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Sample records for severe gastric lesions

  1. Honey potentiates the gastric protection effects of sucralfate against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abu Taib Mohammad Mobarok; Al Swayeh, Othman Abdullah

    2003-09-01

    Natural honey is widely used all over the world as a complementary and alternative medicine in various disorders including gastrointestinal lesions. To evaluate the effects of combination of low dosage of honey (0.312 g/kg) and sucralfate (0.125 or 0.250 g /kg) on gastric protection and to determine any potentiating interactions between them against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats. Twenty-four hours fasted rats were given I ml of ammonium hydroxide 1 % intragastrically and they were killed one hour later under deep ether anesthesia. The gastric lesion index was calculated according to the method of Takaishi et al 1998. Non protein sulthydryls level was determined spectrophotometrically as described by Sedlak and Lindsay 1968. Administration of ammonium hydroxide produced red and black linear lesions and significant depletion of gastric nonprotein sulthydryls level. Oral administration of honey (0.312g/kg) or sucralfate (0.125 and 0.250 g/kg) 30 min before ammonium hydroxide reduced the severity of gastric mucosal lesions by 1 I or 18 and 42 % respectively, and has shown the changes in nonprotein sulfhydryls level induced by ammonium hydroxide. Furthermore, pretreatment with a combination of a low dose of honey (0.312 g /kg) and sucralfate (0.125 g or 0.250 g/kg) afforded significantly greater protection (58 and 77 %) than that obtained with either of them administered alone. The present results suggest potentiation of gastric protection effect of sucralfate by honey and this may have a clinical value in the treatment of peptic ulcer diseases in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.

  2. Predictive features for histology of gastric subepithelial lesions

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    Ricardo Teles SCHULZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Gastric subepithelial lesion is a relatively common diagnosis after routine upper endoscopy. The diagnostic workup of an undetermined gastric subepithelial lesion should take into consideration clinical and endoscopic features. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the association between patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echographic features with the histologic diagnosis of the gastric subepithelial lesions. METHODS This is a retrospective study with 55 patients, who were consecutively diagnosed with gastric subepithelial lesions, from October 2008 to August 2011. Patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echografic features of each gastric subepithelial lesion were analysed. Histologic diagnosis provided by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic/surgical resection was used as gold standard. RESULTS The probability of gastrointestinal stromal tumors to be located in the cardia was low (4.5%, while for leiomyoma it was high (>95%. In addition, there was a higher risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients older than 57 years (OR 8.9; 95% CI, with lesions ≥21 mm (OR 7.15; 95% CI, located at 4th layer (OR 18.8; 95% CI, with positive Doppler sign (OR 9; 95% CI, and irregular outer border (OR 7.75; 95% CI. CONCLUSION The location of gastric subepithelial lesions in the gastric cardia lowers the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. While gastric subepithelial lesions occurring in elderly patients, located in the gastric body, with positive Doppler signal and irregular outer border increase the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  3. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

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    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Infection with CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strain containing three EPIYA C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

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    Ferreira Júnior, M; Batista, S A; Vidigal, P V T; Cordeiro, A A C; Oliveira, F M S; Prata, L O; Diniz, A E T; Barral, C M; Barbuto, R C; Gomes, A D; Araújo, I D; Queiroz, D M M; Caliari, M V

    2015-04-27

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains containing high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites in the CagA is associated with significant gastritis and increased risk of developing pre-malignant gastric lesions and gastric carcinoma. However, these findings have not been reproduced in animal models yet. Therefore, we investigated the effect on the gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains exhibiting one or three EPIYA-C phosphorilation sites. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori clonal isolates containing one or three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. Control group was composed by uninfected animals challenged with Brucella broth alone. Gastric fragments were evaluated by the modified Sydney System and digital morphometry. Clonal relatedness between the isolates was considered by the identical RAPD-PCR profiles and sequencing of five housekeeping genes, vacA i/d region and of oipA. The other virulence markers were present in both isolates (vacA s1i1d1m1, iceA2, and intact dupA). CagA of both isolates was translocated and phosphorylated in AGS cells. After 45 days of infection, there was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells and in the area of the lamina propria in the infected animals, notably in those infected by the CagA-positive strain with three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. After six months of infection, a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites was associated with progressive increase in the intensity of gastritis and in the area of the lamina propria. Atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were also observed more frequently in animals infected with the CagA-positive isolate with three EPIYA-C sites.  We conclude that infection with H. pylori strain carrying a high number of CagA EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in an animal model of H. pylori infection.

  5. Infection with CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strain containing three EPIYA C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferreira Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains containing high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites in the CagA is associated with significant gastritis and increased risk of developing pre-malignant gastric lesions and gastric carcinoma. However, these findings have not been reproduced in animal models yet. Therefore, we investigated the effect on the gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains exhibiting one or three EPIYA-C phosphorilation sites. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori clonal isolates containing one or three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. Control group was composed by uninfected animals challenged with Brucella broth alone. Gastric fragments were evaluated by the modified Sydney System and digital morphometry. Clonal relatedness between the isolates was considered by the identical RAPD-PCR profiles and sequencing of five housekeeping genes, vacA i/d region and of oipA. The other virulence markers were present in both isolates (vacA s1i1d1m1, iceA2, and intact dupA. CagA of both isolates was translocated and phosphorylated in AGS cells. After 45 days of infection, there was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells and in the area of the lamina propria in the infected animals, notably in those infected by the CagA-positive strain with three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. After six months of infection, a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites was associated with progressive increase in the intensity of gastritis and in the area of the lamina propria. Atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were also observed more frequently in animals infected with the CagA-positive isolate with three EPIYA-C sites.  We conclude that infection with H. pylori strain carrying a high number of CagA EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in an animal model of H. pylori infection.

  6. Virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT in gastric lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Yoon, Man Won; Song, Sang Gook; Jeong, Gwang Woo

    1998-01-01

    To compare virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT with conventional endoscopy for the detection and evaluation of gastric lesions. During a previous six-month period, 30 patients with pathologically-proven gastric lesions underwent conventional endoscopy and virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT. There were 18 cases of advanced gastric carcinoma, eight benign ulcers, and four submucosal tumors(two leiomyomas, two lymphomas). Source images of virtual gastroscopy were three-dim-ensionally reconstructed within an Advantage Windows Workstation and virtual gastroscopic images were obtained using Navigator Software. On analysis, images were graded according to their quality(excellent, good, poor). Virtual gastroscopic images were interpreted by two radiologists blinded to conventional endoscopic findings, and were subsequently compared with endoscopic findings in terms of detectability and findings. In the cases of advanced gastric carcinoma, lesions were classified according to Borrmann's system. For virtual gastroscopy, overall image quality was excellent in 21 cases(70%), good in five(17%), and poor in four(13%). Lesions were detected in 25 cases(83%). Among the 18 advanced gastric carcinomas, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent in 14 cases(78%), good in two(11%), and poor in two(11%). Lesions were detected in 16 cases(89%). Two Borrmann type IV cases were not detected. Among the eight benign ulcers, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent in three cases(38%), good in three(38%), and poor in two(25%). The detection of lesion was possible in five cases(63%). In all submucosal tumors, virtual gastroscopy image quality was excellent. Lesions were detected in all cases. Virtual gastroscopy using spiral CT is safe and noninvasive, and for the evaluation of gastric lesions may be complementary to axial CT. It successfully detects gastric lesions, and in depicting the pattern of gastric folds its image quality is excellent.=20

  7. histopathological evaluation of h. pylori associated gastric lesions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-12

    Dec 12, 2012 ... HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF H. PYLORI ASSOCIATED GASTRIC LESIONS IN BENIN CITY,. NIGERIA. M. O. Udoh, MBBS, FMCPath, Consultant Pathologist, Department of Pathology, D. E. Obaseki, MBBS, FMCPath,. Consultant Pathologist, Department of Pathology, University of Benin ...

  8. Glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Catarina; Almeida, Andreia; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification...... of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing...... the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn...

  9. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  10. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

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    Eun Jeong Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions.

  11. Association between selected oral pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions.

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    Christian R Salazar

    Full Text Available We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87-2.12, P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67-1.88 and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83-2.12 measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13-5.56 among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD ≥ 3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43-1.72. A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03-0.06. Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.

  12. Association between oral health and gastric precancerous lesions.

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    Salazar, Christian R; Francois, Fritz; Li, Yihong; Corby, Patricia; Hays, Rosemary; Leung, Celine; Bedi, Sukhleen; Segers, Stephanie; Queiroz, Erica; Sun, Jinghua; Wang, Beverly; Ho, Hao; Craig, Ronald; Cruz, Gustavo D; Blaser, Martin J; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Hayes, Richard B; Dasanayake, Ananda; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Although recent studies have suggested that tooth loss is positively related to the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, the underlying oral health conditions potentially responsible for the association remain unknown. We investigated whether clinical and behavioral measures of oral health are associated with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 131 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cases were defined as those with gastric precancerous lesions including intestinal metaplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis on the basis of standard biopsy review. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on oral health behaviors. A comprehensive clinical oral health examination was performed on a subset of 91 patients to evaluate for periodontal disease and dental caries experience. A total of 41 (31%) cases of gastric precancerous lesions were identified. Compared with non-cases, cases were significantly more likely to not floss their teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-7.64], adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status, educational attainment and Helicobacter pylori status in serum. Among participants who completed the oral examination, cases (n = 28) were more likely to have a higher percentage of sites with gingival bleeding than non-cases [OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.37-5.05 for a standard deviation increase in bleeding sites (equivalent to 19.7%)], independent of potential confounders. Our findings demonstrate that specific oral health conditions and behaviors such as gingival bleeding and tooth flossing are associated with gastric precancerous lesions.

  13. Gastric intestinal metaplasia: an intermediate precancerous lesion in the cascade of gastric carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.; Sayahan, M.Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia, an intermediate lesion in the development of intestinal-type gastric cancer, is observed in the milieu of long standing non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis. Most patients with intestinal metaplasia remain asymptomatic unless cobalamin deficiency occurs secondary to loss of glands (that produce intrinsic factor and acid). Genetic events that predispose to development of gastric intestinal metaplasia remains an enigma. Mechanisms leading to the progression of atrophy to metaplasia still needs to be comprehensively explored. Many studies in the literature describe a positive effect of typing intestinal metaplasia and concluded that intestinal metaplasia type III carries the highest risk for developing gastric cancer while others refute it. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Countries with a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer also have a high tendency of being prevalent for intestinal metaplasia. However, it remains elusive whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection tends to regress gastric intestinal metaplasia or reduce the subsequent risk of cancer development. Putting together, more prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify factors (antioxidants; anti-inflammatory drugs; food therapy) that may contribute in the regression of intestinal metaplasia, when used simultaneously with eradication therapy. Furthermore, molecular markers for evaluation of intestinal metaplasia, and the potential point-of-no-return should be further investigated. Consensus is also required to advocate a timeframe for surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia. (author)

  14. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

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    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Clinical studies on the visualization of gastric lesions using virtual CT endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hideki; Takashima, Sumio; Kaminou, Toshio; Hayashi, Seisyo; Nishida, Norifumi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Kenji; Yamada, Ryusaku

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of virtual CT gastro endoscopy (VCTGE). The subjects were 124 patients with endoscopically identified gastric lesions. VCTGE images were obtained using a GE-Navigator. We evaluated VCTGE in the visualization of gastric lesions for their presence and morphology. The detection rate of all gastric lesions by VCTGE was 76% (94 of 124 patients). The smallest detectable early gastric cancer was II c measuring 10 x 8 mm. The detection rates of each gastric lesion by VCTGE were 73% in early gastric cancer, and 90% in advanced gastric cancer. VCTGE imaging in the advanced gastric cancer was good in 12 (30%), fair in 25 (60%) and poor in 4 (10%). VCTGE imaging in early gastric cancer was good in 20 (46%), fair in 12 (27%) and poor in 12 (27%). The significance P level was 0.005 between the evaluation of the imaging of advanced and early gastric cancer. VCTGE visualized the characteristics of diverse gastric lesions and was considered useful for the detection and the diagnosis of these lesions. (author)

  16. Severe neurological complication following adjustable gastric banding.

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    Martines, G; Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Capuano, P

    2018-01-01

    In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome must be considered a serious neurological complication of bariatric surgery with significant morbidity and mortality, with rapidly progressing neurological symptoms, and must be treated immediately. We report the case of a 35 years-old male patient, affected by morbid obesity, anxious-depressive syndrome and alcohol use disorder, who after adjustable gastric banding implanted in another hospital developed a severe malnutrition and neurological syndrome. The patient showed poor adherence to the follow-up and to the dietary indications and after all, we needed to place a PEG for enteral nutrition in order to resolve the malnutrition condition and the neurological syndrome. Our experience emphasizes that preoperative selection and assessment of a patient's nutritional status according to guidelines, is required to identify potential problems, and that bariatric surgeons or physicians caring for patient who have undergone bariatric surgery should be familiar with the constellation of nutritional and neurological disorder that may occur after surgery. We want to remark the importance of preoperative selection of the patients, the follow-up and the cooperation between patient and physician in order to obtain the best result and avoid severe complications.

  17. Gastric antral vascular ectasia causing severe anemia.

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    Toyota, M; Hinoda, Y; Nakagawa, N; Arimura, Y; Tokuchi, S; Takaoka, A; Kitagawa, S; Usuki, T; Yabana, T; Yachi, A; Imai, K

    1996-10-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) that caused continuous gastrointestinal bleeding is reported in a 76-year-old woman who had been treated with repeated blood transfusions because of severe anemia. Endoscopic examination was performed and diffuse speckled telangiectasia of the entire antrum was observed. Laboratory data showed SGOT > SGPT, decreased chE level and the increased levels of serum gastrin and ICG at 15 min. Anti-HCV antibody was positive. Image examination revealed splenomegaly. There was no family history of telangiectasia, and no telangiectasia was found in other organs. The diagnosis was established as GAVE with liver cirrhosis. Surgical resection of the distal stomach resulted in termination of the bleeding, and the cirrhotic changes of the surface of the liver were revealed at that time, providing further evidence of liver cirrhosis. Although the pathogenesis of GAVE is unknown, liver cirrhosis and hypergastrinemia are thought to be associated with the condition. Importantly, this condition is a cause of severe gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients.

  18. Faster gastric emptying of a liquid meal in rats after hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus lesion

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    Denofre-Carvalho S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH nucleus lesion on body weight, plasma glucose levels, and the gastric emptying of a liquid meal were investigated in male Wistar rats (170-250 g. DMH lesions were produced stereotaxically by delivering a 2.0-mA current for 20 s through nichrome electrodes (0.3-mm tip exposure. In a second set of experiments, the DMH and the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nucleus were lesioned with a 1.0-mA current for 10 s (0.1-mm tip exposure. The medial hypothalamus (MH was also lesioned separately using a nichrome electrode (0.3-mm tip exposure with a 2.0-mA current for 20 s. Gastric emptying was measured following the orogastric infusion of a liquid test meal consisting of physiological saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v plus phenol red dye (6 mg/dl as a marker. Plasma glucose levels were determined after an 18-h fast before the lesion and on the 7th and 15th postoperative day. Body weight was determined before lesioning and before sacrificing the rats. The DMH-lesioned rats showed a significantly faster (P<0.05 gastric emptying (24.7% gastric retention, N = 11 than control (33.0% gastric retention, N = 8 and sham-lesioned (33.5% gastric retention, N = 12 rats, with a transient hypoglycemia on the 7th postoperative day which returned to normal by the 15th postoperative day. In all cases, weight gain was slower among lesioned rats. Additional experiments using a smaller current to induce lesions confirmed that DMH-lesioned rats had a faster gastric emptying (25.1% gastric retention, N = 7 than control (33.4% gastric retention, N = 17 and VMH-lesioned (34.6% gastric retention, N = 7 rats. MH lesions resulted in an even slower gastric emptying (43.7% gastric retention, N = 7 than in the latter two groups. We conclude that although DMH lesions reduce weight gain, they do not produce consistent changes in plasma glucose levels. These lesions also promote faster gastric emptying of an inert liquid meal, thus suggesting a role for

  19. [Molecular mechanisms of cytoprotective action of the plant proanthocyanidins in gastric lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiachkivs'ka, O S

    2006-01-01

    The molecular defence mechanisms against ethanol- and stress-induced (WRS) gastric lesions under the action of plant proanthocyanidins from grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) were investigated. Pre-treatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg/day) in dose-dependent manner attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the doses of GCE reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) were 28 and 36 mg/kg/day, respectively and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with PGE2 analogue. Lesions reduction was also accompanied by improvement of gastric blood flow, antiradical action, increased mucosal generation of PGE2, antioxidant activity.

  20. Effectiveness of systematic chromoendoscopy for diagnosis of early cancer and gastric premalignant lesions. Results of two consecutive screening campaigns in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emura, Fabian; Mejia, Juan; Mejia, Marcela; Osorio, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common malignancy in South America and East Asia. In addition to the high mortality, in Colombia a great disvantage is the lack of data regarding premalignant lesions and early cancer. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of systematic chromoendoscopy in the prevalence of early cancer and gastric premalignant lesions. A total of 950 were invited to participate, 800 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and finally 650 were analyzed. Results: None of participants had normal gastric mucosa. Mild antrum gastritis was found in 21.8% (142/650), meanwhile moderate or severe antrum gastritis in 77.4% (508/650). Atrophy and metaplasia was found in 14.5% (94/650) and 15.5% (101/650) respectively. H Pilory infection was found in 7.3%, 79.3% 75.5% 57.4% y 0% of subjects with mild, moderate and severe, atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia respectively. Gastric premalignant lesion was found in 30% (195/650). Two subjects were diagnosed as early gastric cancer and treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) with curability as final result. Conclusions: By systematic chromoendoscopy this series has demonstrated that 1/325 healthy volunteers had early gastric cancer and that 1/33 had a premalignant lesion explaining in part the high prevalence of gastric cancer in the region. Bases on this series, gastric cancer is diagnosable and curable among healthy volunteers in Colombia.

  1. Severe hypoglycaemia post-gastric bypass requiring partial pancreatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, M E; McMahon, G; Mun, E C

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Postprandial hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass for obesity is considered a late manifestation of the dumping syndrome and can usually be managed with dietary modification. We investigated three patients with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia unresponsive...... was assessed in all three patients. RESULTS: All three patients had evidence of severe postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and hypoglycaemia. In one patient, reversal of gastric bypass was ineffective in reversing hypoglycaemia. All three patients ultimately required partial pancreatectomy for control...

  2. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dekken (Herman); J.C. Alers (Janneke); P.H.J. Riegman (Peter); C. Rosenberg; H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); K.J. Vissers (Kees)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAnalyses of cancer incidence data in the United States and Western Europe revealed steadily rising rates over the past decades of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Genetic information on gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and its preneoplasias

  3. Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit (Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant protects the stomach against several gastric ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, N Z T; Falcão, H S; Lima, G R M; Caldas Filho, M R D; Sales, I R P; Gomes, I F; Santos, S G; Tavares, J F; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Batista, L M

    2013-12-12

    Hyptis suaveolens is used by the traditional population in several parts of the world to treat inflammation, gastric ulcer and infection and is used as a crude drug to relieve symptoms related with gastric ulcer or gastritis in northeaster and central region of Brazil. the standardized ethanolic extract (Hs-EtOHE) and hexanic fraction (Hs-HexF) of Hyptis suaveolens (62,5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated in several models of acute gastric ulcers. The participation of NO was evaluated by pretreatment with L-NAME and non-protein sulfyhydryls by NEM in the gastroprotective effect. Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF markedly reduced the gastric lesions induced by all ulcerogenic agents (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, NSAIDs and hypothermic restraint-stress). Gastric ulcerations were exacerbated by administration of NEM suggesting that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF involves sulfhydryl groups. Ours results show that an extract of Hyptis suaveolens, administered orally to rodents, present gastro protective activity in different models of acute of gastric ulcer and give some support to the reported claims on the use of this plant as a gastro protective agent. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Cytoplasmic Drosha Is Aberrant in Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Carcinoma and Its Loss Predicts Worse Outcome for Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Hou, Yixuan; Xu, Liyun; Zeng, Zongyue; Wen, Siyang; Du, Yan-E; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Jiali; Lang, Lei; Tang, Xiaoli; Liu, Manran

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear localization of Drosha is critical for its function as a microRNA maturation regulator. Dephosphorylation of Drosha at serine 300 and serine 302 disrupts its nuclear localization, and aberrant distribution of Drosha has been detected in some tumors. The purpose of the present study was to assess cytoplasmic/nuclear Drosha expression in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Drosha expression and its subcellular location was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of a set of tissue microarrays composed of normal adjacent tissues (374), chronic gastritis (137), precancerous lesions (94), and gastric adenocarcinoma (829) samples, and in gastric cancer cell lines with varying differentiation by immunofluorescence and western blot assay. Gradual loss of cytoplasmic Drosha was accompanied by tumor progression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and was inversely associated with tumor volume (P = 0.002), tumor grade (P gastric cancer. High levels of cytoplasmic Drosha predicted longer survival (LR = 7.088, P = 0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our data provide novel insights into gastric cancer that cytoplasmic Drosha potentially plays a role in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor progression, and may be an independent predictor of patient outcome.

  5. The incidence of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    histopathological changes observed are that of ulceration with foci of chronic nodular gastritis and fibrous granulation. There is a possible age predisposition in the occurrence of gastric lesions. The pin point ulcers and chronic nodular gastritis observed showed that most stomach lesions observed in slaughtered pigs in this.

