (31.4%). Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. As an important public health problem, domestic violence requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand its causes and plan preventive measures.
Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping
Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work
Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna
We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics approach to family violence treatment is discussed, as well as the roles of psychiatry in current theoretical and therapeutic approaches to this issue, including systemic family therapy, social psychiatry primarily concerned with their treatment. Studies have shown that severe mental disorders do not increase ecology, unwillingness therapy and model of protection of family violence victims that is developed in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47021
Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.
Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)
Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Elina; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Sucksdorff, Dan; Suominen, Auli; Gyllenberg, David; Chudal, Roshan; Leivonen, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre
.4-14.7), tic disorders (28 cases [0.8%] vs 24 controls [0.2%]; adjusted RR, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.3-8.2), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (189 cases [5.3%] vs 180 controls [1.5%]; adjusted RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9-4.7), learning and coordination disorders (563 cases [15.7%] vs 697 controls [5.9%]; adjusted RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8-3.6), intellectual disability (104 cases [2.9%] vs 137 controls [1.2%]; adjusted RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.3-4.2), conduct and oppositional disorders (180 cases [5.0%] vs 221 controls [1.9%]; adjusted RR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.2-3.5), and emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (126 cases [3.5%] vs 157 controls [1.3%]; adjusted RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.4). Autism spectrum disorders were also associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, and other neurotic and personality disorders among siblings. Psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders cluster among siblings of probands with ASD. For etiologic research, these findings provide further evidence that several psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders have common risk factors.
Purcell, Rosemary; Baksheev, Gennady N; Mullen, Paul E
There is increasing recognition that family violence may be perpetrated by juveniles against their parents and siblings, however empirical research regarding the nature and causes of such violence is relatively limited. This study examines juvenile family violence in the context of an Intervention Order (IO) being sought against a relative aged 18years or less. All cases over a 3-year period involving an IO application in a major metropolitan Children's Court in Australia were analysed (n=438). The majority of applicants/victims were parents (78%) and to a lesser extent siblings (11%) and other relatives (9%). Most parents who sought applications were mothers (63%) and one-parent households were over-represented (66%). The majority of defendants/perpetrators were male (69%), though juvenile females constituted a significant minority (31%). Intervention orders were sought to prohibit property damage (61%), physical assaults (59%) and/or threats (53%). According to the victim reports, these behaviours emerged in the context of prolonged behavioural problems (49%), a desire to intimidate the victim (12%) or retaliation (8%). While 44% of IO applications were granted, the majority were not (56%) due to the victim discontinuing the application prior to a formal hearing. Of the orders that were granted, a third (32%) were subsequently reported as having been breached. Juvenile family violence is a serious social problem that requires more systematic research to identify the correlates of this behaviour and effective interventions to prevent or reduce its occurrence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Pedersen, Bodil Maria
Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...
Listug-Lunde, Lori; Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Petros, Thomas V.
Objective: Studies utilizing parent-report measures have identified above average levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in siblings of children diagnosed with ADHD. Scant research has examined siblings' self-report on standardized measures of emotional functioning. The current study examined parent-reported and child self-reported…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin
The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…
Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.
This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…
Full Text Available In this article, the author starts by exploring family dynamics using the psychodynamic-groupanalytic paradigm to explore the intertwined relationships amongst the family figures like son, daughter, parents and sibling. The work focuses on the analysis of the psychological aspects related to siblings in the family, birth order and their consequences.
Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der
This research examines whether siblings and friends resemble each other in supportive behavior. Using a Dutch national sample of 6,289 individuals containing 12,578 relationships with siblings and friends, we investigated the relative importance of gender composition, geographical proximity,
Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley
Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…
Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Johnson, Kaitlin; Pillemer, Karl
Studies of later-life families have revealed that sibling tension often increases in response to parents' need for care. Both theory and research on within-family differences suggest that when parents' health declines, sibling relations may be affected by which children assume care and whether siblings perceive that the parent favors some offspring over others. In the present study, we explore the ways in which these factors shape sibling tension both independently and in combination during caregiving. In this article, we use data collected from 450 adult children nested within 214 later-life families in which the offspring reported that their mothers needed care within 2 years prior to the interview. Multilevel analyses demonstrated that providing care and perceiving favoritism regarding future caregiving were associated with sibling tension following mothers' major health events. Further, the effects of caregiving on sibling tension were greater when perceptions of favoritism were also present. These findings shed new light on the conditions under which adult children are likely to experience high levels of sibling tension during caregiving. Understanding these processes is important because siblings are typically the individuals to whom caregivers are most likely to turn for support when assuming care of older parents, yet these relationships are often a major source of interpersonal stress. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van; Haselager, G.J.T.
Background: Siblings may support each other, but also reveal fierce rivalry and mutual aggression. Supportive sibling relationships have been linked to the development of psychosocial competence of children. In the present longitudinal study, we will focus on the development of perceived support in
Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian
This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.
Ardelt, Monika; Day, Laurie
Examined relations between parents, older siblings, peers, adolescents' individual characteristics, and adolescents' deviant attitudes and behaviors among inner-city families. Structural equation models showed that older deviant siblings had the strongest effect on adolescent deviance. Positive family relationships, parental support, and…
Pfouts, Jane H.
The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Researchers at St Vincent's Hospital, Victoria, Australia, measured cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 157 patients with epilepsy (95 generalized and 62 focal and their asymptomatic siblings and results were compared to those of 12 controls and 20 of their siblings.
Two separate studies suggest that the development of positive sibling relations may be related to siblings' social-cognitive skills (Stewart & Marvin, 1984) and the nature of mothers' conversations with their children (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to provide a synthesis of these two studies and to demonstrate the…
May 31, 2014 ... Two Nigerian siblings aged ... Case Report. Two male siblings, aged 3 (Case 1) and 5‑year‑old (Case 2) ... stroke with the resultant neurological and multi organ dysfunction, ... urine color cleared within 24 h of admission.
Søndergaard, Grethe; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
AIMS: To estimate the association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality among full siblings in comparison with non-related individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately 1.4 million full siblings born in De...
Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Hannah, Mary Elizabeth
Research has shown that siblings can experience either negative or positive mental health outcomes as a result of having a brother or sister with disabilities. When maladjustment occurs, it is frequently attributed to the stress of excessive helping. This research-based paper proposes that siblings of children with disabilities, perceiving…
Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.
Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael
Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…
, in an experience of siblings as representing violent inner parental objects not fully differentiated from hostile sibling objects, e.g. linked to a fantasy of an inattentive breast-mother feeding herself and a violent paternal part-object, the two of them in a fused state becoming merged as an undifferentiated...
siblings. Homicide survivor bereavement, as a grief experience relative to other ... who have lost a child through murder, and, to a lesser ... siblings taking on the role of protector of their parents ...... fearful and angry feelings that contribute to their ... the adolescent to young adult transition: A developmental resilience model.
Graham, Allison A.; Coplan, Robert J.
The purpose of this research was to examine the moderating role of sibling relationship quality in the associations between shyness and indices of socioemotional adjustment in an early childhood education context. Participants were 79 children ages 4 to 6 (M = 4.74 years) who had at least one sibling. Parents completed ratings of child shyness,…
Beyer, Julia F.
Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…
Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Guided by an ecological perspective, two competing models were tested to examine how sibling relationship quality directly predicted or interacted with academic support from siblings to predict Latino adolescents' academic motivation (N = 258). Gender differences were examined utilizing multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling.…
Reviews research findings about the nature and development of typical sibling relationships. Discusses two important themes, the role of children's social cognition skills, and the role of the demands of the relationship. Addresses two questions: (1) the prevalence and features of sibling rivalry and conflict; and (2) the characteristics of…
Branvold, Sharon L.
This article discusses what is normal and what is not regarding sibling rivalry, jealousy, and squabbling, and it provides some guidance for parents on handling conflict. The article also discusses three major sources of sibling conflict (jealousy, being left alone together, and family trips) and offers suggestions for dealing with each case. (SM)
Milevsky, Avidan; Levitt, Mary J.
The current study is an examination of how support from siblings relates to academic competence in early adolescence, with a focus on the compensatory effects of sibling support. Participants were 694 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American students, ranging in age from 11 to 15. Participants were interviewed in school regarding…
James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Leslie, Laurel K
To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) children who had never lived together and were not currently placed together; (2) children who at some point lived with or were placed together with their siblings, but were now separated from them; and (3) children who had lived with their siblings all their life and were placed together with at least some of their siblings at the time of the interview. Children's current living situations and placement histories, caregivers' experiences and perceptions of feasibility and desirability of sibling contact, and the sibling relationship itself are primary determinants in the development and maintenance of contact between siblings. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed.
McIntosh, Ian; Punch, Samantha
This article investigates forms of strategic interaction between siblings during childhood. The authors argue that these interactions, characterized by notions of reciprocity, equivalence and constructions of fairness, are worked out in relation to responsibility, power, knowledge and sibling status. Birth order and age are not experienced as…
Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.
Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and…