  6. Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80. Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration and xanthine oxidase (XO and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus infusion on acute ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagradas, Joana; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Castel-Branco, Maria Margarida; Silvério Cabrita, António Manuel; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-09-15

    Treatment of gastric ulcers with medicinal plants is quite common in traditional medicine worldwide. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves infusion has been used in folk medicine of many tropical and subtropical regions to treat gastric disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the potential gastroprotective activity of an essential oil-free infusion from C. citratus leaves in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats (234.0±22.7g) fasted for 24h but with free access to water. The extract was given orally before (prevention) or after (treatment) intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Effects of dose (28 or 56mg/kg of body weight) and time of contact of the extract with gastric mucosa (1 or 2h) were also assessed. Animals were sacrificed, being the stomachs removed and the lesions were assessed by macroscopic observation and histopathology. C. citratus extract, given orally before or after ethanol, significantly (P<0.01) reduced gastric mucosal injury compared with control group (vehicle+ethanol). The effect does not appear to be dose-dependent. Results also suggested that the extract is more effective when the time of contact with gastric mucosa increases. The results of this assay confirm the gastroprotective activity of C. citratus extract on experimental gastric lesions induced by ethanol, contributing for the pharmacological validation of its traditional use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency of precancerous lesions in endoscopic gastric biopsies in chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.; Faridi, N.; Lodhi, F. R.; Mujtaba, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of precancerous lesions in endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from July 2008 to January 2009. Methodology: Over 6 months, 375 endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with age group of 15-65 years having endoscopic chronic gastritis were included. From final biopsy report, basic information like patient demographics and presence of precancerous lesions i.e. activity (chronic active gastritis), atrophy (atrophic gastritis), intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were recorded on proforma. Results were described as proportions and frequency. Results: The frequency of precancerous lesions in endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis in Karachi was markedly high. Most common lesion was chronic active gastritis as depicted by activity (48.3%); dysplasia (1.3%) was the least common. Proportion of more aggressive precancerous lesions were markedly higher in older age group (> 40 years). Conclusion: The precancerous lesions are frequent in endoscopic gastric biopsies of patients with chronic gastritis. (author)

  9. Gastroprotective effect of esculin on ethanol-induced gastric lesion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Hailin; He, Zehong; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    The gastroprotective effect of esculin was investigated in a mouse model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. Administration of esculin at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion led to significant gastroprotection compared with untreated mice. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated by macroscopic and histopathological alterations, lesion index, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Pretreatment with esculin significantly reduced macroscopic and histopathological damage, gastric lesion index, and MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, esculin significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression in gastric tissues after ethanol challenge. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines indicated that esculin pretreatment markedly suppressed the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ethanol-treated mice. The results demonstrate a protective effect of esculin against gastric injury and suggest that the underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation, which subsequently reduces expression of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. Brain lesions several years after eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, Annet M.; de Groot, Jan C.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia is thought to have no long-term neurological consequences. We aimed to delineate the neurostructural sequelae of eclampsia, in particular brain white matter lesions, utilizing high-resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). STUDY DESIGN: Formerly eclamptic women were

  11. Intragastric laparoscopic surgery: An option for gastric lesions not resectable by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Vázquez, Alba; Hernández Matías, Alberto; Bertomeu García, Agustín; Ruiz de Adana Belbel, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Gastric mucosal and submucosal lesions can be resected by endoscopy, laparoscopy or open surgery. Operative methods have varied depending on the location, endophytic growth and size of the lesion. Interest in minimally invasive surgery has increased and many surgeons are attempting laparoscopic approaches, especially in lesions of the stomach near the esophagogastric junction not amendable to endoscopic removal, because conventional surgery can produce stenosis and distort the postoperative anatomy, and increase morbimortality. We report our experience with laparoscopic intragastric surgery in 3 consecutive patients, with no complications. Laparoscopic intragastric surgery extends the surgeons' armamentarium to resect complex gastric lesions, while offering patients the benefits of minimal access surgery. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Vinorelbine induced perforation of a metastatic gastric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, W J; O'Súilleabháin, C B; Brady, C; O'Reilly, S

    2017-08-01

    Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is rare and more frequently associated with lobular than ductal carcinoma (Borst and Ingold, Surg 114(4):637-641 [1]). The purpose of this article is to present a case based review of a unique gastrointestinal metastasis and literature review. A 46 year old lady with metastatic invasive ductal breast cancer was admitted to A&E with sudden onset of epigastric and left shoulder pain. She completed the first cycle of capecitabine/vinorelbine 1 week previously. Clinical examination revealed a tender epigastrium with rigidity in the upper abdomen. Free air under the diaphragm and a positive Rigler's sign was radiologically identified. A laparoscopy demonstrated a fibrinous exudate in the left upper quadrant consistent with a walled off lesser curvature gastric perforation. A subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) demonstrated a healed gastric ulcer of benign appearance; however the pathology confirmed metastatic breast carcinoma. Literature review confirmed no previously reported cases of vinorelbine induced gastric perforation. Four cases of metastatic breast cancer with gastric metastasis presenting with perforation were identified; three of these cases (Fra et al., Presse Med 25(26):1215 (1996) [2], Solis-Caxaj et al., Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28(1):91-92 (2004) [3], Ghosn et al., Bull Cancer 78(11):1071-1073 (1991) [4]), were in the French medical literature, including one male patient (Fra et al., Presse Med 25(26):1215 (1996) [2]) and at least one ductal breast carcinoma (Solis-Caxaj et al., Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28(1):91-92 (2004) [3]). The fourth case (van Geel et al., Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 144(37):1761-1763 (2000) [5]), was in the Dutch medical literature and a lobular breast carcinoma. This case represents a rare complication of breast cancer chemotherapy, the subsequent significant benefit the patient received from treatment is consistent with the chemosensitivity to therapy that also resulted

  13. Conifer Green Needle Complex in Patients with Precancerous Gastric Lesions: An Observational Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bespalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Helicobacter pylori infection is common and can lead to precancerous gastric lesions. Standard antibiotic therapy has a failure rate of more than 25% from antibiotic resistance. The primary aim of this observational pilot study was to test the feasibility of a large-scale clinical trial of Conifer Green Needle Complex (CGNC to treat precancerous gastric lesions. Secondary aims were to investigate H. pylori infection, stomach function, and histopathology of the gastric mucosa. Methods. A tablet form of CGNC (extracted from Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies (L Karst was prescribed to 26 patients with precancerous gastric lesions (two tablets, 100 mg CGNC/tablet, three times per day for six months. Another 24 patients received no treatment. Results. Compared with control patients, CGNC-treated patients showed total or partial regression (using the quantitative Rome III diagnostic criteria of dyspeptic symptoms (92.3%, p<0.0001, eradication of H. pylori infection (57.1%, p<0.03, a reduction in endoscopic signs of gastritis (92.3%, p<0.001, an increase of pepsinogen-pepsin in the gastric juice (57.7%, p<0.05, and total regression or reduction in the degree of intestinal metaplasia (46.2%, p<0.05 and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration (53.8%, p<0.05. Conclusions. This study justifies a randomised-controlled trial with CGNC in patients with atrophic gastritis.

  14. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  15. Pseudotumoural gastric lesion caused by fish bone perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Deeb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    We report the case of a 34-year-old previously fit and healthy male who presented to the accident & emergency department with non-specific abdominal pain. The patient proceeded to undergo laparotomy at which a large mass was found adjacent to the stomach. The impression at surgery was of a lymphoma or gastric carcinoma though CT had reported the likelihood of a fish bone or foreign body causing duodenal perforation. Histology later confirmed the presence of a fish bone surrounded by reactive tissue.

  16. Treatment of severe mitral regurgitation caused by lesions in both ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitral valve plasty (MVP) is preferred over mitral valve replacement (MVR) for mitral regurgitation in humans because of its favorable effect on quality of life. In small dogs, it is difficult to repair multiple lesions in both leaflets using MVP. Herein, we report a case of severe mitral regurgitation caused by multiple severe lesions ...

  17. Methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates attenuate diclofenac- and ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Jovanović, Ivan; Ilić, Ivan R; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-11-19

    Two natural alkaloids, methyl (M) and isopropyl (I) N-methylanthranilates, with recently demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, were assayed for their possible overall effect on intact gastric mucosa and their protective properties towards the onset of gastric lesions induced by diclofenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID) or ethanol. The influence of I and M on gastric mucosa integrity was assessed by oral administration in doses of 200mg/kg. The gastroprotective action of I and M in doses of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg was analyzed in the diclofenac and ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in rats. After the treatment, the stomachs of the animals were analyzed (captured by a digital camera). Ulcer scoring, morphometric and histopathological analyses of the stomachs were done. The oral application of these compounds on their own, even in quite high doses (200mg/kg) did not induce gastric lesions. Both alkaloids exerted a very strong antiulcer activity, even in low doses (50mg/kg), by decreasing the number of lesions caused by the application of either diclofenac or ethanol, eliminating them completely or reducing them to a form of mucosal hyperemia. Their possible mechanism of action was discussed and due to their many positive properties including anxiolytic, antidepressant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities, as well as a cheap and simple synthetic route for their preparation, methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates, both alike, might represent a cost effective alternative sought for in the treatment of peptic ulcers and/or new safer NSAIDs for pain management. © 2013.

  18. Confocal laser endomicroscopy and ultrasound endoscopy during the same endoscopic session for diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, C; Iacob, R; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, G; Ionescu, M

    2009-01-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a newly developed endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo histological assessment during ongoing endoscopy and targeted biopsies. Ultrasound endoscopy (EUS) is a useful tool in staging upper GI malignant lesions. We describe for the first time the use of both techniques during the same endoscopic session, in a pilot study, in order to increase the diagnostic yield of histological assessment and provide the staging of the gastric neoplastic lesions thus decreasing the time to therapeutic decision. CLE has been performed with the Pentax EG-3870CIK confocal endomicroscope after a 5 ml intravenous 10% fluorescein injection; EUS has been performed subsequently, during the same endoscopic Propofol sedation session, using a standard radial EUS-scope. Eleven patients have been investigated, 4 females, 7 males, mean age 59.7 +/- 12.3 years. The indication of CLE/EUS exploration was the presence of a gastric polypoid lesion in 37% of cases, atypical gastric ulcer in 27% of patients, gastric lymphoma 18%, suspicion of gastric cancer recurrence after resection 9% and infiltrating type gastric cancer 9%. Histological assessment after targeted biopsy has established the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma in 55% of cases, gastric lymphoma in 18% of cases, gastric adenoma, gastric GIST and gastric foveolar hyperplasia in 9% of cases respectively. CLE has allowed targeted biopsies in 81.8% of cases. In 2 patients - one case with suspected recurrent gastric cancer after surgery and one case of gastric lymphoma, CLE has indicated normal gastric mucosa. The EUS evaluation has shown TO lesion in two cases, T1 in 3 cases, T2 in 3 cases, T3 in one case. The EUS evaluation showed in one gastric lymphoma patient a lesion interesting the mucosa and submucosa with regional adenopathy and a submucosal lesion with regional adenopathy in the other gastric lymphoma case. The therapeutic decision was surgery in 73% of cases, chemotherapy and

  19. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  20. Topography of gastritis and its severity in 864 first degree relatives of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Nasrin; Massarrat, Sadegh; Sheykholeslami, Arghavan; Rakhshani, Naser; Saeidi, Sandra; Rafiee, Reza; Nobakht, Hosein; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Saliminejhad, Mehrdad; Dooghaie Moghadam, Masoud; Nasiri, Jafar; Azimi, Kourosh; Fakhar, Reza; Babaei, Mehdi; Didehvar, Reza; Mohammadi, Nosratollah; Tavazoee, Mehdi; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2010-11-01

    Studies on gastric mucosal histological findings among first degree relatives (FDR) of gastric cancer (GC) patients are scarce. The aim is to evaluate the topography and the severity of gastritis among FDR of GC patients. A total of 989 subjects who were FDR of GC patients, ages 40-65 years underwent gastroscopies. When no gross lesion was found, five specimens were evaluated according to the Sydney Classification and one for urease testing in order to determine the type of gastritis and its severity. Of the 989 subjects, 107 had significant lesions, including two with GC and one with esophageal cancer. The 864 subjects who had complete morphological data taken from five gastric areas (two from the antrum and three from the corpus) comprised 419 males (mean age 48.5±7 years) and 445 females (mean age 47±6.4 years). The H. pylori rate was 76.6%. Normal mucosa was seen in 6.9%, antrum-restricted gastritis in 7.4%, antrum-predominant gastritis in 63.5% and corpus-predominant gastritis in 20% (both had >80% H. pylori infection) and corpus-restricted gastritis in 2%. More atrophy was seen in the antrum and corpus of FDR females than males. The severity did not differ between those with one or more GC patients' relatives. Forty-nine percent of FDR had atrophy and 9.4% intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the corpus. After the age of 40, there was progression of intestinal metaplasia from 12.2 to 27.3% in the antrum and from 6.7% to 26.2% in the corpus during two decades. No high grade dysplasia was found in this mid-age population. Only one-fifth of FDR have H. pylori-induced corpus-predominant gastritis who are at risk for cancer and suitable for eradication. Corpus-restricted gastritis is a rare disease in this area.

  1. Gastric electrical stimulation for treatment of clinically severe gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Venkatesh G Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe, drug-resistant gastroparesis is a debilitating condition. Several, but not all, patients can get significant relief from nausea and vomiting by gastric electrical stimulation (GES. A trial of temporary, endoscopically delivered GES may be of predictive value to select patients for laparoscopic-implantation of a permanent GES device. Materials and Methods: We conducted a clinical audit of consecutive gastroparesis patients, who had been selected for GES, from May 2008 to January 2012. Delayed gastric emptying was diagnosed by scintigraphy of ≥50% global improvement in symptom-severity and well-being was a good response. Results: There were 71 patients (51 women, 72% with a median age of 42 years (range: 14-69. The aetiology of gastroparesis was idiopathic (43 patients, 61%, diabetes (15, 21%, or post-surgical (anti-reflux surgery, 6 patients; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 3; subtotal gastrectomy, 1; cardiomyotomy, 1; other gastric surgery, 2 (18%. At presentation, oral nutrition was supplemented by naso-jejunal tube feeding in 7 patients, surgical jejunostomy in 8, or parenterally in 1 (total 16 patients; 22%. Previous intervention included endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin (botox into the pylorus in 16 patients (22%, pyloroplasty in 2, distal gastrectomy in 1, and gastrojejunostomy in 1. It was decided to directly proceed with permanent GES in 4 patients. Of the remaining, 51 patients have currently completed a trial of temporary stimulation and 39 (77% had a good response and were selected for permanent GES, which has been completed in 35 patients. Outcome data are currently available for 31 patients (idiopathic, 21 patients; diabetes, 3; post-surgical, 7 with a median follow-up period of 10 months (1-28; 22 patients (71% had a good response to permanent GES, these included 14 (68% with idiopathic, 5 (71% with post-surgical, and remaining 3 with diabetic gastroparesis. Conclusions: Overall, 71% of well-selected patients

  2. Physical activity and gastric residuals as biomarkers for region-specific NEC lesions in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Muqing; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Li, Yanqi

    2016-01-01

    onset of NEC can be predicted by decreased physical activity during the first few days after birth. Methods: Cesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition and increasing amounts of formula for 5 days after birth (n = 120). Their physical activity was quantified by a continuous camera....... Results: Half of the pigs (48%) showed clear NEC-like lesions on day 5, and these individuals had more adverse clinical symptoms from day 3 but decreased physical activity already from day 2 relative to the unaffected pigs (both p ... physical activity on days 2 and 3, and the increased volume of gastric residuals was specifically related to colon lesions (both p physical activity precedes the clinical symptoms of NEC in the small intestine of preterm pigs, and increased gastric residuals predict NEC...

  3. Severe anemia in 3 toddlers with gastric lactobezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Franke, A; Kropshofer, G; Gassner, I; Meister, B; Salvador, C; Scholl-Bürgi, S; Mueller, T; Heinz-Erian, P

    2013-05-01

    Anemia in toddlers may result from many disorders including excessive feeding with cow's milk. Another sequel of age-inadequate cow's milk nutrition may be gastric lactobezoar (GLB), a dense lump of coagulated milk and mucus in the stomach. 3 toddlers presented with a history of excessive intake of full cream cow's milk, abdominal distension, vomiting, dehydration, fatigue, marked pallor and tachycardia. Diagnostic imaging revea-led large GLBs as the likely origin of the abdominal symptoms. Laboratory evaluation showed severe anemia with depleted iron stores and signs of protein catabolism. Non-cow's milk-induced causes of anemia including defects of erythropoiesis, hemoglobin structure, RBC-enzymes and blood coagulation, hemolysis, immune disorders, infection, inflammation, extraintestinal hemorrhage, nephropathy were - according to the available data - unlikely to cause the anemia in our patients. Thus their anemia is thought to be due to age-inadequate cow's milk nutrition leading to 1) low intake, decreased absorption/bioavailability and increased intestinal loss of iron, and 2) GLB which induced blood loss following mechanical irritation of the gastric mucosa and vomiting causing high gastric pH and decrease in duodenal iron absorption. The anemia in our patients is due to both exaggerated feeding with cow's milk and adverse effects of GLBs. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that, after erythrocyte transfusion, iron substitution, age-adapted nutrition and GLB-dissolution, the anemia did not recur. We propose to include GLB in the differential diagnosis of anemia in cow's milk fed small children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  5. Protective Effect of Repeatedly Preadministered Brazilian Propolis Ethanol Extract against Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to clarify the protective effect of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. The protective effect of BPEE against gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS for 6 h was compared between its repeated preadministration (50 mg/kg/day, 7 days and its single preadministration (50 mg/kg. The repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions and gastric mucosal oxidative stress more largely than the single BPEE preadministration. In addition, the repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to WIRS. The protective effect of the repeated preadministration of BPEE against WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions was similar to that of a single preadministration of vitamin E (250 mg/kg in terms of the extent and manner of protection. From these findings, it is concluded that BPEE preadministered in a repeated manner protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats exposed to WIRS more effectively than BPEE preadministered in a single manner possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

  6. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown.

  8. Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis, clinical syndromes, precancerous lesions, and pathogenesis of gastric cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the “point of no return” and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions. PMID:24833876

  9. Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis, clinical syndromes, precancerous lesions, and pathogenesis of gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the "point of no return" and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions.

  10. Effects of sucralfate, cimetidine and rabeprazole on mucosal hydroxyproline content in healing of ethanol-hcl-induced gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Yoshio; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shin; Harata, Masao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Mizuno, Tamaki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Ohta, Yoshiji; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    1. No general consensus has been reached on the treatment of acute gastric lesions. The aims of the present study were to clarify the effects of sucralfate, cimetidine and rabeprazole monotherapies and combination therapies on acute gastric lesions from the viewpoint of connective tissue regeneration. 2. Gastric lesions were experimentally created by the oral administration of 50% ethanol-0.15 mol/L HCl to rats. After 30 min, the anti-ulcer agents sucralfate (100 mg/kg), cimetidine (20 mg/kg) and rabeprazole (2 mg/kg) were administered separately or in combination and the stomach was excised at different times to measure the level of hydroxyproline in the gastric mucosa and determine lesion index. Immunostaining against prolylhydroxylase was performed on some specimens. 3. In the control group, lesion index decreased linearly from 30 min after ethanol-HCl administration and the level of mucosal hydroxyproline peaked between 2 and 4 h later. Although sucralfate significantly promoted lesion healing, it had no effect on mucosal hydroxyproline level. Cimetidine suppressed increases in mucosal hydroxyproline and prolonged lesion healing, but these findings were reversed by combining cimetidine and sucralfate. Rabeprazole had no significant effect on lesion healing, but promoted lesion healing in combination with sucralfate. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that prolylhydroxylase was expressed in spindle cells that lined the glandular cells in a boundary area between normal and injured tissues. 4. Under conditions in which the effects of intragastric pH are minimal, sucralfate is superior to antisecretory agents in promoting the healing of acute gastric lesions.

  11. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chang Wei; Wang, Li Dong; Jiao, Lian Hua; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Xin Ji

    2002-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  12. Prophylactic effect of rebamipide on aspirin-induced gastric lesions and disruption of tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshida, Norimasa; Nakabe, Nami; Isozaki, Yutaka; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-03-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are known to induce gastroduodenal complications such as ulcer, bleeding, and dyspepsia. In this study, we examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent with free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effect, on acidified aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. In addition, we investigated the mucosal barrier functions disrupted by aspirin. Oral administration of acidified aspirin resulted in linear hemorrhagic erosions with increasing myeloperoxidase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in the gastric mucosa. Rebamipide suppressed these acidified aspirin-induced gastric lesions and inflammatory changes significantly, and its protective effect was more potent in the case of repeated (twice daily for 3 days) treatment than single treatment before aspirin administration. Immunostaining of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, one of the tight junctional proteins, was strengthened in rat gastric mucosa after repeated administration of rebamipide. In addition, aspirin induced the increasing transport of fluorescine isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with localized disruption and decreased expression of ZO-1 protein on rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1. Rebamipide effectively prevented aspirin-induced permeability changes and disruption of ZO-1 distribution. These results suggest that rebamipide protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by preserving gastric epithelial cell-to cell integrity in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects.

  13. Relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gastric cancer treated in the Second Hospital of Yulin City between May 2012 and May 2016 were chosen as observation group and sub-divided into early and middle gastric cancer group (n=41 and advanced gastric cancer group (n=27 according to the tumor stage; 50 patients diagnosed with benign gastric diseases in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign gastric lesion group. CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters of three groups of patients were detected by CT scan, serum tumor marker levels were evacuated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the proliferation gene mRNA expression levels were detected by RTPCR method. Results: CER, AF, BV and CL levels of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; serum CA72-4, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA contents of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; CADM1, miRNA-34a and Cystatin M mRNA expression in tissue of advanced gastric cancer group were lower than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group while Survivin and I2PP2A mRNA expression were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group. The Pearson test showed that the CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters in patients with gastric cancer are directly correlated with the serum tumor marker levels and the proliferation gene expression in tumor lesions. Conclusion: Preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters are directly related to the tumor malignancy, and can be used as a reliable method for the long-term tumor

  14. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  15. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  16. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  17. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Undifferentiated Gastric Cancer in Patients with Severe Atrophic Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Maiko; Nakamura, Shinichi; Shiratori, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated gastric cancer generally develops in the atrophic gastric mucosa, although undifferentiated cancer is sometimes encountered in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. We characterized the endoscopic features of undifferentiated gastric cancer in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. Stage IA early gastric cancer was diagnosed in 501 patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2003 and March 2012. The endoscopic and pathological findings were compared among 29 patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis, 104 patients with undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate atrophic gastritis and 223 patients with well-differentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis. Endoscopic atrophic gastritis was classified according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification as no gastritis, C-1 and C-2 (mild), C-3 and O-1 (moderate) or O-2 and O-3 (severe). The tumors were larger and showed deeper mural invasion in the patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis than in those with well-differentiated cancer and severe gastritis or undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate gastritis. On endoscopy, undifferentiated cancer associated with severe gastritis was often red in color. It is often difficult to diagnose early undifferentiated gastric cancer, especially in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. The present study characterized the important endoscopic features of such tumors.

  18. Whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis: significance in T and N staging of gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Ling; Guan, Wenxian; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2017-10-02

    Whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been introduced and proved effective in assessment of multiple tumors. However, the application of whole-volume ADC histogram analysis in gastrointestinal tumors has just started and never been reported in T and N staging of gastric cancers. Eighty patients with pathologically confirmed gastric carcinomas underwent diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging before surgery prospectively. Whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis was performed by two radiologists independently. The differences of ADC histogram parameters among different T and N stages were compared with independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of ADC histogram parameters in differentiating particular T or N stages of gastric cancers. There were significant differences of all the ADC histogram parameters for gastric cancers at different T (except ADC min and ADC max ) and N (except ADC max ) stages. Most ADC histogram parameters differed significantly between T1 vs T3, T1 vs T4, T2 vs T4, N0 vs N1, N0 vs N3, and some parameters (ADC 5% , ADC 10% , ADC min ) differed significantly between N0 vs N2, N2 vs N3 (all P histogram parameters held great potential in differentiating different T and N stages of gastric cancers preoperatively.

  19. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF GASTRIC EPITHELIAL LESIONS BY NUCLEOLAR ORGANIZER REGION STAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Arab

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Nucleolar organizer regions (NOR are defined as nucleolar components containing a set of argyrophilic proteins which are selectively stained by colloidal silver nitrate staining. Although studies have shown that the number of NOR dots or particles is directly related to the rapidity of cell proliferation in cancer cells, prognostic or diagnostic value of NOR remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to asses the proliferative activity of the NOR in different gastric epithelial lesions. For these purposes 60 biopsy and surgical specimens of stomach from pathology files of Khatamalanbia and Imam Hospitals were chosen. For each patient, 3-5 paraffin sections were prepared and stained by one step colloidal silver nitrate solution. In each section intranuclear dots in 100 cell nuclei were counted by two of authors in randomly selected fields and data were analyzed by ANOVA. Statistical analysis showed significant difference for NOR number between gastritis, different grades of dysplasia and carcinoma. The shape and number of NOR showed a grater variability in carcinoma compared to other lesions. It seems that NOR could reflect the proliferative activity of cells.

  20. [METHOD FOR DETERMINING EROSIVE LESIONS OF THE GASTRIC MUCOUSA IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listopadova, A P; Novikova, V P; Melnikova, I U; Petrovskiy, A N; Slizovskiy, N V

    2015-01-01

    To detect the clinical diagnostic criteria for non-invasive diagnosis of erosive gastritis in children with juvenile arthritis have been studied the 92 children aged 9 to 16 years (mean age-13,9 ± 2,3 years) with verified diagnosis of juvenile arthritis, of whom 10 had erosive gastritis (group 1) and 82 without erosions (group 2). A comparison of the groups on 23 grounds by analysis of contingency tables and the subsequent discriminant analysis, has developed a new non-invasive method for determining the erosive lesions of the mucous membrane of the stomach in children with juvenile arthritis, including a score of history, complaints and the results of laboratory studies the level of the G-17, pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and the ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II, the presence of autoantibodies to the H+, K+/ATPase of the parietal cells of the stomach, the test for occult blood "Colon View Hb and Hb/Hp". Developed a diagnostic table, including 11 features with scores each. The total score 27 or higher allows a high degree of probability to determine the erosive lesions of the gastric mucosa in children with juvenile arthritis.

  1. The comparative study of various oral contrast media in 3D display of gastric lesions in spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dong; Zhou Kangrong; Peng Weijun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the oral contrast media in three-dimensional display of gastric lesions. Methods: 41 cases were randomly divided into 3 groups according to different oral contrast media administered: No. 1 air contrast group (n = 17), No. 2 fat emulsion group (n = 7) and No. 3 positive contrast group (n = 25). The 3D CT images were reconstructed using MPR, SSD, RaySum display and virtual endoscopic techniques, and compared with gastric endoscopy and/or conventional barium study. Results: The detectability of gastric lesions using fat emulsion and air contrast was 42.8%(3/7) and 80.0%(20/25), respectively, both were significantly lower than that using positive contrast (100%, 30/30) (x 2 = 19.22, P 2 = 6.60, P 2 = 17.04, P < 0.01). Conclusion: It is very important to choose the appropriate oral contrast media for 3D display of gastric lesions in spiral CT, the positive contrast agent is the optimal choice

  2. Radiodiagnosis of pulmonary lesions in a severe closed chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishkovskij, A.N.; Tyutin, L.A.; Savchenko, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of X-ray examination of 548 persons with a severe closed chest trauma were summed up. Urgent chest X-ray examination included panoramic roentgenography or electroroentgenography of the chest in two projections performed mostly in a special wheelchair without resetting and turning the patients. Dynamic X-ray control was used afterwards. Pulmonary lesions developed most frequently in a closed chest trauma. Roentgenosemiotics of lung contusion was characterized by a variety of symptoms and determined by the nature of a contusion syndrome. Infiltrate like, cavitary, miliary and peribronchial forms of lung contusion should be distinguished by an X-ray picture. In lung rupture, pneumothorax was detected in 33%, pneumohemothorax in 56%, emphysema of the chest soft tissues in 28%, mediastinal emphysema in 4% of the cases

  3. Meta-analyses: does long-term PPI use increase the risk of gastric premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Layli; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2013-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective agents available for reducing acid secretion. They are used for medical treatment of various acid-related disorders. PPIs are used extensively and for extended periods of time in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A troublesome issue regarding maintenance therapy has been the propensity of PPI-treated patients to develop chronic atrophic gastritis while on therapy that could theoretically lead to an increased incidence of gastric cancer. In addition, animal studies have raised concern for development of enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and carcinoid tumors in the stomachs of mice receiving high dose PPIs. Current literature does not provide a clear-cut conclusion on the subject and the reports are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, this study is a systematic review of the available literature to address the safety of long-term PPI use and its relation to the development of malignant/premalignant gastric lesions. A literature search of biomedical databases was performed. The reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed to further identify relevant trials. We hand-searched the abstracts of the American Digestive Disease Week (DDW) and the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW) from 1995 to 2013. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used PPIs as the primary treatment for at least six month versus no treatment, placebo, antacid or anti-reflux surgery (ARS) were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Discrepancies in the interpretation were resolved by consensus. All analyses of outcomes were based on the intention-to-treat principle. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager software. The effect measure of choice was relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data. Six RCTs with a total of 785 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two multicenter RCTs compared Esomeprazole with placebo. One RCT compared omeprazole with ARS. Two RCTs compared omeprazole with

  4. The value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 39 patients with gastric cancer and 48 patients with gastric ulcer who were treated in our hospital between August 2012 and May 2016 were included in gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group respectively, and 50 healthy subjects who accepted gastroscopy in our hospital during the same period were included in normal control group. The day after admission, color Doppler diasonograph was used to test the gastric ultrasound contrast parameters; fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the proliferation and invasion gene mRNA expression in stomach tissue; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum angiogenesis index levels. Results: Ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group were significantly lower than those of normal control group, and ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group were significantly lower than those of gastric ulcer group; Stat3, Survivin, Bcl-2, 毬-catenin, eIF4E, CD44, UHRF1 and c-met mRNA expression in tissue as well as VEGF, EGFR, HIF-毩 and Ang-2 levels in serum of gastric cancer group were higher than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group while E-cadherin mRNA expression in tissue was lower than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group; Spearman correlation analysis showed that ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels were correlated with the cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis indexes in lesions. Conclusion: Ultrasound contrast parameters can accurately assess the malignant degree of gastric cancer, and is expected to become the reliable means for early diagnosis and treatment guidance of gastric cancer in the future.

  5. Epicardial fat volume is correlated with coronary lesion and its severity

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, Xiaohong; Ma, Likun; Fan, Jili; Jiang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuansong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) with the coronary artery lesion and its severity. Methods: Inpatients with suspicious stable angina of coronary heart lesion were recruited. For patients with coronary artery lesions in CTA, further coronary angiography (CAG) was performed to evaluate the coronary artery lesion. Gensini scoring system was employed to assess the severity of coronary artery lesions. Results: Patients were classified as coronary he...

  6. Severe gastric variceal haemorrhage due to splenic artery thrombosis and consecutive arterial bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmuth Hermann E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is mainly caused by ulcers. Gastric varicosis due to portal hypertension can also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertension causes the development of a collateral circulation from the portal to the caval venous system resulting in development of oesophageal and gastric fundus varices. Those may also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Case presentation In this study, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by arterial submucosal collaterals due to idiopathic splenic artery thrombosis. The diagnosis was secured using endoscopic duplex ultrasound and angiography. The patient was successfully treated with a laparoscopic splenectomy and complete dissection of the short gastric arteries, resulting in the collapse of the submucosal arteries in the gastric wall. Follow-up gastroscopy was performed on the 12th postoperative week and showed no signs of bleeding and a significant reduction in the arterial blood flow within the gastric wall. Subsequent follow-up after 6 months also showed no further gastrointestinal bleeding as well as subjective good quality of life for the patient. Conclusion Submucosal arterial collaterals must be excluded by endosonography via endoscopy in case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Laparoscopic splenectomy provides adequate treatment in preventing any recurrent bleeding, if gastric arterial collaterals are caused by splenic artery thrombosis.

  7. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicine (XXXII): protective effects of hangeshashinto and the combinations of its major constituents on gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko; Fujimura, Yu; Makino, Toshiaki; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2006-09-01

    The protective effect of Hangeshashinto (HST) and its major constituents, baicalin (BA), berberine (BE), saponin fraction of ginseng (GS) and glycyrrhizin (GL) on rat gastric lesion induced by ethanol was examined to clarify its active ingredients and action mechanism. Oral treatment with HST at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg suppressed ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The mixture of BA, BE, GL and GS (4M), each of BE, GL and GS at the dosage corresponded to HST (125 mg/kg) also suppressed the ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats, but BA did not. Treatment of ethanol augmented the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the stomach, which was significantly suppressed by the administration of HST, BE, GL and GS. These results suggest that the protective effect of HST on ethanol-induced gastric lesion was depended on BE, GL and GS, by, in part, the reduction of MPO activity in stomach.

  8. 1H NMR Metabolic Profiling of Biofluids from Rats with Gastric Mucosal Lesion and Electroacupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosal lesion (GML is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, electroacupuncture (EA treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- (1H NMR- based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  9. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  10. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  11. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  12. The findings and the role of axial CT imaging and 3D imaging of gastric lesion by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of axial CT imaging and 3D imaging by spiral CT in the detection and evaluation of gastric lesion. Seventy-seven patients with pathologically-proven gastric lesions underwent axial CT and 3D imaging by spiral CT. There were 49 cases of advanced gastric carcinoma(AGC), 21 of early gastric carcinoma (EGC), three of benign ulcers, three of leiomyomas, and one case of lymphoma. Spiral CT was performed with 3-mm collimation, 4.5mm/sec table feed, and 1-1.5-mm reconstruction interval after the ingestion of gas. 3D imaging was obtained using the SSD technique, and on analysis a grade was given(excellent, good, poor). Axial CT scan was performed with 5-mm collimation, 7mm/sec table feed, and 5-mm reconstruction interval after the ingestion of water. Among 49 cases of AGC, excellent 3D images were obtained in seven patients (14.3%), good 3D images in 30(61.2%), and poor 3D images in 12(24.5%). Among the 12 patients with poor images, the cancers were located at the pyloric antrum in eight cases, were AGC Borrmann type 4 in three cases, and EGC-mimicking lesion in one case. Using axial CT scan alone, Borrmann's classification based tumor morphology were accurately identified in 67.3% of cases, but using 3D imaging, the corresponding figure was 85.7%. In 33 cases receiving surgery, good correlation between axial CT scan and pathology occurred in 72.7% of T class, and 69.7% of N class. Among 21 cases of EGC, excellent 3D images were obtained in three patients (14.3%), good 3D images in 14 (66.7%), and poor 3D images in two (9.5%). The other two cases of EGC were not detected. By axial CT scan, no tumor was detected in four cases, and there were two doubtful cases. 3D images of three benign ulcers were excellent in one case and good in two. 3D images of three leiomyomas and one lymphoma were excellent. Combined axial CT imaging and 3D imaging by spiral CT has the potential to accurately diagnose gastric lesions other than AGC

  13. Alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment in gastric cancer and its premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S M; Fang, D C; Luo, Y H; Lu, R; Battle, P D; Liu, W W

    2001-08-01

    In order to explore the role of alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Telomerase activity was detected in 176 specimens of gastric mucosa obtained through an operation or endoscopical biopsy by using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Meanwhile, the mean length of TRF was measured with the use of a Southern blot in part of those samples. Telomerase activity was detected in 14 of 57 (24.6%) chronic atrophy gastritis patients, six of 18 (33.3%) intestinal metaplasia patients, three of eight (37.5%) dysplasia patients and 60 of 65 (92.3%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. Normal gastric mucosa revealed no telomerase activity. No association was found between telomerase activity and any clinicopathological parameters. The mean TRF length was decreased gradually with age in normal mucosa and in gastric cancer tissue. Regression analysis demonstrated that the reduction rate in these tissues was 41 +/- 12 base pairs/year. Among 35 gastric cancers, TRF length was shown to be shorter in 20 cases (57.1%), similar in 12 cases (34.3%) and elongated in three cases (7.6%), compared to the corresponding adjacent tissues. The mean TRF length tended to decrease as the mucosa underwent chronic atrophy gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and into gastric cancer. The mean TRF length in gastric cancer was not statistically correlated with clinicopathological parameters and telomerase activity. Our results suggest that telomerase is expressed during the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis, and that the clinical significance of TRF length appears to be limited in gastric cancer.

  14. Prevalence and severity of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of cervical cancer relies on the detection and treatment of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL), a premalignant disease stage. Worldwide there are overwhelming reports associating SIL and HIV infection, however in Tanzania such reports are limited. A cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study was ...

  15. A numerical investigation of the functionality of coronary bifurcation lesions with respect to lesion configuration and stenosis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagiatakis, Catherine; Tardif, Jean-Claude; L'Allier, Philippe L; Mongrain, Rosaire

    2015-09-18

    The intervention of coronary bifurcation lesions is associated with higher rates of peri- and post-procedural clinical events compared to the treatment of isolated lesions. Overall, the factors that influence the dynamics of these types of configurations are still not well understood. A geometric multiscale model, consisting of a 3D representation of the left main coronary artery bifurcation and a 0D representation of the rest of the cardiovascular system, was developed. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the 3D domain were executed by implementing the multiscale algorithm, in order to characterize the functionality of different multilesional configurations as a function of stenosis severity. The investigation found that coronary branch steal has a significant impact on the functionality of the disease and can render a two-lesion configuration more severe compared to a three-lesion configuration. As a result of the complexity of this phenomenon, it was also suggested that certain lesion configurations could result in false negatives in diagnosis when employing a pullback pressure recording across the tandem lesions. In conclusion, this study showed that coronary bifurcation lesions are subject to intricate haemodynamic interactions which render the characterization of their functionality complex and could have significant clinical implications with regards to their diagnosis and prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for gastric cancer and surveillance of premalignant lesions: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Miguel; Carvalho, Rita; Cadime, Ana Teresa; Rocha Gonçalves, Francisco; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2013-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies are highly dependent on the models, settings, and variables used and should be based on systematic reviews. We systematically reviewed cost-effectiveness studies that address screening for gastric cancer and/or surveillance of precancerous conditions and lesions. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies was performed by conducting a sensitive search in seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL Plus), independently evaluated by two investigators. Articles were evaluated for type of study, perspective, model, intervention, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, clinical or cost variables, and quality, according to published guidelines. From 2395 abstracts, 23 articles were included: 19 concerning population screening and 4 on following up premalignant lesions. Studies on Helicobacter pylori screening concluded that serology was cost-effective, depending on cancer incidence and endoscopy cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 6264-25,881), and eradication after endoscopic resection was also cost-effective (dominant) based on one study. Studies on imaging screening concluded that endoscopy was more cost-effective than no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 3376-26,836). Articles on follow-up of premalignant lesions reported conflicting results (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 1868-72,519 for intestinal metaplasia; 18,600-39,800 for dysplasia). Quality assessment revealed a unanimous lack of a detailed systematic review and fulfillment of a median number of 23 items (20-26) of 35 possible ones. The available evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori serology or endoscopic population screening is cost-effective, while endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions presents conflicting results. Better implementation of published guidelines and accomplishment of systematic detailed reviews are needed

  17. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-11-07

    Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 microg/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with

  18. Severity of post-stroke aphasia according to aphasia type and lesion location in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Sohn, Hae Min; Han, Moon-Ku; Kim, Won; Han, Tai Ryoon; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relations between post-stroke aphasia severity and aphasia type and lesion location, a retrospective review was undertaken using the medical records of 97 Korean patients, treated within 90 days of onset, for aphasia caused by unilateral left hemispheric stroke. Types of aphasia were classified according to the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB), and severities of aphasia were quantified using WAB Aphasia Quotients (AQ). Lesion locations were classified as cortical or subcortical, and were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using AQ values to classify aphasia severity by aphasia type and lesion location. Cluster analysis resulted in four severity clusters: 1) mild; anomic type, 2) moderate; Wernicke's, transcortical motor, transcortical sensory, conduction, and mixed transcortical types, 3) moderately severe; Broca's aphasia, and 4) severe; global aphasia, and also in three lesion location clusters: 1) mild; subcortical 2) moderate; cortical lesions involving Broca's and/or Wernicke's areas, and 3) severe; insular and cortical lesions not in Broca's or Wernicke's areas. These results revealed that within 3 months of stroke, global aphasia was the more severely affected type and cortical lesions were more likely to affect language function than subcortical lesions.

  19. Attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions by lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J

    2011-03-01

    Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.

  20. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  1. Effect of Enamel Caries Lesion Baseline Severity on Fluoride Dose-Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Lippert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of enamel caries lesion baseline severity on fluoride dose-response under pH cycling conditions. Early caries lesions were created in human enamel specimens at four different severities (8, 16, 24, and 36 h. Lesions were allocated to treatment groups (0, 83, and 367 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN and pH cycled for 5 d. The cycling model comprised 3 × 1 min fluoride treatments sandwiched between 2 × 60 min demineralization challenges with specimens stored in artificial saliva in between. VHN was measured again and changes versus lesion baseline were calculated (ΔVHN. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p<0.05. Increased demineralization times led to increased surface softening. The lesion severity×fluoride concentration interaction was significant (p<0.001. Fluoride dose-response was observed in all groups. Lesions initially demineralized for 16 and 8 h showed similar overall rehardening (ΔVHN and more than 24 and 36 h lesions, which were similar. The 8 h lesions showed the greatest fluoride response differential (367 versus 0 ppm F which diminished with increasing lesion baseline severity. The extent of rehardening as a result of the 0 ppm F treatment increased with increasing lesion baseline severity, whereas it decreased for the fluoride treatments. In conclusion, lesion baseline severity impacts the extent of the fluoride dose-response.

  2. Mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion associated with advanced gastric cancer at the antrum of stomach: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Lan; Leung, Chi Yan; Cheng, Chien-Jui

    2017-10-10

    Dieulafoy's lesion, also known as a caliber-persistent artery, is a shallow, small, and rare lesion that occurs along the lesser curvature of proximal stomach. It is rare for a Dieulafoy's lesion to present as a mass-like lesion that coexists with gastric cancer. To our best knowledge, we report the first case and histopathological pictures of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer in the antrum of the stomach. A 57-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of intermittent epigastric dull pain and dyspepsia. Subsequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a friable mass that was located between the distal antrum and the pyloric ring. Biopsy revealed it to be an intestinal type adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Grossly, a large irregular plaque-like tumor lesion was noted at the anterior wall of the distal antrum and pylorus ring near the lesser curvature, measuring 5.6 × 4.8 × 1.0 cm. Histopathological examination of the resected stomach revealed that the plaque-like lesion largely consisted of numerous abnormally large-caliber and tortuous arteries in the submucosa. The increased fibrosis of the submucosa resulted in the formation of elevated plaque. The intestinal type adenocarcinoma was noted to be largely confined to the mucosa layer, with focal submucosal and muscular propria involvement. The patient was discharged one week after the subtotal gastrectomy, and she was alive and well 17 months after discharge, with no major complications. This is the first case of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer at the distal antrum area. This case highlights the possibility of life-threatening gastric bleeding after mucosal resection or biopsy that could be encountered by endoscopists.

  3. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio B Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae, popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH, as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52 %, respectively, but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  4. Hyperemic stenosis resistance index for evaluation of functional coronary lesion severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, Martijn; Siebes, Maria; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Koch, Karel T.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Piek, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Background-Both coronary blood flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) are used to evaluate the hemodynamic severity of coronary lesions. However, discordant results between CFVR and FFR have been observed in 25%, to 30% of intermediate coronary lesions. An index of

  5. Sarcopenia is associated with severe postoperative complications in elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Hirao, Motohiro; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Nagatsuma, Yukiko; Nakayama, Tamaki; Tanikawa, Sugano; Maeda, Sakae; Uemura, Mamoru; Miyake, Masakazu; Hama, Naoki; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masataka; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy is a secondary cause of sarcopenia, which is associated with impaired cancer treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative sarcopenia among elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy and the differences in preoperative dietary intake and postoperative complications between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. Ninety-nine patients over 65 years of age who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were analyzed. All patients underwent gait and handgrip strength testing, and whole-body skeletal muscle mass was measured using a bioimpedance analysis technique based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) algorithm for the evaluation of sarcopenia before surgery. Preoperative dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Of these patients, 21 (21.2 %) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Sarcopenic patients consumed fewer calories and less protein preoperatively (23.9 vs. 27.8 kcal/kg ideal weight/day and 0.86 vs. 1.04 g/kg ideal weight/day; P = 0.001 and 0.0005, respectively). Although the overall incidence of postoperative complications was similar in the two groups (57.1 % vs. 35.9 %; P = 0.08), the incidence of severe (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ IIIa) complications was significantly higher in the sarcopenic group than in the non-sarcopenic group (28.6 % vs. 9.0 %; P = 0.029). In the multivariate analysis, sarcopenia alone was identified as a risk factor for severe postoperative complications (odds ratio, 4.76; 95 % confidence interval, 1.03-24.30; P = 0.046). Preoperative sarcopenia as defined by the EWGSOP algorithm is a risk factor for severe postoperative complications in elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy.

  6. Schiff Base Metal Derivatives Enhance the Expression of HSP70 and Suppress BAX Proteins in Prevention of Acute Gastric Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Golbabapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg. After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg. The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  7. Schiff base metal derivatives enhance the expression of HSP70 and suppress BAX proteins in prevention of acute gastric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Soleimani, A F; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg). After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg) but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg). The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  8. Arterial embolization of a bleeding gastric Dieulafoy lesion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rizal, M Y; Kosai, N R; Sutton, P A; Rozman, Z; Razman, J; Harunarashid, H; Das, S

    2013-01-01

    Dieulafoy's lesion is one of an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (U GIB). Endoscopic intervention has always been a preferred non-surgical method in treating UGIB including bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesion. Owing to recent advances in angiography, arterial embolization has become a popular alternative in non- variceal UGIB especially in cases with failed endoscopic treatment. However, managing bleeding Dieulafoy's with selective arterial embolization as the first line of treatment has not been exclusively practiced. We hereby, report a case of bleeding Dieulafoy lesion which had been primarily treated with arterial embolization.

  9. Epicardial fat volume is correlated with coronary lesion and its severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiaohong; Ma, Likun; Fan, Jili; Jiang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuansong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) with the coronary artery lesion and its severity. Inpatients with suspicious stable angina of coronary heart lesion were recruited. For patients with coronary artery lesions in CTA, further coronary angiography (CAG) was performed to evaluate the coronary artery lesion. Gensini scoring system was employed to assess the severity of coronary artery lesions. Patients were classified as coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n = 160). Results showed the mean EATV was 192.57 ± 30.32 cm(3) in CHD group, which was significantly larger than that in control group (138.56 ± 23.18 cm(3); P EATV among patients with different severities of coronary artery stenosis (P EATV (r = 0.285, P = 0.000). The EATV increased with the increase in the number of affected coronary arteries. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed EATV was an independent risk factor of CHD after adjusting other confounding factors (OR = 1.023, P = 0.013). EATV is closely related to the severity of coronary artery lesions: the larger the EATV, the more severe the coronary artery lesions. Moreover, EATV is an independent risk factor of CHD.

  10. Severity of Post-stroke Aphasia According to Aphasia Type and Lesion Location in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Sohn, Hae Min; Han, Moon-Ku; Kim, Won; Han, Tai Ryoon; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2009-01-01

    To determine the relations between post-stroke aphasia severity and aphasia type and lesion location, a retrospective review was undertaken using the medical records of 97 Korean patients, treated within 90 days of onset, for aphasia caused by unilateral left hemispheric stroke. Types of aphasia were classified according to the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB), and severities of aphasia were quantified using WAB Aphasia Quotients (AQ). Lesion locations were clas...

  11. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  12. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Díaz, Myriam; Mejía, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Mora, Oswaldo G; Rentería, Edgar; Guarderas, Carlos; Estrella, Bertha; Recalde, Ramiro; Hamer, Davidson H; Reeves, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induces oxidative stress while zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to it. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency are high. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in Ecuadorian people would cause increased H. pylori-induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa associated with lower tissue zinc concentrations. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with dyspepsia underwent endoscopy to obtain gastric mucosa biopsies. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its severity, histopathology, mucosal zinc concentration, and inflammation intensity were determined. H. pylori-infected patients with non-atrophic chronic gastritis had lower concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa than uninfected patients with the same type of gastritis (251.3 +/- 225.3 vs. 426.2 +/- 279.9 ng/mg of protein; p = .016). Considering all patients, the more severe the H. pylori infection, the higher the percentage of subjects with infiltration by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (p = .0001). Patients with high PMN infiltration had lower mucosal zinc concentrations than patients with low PMN infiltration (35.2 +/- 20.7 vs. 242.9 +/- 191.8 ng/mg of protein; p = .021). The degree of inflammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis appears to be modulated by gastric tissue zinc concentrations.

  13. Genital lesions after consensual sexual intercourse: They are frequent and they last for several days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Ravn, Pernille

    , respectively. The median survival time for lacerations was 24 hours (n=19) seen with the naked eye, 40 hours seen with the colposcope (n=28) and 80 hours seen with toluidine blue dye (n=26). Several important pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions using the three techniques were identified. We propose a model...... insight into the duration of lesions, frequency of lesions seen with different investigative techniques and to identify pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions. Materials and Methods: 98 women were examined within 48 hours of consensual sexual intercourse using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine...... blue dye application. 50 of the women were re-examined after 3 or 4 days and again after 6 or 7 days, and Kaplan-Meier plots of the duration of lacerations were produced. Results: Lacerations were the most frequent lesion seen with all three techniques, seen in 31%, 41% and 49% of participants...

  14. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  15. Outcomes After Orbital Atherectomy of Severely Calcified Left Main Lesions: Analysis of the ORBIT II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Shlofmitz, Richard; Sahni, Sheila; Martinsen, Brad; Chambers, Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    The ORBIT II trial reported excellent outcomes in patients with severely calcified coronary lesions treated with orbital atherectomy. Severe calcification of the left main (LM) artery represents a complex coronary lesion subset. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of coronary orbital atherectomy to prepare severely calcified protected LM artery lesions for stent placement. The ORBIT II trial was a prospective, multicenter clinical trial that enrolled 443 patients with severely calcified coronary lesions in the United States. The major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate through 2 years post procedure, defined by cardiac death, myocardial infarction (CK-MB >3x upper limit of normal with or without a new pathologic Q-wave) and target-vessel revascularization, was compared in the LM and non-left main (NLM) groups. Among the 443 patients, a total of 10 underwent orbital atherectomy of protected LM artery lesions. At 2 years, there was no significant difference in the 2-year MACE rate in the LM and NLM groups (30.0% vs 19.1%, respectively; P=.36). Cardiac death was low in both groups (0% vs 4.4%, respectively; P=.99). Myocardial infarction occurred within 30 days in both groups (10.0% vs 9.7%, respectively; P=.99). Severe dissection, perforation, persistent slow flow, and persistent no reflow did not occur in the LM group. Abrupt closure occurred in 1 patient in the LM group. Orbital atherectomy for patients with heavily calcified LM coronary artery lesions is safe and feasible. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy in patients with severely calcified LM artery lesions.

  16. Gastric pseudolymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Hellerich, U.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Wimmer, B.; Ruf, G.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is an uncommon benign lesion which poses a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, however, may occasionally precede true gastric lymphoma. Endoscopic, radiologic and pathological findings are not generally helpful in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. Benign gastric lymphoid hyperplasia could be mistaken radiologically for ulcerated gastric carcinoma and pathologically for malignant lymphoma. Recognition of this condition is important to prevent unnecessary treatment by surgery or radiotherapy. About 140 case reports have been published to date. This paper describes the cases of two further patients. (orig.) [de

  17. Orbital atherectomy for the treatment of severely calcified coronary lesions: evidence, technique, and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlofmitz, Evan; Martinsen, Brad J; Lee, Michael; Rao, Sunil V; Généreux, Philippe; Higgins, Joe; Chambers, Jeffrey W; Kirtane, Ajay J; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Kandzari, David E; Sharma, Samin K; Shlofmitz, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The presence of severe coronary artery calcification is associated with higher rates of angiographic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), as well as higher major adverse cardiac events compared with non-calcified lesions. Incorporating orbital atherectomy (OAS) for effective preparation of severely calcified lesions can help maximize the benefits of PCI by attaining maximal luminal gain (or stent expansion) and improve long-term outcomes (by reducing need for revascularization). Areas covered: In this manuscript, the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of coronary artery calcification on PCI are reviewed. Based on current data and experience, the authors review orbital atherectomy technique and best practices to optimize lesion preparation. Expert Commentary: The coronary OAS is the only device approved for use in the U.S. as a treatment for de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions to facilitate stent delivery. Advantages of the device include its ease of use and a mechanism of action that treats bi-directionally, allowing for continuous blood flow during treatment, minimizing heat damage, slow flow, and subsequent need for revascularization. The OAS technique tips reviewed in this article will help inform interventional cardiologists treating patients with severely calcified lesions.

  18. Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions Alters EGFR and PECAM-1 Immunoreactivity in Wistar Rats: Modulatory Action of Flavonoid Fraction of Musa Paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Margaret Olutayo; Adewole, Stephen Olarinde; Akinwunmi, Kemi Feyisayo; Omonisi, Abidemi Emmanuel; Alese, Oluwole Ojo

    2017-08-15

    In this study, Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor and Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 were localised to investigate the healing effects of a flavonoid-rich fraction of M. paradisiaca fruit in the gastric corpus of Wistar rats following aspirin-induced gastric lesion. Mature, unripe fruits of M. paradisiaca were peeled; air dried, pulverised, extracted with 70% methanol, concentrated and partitioned. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 15 rats each. The gastric lesion was induced in groups B, C, D, E and F rats by administration of 400 mg/kg aspirin in distilled water. Group A received distilled water. After 24 hours, flavonoid fraction of M. paradisiaca was administered to groups C, D and E at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively for 21 days. Group F rats received omeprazole at 1.8 mg/kg for 21 days. Five rats from each group were anaesthetized with ketamine on days 14, 21 and 28. Gastric tissues were excised and fixed in Neutral buffered formalin. This was followed by paraffin wax embedding method and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin and for immunolocalisation of EGFR and PECAM-1. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a significant difference in the ulcer index in the corpus of control and treated rats throughout the experimental period (p = 0.0001). H&E stained sections showed a gradual restoration of the epithelial lining in the treated groups. Immunohistochemical examination showed that M. paradisiaca significantly increased (p Musa paradisiaca in attenuating the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa was observed as there was a significantly increased reactivity for EGFR and PECAM-1 in the gastric corpus in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. One-Anastomosis Jejunal Interposition with Gastric Remnant Resection (Branco-Zorron Switch) for Severe Recurrent Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia after Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorron, Ricardo; Branco, Alcides; Sampaio, Jose; Bothe, Claudia; Junghans, Tido; Rasim, Gyurdzhan; Pratschke, Johann; Guel-Klein, Safak

    2017-04-01

    The anatomical and physiological changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity can lead to severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia in a small percentage of patients. The exact physiologic mechanism is not completely understood. Surgical reversal to the original anatomy and distal or total pancreatectomy are current therapeutic options to reverse the hypoglycemic effect, with substantial associated morbidity. Our group reports a pilot clinical series of a novel surgical technique using one-anastomosis jejunal interposition with gastric remnant resection (Branco-Zorron Switch). Patients with severe symptomatic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia refractory to conservative therapy were treated using the technique. The procedure started with resection of the remnant stomach close to pylorus. The alimentary limb was sectioned at 20 cm from the gastrojejunal anastomosis, and the rest of the alimentary limb was resected until the Y-Roux anastomosis. A hand-sutured anastomosis was then performed with the proximal alimentary limb and the remnant antrum. Four patients were successfully submitted to the procedure with reversal of the symptomatology and normalization of insulin levels, postprandial glucose levels, and oral glucose tolerance test, with a mean follow-up of 24.3 months. Mean operative time was 188 min, and patients recovered without postoperative complications. Patients suffering from severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass may be efficiently treated by this innovative procedure, avoiding extreme surgical therapy such as pancreatectomy or restoring the gastric anatomy, while still maintaining sustained weight loss. Studies with larger series and longer follow-up are still needed to define the role of this therapy in managing this entity.

  20. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg.

  1. [Gastric Cancer in Early Stage: study of 371 lesions in 340 patients in the E. Rebagliati National, Lima-Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo Romero, Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The first concrete description of the Gastric Cancer in Early Stage is attributed to the German, M. Versé in 1903, in his book Die Histogenese der Schleimhautcarcinome, but the first to use the term, was the French, Bayle in 1833, calling it First Stage Gastric Cancer. From 1963 to 2002, 5118 gastric cancers were histologically diagnosed, in our hospital from which 2337 (46%) were resected in 340 of the resected specimens, 371 early gastric cancers (EGC) (15.87%) were found. For every five periods, the number and proportion of early cancers increases, from 10 (6.8%) in the first five years to 78 (21.0%) in the last one. AGE: The average is: 64 years old for men and 58 for women with a global average of 61 years old. The youngest case was in a woman of 23 years old. The oldest case in men was 93 years old, and in women, 81 years old. SEX: 235 males and 105 females, with a ratio of 2,2:1. elevated type: Type l 70 (18.9%) Ila 66 (17.8%) Ila+Ilc 26 (7.0%) lla+l 1 (0.3%) I+lla 0 (0.0) IIa+III 1 (0.3%) IIa+IIb 1 (0.3%). Global average of the elevated type: 44.6%. llb 17 (4.6%), DEPRESSED TYPE: llb+llc 10 (2.7%), llc 127 (34.2%), llc+l 0 (0.0%) llc+lll 43 (11.6%) lll 3 (0.8%) lll+llc 5 (1.3%) llc+lla 1 (0.3%) lla+llb 0 (0.0%). The global average of the depressed type is: 50.9%. Antrum 171 (46.1%) body 138 (37.3%) bottom 46 (12.3%) antrum-body 12 (3%) and body-bottom 3 (1%). SIZE: Maximum 90 mm, minimum 1.5 mm, average 24.9 mm; 25 (8%) diminute (microcarcinomas), 58 (21%) small. Differentiated 219 (64%) undifferentiated 121 (36%). Degree of differentiation in men 74% and in women 26%. Degree of differentiation in diminutes 92%, in small 79% and in large 69%. DEPTH: 204(55%) in mucous, 167(45%) in mucous/submucous. In differentiated 182 (63%) in mucous, 108 (37%) in mucous/submucous. In the 187 located in mucous, 13 (3.8%) were positive, in the 153 located in mucous/submucous 30 (8.8%) were positive. Global percentage of positive ganglions: 12.3%. General in synchronic

  2. Role of Acute Lesion Topography in Initial Ischemic Stroke Severity and Long-Term Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ona; Cloonan, Lisa; Mocking, Steven J T; Bouts, Mark J R J; Copen, William A; Cougo-Pinto, Pedro T; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Kanakis, Allison; Schaefer, Pamela W; Rosand, Jonathan; Furie, Karen L; Rost, Natalia S

    2015-09-01

    Acute infarct volume, often proposed as a biomarker for evaluating novel interventions for acute ischemic stroke, correlates only moderately with traditional clinical end points, such as the modified Rankin Scale. We hypothesized that the topography of acute stroke lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may provide further information with regard to presenting stroke severity and long-term functional outcomes. Data from a prospective stroke repository were limited to acute ischemic stroke subjects with magnetic resonance imaging completed within 48 hours from last known well, admission NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and 3-to-6 months modified Rankin Scale scores. Using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping techniques, including age, sex, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging lesion volume as covariates, statistical maps were calculated to determine the significance of lesion location for clinical outcome and admission stroke severity. Four hundred ninety subjects were analyzed. Acute stroke lesions in the left hemisphere were associated with more severe NIHSS at admission and poor modified Rankin Scale at 3 to 6 months. Specifically, injury to white matter (corona radiata, internal and external capsules, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus), postcentral gyrus, putamen, and operculum were implicated in poor modified Rankin Scale. More severe NIHSS involved these regions, as well as the amygdala, caudate, pallidum, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and precentral gyrus. Acute lesion topography provides important insights into anatomic correlates of admission stroke severity and poststroke outcomes. Future models that account for infarct location in addition to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging volume may improve stroke outcome prediction and identify patients likely to benefit from aggressive acute intervention and personalized rehabilitation strategies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of miR-146a and miR-27a, H. pylori infection, and risk of gastric lesions in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-yang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in various human diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in inflammation-related miRNA may play an important role in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori-induced gastric lesions. To evaluate the associations between miRNA SNPs, H. pylori and gastric lesions, a population-based study was conducted in Linqu County, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on serum miRNA array conducted in this population, two SNP loci (miR-146a rs2910164: G>C and miR-27a rs895819: T>C were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 2,380 participants with diverse gastric lesions. Using participants with superficial gastritis and mild chronic atrophic gastritis as the reference group, we found that rs2910164 CC carriers had a significantly increased risk of intestinal metaplasia [adjusted odds ratio (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.03-1.97] and dysplasia (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05-2.25 compared to GG carriers, whereas no significant association was observed for rs895819. Stratified analysis by H. pylori infection indicated that rs2910164 C allele was associated with an increased risk of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia only among individuals infected with H. pylori (CC vs. GG: OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.08, P for trend = 0.004. Participants who simultaneously carried variant alleles and H. pylori infection were more likely to develop intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, although the interaction between genetic variants and H. pylori infection was not significant (P for interaction = 0.35 for rs2910164 and 0.92 for rs895819. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism may contribute to the evolution of H. pylori-associated gastric lesions in this high-risk population.

  4. Successful treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with gastric and rectal lesions with metachronous and ectopic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Umezu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female, who had an abnormal stomach x-ray finding, was admitted to the hospital for further examination and therapy. Upper GI endoscopy showed reddish and swollen folds on the greater curvature of the gastric body and a biopsy was of this lesion revealed malignant lymphoma (small cell type or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma suspected. The patient was infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, however, in response to the patient’s wishes, a total gastrectomy, omentectomy and splenectomy were performed and the histological diagnosis was gastric MALT lymphoma. Two courses of CHOP therapy (cyclophosphamide (CPM 750 mg/m2/day, day 1, adriamycin (ADM 50 mg/m2/day, day 1, vincristine sulfate (VCR 1.4 mg/m2/day, day 1, prednisolone 100 mg/body, day 1-5 were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. A colonoscopic examination performed about 4.5 yr after the operation revealed rectal submucosal tumors and the biopsied specimens were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. A transanal focal resection was performed and the histological diagnosis was metachronous and ectopic development of MALT lymphoma. The histological finding was similar to the gastric lesion. About 4 and 7 yr after the first development of rectal MALT lymphoma, MALT lymphomas developed repeatedly in the rectal lesion, however, these were resected repeatedly and no developmenthas occurred during the past two years. This report presents a very rare case of metachronous and ectopic MALT lymphoma de

  5. Cortical venous disease severity in MELAS syndrome correlates with brain lesion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M T; Wien, M; Lee, B; Bass, N; Gropman, A

    2017-08-01

    MELAS syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder typified by recurrent stroke-like episodes, seizures, and progressive brain injury. Abnormal mitochondria have been found in arterial walls implicating a vasculogenic etiology. We have observed abnormal cortical vein T2/FLAIR signal in MELAS patients, potentially representing wall thickening and sluggish flow. We sought to examine the relationship of hyperintense veins and brain lesions in MELAS. Imaging databases at two children's hospitals were searched for brain MRIs from MELAS patients. Artifact, sedated exams, and lack of 2D-T2/FLAIR sequences were exclusion criteria. Each exam was assigned a venous score based on number of T2/FLAIR hyperintense veins: 1 = 20. Cumulative brain lesions and venous score in MELAS and aged-matched normal exams were compared by Mann-Whitney test. A total of 106 exams from 14 unique MELAS patients (mean 16 ± 3 years) and 30 exams from normal aged-matched patients (mean 15 ± 3 years) were evaluated. Median venous score between MELAS and control patients significantly differed (3 versus 1; p MELAS group, venous score correlated with presence (median = 3) or absence (median = 1) of cumulative brain lesions. In all 8 MELAS patients who developed lesions, venous hyperintensity was present prior to, during, and after lesion onset. Venous score did not correlate with brain lesion acuity. Abnormal venous signal correlates with cumulative brain lesion severity in MELAS syndrome. Cortical venous stenosis, congestion, and venous ischemia may be mechanisms of brain injury. Identification of cortical venous pathology may aid in diagnosis and could be predictive of lesion development.

  6. Gastric varicella: two cases in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta María Sastre-Lozano

    Full Text Available Gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus is an uncommon clinical condition where early suspicion and diagnosis are important to prevent the consequences deriving from its high morbidity and mortality, which in immunocompromised patients oscillate between 9% and 41% according to the various series. Two cases of gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV in two patients with blood cancer are reported below. Gastric lesions are usually preceded by typical papulovesicular skin lesions. When gastric involvement is the first symptom of the disease its diagnosis and management may be delayed, which may entail severe consequences for immunocompromised patients. It is therefore that we suggest its inclusion in the algorithm for immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and ulcer-like endoscopic lesions.

  7. The prevalence and severity of non-carious cervical lesions in a group of patients attending a university hospital in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W A J; Marchan, S; Rafeek, R N

    2008-02-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are often encountered in clinical practice and their aetiology attributed to toothbrush abrasion, erosion and tooth flexure. This paper aims to determine the prevalence and severity of NCCLs in a sample of patients attending a university clinic in Trinidad and to investigate the relationship with medical and dental histories, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and occlusion. Data were collected via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Odds ratios were used to determine the association of the presence of lesions and the factors examined. One hundred and fifty-six patients with a mean age of 40.6 years were examined of whom 62.2% had one or more NCCLs. Forty five per cent of the lesions were sensitive to compressed air. Younger age groups had a significantly lower correlation with the presence of NCCLs than older age groups. Other significant factors included patients who reported heartburn, gastric reflux, headaches, bruxism, sensitive teeth and swimming or had a history of broken restorations in the last year. There was also significant correlation of NCCLs in patients who brushed more than once a day or used a medium or hard toothbrush. Patients with vegetarian diets and those who reported consuming citrus fruits, soft drinks, alcohol, yoghurt and vitamin C drinks were associated with the presence of lesions. Significant associations were also found in patients with group function, faceting, clicking joints or those who wore occlusal splints.

  8. Severe scurvy after gastric bypass surgery and a poor postoperative diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben P K; Metzsche, Carsten; Henningsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    After bariatric gastric bypass surgery patients are at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. If gastric bypass surgery is followed by a vitamin deficient diet the patients have a risk of developing vitamin-C deficiency. When spontaneous ecchymosis is observed in the skin, in at......-risk patients, scurvy must be considered. When treated with large doses of vitamin-C the symptoms of scurvy rapidly improve even if the patient has developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. KEYWORDS: Scurvy; Gastric bypass surgery; Multiorgan dysfunction....

  9. PROPOSAL OF A REVISIONAL SURGERY TO TREAT SEVERE NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY POST-GASTRIC BYPASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Neto, José; Branco-Filho, Alcides José; Nassif, Luis Sérgio; Nassif, André Thá; Masi, Flávia David João De; Gasperin, Graciany

    The gastric bypass has nutritional and electrolyte disturbances rate of approximately 17%. The most common deficits are protein malnutrition, ferric and zinc, in addition to the vitamin. Although rare, some malnutrition stages reach such severity that ends up being necessary hospitalization and sometimes revisional or reversal surgical procedures. To present a proposal of surgical revision for treatment of severe malnutrition after bariatric surgery. The procedure is to reconstitute the food transit through the duodenum and proximal jejunum, keeping the gastric bypass restrictive component. As an additional strategy, the gastric fundus resection is performed, aiming to intensify the suppression of the greline and avoiding excessive weight regain. After initial stabilization, nutritional and electrolytic support, the procedure was performed in two patients as definitive treatment of malnutrition status. Good results were observed at one year follow up. As improvement option and/or resolution of the nutritional alterations, surgical therapy is one of the alternatives. There is still no consensus on the surgical technique to be performed. This procedure is based on pathophysiological factors for the treatment of this condition, with good initial results, without significant clinical alterations. Longer follow-up will determine its effectiveness. O bypass gástrico consta com taxa de distúrbios nutricionais e eletrolíticos de aproximadamente 17%. Os déficits mais frequentes são a desnutrição proteica, férrica e de zinco, além das vitamínicas. Apesar de raros, alguns quadros de desnutrição atingem tal gravidade que acaba sendo indicada internação e, por vezes, procedimentos cirúrgicos revisionais ou de reversão. Apresentar proposta de cirurgia revisional para tratamento de desnutrição severa após bypass gástrico. O procedimento consiste em reconstituir o trânsito alimentar pelo duodeno e jejuno proximal, mantendo o componente restritivo do bypass g

  10. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  11. The learning curve for narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of precancerous gastric lesions by using Web-based video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Silva, Diogo; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Magalhães, Joana; Magalhães, Ricardo; Veloso, Nuno; Ferreira, Carlos; Figueiredo, Pedro; Moutinho, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2014-06-01

    A simplified narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy classification of gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions was derived and validated in a multicenter study. This classification comes with the need for dissemination through adequate training. To address the learning curve of this classification by endoscopists with differing expertise and to assess the feasibility of a YouTube-based learning program to disseminate it. Prospective study. Five centers. Six gastroenterologists (3 trainees, 3 fully trained endoscopists [FTs]). Twenty tests provided through a Web-based program containing 10 randomly ordered NBI videos of gastric mucosa were taken. Feedback was sent 7 days after every test submission. Measures of accuracy of the NBI classification throughout the time. From the first to the last 50 videos, a learning curve was observed with a 10% increase in global accuracy, for both trainees (from 64% to 74%) and FTs (from 56% to 65%). After 200 videos, sensitivity and specificity of 80% and higher for intestinal metaplasia were observed in half the participants, and a specificity for dysplasia greater than 95%, along with a relevant likelihood ratio for a positive result of 7 to 28 and likelihood ratio for a negative result of 0.21 to 0.82, were achieved by all of the participants. No constant learning curve was observed for the identification of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and sensitivity to dysplasia. The trainees had better results in all of the parameters, except specificity for dysplasia, compared with the FTs. Globally, participants agreed that the program's structure was adequate, except on the feedback, which should have consisted of a more detailed explanation of each answer. No formal sample size estimate. A Web-based learning program could be used to teach and disseminate classifications in the endoscopy field. In this study, an NBI classification for gastric mucosal features seems to be easily learned for the identification of gastric preneoplastic

  12. Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer, mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer is relatively rare, commonly presented among multiple metastases, several years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Importantly, gastric cancer that is synchronously presented with lobular breast cancer can be misdiagnosed as primary gastric cancer; therefore, accurate differential diagnosis is required. A 39-year-old woman was visited to our hospital because of right breast mass and progressive dyspepsia. Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast was diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Gastroscopy revealed a diffuse scirrhous mass at the prepyloric antrum and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Synchronous double primary breast and gastric cancers were considered. Detailed pathological analysis focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies, including those of estrogen receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2, were studied. As a result, gastric lesion was diagnosed as metastatic gastric cancer originating from breast. Right breast conserving surgery was performed, and duodenal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance to relieve the patient's symptoms. Systemic chemotherapy with combined administration of paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. Forty-one months after the diagnosis, the patient is still undergoing the same therapy. No recurrent lesion has been identified in the breast and evidence of a partial remission of gastric wall thickening has been observed on follow-up studies without new metastatic lesions. Clinical suspicion, repeat endoscopic biopsy, and detailed histological analysis, including immunohistochemistry, are necessary for diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer from the breast.

  13. Gastroprotective effects of several H2RAs on ibuprofen-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Dan; He, Jinfeng; Yang, Chengli; Hu, Tingting; Zhang, Lijing; Cao, Hua; Tong, Ai-Ping; Song, Xiangrong; Xie, Yongmei; He, Gu; Guo, Gang; Luo, Youfu; Cheng, Ping; Zheng, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Ibuprofen is the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis and arthritis. The main side effects of ibuprofen especially in long-term treatment include gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and indigestion etc. Therefore, screening drugs with effective gastric protective effects and low toxicity for combination therapy with ibuprofen is necessary. The mechanism of gastric damage induced by ibuprofen is still unclear, however, cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered as the main reason. Preliminary screening of literature with the criteria of low toxicity led to four histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs): nizatidine, famotidine, lafutidine, and roxatidine acetate, which were selected for further investigation. These drugs were evaluated systemically by examining the gastric ulcer index, lipid peroxidation (LPO), membrane permeability, toxicity to main organs, and the influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Nizatidine was found to be the best gastric protective agent. It exhibited excellent protective effect by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, decreasing MPO activity, reducing LPO, and membrane permeability. Combination treatment with nizatidine and ibuprofen did not show any significant toxicity. Nizatidine was considered as a good option for combination therapy with ibuprofen especially for diseases that require long-term treatment such as arthritis and osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Image processings of radiographs in the gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Yamashita, Kazuya; Morikawa, Kaoru; Takigawa, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    For improving detectability of the gastric lesions in the X-ray examinations, the computer image processing methods were studied in radiographs of a stomach phantom and gastric cancer lesions by the A/D conversion. After several kinds of the basic processing methods were examined in the artificially made lesions in the stomach phantom and true gastric cancer lesions in 26 X-ray pictures of the 8 gastric cancer cases, we concluded that pathological changes on the edge or mucosal folds in the stomach were stressed by the image processing method using negative to positive conversion, density gradient control, edge enhancement (Sobel operation) and subtraction of the Sobel image from the original image. These methods contributed to interpretation of the gastric cancer by enhancement of the contour and mucosal pattern inside the lesion. The results were applied for follow up studies of the gastric cancer. Tumor expansions could be clarified, but it was yet difficult to catch a precancer lesion by retrospective studies. However, these methods would be expected in future application in the mass survey examination of the gastric cancer detection. (author)

  15. Laparoscopic reversal of mini-gastric bypass to original anatomy for severe postoperative malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genser, Laurent; Soprani, Antoine; Tabbara, Malek; Siksik, Jean-Michel; Cady, Jean; Carandina, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    Malnutrition after mini-gastric bypass (MGB) is a rare and dreaded complication with few data available regarding its surgical management. We aim to report the feasibility, safety, and results of laparoscopic reversal of MGB to normal anatomy (RMGB) in case of severe and refractory malnutrition syndrome after intensive nutritional support (SRMS). A 10-year retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent RMGB (video included) for SRMS following MGB. Twenty-six of 2934 patients underwent a RMGB at a mean delay of 20.9 ± 13.4 months post-MGB. At presentation, mean body mass index (BMI), excess weight loss (%EWL), and albumin serum level were 22 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 , 103.6 ± 22.5%, and 25.5 ± 3.6 gr/L, respectively. Seventeen (63.5%) patients had at least one severe malnutrition related complication including severe edema in 13 (50%), venous ulcers in 2 (7.7%), infectious complications in 7 (27%), deep venous thrombosis in 5 (19.2%), and motor deficit in 5 (19.2%) patients. At surgical exploration, 8 of 12 (66.5%) patients had a biliary limb longer than 200 cm and 9 (34.6%) had bile reflux symptoms. Overall morbidity was 30.8% but lower when resecting the entire previous gastrojejunostomy with creation of a new jejunojejunostomy (8.3 vs 50%, p = 0.03). After a mean follow-up of 8 ± 9.7 months, all patients experienced a complete clinical and biological regression of the SRMS after the RMGB despite a mean 13.9 kg weight regain in 16 (61.5%) patients. Post-MGB SRMS and its related comorbidities are rare but dreaded conditions. Although burdened by a significant postoperative morbidity and weight regain, RMGB remains an effective option to consider, when intensive nutritional support fails.

  16. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2-7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4-7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol.

  17. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  18. Prevalence, severity, and relationships of lung lesions, liver abnormalities, and rumen health scores measured at slaughter in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U; Bartle, S J; Osterstock, J B; Prouty, F L; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-06-01

    An array of management tools exists within the beef industry to improve animal welfare and productivity; however, the ability to assess the outcomes of these tools is needed. Deficiencies in management commonly manifest as bovine respiratory disease complex or nutritional disorders such as acidosis; therefore, lung, liver, and rumen gross pathology lesions present at slaughter were measured as part of the Harvest Audit Program (HAP) and associations with performance determined. Individual gross pathology data from 19,229 cattle at commercial packing plants in Kansas and Texas were collected. Corresponding individual preharvest and carcass data were obtained on a subset of 13,226 cattle. Associations between lesions and performance were modeled using multivariable mixed effect models. Regression coefficients were used for estimation of lesion associative effects on continuous outcomes and odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Across the entire population, 67.3% of the cattle had no pulmonary lesions; 22.5 and 9.8% of cattle displayed mild and severe lesions, respectively. Severe pulmonary lesions were associated with a decreased ADG of 0.07 kg and a HCW 7.1 kg less than cohorts with no pulmonary lesions (P < 0.01). Overall, 68.6% of cattle observed had normal livers. Of cattle severely affected by liver abscesses (A+; 4.6%), 14.9% also displayed severe pulmonary lesions and 28.3% displayed mild pulmonary lesions. Rumenitis lesions were observed in 24.1% of the overall study population. Of cattle with mildly abscessed livers (A-), moderately abscessed livers (A), and severely abscessed livers, 20.6, 21.6, and 9.24% displayed mild or severe rumenitis lesions at slaughter. Severe rumenitis lesions were associated with a significant decrease in ADG and HCW (0.025 and 2.20 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). Although the majority of the cattle in this population would be considered low risk, after adjustments for cattle with multiple lesions, 22.9% of cattle in the overall

  19. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (Phyopneumoniae-loads (Phyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sarcopenia is an Independent Predictor of Severe Postoperative Complications and Long-Term Survival After Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Huang, Dong-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Zhou, Chong-Jun; Wang, Su-Lin; Lou, Neng; Ma, Liang-Liang; Yu, Zhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the association between sarcopenia and long-term prognosis after gastric cancer surgery has not been investigated. Moreover, the association between sarcopenia and postoperative complications remains controversial. This large-scale retrospective study aims to ascertain the prevalence of sarcopenia and assess its impact on postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From December 2008 to April 2013, the clinical data of all patients who underwent elective radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer were collected prospectively. Only patients with available preoperative abdominal CT scan within 30 days of surgery were considered for analysis. Skeletal muscle mass was determined by abdominal (computed tomography) CT scan, and sarcopenia was diagnosed by the cut-off values obtained by means of optimum stratification. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating risk factors of postoperative complications and long-term survival were performed. A total of 937 patients were included in this study, and 389 (41.5%) patients were sarcopenic based on the diagnostic cut-off values (34.9 cm2/m2 for women and 40.8 cm2/m2 for men). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for severe postoperative complications (OR = 3.010, P sarcopenia did not show significant association with operative mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for poorer overall survival (HR = 1.653, P sarcopenia remained an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of severe postoperative complications after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover, sarcopenia is independently associated with overall and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. PMID:27043677

  1. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  2. Role of an indole-thiazolidine molecule PPAR pan-agonist and COX inhibitor on inflammation and microcirculatory damage in acute gastric lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Santin

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to show the in vivo mechanisms of action of an indole-thiazolidine molecule peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor pan-agonist (PPAR pan and cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor, LYSO-7, in an ethanol/HCl-induced (Et/HCl gastric lesion model. Swiss male mice were treated with vehicle, LYSO-7 or Bezafibrate (p.o. 1 hour before oral administration of Et/HCl (60%/0.03M. In another set of assays, animals were injected i.p. with an anti-granulocyte antibody, GW9962 or L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME before treatment. One hour after Et/HCl administration, neutrophils were quantified in the blood and bone marrow and the gastric microcirculatory network was studied in situ. The gastric tissue was used to quantify the percentage of damaged area, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein and PPARγ protein and gene expression. Acid secretion was evaluated by the pylorus ligation model. LYSO-7 or Bezafibrate treatment reduced the necrotic area. LYSO-7 treatment enhanced PPARγ gene and protein expression in the stomach, and impaired local neutrophil influx and stasis of the microcirculatory network caused by Et/HCl administration. The effect seemed to be due to PPARγ agonist activity, as the LYSO-7 effect was abolished in GW9962 pre-treated mice. The reversal of microcirculatory stasis, but not neutrophil influx, was mediated by nitric oxide (NO, as L-NAME pre-treatment abolished the LYSO-7-mediated reestablishment of microcirculatory blood flow. This effect may depend on enhanced eNOS protein expression in injured gastric tissue. The pH and concentration of H(+ in the stomach were not modified by LYSO-7 treatment. In addition, LYSO-7 may induce less toxicity, as 28 days of oral treatment did not induce weight loss, as detected in pioglitazone treated mice. Thus, we show that LYSO-7 may be an effective treatment for gastric lesions by controlling

  3. The hedonic drive to consume palatable foods appears to be lower in gastric band carriers than in severely obese patients who have not undergone a bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, J; Ernst, B; Wilms, B; Thurnheer, M; Hallschmid, M; Schultes, B

    2013-04-01

    We have recently shown that severely obese patients display a markedly enhanced drive to consume palatable food, and that this hedonic hunger is reduced after gastric bypass surgery. Adjustable gastric banding is another frequently performed bariatric operation with unknown effects on hedonic hunger motivation. Here, we compared the level of hedonic hunger in patients who have undergone a gastric banding with that in severely obese patients who have not undergone a bariatric operation and nonobese controls. In a cross-sectional case-control study, 116 gastric banding patients, 138 severely obese patients, and 133 nonobese controls were examined with the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a questionnaire that reliably measures an individual's motivation to consume highly palatable food. While the severely obese patients displayed markedly higher aggregated PFS scores and scores on the subdomain "generally available" and "physically present" food than the nonobese controls (all P needs to be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  4. Gastroprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Juices against Indomethacin and Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilane Rodrigues Dantas de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for treating peptic ulcers and inflammatory problems. In this context, this study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the leaf juices of the two species in acute gastric lesions models. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-MS were performed for chemical characterization. Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with leaf juices (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or ranitidine (50 mg/kg. The peaks observed in the chromatogram of K. brasiliensis showed similar mass spectra to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed mass spectra similar to compounds derived from quercetin, patuletin, eupafolin and kaempferol. K. brasiliensis at all doses and K. pinnata at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the lesions in the ethanol induction model. In the indomethacin induction model, both species showed significant results at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Also, the pre-treatment with leaf juices increased the antioxidant defense system, glutathione (GSH, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were significantly decreased. Treatment with leaf juices led to the upregulation of zone occludes-1 (ZO-1 and the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and factor nuclear-κβ transcription (NF-κB-p65, while also showing a cytoprotective effect and maintaining mucus production. These findings show that the leaf juices of the two species showed gastroprotective effects on ethanol and gastric indomethacin injury which were a consequence of gastric inflammation suppression, antioxidant activity and the maintenance of cytoprotective defenses and mucosal structure architecture.

  5. Treatment of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis by combining complete surgical resection of lesions and intraperitoneal immunotherapy using catumaxomab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goéré, Diane; Gras-Chaput, Nathalie; Aupérin, Anne; Flament, Caroline; Mariette, Christophe; Glehen, Olivier; Zitvogel, Laurence; Elias, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The peritoneum is one of the most frequent sites of recurrent gastric carcinoma after curative treatment, despite the administration of pre- and/or postoperative systemic chemotherapy. Indeed, the prognosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma continues to be poor, with a median survival of less than one year with systemic chemotherapy. Whereas the prognosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer has changed with the development of locally administered hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), survival results following carcinomatosis from gastric cancer remain disappointing, yielding a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Innovative surgical therapies such as intraperitoneal immunotherapy therefore need to be developed for the immediate postoperative period after complete cytoreductive surgery. In a recent randomised study, a clinical effect was obtained after intraperitoneal infusion of catumaxomab in patients with malignant ascites, notably from gastric carcinoma. Catumaxomab, a nonhumanized chimeric antibody, is characterized by its unique ability to bind to three different types of cells: tumour cells expressing the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), T lymphocytes (CD3) and also accessory cells (Fcγ receptor). Because the peritoneum is an immunocompetent organ and up to 90% of gastric carcinomas express EpCAM, intraperitoneal infusion of catumaxomab after complete resection of all macroscopic disease (as defined in the treatment of carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer) could therefore efficiently treat microscopic residual disease. The aim of this randomized phase II study is to assess 2-year overall survival after complete resection of limited carcinomatosis synchronous with gastric carcinoma, followed by an intraperitoneal infusion of catumaxomab with different total doses administered in each of the 2 arms. Close monitoring of peri-opertive mortality, morbidity and early surgical re-intervention will be done

  6. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  7. Physiological assessment of coronary lesion severity: fractional flow reserve versus nonhyperaemic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Keith E; Hennigan, Barry; Berry, Colin; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2015-08-01

    Coronary angiography alone cannot accurately identify the haemodynamic impact of a coronary artery stenosis. Current international guidelines for myocardial revascularization recommend that inducible ischaemia should be demonstrated before the consideration of percutaneous coronary intervention. Invasive physiological assessment of coronary stenosis severity has increasingly been utilized for this purpose and use of the best validated technique, fractional flow reserve (FFR), has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease. This has led to the use of FFR being recommended in international revascularization guidelines, despite which, clinical uptake has been limited. One potential reason for slow adoption has been the requirement for maximal hyperaemia at the time of FFR measurement, usually achieved by the administration of pharmacological vasodilators such as adenosine. In some healthcare systems, adenosine is expensive and, in addition, its use can be associated with significant, albeit transient, adverse effects that patients (and some operators) find uncomfortable. Consequently, several methods of nonhyperaemic lesion assessment and their potential role in decision making have been reported. In this review we will review and discuss the current evidence for hyperaemic and nonhyperaemic methods of lesion assessment. We will also look at hybrid strategies that utilize both hyperaemic and nonhyperaemic methods as a means of potentially maintaining diagnostic accuracy while minimizing the requirement for adenosine administration and discuss whether or not they represent viable clinical alternatives.

  8. Diagnosing the severity of buccal caries lesions in orthodontic patients at de-bonding using digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosa, Naif A; Lundgren, Ted; Bresin, Andrea; Birkhed, Dowen; Kjellberg, Heidrun

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the severity of buccal caries lesions according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria via scoring buccal caries lesions on digital photographs at the time of de-bonding and (2) to compare this method with clinical examination. In total, 89 patients treated with upper and lower fixed appliances were clinically examined immediately after de-bonding by the first author and buccal caries were scored according to the ICDAS-II. Close-up digital photographs were taken of 245 teeth with different buccal caries lesion scores according to the ICDAS-II. Thirteen postgraduate orthodontics students independently scored the buccal caries lesions in the digital photographs using the modified clinical criteria (ICDAS-II). Intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities were evaluated by calculating the weighted kappa. To evaluate the validity of diagnosing the severity of buccal caries lesions using digital photographs compared to clinical examination, Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated. Intra-examiner reliability and the reliability between each examiner and the clinical examination showed moderate-to-excellent agreement, with kappa values of 0.52-0.83. Scoring buccal caries lesions via clinical examinations and scoring via photographs were well correlated according to the modified ICDAS-II criteria (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.76). Thus, scoring buccal caries lesions on digital photographs according to ICDAS-II criteria is a reliable and valid method for assessing the severity of buccal caries lesions.

  9. Lesiones torácicas graves y el enfoque del control de daños Severe thoracic lesions and the damage control approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Miguel Morales Wong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento del trauma grave con lesiones exanguinantes o sin ellas, pero son estas últimas las que más requieren un cambio de la forma de actuar en aras de mejorar la supervivencia. Tales estrategias quirúrgicas se han denominado cirugía de control de daños, que en esencia evita complicaciones como la tríada letal de acidosis, hipotermia y coagulopatía. A diferencia del control de daños en el abdomen, existen lesiones torácicas que requieren una reparación inicial durante el acto quirúrgico, pero pueden hallarse otras cuya reparación puede ser secundaria. El método de control de daños en las lesiones torácicas debe llevarse a cabo con procedimientos que sean técnicamente rápidos y simples, para postergar el tratamiento definitivo de las lesiones que no requieran una reparación inmediata en pacientes in extremisNew strategies have been developed in the last years to treat severe trauma with exsanguinating lesions or without them. The latter demand more changes in the way of acting in order to improve survival. Such surgical strategies have been called damage control surgery that in essence prevent complications such as the lethal triad of acidosis, hypothermia and coagulopathy. Unlike the control of abdomen damage, there are thoracic lesions requiring an initial repair during surgery, but there may be found others, whose repair is secondary. The damage control method in the thoracic lesions should be conducted with technically fast and simple procedures to postpone the definitive treatment of the lesions that do not require an immediate repair in patients in extremis

  10. Relationship of white matter lesions and severity of pushing behavior after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Uchino, Akira; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2017-12-01

    [Purpose] The relationship between white matter lesions (WMLs) and pushing behavior (PB) is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether damage from WMLs affects the functional outcome of PB after acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 37 patients were included. PB was assessed using the standardized Scale for Contraversive Pushing (SCP). Stroke types were classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), or lacunar syndrome using the Bamford classification. WML severity was categorized into four groups using the Fazekas visual scale. Thereafter, patients were divided into 4 groups according to the stroke type and/or presence of WMLs. The SCP, Trunk Control Test (TCT), Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), and Barthel Index were the outcome measures. [Results] The SCP and TCT in patients with PACI without WMLs were better than those in patients with TACI with or without WMLs. Regarding SCP, TCT, and SIAS, patients with TACI had poorer values compared with PACI, regardless of WML severity. Barthel Index efficiency was not significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that moderate to severe WMLs and PACI had a relationship with PB severity and truncal balance.

  11. Perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted gastric sleeve resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Joselyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the major advantages for patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery as compared to an open surgical procedure is the improved recovery profile and decreased opioid requirements in the perioperative period. There are no definitive studies comparing the analgesic requirements in patients undergoing two different types of minimally invasive procedure. This study retrospectively compares the perioperative analgesic requirements in severely obese adolescents and young adults undergoing laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted, laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection. Materials and Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval, the medication administration records of all severely obese patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative analgesic and adjuvant medications administered, postoperative analgesic requirements, and visual analog pain scores were compared between those undergoing a laparoscopic procedure versus a robotic-assisted procedure. Results: This study cohort included a total of 28 patients who underwent gastric sleeve resection surgery with 14 patients in the laparoscopic group and 14 patients in the robotic-assisted group. Intra-operative adjuvant administration of both intravenous acetaminophen and ketorolac was similar in both groups. Patients in the robotic-assisted group required significantly less opioid during the intra-operative period as compared to patients in the laparoscopic group (0.15 ± 0.08 mg/kg vs. 0.19 ± 0.06 mg/kg morphine, P = 0.024. Cumulative opioid requirements for the first 72 postoperative h were similar in both the groups (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.68 ± 0.27 mg/kg morphine, P = NS. No difference was noted in the postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: Although intraoperative opioid administration was lower in the robotic-assisted group, the postoperative opioid requirements, and the postoperative pain scores were similar in both groups.

  12. A Woman with Black Beads in Her Stomach: Severe Gastric Ulceration Caused by Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu S. Voruganti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioembolization (RE is a selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT delivering targeted, high-dose, intra-arterial radiation directly to the vascular supply of liver tumors. Complications can occur due to aberrant deposition or migration of radiation microspheres into nontarget locations, including normal hepatic parenchyma, lungs, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal (UGI tract. We report a case of gastric ulcers due to yttrium-90 (90Y seed migration to the stomach to alert clinicians to this rare cause of gastric injury. A 57-year-old woman with stage IV breast cancer with liver and lung metastases presented to the hospital with 2 months of worsening nausea and vomiting. Two months prior, she had received SIRT with 90Y microspheres without complications. Upper GI endoscopy showed diffuse gastritis and extensive antral ulceration. Biopsies revealed black, spherical foreign bodies, consistent with 90Y microspheres, documenting radiation injury. Radiation-induced UGI ulceration is caused by direct radiation injury from beta-radiation. Delay in diagnosis may be due to the nonspecificity of symptoms and temporal delay of symptom onset from SIRT, which was 2 months in our patient. Also, complaints may be attributed erroneously to adjuvant chemotherapy or widespread metastatic disease. Clinicians must consider radiation-associated toxicity in any SIRT-treated patient developing abdominal symptoms.

  13. Analysis of cagA in Helicobacter pylori strains from Colombian populations with contrasting gastric cancer risk reveals a biomarker for disease severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, John T.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Luis E.; McClain, Mark S.; Correa, Pelayo; Cover, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and the bacterial oncoprotein CagA contributes to gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS We analyzed H. pylori isolates from persons in Colombia and observed that there was marked variation among strains in levels of CagA expression. To elucidate the basis for this variation, we analyzed sequences upstream from the CagA translational initiation site in each strain. RESULTS A DNA motif (AATAAGATA) upstream of the translational initiation site of CagA was associated with high levels of CagA expression. Experimental studies showed that this motif was necessary but not sufficient for high-level CagA expression. H. pylori strains from a region of Colombia with high gastric cancer rates expressed higher levels of CagA than did strains from a region with lower gastric cancer rates, and Colombian strains of European phylogeographic origin expressed higher levels of CagA than did strains of African origin. Histopathological analysis of gastric biopsy specimens revealed that strains expressing high levels of CagA or containing the AATAAGATA motif were associated with more advanced precancerous lesions than those found in persons infected with strains expressing low levels of CagA or lacking the AATAAGATA motif. CONCLUSIONS CagA expression varies greatly among H. pylori strains. The DNA motif identified in this study is associated with high levels of CagA expression, and may be a useful biomarker to predict gastric cancer risk. IMPACT These findings help to explain why some persons infected with cagA-positive H. pylori develop gastric cancer and others do not. PMID:21859954

  14. Orbital atherectomy for severely calcified lesions: More dissections in women but similar 30-day outcomes to men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-03-01

    Calcified lesions are associated with lower rates of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), greater stent thrombosis, and increased target vessel revascularization. Women undergoing PCI are more often older than men and likely to present with severe lesion calcification. The ORBIT II study, for the first time compares the effect of the orbital atherectomy system (OAS) in men and women undergoing PCI for severely calcified lesions. Although the adjusted risk of severe dissections was higher in women, the incidence of in-hospital and 30-day outcomes was similar to men. Randomized comparisons of the OAS with rotational atherectomy and with stenting without atherectomy are needed to further elucidate sex-based differences in calcified lesion PCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Henrik E.; Jespersen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled...... as ‘permanent access’. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P ulceration in pigs....

  16. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  17. Effect of claw horn lesion type and severity at the time of treatment on outcome of lameness in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Pacheco, Giuliana G; Thomas, Heather J; Huxley, Jonathan N; Newsome, Reuben F; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2017-07-01

    Prompt diagnosis and treatment of claw horn lesions in cattle affects the likelihood of recovery; however, it is unknown if the type of lesion influences the likelihood of recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type, severity and frequency of claw horn lesions in newly lame cows (lame for no more than 2 weeks) at the time of corrective foot trimming affects the probability of recovery from lameness after treatment. The images of 112 feet (224 claws) from newly lame cows (n=112; lame in only one hind foot), which were treated with a standardised therapeutic hoof trim only, were used to score claw horn lesions (sole ulcer, sole haemorrhage, white line haemorrhage or white line separation). Most cows (n=107/112; 95.5%) were classified as mildly lame at the time of treatment. The proportion of cows that recovered 2 weeks after therapeutic hoof trimming was 88/112 (78.6%). Results of a multilevel logistic regression model indicated that severely lame cows were less likely to recover than those that were mildly lame (odds ratio, OR, 0.16; P=0.04). White line haemorrhage had a significant negative impact on the likelihood of recovery from lameness (OR 0.14; P>0.01); however, recovery of cows with white line haemorrhage was positively associated with the length of the lesion (OR 1.05; P=0.03). This latter finding may be associated with the severity of the lesion, since mild claw horn lesions affected a significantly larger area of the claw than more severe lesions. The length and type of claw horn lesion were associated with recovery from lameness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Orbital atherectomy for treating de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions: 3-year results of the pivotal ORBIT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Généreux, Philippe; Shlofmitz, Richard; Phillipson, Daniel; Anose, Bynthia M; Martinsen, Brad J; Himmelstein, Stevan I; Chambers, Jeff W

    2017-06-01

    The presence of heavy coronary artery calcification increases the complexity of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and increases the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE): death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis. The ORBIT II (Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of OAS in Treating Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions) trial reported low rates of procedural, 30-day, 1-year, and 2-year ischemic complications after treatment of de novo, severely calcified lesions with the Diamondback 360° Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) (Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.). ORBIT II was a single-arm trial that enrolled 443 patients at 49U.S. sites; in this study, de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions were treated with OAS prior to stenting. The primary safety endpoint was 30-day MACE: the composite of cardiac death, MI, and TVR (inclusive of target lesion revascularization (TLR)). The primary efficacy endpoint was procedural success: stent delivery with a residual stenosis of atherectomy. There were 360 (81.3%) subjects who completed the protocol-mandated 3-year visit.The overall cumulative rate of 3-year MACE was 23.5%, including cardiac death (6.7%), MI (11.2%), and TVR (10.2%). The 3-year target lesion revascularization rate was 7.8%. In the final 3-year analysis of the ORBIT II trial, orbital atherectomy of severely calcified coronary lesions followed by stenting resulted in a low rate of adverse ischemic events compared with historical controls.Orbital atherectomy represents a safe and effective revascularization strategy for patients with severely calcified coronary lesions. The ORBIT II trial enrolled 443 subjects to study orbital atherectomy followed by stenting for de novo severely calcified coronary lesions. The overall cumulative 3-year MACE rate was 23.5%, including cardiac death (6.7%), MI (11.2%), and TVR (10.2%); the 3-year target lesion revascularization rate was 7.8%. Orbital atherectomy

  19. Pulmonary arterial lesions in explanted lungs after transplantation correlate with severity of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jørn; Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Boesgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular findings are largely unreported in end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Pulmonary vascular lesions in explanted lungs from 70 patients with COPD/emphysema or α-1-antitrypsin deficiency were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were stratified...... of pulmonary vascular lesions in COPD correlate with the severity of PH. Morphologic lesions similar to those characteristic of IPAH can be observed as PH in COPD progresses to levels characteristic of IPAH....... by the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) assessed by right-heart catheterization in 3 hemodynamically distinct groups: (1) non-PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP]50 mm Hg; median HE Grade 4 (range 3-6), with generalized arterial dilatation and plexiform lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The extent...

  20. Development of stress ulcers assessed by gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric juice, and endoscopy in patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Gjørup, I; Schulze, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess measurement of gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric mucosa, and endoscopic findings in patients in intensive care units who are at risk of developing stress ulcers. DESIGN: Open comparison with age- and sex-matched control subjects. SETTING: Herlev Hospital......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixteen consecutive patients with no history of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, coagulopathy, or ulcer disease who had been admitted to the intensive care unit, and 16 age- and sex-matched outpatients with normal endoscopic findings. INTERVENTIONS: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, during...... which any lesions that were found were scored according to severity, the gastric potential difference, and the pH of gastric juice were measured. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the incidence of stress ulceration found at endoscopy, gastric potential difference, and gastric pH. RESULTS: Gastric...

  1. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. Materials and Methods FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebr...

  2. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  3. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  4. Surgical outcome of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Gon Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Despite recent advances in pulmonary hypertension management and surgery, appropriate guidelines remain to be developed for operability in congenital heart disease with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH. Our aim was to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with severe PAH who underwent surgical closure of left-to-right shunt lesions (LRSL on the basis of pulmonary reactivity. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who underwent surgical closure of LRSL with severe PAH (?#248; Wood unit from January 1995 to April 2009. The median age at operation was 26 years. Atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (VSD, VSD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and PDA was present in 11, 4, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. Results : Operability was based on vasoreactivity of PAH. Of the 21 patients, 5 showed response to pulmonary vasodilator therapy and 8 showed vasoreactivity after balloon occlusion of defects. The remaining 8 patients were considered operable because of significant left-to-right shunt (Qp/Qs ?#241;.5. Five patients underwent total closure of defects and 16 were left with small residual shunts. The median follow-up duration was 32 months. There was no significant postoperative mortality or morbidity. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP decreased in all but 2 patients. All patients except 1 showed improvement of New York Heart Association functional class. Conclusion : Closure of LRSL in patients with severe PAH on the basis of pulmonary vasoreactivity seems reasonable. PAP and clinical symptoms improved in most patients. Further research is needed for the evaluation of long-term results.

  5. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Noh, Susan M; White, Stephen N; Snekvik, Kevin R; Truscott, Thomas; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses in serum or OPP provirus levels in peripheral blood associate with the degree of histologically measured tissue lesions in naturally OPPV-infected sheep. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung, mammary gland, carpal synovial membrane, and brain tissues from 11 OPPV-infected ewes (mean age of 8.6 years) and 5 OPPV-uninfected ewes (mean age of 6 years) were evaluated for lesion severity. Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) provirus levels and anti-OPPV antibody titers in peripheral blood and serum samples, respectively, were measured upon euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia. Both mean peripheral OPP provirus levels and mean serum anti-surface envelope glycoprotein (anti-SU) antibody titers at the time of euthanasia were significantly higher in ewes with moderate to severe histological lesions than in ewes with no to mild histological lesions. However, although mean peripheral blood OPP provirus levels at euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia significantly correlated with the highest histological lesion score for any affected tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.03 and 0.02), mean serum anti-SU antibody titers, anti-capsid antibody titers, and anti-transmembrane 90 antibody titers at euthanasia did not show a significant correlation with the highest histological lesion score for any tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.32, 0.97, and 0.18, respectively). These data are the first to show that OPP provirus levels predict and correlate with the extent of OPPV-related histological lesions in various OPPV-affected tissues. These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response.

  6. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor: association analyses for obesity of several polymorphisms in large study groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rief Winfried

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP is postulated to be involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. It exerts its function through its receptor, GIPR. We genotyped three GIPR SNPs (rs8111428, rs2302382 and rs1800437 in German families with at least one obese index patient, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional population-based studies. Methods Genotyping was performed by MALDI-TOF, ARMS-PCR and RFLP. The family-study: 761 German families with at least one extremely obese child or adolescent (n = 1,041 and both parents (n = 1,522. Case-control study: (a German obese children (n = 333 and (b obese adults (n = 987 in comparison to 588 adult lean controls. The two cross-sectional population-based studies: KORA (n = 8,269 and SHIP (n = 4,310. Results We detected over-transmission of the A-allele of rs2302382 in the German families (pTDT-Test = 0.0089. In the combined case-control sample, we estimated an odd ratio of 1.54 (95%CI 1.09;2.19, pCA-Test = 0.014 for homozygotes of the rs2302382 A-allele compared to individuals with no A-allele. A similar trend was found in KORA where the rs2302382 A-allele led to an increase of 0.12 BMI units (p = 0.136. In SHIP, however, the A-allele of rs2302382 was estimated to contribute an average decrease of 0.27 BMI units (p-value = 0.031. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential relevance of GIPR variants for obesity. However, additional studies are warranted in light of the conflicting results obtained in one of the two population-based studies.

  7. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  8. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T 4 ) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T 4 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of 3 H-dihydroalprenolol to β-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function

  9. Evaluation of an e-learning system for diagnosis of gastric lesions using magnifying narrow-band imaging: a multicenter randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Doyama, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hideki; Uedo, Noriya; Gotoda, Takuji; Kato, Mototsugu; Nagao, Shigeaki; Nagami, Yasuaki; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Imagawa, Atsushi; Kodaira, Junichi; Mitsui, Shinya; Kobayashi, Nozomu; Muto, Manabu; Takatori, Hajime; Abe, Takashi; Tsujii, Masahiko; Watari, Jiro; Ishiyama, Shuhei; Oda, Ichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yokoi, Chizu; Ueo, Tetsuya; Uchita, Kunihisa; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Morita, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Shinichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Inamura, Katsuhisa; Kinjo, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Araki, Hiroshi; Kashida, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Mori, Hirohito; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Motohashi, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Endo, Masaki; Yamano, Hiroo; Murakami, Kazunari; Koike, Tomoyuki; Hirasawa, Kingo; Miyaoka, Youichi; Hamamoto, Hidetaka; Hikichi, Takuto; Hanabata, Norihiro; Shimoda, Ryo; Hori, Shinichiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kodashima, Shinya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Mannami, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yashima, Kazuo; Tanabe, Satoshi; Satoh, Hiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Ikeda, Yoshiou; Nishisaki, Hogara; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Matsuda, Akio; Tamura, Fumio; Nishiyama, Hitoshi; Arita, Keiko; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Hoppo, Kazushige; Oka, Masashi; Ishihara, Shinichi; Mukasa, Michita; Minamino, Hiroaki; Yao, Kenshi

    2017-10-01

    Background and study aim  Magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) is useful for the accurate diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, acquiring skill at M-NBI diagnosis takes substantial effort. An Internet-based e-learning system to teach endoscopic diagnosis of EGC using M-NBI has been developed. This study evaluated its effectiveness. Participants and methods  This study was designed as a multicenter randomized controlled trial. We recruited endoscopists as participants from all over Japan. After completing Test 1, which consisted of M-NBI images of 40 gastric lesions, participants were randomly assigned to the e-learning or non-e-learning groups. Only the e-learning group was allowed to access the e-learning system. After the e-learning period, both groups received Test 2. The analysis set was participants who scored e-learning group and 197 in the non-e-learning group). After the e-learning period, all 395 completed Test 2. The analysis sets were e-learning group: n = 184; and non-e-learning group: n = 184. The mean Test 1 score was 59.9 % for the e-learning group and 61.7 % for the non-e-learning group. The change in accuracy in Test 2 was significantly higher in the e-learning group than in the non-e-learning group (7.4 points vs. 0.14 points, respectively; P  e-learning system in improving practitioners' capabilities to diagnose EGC using M-NBI.Trial registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000008569). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. ACUTE GASTRIC DILATATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  11. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  12. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular...... conclude that the prevalence of gastric ulcers was high, and our results suggest different factors affecting ulceration in the glandular versus the nonglandular region of the horse stomach. Obvious external signs (e.g. poor body condition) identifying ulcer horses were absent. Horses with severe glandular...

  13. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

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    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  14. Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery reduces hedonic hunger and improves dietary habits in severely obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Jennifer; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Many obese subjects suffer from an increased hedonic drive to consume palatable foods, i.e., hedonic hunger, and often show unfavorable dietary habits. Here, we investigated changes in the hedonic hunger and dietary habits after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Forty-four severely obese patients were examined before and on average 15.9 ± 0.9 months after RYGB surgery with the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a questionnaire that reliably measures an individual's motivation to consume highly palatable foods but not actual consumptive behavior. Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After the RYGB procedure, patients showed markedly lower aggregated PFS scores and sub-domain scores related to generally available, physically present, as well as tasted foods than before the surgery (all P habits after the surgery were characterized by a more frequent consumption of poultry, fish, eggs, and cooked vegetables (P habits characterized by an increased intake of protein-rich foods and vegetables and a reduced consumption of sugar-containing snacks and beverages after RYGB surgery. Based on these findings, it can be speculated that the reduction of the hedonic drive to consume palatable foods induced by RYGB surgery helps severely obese patients to establish healthier dietary habits.

  15. Psychological Outcomes and Predictors of Initial Weight Loss Outcomes among Severely Obese Adolescents Receiving Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Tom B.; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated rates of psychopathology are noted among severely obese youth presenting for weight loss surgery. The role of mental health providers in this population is not well defined, and the selection of candidates is often the result of clinical judgment alone. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate psychiatric symptoms among a large sample of adolescents receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) by: (1) examining changes in depressive symptoms and quality of life in the year following surgery, (2) evaluating the interaction between patterns of change in depression, quality of life, and weight post-surgery, and (3) identifying pre-surgical psychological predictors of initial weight change. Method Participants were 101 severely obese adolescents aged 14 to 18. Measures of height, weight, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were obtained in the first year following surgery. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and body mass index were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Results Significant changes in total BDI [βslope=−0.885 SE=0.279, psurgery (pAdolescents experienced notable improvements in initial depressive symptoms and quality of life after LAGB, and measures of pre-operative binge eating and family conflict affected post-surgery body mass index among youth. PMID:23140654

  16. Efficiency of two constructs called "fear of disease" and "perceived severity of disease" on the prevention of gastric cancer: Application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiani-Moghadam, Mohamad Hosein; Seyedi-Andi, Seyed Jalil; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Khafri, Sorayya; Ghadimi, Reza; Parsian, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Among all cancers, malignancies of gastrointestinal tract are the most common cancer among Iranian population. Dietary behavior is thought to be the most important risk factor in gastric cancer. Fear and perceived severity are two important constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Despite the evidence of the impact of these two constructs in modifying dietary habits against gastric cancer, their efficiency is not well established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the efficiency of the mentioned constructs. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 participants (180 males and 180 females) aged over 30 years old who presented to health centers in Babol, Iran in 2014. They were selected by a cluster sampling method in a population covered by health centers in Babol. Data collection was done using a questionnaire with acceptable reliability and validity, designed by a researcher based on two constructs of protection motivation theory. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 20 using descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, linear and logistic regression analysis. The participants who entered in the study achieved 38.6 and 69.7% of the scores of fear and perceived severity, respectively. There was a significant difference between perceived severity with level of education (pprotection motivation theory with predicting 38% of the variance of nutritional high risk behaviors had an effective role against gastric cancer and may help in the design and implementation of educational programs for the prevention of gastric cancer.

  17. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  18. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-09-01

    Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebral hemisphere was divided into 4 regions and each region was scored based on the prominence of the ivy sign. Total ivy score (TIS) was defined as the sum of the scores from the eight regions and dominant hemispheric ivy sign (DHI) was determined by comparing the ivy scores from each hemisphere. According to the degree of ischemic symptoms, patients were classified into four subgroups: 1) nonspecific symptoms without motor weakness, 2) single transient ischemic attack (TIA), 3) recurrent TIA, or 4) complete stroke. TIS was significantly different as follows: 4.86±2.55 in patients with nonspecific symptoms, 5.89±3.10 in patients with single TIA, 9.60±3.98 in patients with recurrent TIA and 8.37±3.39 in patients with complete stroke (p=0.003). TIS associated with old lesions was significantly higher than those not associated with old lesions (9.35±4.22 vs. 7.49±3.37, p=0.032). We found a significant correlation between DHI and motor symptoms (p=0.001). Because TIS has a strong tendency with severity of ischemic motor symptom and the presence of old lesions, the ivy sign may be useful in predicting severity of disease progression.

  19. Cryptococcal neuroradiological lesions correlate with severity during cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in HIV-positive patients in the HAART era.

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    Caroline Charlier

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has an overall global mortality rate of 20% in AIDS patients despite antifungals. There is a need for additional means of precise assessment of disease severity. We thus studied the radiological brain images available from 62 HIV-positive patients with cryptococcocal meningoencephalitis to analyse the brain lesions associated with cryptococcosis in relationship with disease severity, and the respective diagnostic contribution of magnetic resonance (MR versus computed tomography (CT. In this retrospective multicenter analysis, two neuroradiologists blindly reviewed the brain imaging. Prospectively acquired clinical and mycological data were available at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline images were abnormal on 92% of the MR scans contrasting with 53% of the CT scans. MR/CT cryptococcosis-related lesions included mass(es (21%/9%, dilated perivascular spaces (46%/5% and pseudocysts (8%/4%. The presence compared to absence of cryptococcosis-related lesions was significantly associated with high serum (78% vs. 42%, p = 0.008 and CSF (81% vs. 50%, p = 0.024 antigen titers, independently of neurological abnormalities. MR detected significantly more cryptococcosis-related lesions than CT for 17 patients who had had both investigations (76% vs. 24%, p = 0.005. In conclusion, MR appears more effective than CT for the evaluation of AIDS-associated cerebral cryptococcosis. Furthermore, brain imaging is an effective tool to assess the initial disease severity in this setting. Given this, we suggest that investigation for cryptococcosis-related lesions is merited, even in the absence of neurological abnormality, if a high fungal burden is suspected on the basis of high serum and/or CSF antigen titers.

  20. Laryngeal giant cell tumour presenting as a tongue base lesion causing severe dysphagia

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    Mohd Razi M. Saud, MBBS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available الملخص: أورام الخلايا العملاقة هي آفات حميدة وغير مألوفة تظهر في الحنجرة. قد يصاب المريض بصعوبة في البلع، وبحة في الصوت وتورم في الجهة الأمامية من الرقبة. أورام الخلايا العملاقة هي نادرة للغاية، وهناك حالات قليلة في الأدبيات المنشورة. نعرض لحالة إمرأة مسنة قدمت بصعوبة شديدة في البلع، وورم في قاعدة اللسان. أظهرت نتيجة الورم بأنه ورم الخلايا العملاقة في الحنجرة وتم علاجه بنجاح باستخدام المعالجة الكيميائية. Abstract: Giant cell tumours are benign lesions that are uncommonly found in the larynx. Patients with these tumours may present with dysphagia, hoarseness and anterior neck swelling. Giant cell tumours are extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of an elderly woman who presented with severe dysphagia and a mass at the base of her tongue. The mass was found to be a laryngeal giant cell tumour and was successfully treated with chemotherapy. الكلمات المفتاحية: أورام الخلايا العملاقة, الحنجرة, صعوبة البلع, دينوسوماب, المعالجة الكيميائية, Keywords: Chemotherapy, Denosumab, Dysphagia, Giant cell tumour, Larynx

  1. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  2. Early growth hormone (GH) treatment promotes relevant motor functional improvement after severe frontal cortex lesion in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Margarita; Fuente, A; Criado, J; Yajeya, J; Devesa, J; Riolobos, A S

    2013-06-15

    A number of studies, in animals and humans, describe the positive effects of the growth hormone (GH) treatment combined with rehabilitation on brain reparation after brain injury. We examined the effect of GH treatment and rehabilitation in adult rats with severe frontal motor cortex ablation. Thirty-five male rats were trained in the paw-reaching-for-food task and the preferred forelimb was recorded. Under anesthesia, the motor cortex contralateral to the preferred forelimb was aspirated or sham-operated. Animals were then treated with GH (0.15 mg/kg/day, s.c) or vehicle during 5 days, commencing immediately or 6 days post-lesion. Rehabilitation was applied at short- and long-term after GH treatment. Behavioral data were analized by ANOVA following Bonferroni post hoc test. After sacrifice, immunohistochemical detection of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and nestin were undertaken in the brain of all groups. Animal group treated with GH immediately after the lesion, but not any other group, showed a significant improvement of the motor impairment induced by the motor lesion, and their performances in the motor test were no different from sham-operated controls. GFAP immunolabeling and nestin immunoreactivity were observed in the perilesional area in all injured animals; nestin immunoreactivity was higher in GH-treated injured rats (mainly in animals GH-treated 6 days post-lesion). GFAP immunoreactivity was similar among injured rats. Interestingly, nestin re-expression was detected in the contralateral undamaged motor cortex only in GH-treated injured rats, being higher in animals GH-treated immediately after the lesion than in animals GH-treated 6 days post-lesion. Early GH treatment induces significant recovery of the motor impairment produced by frontal cortical ablation. GH effects include increased neurogenesis for reparation (perilesional area) and for increased brain plasticity (contralateral motor area). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  4. Severe Delayed Gastric Emptying Induces Non-acid Reflux up to Proximal Esophagus in Neurologically Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shinji; Fukahori, Suguru; Asagiri, Kimio; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Saikusa, Nobuyuki; Hashizume, Naoki; Yoshida, Motomu; Masui, Daisuke; Komatsuzaki, Naoko; Higashidate, Naruki; Sakamoto, Saki; Kurahachi, Tomohiro; Tsuruhisa, Shiori; Nakahara, Hirotomo; Yagi, Minoru

    2017-10-30

    The aim of this study is to investigate the degree of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) and evaluate how the severity of DGE affects gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in neurologically impaired (NI) patients utilizing 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH measurements (pH/MII) and 13 C-acetate breath test ( 13 C-ABT) analyses. 13 C-ABT and pH/MII were conducted in 26 NI patients who were referred to our institution due to suspected GERD. At first, correlation analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between the 13 C-ABT parameters and the clinical or pH/MII parameters. Thereafter, all patients were divided into 2 groups (DGE and severe DGE [SDGE] group) according to each cut off half emptying time (t 1/2 , 90-170 minutes). Each pH/MII parameter was compared between the 2 groups in each set-up cutoff t 1/2 . The mean t 1/2 of all patients was 215.5 ± 237.2 minutes and the t 1/2 of 24 (92.3%) patients were > 100 minutes. Significant moderate positive correlations were observed between both t 1/2 and lag phase time and the non-acid reflux related parameters. Furthermore, the patients in the SDGE group demonstrated higher non-acid reflux related parameters than those of the DGE groups when the cutoff was t 1/2 ≥ 140 minutes. The present study demonstrated that GE with t 1/2 ≥ 140 minutes was related to an increase of non-acid exposure reaching up to the proximal esophagus in NI patients, and indicating that NI patients with SDGE might have a high risk of non-acid GERD.

  5. Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions Alters EGFR and PECAM-1 Immunoreactivity in Wistar Rats: Modulatory Action of Flavonoid Fraction of Musa Paradisiaca

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    Margaret Olutayo Alese

    2017-07-01

    CONCLUSION: The efficacy of Musa paradisiaca in attenuating the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa was observed as there was a significantly increased reactivity for EGFR and PECAM-1 in the gastric corpus in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism to gastric cancer risk in a high risk population of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar-Alpizar, Warner; Sierra, Rafaela; Cuenca, Patricia; Une, Clas; Mena, Fernando; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer associated death cause worldwide. Several factors have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer, among them genetic predisposition. The p53 gene has a polymorphism located at codon 72, which has been associated with higher risk of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of p53, codon 72 polymorphism, with the risk of gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions in a high-risk population from Costa Rica. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP in a sample of 58 gastric cancer patients, 99 control persons and 41 individuals classified as group I and II, according to the Japanese histological classification. No association was found for p53, codon 72 polymorphism with neither the risk of gastric cancer nor the risk of less severe gastric lesions in the studied sample. Based on this study and taking into account other studies carried out with p53, codon 72 polymorphism, the role of this polymorphism in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. De novo mutations on p53 gene produced during neoplastic development of this disease might play a greater role than germinal polymorphisms of this same gene. Other polymorphic genes have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer. (author) [es

  7. Outcomes in Elderly Patients With Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Lluri, Gentian; Shlofmitz, Richard A

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the clinical outcomes of elderly patients who underwent orbital atherectomy for the treatment of severe coronary artery calcification (CAC) prior to stenting. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of severe CAC is associated with worse clinical outcomes including death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The elderly represents a high-risk group of patients, often have more comorbid conditions, and have worse outcomes after PCI compared to younger patients. Clinical trials and a large multicenter registry have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy for the treatment of severe CAC. Clinical outcomes of elderly patients who undergo orbital atherectomy are unknown. Of the 458 patients, 229 were ≥75 years old (elderly) and 229 were atherectomy. It is a safe and effective treatment strategy for elderly patients with severe CAC as the clinical outcomes were similar to their younger counterparts. A randomized trial should further clarify the role of orbital atherectomy in these patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Correlation between the severity and type of acne lesions with serum zinc levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  9. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  10. Partial resolution of bone lesions. A child with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and adenosine deaminase deficiency after enzyme-replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulish, B.S.; Stern, R.C.; Polmar, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    A child with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and adenosine deaminase deficiency, with characteristic bone dysplasia, was treated with transfusions of frozen irradiated RBCs as a means of enzyme replacement. This therapy resulted in restoration of immunologic competence and partial resolution of the bone lesions. Although the natural history of these lesions without therapy is not known, enzyme-replacement therapy may have played a role in the resolution of this patient's bone lesions

  11. Diosmin protects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats: novel anti-ulcer actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H Arab

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o. attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC. With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO. Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses.

  12. Judgment value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for lesion severity in hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the judgment value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for lesion severity in hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis. Methods: A total of 100 cases of hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis who received physical examination in Physical Examination Centre of our hospital were collected as research subjects of observation group, 100 cases patients with primary hypertension alone who received treatment in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ultrasound coronary area were detected, serum was collected to detect the levels of coronary arteriosclerosis illness-related indicators in it, and the judgment value of brachialankle pulse wave velocity for coronary arteriosclerosis severity was further analyzed. Results: PWV value of observation group was higher than that of control group while ABI value was lower than that of control group; intravascular ultrasound inspection showed that blood vessel volume, lumen volume and plaque volume of observation group were larger than those of control group; serum Hcy, Ox-LDL and ApoB/ApoA1 values of observation group were higher than those of control group while APN value was lower than that of control group; serum Lp-PLA2, sTWEAK, CML and bFGF values of observation group were higher than those of control group while secKlotho, Chrelin and MPO values were lower than those of control group; PWV and ABI values were directly correlated with disease severity-related factors. Conclusions: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity can effectively judge the lesion severity of hypertension patients with coronary arteriosclerosis, can be used as one of the accurate indicators to guide treatment and judge prognosis in clinical practice, and has important clinical value.

  13. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution.

  14. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    the Danish incidence trends during 1997-2011 when cervical screening coverage was high. Incidences of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were also assessed, with the latest part of the study period coinciding with introduction of free-of-charge human......PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...

  15. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa

    Full Text Available The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU. Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th day though on the 14(th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the

  16. Endoscopic excavation for gastric heterotopic pancreas: an analysis of 42 cases from a tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qin; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Ye, Li-ping; Mao, Xin-li

    2014-09-01

    Because of the difficulty associated with making an accurate diagnosis of gastric heterotopic pancreas (HP) before surgery, surgical resection is usually performed in suspected cases. However, this is an invasive procedure and prone to certain surgical complications. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic excavation for gastric HP, as well as the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in diagnosing gastric HP. Between January 2007 and January 2013, 42 consecutive patients with gastric HP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Key steps: (1) Injection of a solution (100 ml saline + 2 ml indigo carmine + 1 ml epinephrine) into the submucosal layer after making several dots around the lesion; (2) Incision of the mucosa outside the marker dots with a needle-knife, and then circumferential excavation until complete resection of the lesion; (3) Closure of the artificial ulcer with several clips after tumor removal. In this study, 18 cases (42.9%) were suspected as gastric HP (assessed by two experienced endoscopists before endoscopic excavation), 8 (19.0%) were suspected as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 7 (16.7%) as gastric polyp, and the remaining 9 cases (21.4%) were still unknown. The mean procedure duration was 28.6 min. En bloc resection by endoscopic excavation was achieved in 40 cases (95.2%), and no massive bleeding, delayed bleeding, perforation, or other severe complication occurred in these patients. Among the 42 lesions, a tube echo could be detected in 11 cases by EUS. Those 11 cases were diagnosed as gastric HP by histopathology. Endoscopic excavation appears to be a safe and feasible procedure for accurate histopathologic evaluation and curative treatment in gastric HP. Use of EUS has some value in the diagnosis of gastric HP before the procedure

  17. The oxygen reactivity index and its relation to sensor technology in patients with severe brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Julius; Frenzel, Christin; Vajkoczy, Peter; Horn, Peter; Wolf, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The oxygen reactivity index (ORx) has been introduced to assess the status of cerebral autoregulation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Currently, there is some controversy about whether the ORx depends on the type of PbrO2-sensor technology used for its calculation. To examine if the probe technology does matter, we compared the ORx and the resulting optimal cerebral perfusion pressures (CPPopt) of simultaneously implanted Licox (CC1.SB, Integra Neuroscience, France) and Neurovent-PTO (Raumedic, Germany) probes in patients after aneurysmal SAH or severe TBI. Licox and Raumedic probes were implanted side by side in 11 patients after TBI or SAH. ORx and CPPopt were recorded continuously. The equivalence of both probes was examined using Bland-Altman analyses. The mean difference in ORx was 0.1, with Licox producing higher values. The limits of agreement regarding ORx ranged from -0.6 to +0.7. When both probes' ORx values were compared in each patient, no specific pattern in their relationship was seen. The mean difference in CPPopt was 0 mmHg with limits of agreement between -16.5 and +16.4 mmHg. Owing to the rather limited number of patients, we view the results of this study as preliminary. The main result is that Licox and Raumedic showed consistent differences in ORx and CPPopt. Therefore, ORx values of both probes cannot be interchanged and should not be viewed as equivalent. This should be taken into consideration when discussing ORx data generated by different PbrO2 probe types.

  18. Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hua, Rui-Xi; Du, Yi-Qun; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yu Fang; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2016-09-27

    Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor and be down-regulated in several human cancers including gastric cancer. It was also found that Mel-18 negatively regulates self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to clarify its role in gastric CSCs and explore the mechanisms. We found that low-expression of Mel-18 was correlated with poor prognosis and negatively correlated with overexpression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Gli1 in 101 gastric cancer tissues. Mel-18 was down-regulated in cultured spheroid cells, which possess CSCs, and overexpression of Mel-18 inhibits cells sphere-forming ability and tumor growth in vivo. Besides, Mel-18 was lower-expressed in ovary metastatic lesions compared with that in primary lesions of gastric cancer, and Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the migration ability of gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of Mel-18 resulted in down-regulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells and the expression of Mel-18 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-21 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-21 overexpression partially restored sphere-forming ability, migration potential and chemo-resistance in Mel-18 overexpressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggests Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells.

  19. Differential expression of phospholipase C epsilon 1 is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1 is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6% atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.

  20. Differential expression of phospholipase C epsilon 1 is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Ji, Jiajia; Qian, Qirong; Lu, Lungeng; Fu, Hualin; Jin, Weilin; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6%) atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.

  1. Radiological evaluation of early gastric cancer: analysis of 104 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1987-01-01

    During the two year period from January 1985 to December 1986, 161 cases were confirmed as early gastric cancer by pathologic mapping at Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, the authors reviewed 104 cases of early gastric cancer for the evaluation of diagnostic value of double contrast upper gastrointestinal series. Early gastric cancer was most common in 5th and 6th decade (64%) and male to female ratio was 2:1. Double contrast upper GI series could detect 97 out of 104 cases (93%). Among them, 62 cases were diagnosed as early gastric cancer, 32 as advanced gastric cancer and 3 as benign lesion. Detection rate according to the size was 100% in lesion larger than 2cm and 87% in lesion smaller than 2cm. Predictability of early gastric cancer according to size was 66% in lesion smaller than 3cm and 43% in lesion larger than 3cm. Detection rate according to the location of the tumor was almost similar between gastric body (94%) and antrum (93%), however was very low in anterior wall lesion (70%). Predictability of early gastric cancer was 69% in gastric body lesion, 52% in gastric antral lesion and 44% in greater curvature lesion. Detection rate according to the type of macrospecimen was 100% in type I, III and IIc+III. Type IIb showed the lowest detection rate (75%). Predictability of early gastric cancer was high in type IIc (68%) and low in type I (20%)

  2. Lesiones torácicas graves y el enfoque del control de daños Severe thoracic lesions and the damage control approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Miguel Morales Wong; Mario Michel Gómez Hernández; Alexander Ramos Godines; Rolando González Folch

    2008-01-01

    En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento del trauma grave con lesiones exanguinantes o sin ellas, pero son estas últimas las que más requieren un cambio de la forma de actuar en aras de mejorar la supervivencia. Tales estrategias quirúrgicas se han denominado cirugía de control de daños, que en esencia evita complicaciones como la tríada letal de acidosis, hipotermia y coagulopatía. A diferencia del control de daños en el abdomen, existen lesiones torácic...

  3. Single injection of basic fibroblast growth factor to treat severe vocal fold lesions and vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Lee, Yogaku; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Kunieda, Chikako; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    Severe vocal fold lesions such as vocal fold sulcus, scars, and atrophy induce a communication disorder due to severe hoarseness, but a treatment has not been established. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) therapies by either four-time repeated local injections or regenerative surgery for vocal fold scar and sulcus have previously been reported, and favorable outcomes have been observed. In this study, we modified bFGF therapy using a single of bFGF injection, which may potentially be used in office procedures. Retrospective chart review. Five cases of vocal fold sulcus, six cases of scars, seven cases of paralysis, and 17 cases of atrophy were treated by a local injection of bFGF. The injection regimen involved injecting 50 µg of bFGF dissolved in 0.5 mL saline only once into the superficial lamina propria using a 23-gauge injection needle. Two months to 3 months after the injection, phonological outcomes were evaluated. The maximum phonation time (MPT), mean airflow rate, pitch range, speech fundamental frequency, jitter, and voice handicap index improved significantly after the bFGF injection. Furthermore, improvement in the MPT was significantly greater in patients with (in increasing order) vocal fold atrophy, scar, and paralysis. The improvement in the MPT among all patients was significantly correlated with age; the MPT improved more greatly in younger patients. Regenerative treatments by bFGF injection—even a single injection—effectively improve vocal function in vocal fold lesions. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Evidence for gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves on indomethacin and stress induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatware, Ketan Vinayakrao; Sharma, Sanjay; Patil, Kiran; Shete, Meghanath; Karri, Sravani; Gupta, Gaurav

    2018-07-01

    The Cordia dichotoma (CD) is having anticancer and other pharmacological effects as it contains mainly flavonoids. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of CD leaves (MECD) obtained using Soxhlet extractor. In this study the qualitative phytochemical analysis of MECD revealed the presence of bioflavonoids and determination of quercetin was confirmed by HPLC analysis. The MECD was administered orally at doses 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration and stress-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. Omeprazole at 10 mg/kg orally was used as the reference standard. The various parameters like gastric volume, gastric pH, total acidity, ulcer index, percent protection were estimated for assessment of anti-secretory and gastroprotective effects of MECD. At the same time antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to that inflammatory parameters such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were also estimated according to their respective method of estimation using analyzing kit. The MECD have reduced gastric volume, total acidity and gastric mucosal damage in both the experimental models significantly and dose dependently as compared with control group. Similarly the antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT were increased while MDA levels were decreased significantly, at the same time TNF-α and IL-6 levels were decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels were increased significantly in MECD treated groups. Thus the pretreatment with MECD has shown significant gastroprotective potential probably due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Fiber tract-specific white matter lesion severity Findings in late-life depression and by AGTR1 A1166C genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Warren D; Zhao, Zheen; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Payne, Martha E; Steffens, David C; Krishnan, Ranga R; Hauser, Elizabeth; MacFall, James R

    2013-02-01

    Past work demonstrated that late-life depression is associated with greater severity of ischemic cerebral hyperintense white matter lesions, particularly frontal lesions. However, these lesions are also associated with other neuropsychiatric deficits, so these clinical relationships may depend on which fiber tracts are damaged. We examined the ratio of lesion to nonlesioned white matter tissue within multiple fiber tracts between depressed and nondepressed elders. We also sought to determine if the AGTR1 A1166C and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms contributed to vulnerability to lesion development in discrete tracts. The 3T structural MR images and blood samples for genetic analyses were acquired on 54 depressed and 37 nondepressed elders. Lesion maps were created through an automated tissue segmentation process and applied to a probabilistic white matter fiber tract atlas allowing for identification of the fraction of the tract occupied by lesion. The depressed cohort exhibited a significantly greater lesion ratio only in the left upper cingulum near the cingulate gyrus (F((1,86)) = 4.62, P = 0.0344), supporting past work implicating cingulate dysfunction in the pathogenesis of depression. In the 62 Caucasian subjects with genetic data, AGTR1 C1166 carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios across multiple tracts including the anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, BDNF Met allele carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios only in the frontal corpus callosum. Although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons, this study supports our hypothesis and provides preliminary evidence that genetic differences related to vascular disease may increase lesion vulnerability differentially across fiber tracts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol- and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailsford, S R; Fiske, J; Gilbert, S; Clark, D; Beighton, D

    2002-01-01

    To compare the clinical effects of a fluoride-containing varnish (Fluor-Protector) in combination with a chlorhexidine-containing varnish (Cervitec) on existing root caries lesions in a group of frail elderly subjects. A randomised double blind longitudinal study was utilised. Subjects (n = 102) were randomly allocated to a Test or Placebo group. All leathery and soft root caries lesions in all subjects were coated with Fluor-Protector while the lesions in the Test group were also coated with Cervitec and the lesions in the Placebo group were coated with a Placebo varnish. Treatments were repeated five times in a 12-month period. Clinical parameters associated with root caries, measurements of individual lesions and salivary levels of caries associated bacteria were made at intervals. The clinical severity of the lesions in the Test group did not change significantly during the 12-month study period. In the Placebo group the mean lesion width and lesion height and length of exposed root increased significantly and the lesions were significantly closer to the gingival margin. There were no significant changes in the salivary levels of caries-associated microorganisms after 12 months although, in both groups, there was initially a significant reduction in the salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The combination of Fluor-Protector and Cervitec is a useful, simple, quick and non-invasive method for the control and management of existing root caries lesions. The procedure could be performed by a dental hygienist and may be usefully applied in other high-risk groups including persons with Parkinson's disease, debilitating neuromuscular conditions and dry mouth from whatever cause. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does troncular vagotomy modify the proliferative gastric lesions induced in rats by duodenogastric reflux? A vagotomia troncular modifica as lesões proliferativas gástricas induzidas em ratos pelo refluxo duodenogástrico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to investigate if combining VT to DGR through the pylorus can modulate the biological behavior of PL induced by DGR and to verify if TV alone can induce morphologic lesions in the gastric mucosa. METHODS: 62 male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: 1 - Control (CT gastrotomy; 2 - Troncular Vagotomy (TV plus gastrotomy; 3 - Duodenogastric reflux through the pylorus (R and 4 - Troncular vagotomy plus DGR (RTV. The animals were killed at the 54 week of the experiment. DGR was obtained by anastomosing a proximal jejunal loop to the anterior gastric wall. TV was performed through isolation and division of the vagal trunks. Gastrotomy consisted of 1 cm incision at the anterior gastric wall. PL were analyzed gross and histologically in the antral mucosa, at the gastrojejunal stoma and at the squamous portion of the gastric mucosa. RESULTS: Groups R and RTV developed exophytic lesions in the antral mucosa (R=90.9%; RTV=100% and at the gastrojejunal stoma (R=54.54%; RTV=63.63%. Histologically they consisted of proliferative benign lesions, without cellular atypias, diagnosed as adenomatous hyperplasia. Both groups exposed to DGR presented squamous hyperplasia at the squamous portion of the gastric mucosa (R= 54.5%; RTV= 45.4%. TV, alone, did not induce gross or histological alterations in the gastric mucosa. TV did note change the morphologic pattern of the proliferative lesions induced by DGR. CONCLUSIONS: DGR induces the development of PL in the pyloric mucosa and at the gastrojejunal stoma. TV does not change the morphologic pattern of the proliferative lesions induced by DGR. TV alone is not able to induce morphologic lesions in the gastric mucosa.OBJETIVO: investigar se a adição da VT ao RDG através do piloro, interfere no comportamento biológico das LP induzidas pelo RDG e observar se a VT isoladamente leva ao desenvolvimento de lesões morfológicas na mucosa gástrica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 62 ratos Wistar machos, distribu

  9. Gender-Based Differences in Outcomes After Orbital Atherectomy for the Treatment of De Novo Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Mansourian, Pejman; Sethi, Sanjum; Shlofmitz, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the relationship between gender and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with severely calcified lesions who underwent orbital atherectomy. Female gender is associated with increased risk of adverse clinical events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Severe coronary artery calcification increases the complexity of PCI and increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Orbital atherectomy is effective in plaque modification, which facilitates stent delivery and expansion. Whether gender differences exist after orbital atherectomy is unclear. Our analysis retrospectively analyzed 458 consecutive real-world patients (314 males and 144 females) from three centers who underwent orbital atherectomy. The primary endpoint was the major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) rate, defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target-vessel revascularization (TVR), and stroke, at 30 days. The primary endpoint of MACCE was low and similar in females and males (0.7% vs 2.9%; P=.14). The individual endpoints of death (0.7% vs 1.6%; P=.43), MI (0.7% vs 1.3%; P=.58), TVR (0% vs 0%; P>.99), and stroke (0% vs 0.3%; P=.50) were low in both groups and did not differ. Angiographic complications were low: perforation (0.8% vs 0.7%; P>.90), dissection (0.8% vs 1.1%; P=.80), and no-reflow (0.8% vs 0.7%; P>.90). Plaque modification with orbital atherectomy was safe and provided similar angiographic and clinical outcomes between females and males. Randomized trials with longer-term follow-up are needed to support our results.

  10. Comparison of histological and molecular diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in benign lesions and gastric adenocarcinoma Comparação dos diagnósticos histológico e molecular do Helicobacter pylori em lesões benignas e adenocarcinomas gástricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonization is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia, adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the stomach. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the routinely used histology with molecular diagnosis for the detection of H. pylori. Eighty samples from gastric lesions (chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and intestinal metaplasia, 18 gastric adenocarcinoma and 10 normal mucosa H. pylori-negative (control samples were obtained. All samples were examined histologically (hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa staining, and PCR amplifications of the species-specific antigen gene (H3H4 and urease A gene segment (H5H6 of H. pylori were made, using the human gene CYP1A1 for DNA quality control. In the benign lesion and adenocarcinoma the infection was detected in 43% (42/98 and 71% (70/98 by histological and molecular diagnosis (p = 0.0001, respectively. The PCR test detected H. pylori in 27.5% (22/80 of the benign gastric lesions and in 50% (9/18 of the gastric adenocarcinoma cases, the histological diagnosis being negative for this bacterium. About 2.5% of the samples, exclusively from benign lesions and with a positive histological diagnosis, showed negative molecular results for both primers. Statistically significant differences were found between the histological and the molecular method in intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.0461 and gastric adenocarcinoma (p = 0.0011, due to underdetection of H. pylori by the histological method, which is probably due to the low density of the bacterium as a consequence of the severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa. Our findings suggest that PCR is the more efficient method for the assessment of H. pylori infection, especially in metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.A colonização do Helicobacter pylori está associada com gastrite crônica, úlcera péptica, metaplasia intestinal, adenocarcinoma e linfoma gástrico. O objetivo desse estudo foi

  11. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  12. Clonality Analysis of Helicobacter pylori in Patients Isolated from Several Biopsy Specimens and Gastric Juice in a Japanese Urban Population by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariaki Toita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of Helicobacter pylori clones infecting a single host has been discussed in numerous reports. The number has been suggested to vary depending on the regions in the world. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of clones infecting a single host in a Japanese urban population. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one Japanese patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in this study. H. pylori isolates (total 104 strains were obtained from biopsy specimens (antrum, corpus, and duodenum and gastric juice. Clonal diversity was examined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting method. Results. The RAPD fingerprinting patterns of isolates from each patient were identical or very similar. And the isolates obtained from several patients with 5- to 9-year intervals showed identical or very similar RAPD patterns. Conclusion. Each Japanese individual of an urban population is predominantly infected with a single H. pylori clone.

  13. The potential cost-effectiveness of the Diamondback 360® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System for treating de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions: an economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey; Généreux, Philippe; Lee, Arthur; Lewin, Jack; Young, Christopher; Crittendon, Janna; Mann, Marita; Garrison, Louis P

    2016-04-01

    Patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severely calcified coronary lesions have long been known to have worse clinical and economic outcomes than patients with no or mildly calcified lesions. We sought to assess the likely cost-effectiveness of using the Diamondback 360(®) Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) in the treatment of de novo, severely calcified lesions from a health-system perspective. In the absence of a head-to-head trial and long-term follow up, cost-effectiveness was based on a modeled synthesis of clinical and economic data. A cost-effectiveness model was used to project the likely economic impact. To estimate the net cost impact, the cost of using the OAS technology in elderly (⩾ 65 years) Medicare patients with de novo severely calcified lesions was compared with cost offsets. Elderly OAS patients from the ORBIT II trial (Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of OAS in Treating Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions) [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01092426] were indirectly compared with similar patients using observational data. For the index procedure, the comparison was with Medicare data, and for both revascularization and cardiac death in the following year, the comparison was with a pooled analysis of the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI)/Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trials. After adjusting for differences in age, gender, and comorbidities, the ORBIT II mean index procedure costs were 17% (p economic modeling, the recently approved coronary OAS device is projected to be highly cost-effective for patients who undergo PCI for severely calcified lesions. © The Author(s), 2015.

  14. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) related to chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases: factors predictive of severe SOS lesions and protective effect of bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Catherine; Sempoux, Christine; Humblet, Yves; van den Eynde, Marc; Zech, Francis; Leclercq, Isabelle; Gigot, Jean-François

    2013-11-01

    The most frequent presentation of chemotherapy-related toxicity in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The purpose of the present study was to identify preoperative factors predictive of SOS and to establish associations between type of chemotherapy and severity of SOS. A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary academic referral hospital. Patients suffering from CRLM who had undergone resection of at least one liver segment were included. Grading of SOS on the non-tumoral liver parenchyma was accomplished according to the Rubbia-Brandt criteria. A total of 151 patients were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the severity of SOS (grades 0-3). Multivariate analysis identified oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil as chemotherapeutic agents responsible for severe SOS lesions (P SOS lesions (P = 0.005). Univariate analysis identified the score on the aspartate aminotransferase : platelets ratio index (APRI) as the most significant biological factor predictive of severe SOS lesions. Splenomegaly is also significantly associated with the occurrence of severe SOS lesions. The APRI score and splenomegaly are effective as factors predictive of SOS. Bevacizumab has a protective effect against SOS. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  15. Predictors of Long-Term Remission and Relapse of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Following Gastric Bypass in Severely Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Vanessa Lopes Preto; Martins, Gianluca P; Mottin, Cláudio C; Rizzolli, Jacqueline; Friedman, Rogério

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes remission is not observed in all obese patients with type 2 diabetes submitted to bariatric surgery. Relapses occur in patients in whom remission is achieved. We investigated the factors associated with long-term (≥3 years) remission and relapse of type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in these patients. By a retrospective review, we analyzed data from 254 patients with type 2 diabetes who had undergone RYGB from May 2000 to November 2011 and had at least 3 years of follow-up. The criteria for remission and relapse of type 2 diabetes followed the current American Diabetes Association recommendations. Remission was achieved in almost 82% of participants (69.7% complete, and 12.2% partial remission). Of these, 12% relapsed within a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 2.0 years after surgery. Predictors of complete remission were younger age, better preoperative glycemic control, and shorter diabetes duration. Preoperative insulin use was associated with a ninefold increase in the relapse hazard (HR = 9.1 (95% CI: 3.3-25.4)). Use of two or more oral anti-diabetic agents increased the relapse hazard sixfold (HR = 6.1 (95% CI: 1.8-20.6)). Eighteen point one percent of patients did not achieve any remission during follow-up. However, they exhibited significant improvements in glycemic control. These data indicate that RYGB should not be delayed when remission of type 2 diabetes is a therapeutic goal, and also suggest that the best possible metabolic control should be sought in obese patients who may eventually be candidates for RYGB.

  16. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  17. Calcification remodeling index characterized by cardiac CT as A novel parameter to predict the use of rotational atherectomy for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Lu, Zhi Gang; Wei, Meng; Zhang, Jia Yin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2017-09-15

    To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation.

  18. Calcification remodeling index characterized by cardiac CT as A novel parameter to predict the use of rotational atherectomy for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Lu, Zhi Gang; Wei, Meng; Zhang, Jia Yin

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation.

  19. Calcification Remodeling Index Characterized by Cardiac CT as a Novel Parameter to Predict the Use of Rotational Atherectomy for Coronary Intervention of Lesions with Moderate to Severe Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengmeng; Li, Yuehua; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Zhigang; Wei, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Materials and Methods Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. Results A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Conclusion Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation. PMID:28860893

  20. Comparison of radiologic and pathologic findings of gastric MALToma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of gastric MALToma, and to correlate these with its pathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic slides of gastrectomy and gastroscopic biopsy specimens obtained between 1982 and 1996, and collected nine cases of gastric MALToma. Eight of these had been surgically confirmed, and one had been diagnosed by gastroscopic biopsy. A gastrointestinal series comprised eight cases; five involved sonography and five, CT. The lesions were located at the body in five cases, at the antrum in one, and at the body and antrum in three cases. Pathologic diagnosis was low grade MALToma in four cases, and mixed high and low grade MALToma in five cases. Initial radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in four cases, early gastric carcinoma in three, and advanced gastric carcinoma in two cases. On retrospective analysis, radiologic diagnosis was changed to lymphoma in both cases initially diagnosed as advanced gastric carcinomas. One case showed marked thickening of the gastric wall, with poor enhancement on CT, and the other case showed a very small and shallow ulcer in comparison to diffuse infiltration of tumor in the upper gastrointestinal series. The final radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in six cases, and early carcinoma in three. Radiologic findings of gastric MALToma were EGC II c-like lesion in three cases, marked gastric wall thickening in two, multiple discrete lesions in two, hyperugosity of gastric folds with discrete lesions in one, and diffuse infiltrative lesion with small ulcer in one case. The pathologic diagnosis of gastric MALToma was made by the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions, centrocyte-like cells, reactive follicles, plasma cell infiltration, and follicular colonization. There were no significant correlations between radiologic findings and pathologic results such as depth of tumor invasion, low grade MALToma or mixed high and low grade MALToma. There are no specific radiologic characteristics

  1. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  2. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis : A cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based

  3. Gastroprotection of Suaveolol, Isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats: Role of Prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide and Sulfhydryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg, and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg was attenuated by pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p., a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups.

  4. Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Sung Hye

    2013-03-01

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.

  5. ORBIT II sub-analysis: Impact of impaired renal function following treatment of severely calcified coronary lesions with the Orbital Atherectomy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Lee, Arthur C; Shlofmitz, Richard A; Martinsen, Brad J; Hargus, Nick J; Elder, Mahir D; Généreux, Philippe; Chambers, Jeffrey W

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of the coronary Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) to prepare severely calcified lesions for stent deployment in patients grouped by renal function. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of severely calcified lesions is associated with increased rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with PCI of non-calcified vessels. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for MACE after PCI. The impact of CKD on coronary orbital atherectomy treatment has not been well characterized. ORBIT II was a prospective, multicenter trial in the U.S., which enrolled 443 patients with severely calcified coronary lesions. The MACE rate was defined as a composite of cardiac death, MI, and target vessel revascularization. Of the 441 patients enrolled with known estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values at baseline, 333 (75.5%) patients had eGFR renal impairment had a higher MACE rate through one year follow-up due to a higher rate of periprocedural MI. Interestingly, the rates of cardiac death and revascularization through 1-year were similar in patients with eGFR renal impairment and severely calcified coronary lesions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis, gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer by magnifying endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Nei

    2016-10-01

    Evaluating the prevalence and severity of gastritis by endoscopy is useful for estimating the risk of gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, understanding the endoscopic appearances of gastritis is important for diagnosing GC due to the fact that superficial mucosal lesions mimicing gastritis (gastritis-like lesions) are quite difficult to be detected even with optimum preparation and the best technique, and in such cases tissue biopsy is often not very accurate for the diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia. Magnifying endoscopy is a highly accurate technique for the detection of early gastric cancer (EGC). Recent reports have described that various novel endoscopic markers which, visualized by magnifying endoscopy with image-enhanced system (ME-IEE), can predict specific histopathological findings. Using ME-IEE with vessels and surface classification system (VSCS) may represent an excellent diagnostic performance with high confidence and good reproducibility to the endoscopists if performed under consistent conditions, including observation under maximal magnification. The aim of this review was to discuss how to identify high-risk groups for GC by endoscopy, and how to detect effectively signs of suspicious lesions by conventional white light imaging (C-WLI) or chromoendoscopy (CE). Furthermore, to characterize suspicious lesions using ME-IEE using the criteria and classification of EGC based upon VSCS. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Relationship between severity of clinical symptoms and delay in gastric emptying in chronic gastritis; studied with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Zuccaro, A.M.; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-06-01

    The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time.

  8. Relationship between severity of clinical symptoms and delay in gastric emptying in chronic gastritis; studied with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Zuccaro, A.M.; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time. (orig.)

  9. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Japanese patients with severe obesity who received laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (LRYGB) in comparison to non-Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakizaki, Satoru; Takizawa, Daichi; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Nakajima, Yuka; Ichikawa, Takeshi; Sato, Ken; Takagi, Hitoshi; Mori, Masatomo; Kasama, Kazunori

    2008-01-01

    The number of patients with morbid obesity is increasing worldwide. However, the prevalence of morbid obesity is still low in Japan, and therefore few systematic investigations of liver dysfunction in this population have so far been carried out. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics in severe obese Japanese patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (LRYGB). Eighty-four patients with severe obesity, including 61 Japanese and 23 non-Japanese patients, were analyzed. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.7±7.8 kg/m 2 , and there was no difference between Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was observed in 45/59 (76.2%) of the Japanese patients. Although there were no differences in the BMI and body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was higher in Japanese patients in comparison to non-Japanese patients (P<0.05). The indices for insulin resistance were significantly higher in the Japanese patients in comparison to non-Japanese patients (P<0.01). The liver/spleen computed tomography (CT) ratios were lower in Japanese patients (P<0.05). The laboratory data and BMI significantly improved at 1 year after LRYGB in both groups. Racial difference may exist difference may exist in NAFLD in patients with severe obesity. When the BMI is similar, liver dysfunction among Japanese patients with severe obesity tends to be higher than in non-Japanese patients. Japanese patients with severe obesity must therefore reduce their body weight to a greater degree in comparison to non-Japanese patients with the same BMI. LRYGB can achieve effective weight control and lower ALT levels in Japanese patients with severe obesity. (author)

  11. Localized Gastric Amyloidosis with Kappa and Lambda Light Chain Co-Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hwan Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophagogastroduodenoscopy for cancer screening was performed in a 55-year-old woman as part of a health screening program, and revealed a depressed lesion approximately 20 mm in diameter in the lesser curvature of the mid-gastric body. Several biopsy specimens were collected as the lesion resembled early gastric cancer; however, histopathologic evaluation revealed chronic active gastritis with an ulcer and amorphous eosinophilic material deposition. Congo red staining identified amyloid proteins, and apple-green birefringence was shown using polarized light microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of kappa and lambda chain-positive plasma cells. There was no evidence of underlying plasma cell dyscrasia or amyloid deposition in other segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Echocardiography and computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not show any significant findings. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with localized gastric amyloidosis with kappa and lambda light chain coexpression.

  12. Diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign gastric inflammatory hyperplasic polyps are benign lesions that rarely occur in young age. We report a case of diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps in a 19 year old boy who presented with cough, nausea, and hematamesis. In the presented case symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are non ...

  13. Effect of Dahuang Huanglian Xiexin decoction intervention in gastric juice components and tumor markers in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis with gastric precancerous lesions%大黄黄连泻心汤对慢性萎缩性胃炎胃液成分及肿瘤标记物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许树才

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨大黄黄连泻心汤治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎胃癌前病变的疗效及对患者胃液成分及肿瘤标记物的影响. 方法 慢性萎缩性胃炎胃癌前病变患者94例,随机分成对照组和观察组各47例. 对照组:接受常规西医治疗. 观察组:接受常规西医治疗,同时结合中药汤剂大黄黄连泻心汤治疗.结果 观察组总有效率为85.11%高于对照组总有效率61.70%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05). 治疗后,观察组患者的症状积分低于对照组患者的症状积分,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗后,观察组患者的游离酸水平(18.6±5.2)g/L、总酸水平(42.0±10.5)g/L高于对照组患者的游离酸水平(13.7±4.4)g/L、总酸水平(总酸水平(30.2±8.7)g/ L,差异具有统计学意义(P<0. 01).治疗后,观察组患者的乳酸(49.5±7.3)mmol/ L?亚硝酸盐(71. 9±13.6) mg 低于对照组患者的乳酸(63.2±9.1) mmol/ L?亚硝酸盐(118.1±19.8)mg,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗后,观察组患者胃液及血液中糖链抗原19-9(CA19-9)?糖链抗原125(CA125)?糖链抗原72-4(CA72-4)与癌胚抗原(CEA) 水平均低于对照组患者胃液中CA19-9?CA125?CA72-4 与CEA,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 大黄黄连泻心汤用于治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎胃癌前病变疗效确切,可显著缓解患者的症状,并能够有效改善胃液成分?降低机体内肿瘤标记物的含量,抑制胃癌前病变的进展.%Objective To investigate the effect of Dahuang Huanglian Xiexin decoction intervention in gastric juice components and tumor markers in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis of gastric precancerous lesions. Methods 94 cases of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis of gastric pre-cancerous lesions were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 47 cases in each. The control group were given conventional western medicine treatment. The observation group were given con-ventional western medicine

  14. Improvement of quality of life and survival using self-expandable metal stent placement for severe malignant stenosis of the gastric body: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumagai Hozumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Advanced gastric carcinoma often decreases quality of life because of upper gastrointestinal tract stenosis. Self-expandable metal stents have been thought to be an effective, minimally invasive treatment for stenosis. However, the effectiveness of self-expandable metal stent placement for carcinomatous stenosis of the gastric body and antrum has not been clarified, and there have been few reports of such cases. Case presentation A 74-year-old Japanese woman developed stenosis of the gastric body and antrum caused by advanced gastric cancer during first-line chemotherapy. She developed weight loss and poor nutrition due to inadequate intake. Self-expandable metal stent placement for stenosis of the gastric body and antrum ameliorated her symptoms rapidly and improved her general condition and quality of life. Eight days after self-expandable metal stent placement, second-line chemotherapy could be administered safely. Oral intake and nutritional status were maintained for 117 days after self-expandable metal stent placement, and she died of gastric cancer 176 days after self-expandable metal stent placement and initiation of second-line chemotherapy. Conclusions Self-expandable metal stent placement for carcinomatous stenosis in the gastric body and antrum could be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with inadequate oral uptake. It may provide rapid improvement of the patient’s general condition and oral intake with minimal complications, comparatively long-term symptom relief, and a survival benefit by allowing second-line chemotherapy.

  15. Studies on Several Hormone Responses Following Intravenous Alimentation: Insulin and growth hormone responses following oral or intravenous alimentation in patient with far advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H K; Koh, J H; Ryu, Y W; Lee, J O; Lee, C W; Kim, J Y; Lee, J K [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    Glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone responses following glucose for amino acids administration by means of parenteral or oral load were studied in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. Hormone responses following nutrients load showed in patients with gastric cancer were compared to those of healthy subjects. Results were as follows:1) Blood sugar appearance following oral glucose administration was diminished in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. 2) The insulin responses of gastric cancer following oral glucose were also diminished as compared to that of normal subjects and were identical with parenteral route. 3) Parenteral administration of glucose or amino acids to patients with gastric cancer resulted in a increase of plasma growth hormone level. 4) Lower insulin response to amino acids was observed on parenteral administration in patient with gastric cancer as in healthy subjects. 5) Author discussed that the low insulin response after oral glucose administration showed in gastric cancer, and any additional insulin requirement arise when longer periods of parenteral amino acid administration are necessary, as in the patient with malnutrition.

  16. Studies on Several Hormone Responses Following Intravenous Alimentation: Insulin and growth hormone responses following oral or intravenous alimentation in patient with far advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Koh, J. H.; Ryu, Y. W.; Lee, J. O.; Lee, C. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    Glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone responses following glucose for amino acids administration by means of parenteral or oral load were studied in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. Hormone responses following nutrients load showed in patients with gastric cancer were compared to those of healthy subjects. Results were as follows:1) Blood sugar appearance following oral glucose administration was diminished in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. 2) The insulin responses of gastric cancer following oral glucose were also diminished as compared to that of normal subjects and were identical with parenteral route. 3) Parenteral administration of glucose or amino acids to patients with gastric cancer resulted in a increase of plasma growth hormone level. 4) Lower insulin response to amino acids was observed on parenteral administration in patient with gastric cancer as in healthy subjects. 5) Author discussed that the low insulin response after oral glucose administration showed in gastric cancer, and any additional insulin requirement arise when longer periods of parenteral amino acid administration are necessary, as in the patient with malnutrition.

  17. Optical coherence tomography assessment of the mechanistic effects of rotational and orbital atherectomy in severely calcified coronary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Annapoorna S; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Pena, Jacobo; Motoyama, Sadako; Feig, Jonathan E; Meelu, Omar A; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Bhat, Arjun M; Panwar, Sadik; Baber, Usman; Sharma, Samin K

    2015-11-15

    This study sought to assess the mechanistic effect of rotational atherectomy (RA) and orbital atherectomy (OA) on heavily calcified coronary lesions and subsequent stent placement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). RA and OA are two main approaches to ablate coronary calcium. While small case reports have described the mechanistic effect of RA in calcified coronary lesions, there has been no imaging study to assess the effect of OA on coronary artery architecture and/or compare the effects of two atherectomy devices. This study analyzed 20 consecutive patients with OCT imaging performed after atherectomy and after stent implantation, RA (n = 10) and OA (n = 10). Postatherectomy OCT analysis identified tissue modification with deep dissections in around a third of lesions after RA and OA; however, post OA dissections ("lacunae") were significantly deeper (1.14 vs. 0.82 mm, P = 0.048). Post OA/RA lesions with dissections had significantly higher percentage of lipid rich plaques and smaller calcification arcs as compared to plaques without dissections. Stents after OA were associated with a significantly lower percent of stent strut malapposition than post RA stents (4.36 vs. 8.02%, P = 0.038). Although the incidence of dissections was comparable between RA and OA cases, OA resulted in deeper tissue modifications (lacunae) as shown by OCT imaging. The finding might provide an explanation for a better stent apposition after OA as compared to RA. Their impact on long-term outcome needs to be determined. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Morel-Lavallée lesion : Severely injured 13 year old after being run over].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, F C F; Brenner, T; Hofer, S; Weigand, M A; Grützner, P A; Kneser, U; Kremer, T; Franke, J; Müller, U

    2017-09-01

    Accidents in which a person is run over are often associated with multiple serious injuries. Immediate bleeding control is crucial. Pressure and shear stress at the borders of subcutaneous tissue to the muscle fascia can cause hypoperfusion and the emergence of blood-filled cavities that are associated with a high risk of infection and necrosis, a so-called Morel-Lavallée lesion. Insufficient therapy can lead to local complications and furthermore to live-threatening sepsis.

  19. Ganoderma Lucidum Pharmacopuncture for Teating Ethanol-induced Chronic Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Heung Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The stomach is a sensitive digestive organ that is susceptible to exogenous pathogens from the diet. In response to such pathogens, the stomach induces oxidative stress, which might be related to the development of both gastric organic disorders such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer, and functional disorders such as functional dyspepsia. This study was accomplished to investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP on chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: the normal, the control, the normal saline (NP and the GLP groups. In this study, the modified ethanol gastritis model was used. The rats were administrated 56% ethanol orally every other day. The dose of ethanol was 8 g/kg body weight. The normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated with injection of saline and GLP respectively. The control group received no treatment. Two local acupoints CV12 (中脘 and ST36 (足三里 were used. All laboratory rats underwent treatment for 15 days. On last day, the rats were sacrificed and their stomachs were immediately excised. Results: Ulcers of the gastric mucosa appeared as elongated bands of hemorrhagic lesions parallel to the long axis of the stomach. In the NP and GLP groups, the injuries to the gastric mucosal injuries were not as severe as they were in the control group. Wound healings of the chronic gastric ulcers was promoted by using GLP and significant alterations of the indices in the gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was demonstrated by gross appearance, histology and immunehistochemistry staining for Bcl-2-associated X (BAX, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol induced chronic gastric ulcer.

  20. The potential cost-effectiveness of the Diamondback 360® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System for treating de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions: an economic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey; Généreux, Philippe; Lee, Arthur; Lewin, Jack; Young, Christopher; Crittendon, Janna; Mann, Marita; Garrison, Louis P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severely calcified coronary lesions have long been known to have worse clinical and economic outcomes than patients with no or mildly calcified lesions. We sought to assess the likely cost-effectiveness of using the Diamondback 360® Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) in the treatment of de novo, severely calcified lesions from a health-system perspective. Methods and results: In the absence of a head-to-head trial and long-term follow up, cost-effectiveness was based on a modeled synthesis of clinical and economic data. A cost-effectiveness model was used to project the likely economic impact. To estimate the net cost impact, the cost of using the OAS technology in elderly (⩾ 65 years) Medicare patients with de novo severely calcified lesions was compared with cost offsets. Elderly OAS patients from the ORBIT II trial (Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of OAS in Treating Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions) [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01092426] were indirectly compared with similar patients using observational data. For the index procedure, the comparison was with Medicare data, and for both revascularization and cardiac death in the following year, the comparison was with a pooled analysis of the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI)/Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trials. After adjusting for differences in age, gender, and comorbidities, the ORBIT II mean index procedure costs were 17% (p < 0.001) lower, approximately US$2700. Estimated mean revascularization costs were lower by US$1240 in the base case. These cost offsets in the first year, on average, fully cover the cost of the device with an additional 1.2% cost savings. Even in the low-value scenario, the use of the OAS is cost-effective with a cost per life-year gained of US$11,895. Conclusions: Based on economic modeling

  1. Severe Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from Linear Gastric Ulcers in Large Hiatal Hernias: a Large Prospective Case Series of Cameron Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas O.; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Machicado, Gustavo A.; Dulai, Gareth S.; Hines, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims Cameron ulcers are a rare but clinically significant cause of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (SUGIH). Our aims were to describe (1) the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with Cameron ulcers causing hospitalization for SUGIH, (2) the differences between patients with occult vs. overt bleeding and (3) between patients treated surgically and medically. Patients and methods Over the past 17 years, all consecutive patients hospitalized in our two tertiary referral medical centers for severe UGIH or severe obscure GIH and entered into our large prospective databasis were screened for Cameron ulcer diagnosis. Results Cameron ulcers were diagnosed in 25 patients of 3960 patients with SUGIH (0.6%). 21 patients had follow-up (median [IQR] time of 20.4 months [8.5–31.8]). Patients were more often elderly females with chronic anemia, always had large hiatal hernias, and were usually referred for obscure SUGIH. Twelve (57.2%) patients were referred to surgery for rebleeding and recurrent blood loss while treated with high dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). 9 (42.8%) other patients continued PPI without any rebleeding during the follow-up. Patients with overt bleeding had significantly more prior hospitalizations for SUGIH, more often stigmata of hemorrhage on ulcers, and more red blood cell transfusions than patients with occult bleeding. However, there was no difference in rebleeding and mortality rates between the two groups. Conclusions Cameron ulcers in large hiatal hernias are an uncommon cause of SUGIH. Most of patients are referred for obscure GIH. The choice of medical vs. surgical therapy should be individualized. PMID:23616128

  2. Treatment of severe mitral regurgitation caused by lesions in both leaflets using multiple mitral valve plasty techniques in a small dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Yokoyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitral valve plasty (MVP is preferred over mitral valve replacement (MVR for mitral regurgitation in humans because of its favorable effect on quality of life. In small dogs, it is difficult to repair multiple lesions in both leaflets using MVP. Herein, we report a case of severe mitral regurgitation caused by multiple severe lesions in the posterior leaflet (PL in a mixed Chihuahua. Initially, we had planned MVR with an artificial valve. However, MVP combined with artificial chordal reconstruction of both leaflets, semicircular suture annuloplasty, and valvuloplasty using a newly devised direct scallop suture for the PL was attempted in this dog. The dog recovered well and showed no adverse cardiac signs, surviving two major operations. The dog died 4 years and 10 months after the MVP due to non-cardiovascular disease. Our additional technique of using a direct scallop suture seemed useful for PL repair involving multiple scallops in a small dog.

  3. Simultaneous occurrence of a severe Morel-Lavallée lesion and gluteal muscle necrosis as a sequela of transcatheter angiographic embolization following pelvic fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayoshi; Matsuda, Shuichi; Sakuragi, Atsushi; Tsukie, Tomio; Kawanabe, Keiichi

    2015-03-26

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic hemolymphatic collections caused by disruption of the interfascial planes between the subcutaneous soft tissue and muscle. Severe peripelvic Morel-Lavallée lesions have rarely been reported in the literature. By contrast, a number of cases of gluteal muscle necrosis following transcatheter angiographic embolization for pelvic fracture have been reported. Each entity can result in severe infection and sepsis, and the mortality rate in such cases is quite high. However, to date, no previous reports have described a case in which these life-threatening entities occurred simultaneously. A 32-year-old Asian man simultaneously developed severe peripelvic Morel-Lavallée lesions and gluteal muscle necrosis with sepsis following transcatheter angiographic embolization after an unstable pelvic fracture. Extremely large skin and soft tissue defects, which were untreatable with any commonly used flaps, were generated after repeated debridement. In addition, a deep-bone infection was suspected in his left fractured iliac bone, while motor function was almost completely lost in his left leg, possibly as a sequela of transcatheter angiographic embolization. As a result of his condition, a left hemipelvectomy was unavoidable. A pedicled fillet flap from his sacrificed left limb was used for the treatment of the defects and to provide a durable base for a prosthesis. Our patient survived and returned to his previous job 24 months after the surgery wearing a prosthetic left leg. As illustrated by the present case, severe peripelvic Morel-Lavallée lesions and gluteal muscle necrosis following transcatheter angiographic embolization can occur simultaneously after unstable pelvic fractures. Physicians should recognize that these entities can result in life-threatening sepsis and, therefore, should attempt to detect them as early as possible. When hemipelvectomy is unavoidable, a pedicled upper and lower leg in-continuity fillet flap may

  4. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Garcia HA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastric obstructive symptoms. However, severe acute gastric volvulus can result in complete gastric outlet obstruction and ischemia. Consequently, acute gastric volvulus warrants immediate evaluation and management. The goals of management are to relieve the obstruction and prevent recurrent volvulus. Techniques to manage gastric volvulus depend on patient characteristics and the presence of gastric ischemia. In the absence of gastric ischemia, gastric volvulus can be managed with anterior abdominal wall gastropexy or paraesophageal hernia repair. If gastric ischemia is present, operative resection of the affected portion of the stomach is indicated. When operative management is indicated, many patients with gastric volvulus can be managed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic, endoscopic, or laparoendoscopic techniques. Keywords: gastric volvulus, paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia

  5. Local CD34-positive capillaries decrease in mouse models of kidney disease associating with the severity of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Abdul; Ichii, Osamu; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Nakamura, Teppei; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-04

    The renal vasculature plays important roles in both homeostasis and pathology. In this study, we examined pathological changes in the renal microvascular in mouse models of kidney diseases. Glomerular lesions (GLs) in autoimmune disease-prone male BXSB/MpJ-Yaa (Yaa) mice and tubulointerstitial lesions (TILs) in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for 7 days were studied. Collected kidneys were examined using histopathological techniques. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05) was performed to compare healthy controls and the experimental mice. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare three or more groups, and multiple comparisons were performed using Scheffe's method when significant differences were observed (P < 0.05). Yaa mice developed severe autoimmune glomerulonephritis, and the number of CD34 + glomerular capillaries decreased significantly in GLs compared to that in control mice. However, UUO-treated mice showed severe TILs only, and CD34 + tubulointerstitial capillaries were decreased significantly in TILs with the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared to those in untreated control kidneys. Infiltrations of B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages increased significantly in the respective lesions of both disease models (P < 0.05). In observations of vascular corrosion casts by scanning electron microscopy and of microfil rubber-perfused thick kidney sections by fluorescence microscopy, segmental absences of capillaries were observed in the GLs and TILs of Yaa and UUO-treated mice, respectively. Further, transmission electron microscopy revealed capillary endothelial injury in the respective lesions of both models. The numbers of CD34 + glomerular and tubulointerstitial capillaries were negatively correlated with all examined parameters in GLs (P < 0.05) and TILs (P < 0.01), respectively. From the analysis of mouse models, we identified inverse pathological correlations between the number of

  6. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

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    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  7. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young

    1985-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen

  8. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen.

  9. Prevention of ethanol-induced vascular injury and gastric mucosal lesions by sucralfate and its components: possible role of endogenous sulfhydryls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S.; Brown, A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that sucralfate, which contains eight sulfate and aluminum molecules on a sucrose and its other components might decrease ethanol-induced vascular injury and hemorrhagic mucosal lesions through a sulfhydryl (SH)-sensitive process. Experiments performed in rats revealed that the entire sucralfate molecule is not a prerequisite for protection against ethanol-induced mucosal vascular injury and erosions. It appears that sulfate and sucrose octasulfate are potent components of sucralfate, although an equimolar amount of sucralfate is at least twice as effective in gastroprotection than its components. The SH alkylator N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotection by sucralfate, suggesting SH-sensitive process in the mucosal protection which seems to be associated with the prevention of rapidly developing vascular injury in the stomach of rats given ethanol.

  10. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Development of occlusive neointimal lesions in distal pulmonary arteries of endothelin B receptor-deficient rats: a new model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2005-06-07

    Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ET(B) receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ET(B) receptor-deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT(+/+)) and ET(B) receptor-deficient (MCT(sl/sl)) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCT(sl/sl) rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCT(sl/sl) rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ET(B) receptors was decreased in MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs, ET(A) receptor expression increased. Deficiency of the ET(B) receptor markedly accelerates the progression of

  12. Development of Occlusive Neointimal Lesions in Distal Pulmonary Arteries of Endothelin B Receptor–Deficient Rats: A New Model of Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Background Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ETB receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ETB receptor–deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. Methods and Results The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT+/+) and ETB receptor–deficient (MCTsl/sl) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCTsl/sl rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCTsl/sl rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCTsl/sl rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ETB receptors was decreased in MCTsl/sl rat lungs, ETA receptor expression increased. Conclusions Deficiency of the ETB receptor markedly

  13. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo

    1992-01-01

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using 99m Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 ± 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 ± 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 ± 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54± 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 ± 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 ± 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 ± 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 ± 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 ± 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 ± 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 ± 14.6 min and 40 ± 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 ± 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and disease

  14. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 +- 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 +- 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 +- 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54+- 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 +- 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 +- 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 +- 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 +- 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 +- 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 +- 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 +- 14.6 min and 40 +- 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 +- 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and

  15. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  16. Lower fetuin-A, retinol binding protein 4 and several metabolites after gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Jüllig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bypass of foregut secreted factors promoting insulin resistance is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms by which resolution of type 2 diabetes (T2D follows roux-en-y gastric bypass (GBP surgery. AIM: To identify insulin resistance-associated proteins and metabolites which decrease more after GBP than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG prior to diabetes remission. METHODS: Fasting plasma from 15 subjects with T2D undergoing GBP or SG was analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods 3 days before and 3 days after surgery. Subjects were matched for age, BMI, metformin therapy and glycemic control. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. For proteomics, samples were depleted of abundant plasma proteins, digested with trypsin and labeled with iTRAQ isobaric tags prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Metabolomic analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effect of the respective bariatric surgery on identified proteins and metabolites was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance and appropriate post-hoc tests. RESULTS: HOMA-IR improved, albeit not significantly, in both groups after surgery. Proteomic analysis yielded seven proteins which decreased significantly after GBP only, including Fetuin-A and Retinol binding protein 4, both previously linked to insulin resistance. Significant decrease in Fetuin-A and Retinol binding protein 4 after GBP was confirmed using ELISA and immunoassay. Metabolomic analysis identified significant decrease of citrate, proline, histidine and decanoic acid specifically after GBP. CONCLUSION: Greater early decrease was seen for Fetuin-A, Retinol binding protein 4, and several metabolites after GBP compared to SG, preceding significant weight loss. This may contribute to enhanced T2D remission observed following foregut bypass procedures.

  17. A rare case of severe third degree friction burns and large Morel-Lavallee lesion of the abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darnell J; Lu, Kuo Jung G; Chang, Kristina; Levin, Jennifer; Schulz, John T; Goverman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLLs) are rare internal degloving injuries typically caused by blunt traumatic injuries and most commonly occur around the hips and in association with pelvic or acetabular fractures. MLL is often overlooked in the setting of poly-trauma; therefore, clinicians must maintain a high degree of suspicion and be familiar with the management of such injuries, especially in obese poly-trauma patients. We present a 30-year-old female pedestrian struck by a motor vehicle who sustained multiple long bone fractures, a mesenteric hematoma, and full-thickness abdominal skin friction burn which masked a significant underlying abdominal MLL. The internal degloving caused significant devascularization of the overlying soft tissue and skin which required surgical drainage of hematoma, abdominal wall reconstruction with tangential excision, allografting, negative pressure wound therapy, and ultimately autografting. MLL is a rare, often overlooked, internal degloving injury. Surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion when dealing with third degree friction burns as they may mask underlying injuries such as MLL, and a delay in diagnosis can lead to increased morbidity.

  18. Glyoxalase 1 overexpression does not affect atherosclerotic lesion size and severity in ApoE-/- mice with or without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen, Nordin M J; Brouwers, Olaf; Gijbels, Marion J

    2014-01-01

    are higher in rupture-prone plaques. We here investigated whether overexpression of human GLO1 in ApoE(-/-) mice could reduce the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We crossed C57BL/6 ApoE(-/-) mice with C57BL/6 GLO1 overexpressing mice (huGLO1(+/-)) to generate ApoE(-/-) (n = 16) and Apo......E(-/-) huGLO1(+/-) (n = 20) mice. To induce diabetes, we injected a subset with streptozotocin (STZ) to generate diabetic ApoE(-/-) (n = 8) and ApoE(-/-) huGLO1(+/-) (n = 13) mice. All mice were fed chow and sacrificed at 25 weeks of age. The GLO1 activity was three-fold increased in huGLO1(+/-) aorta......, but aortic root lesion size and phenotype did not differ between mice with and without huGLO1(+/-) overexpression. We detected no differences in gene expression in aortic arches, in AGE levels and cytokines, in circulating cells, and endothelial function between ApoE(-/-) mice with and without huGLO1...

  19. Increased Serum Pepsinogen II Level as a Marker of Pangastritis and Corpus-Predominant Gastritis in Gastric Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan

    2016-02-01

    Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.

  20. Nutrient re-routing and altered gut-islet cell crosstalk may explain early relief of severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, M S; Toft-Nielsen, M B; Kristiansen, V B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with an increased risk of postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, but the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore examined the effect of re-routing of nutrient delivery on gut-islet cell crosstalk in a person...... insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 hypersecretion and eliminated postprandial hypoglycaemia, which emphasizes the importance of altered gut-islet cell crosstalk for glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Effects of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids in horses with induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the influence of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations in the gastric juice in horses with phenylbutazone (PBZ induced gastric ulcers and Correlate the gastroscopic findings with the VFA concentrations. Materials and methods. 15 horses were allotted in 3 groups. Group I (control received placebo during first 6 days (induction period and was treated with sucralfate for 2 weeks (treatment period. Groups II and III received PBZ during the induction phase. After 6 days, horses from group II received 70 mL of corn oil /100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks and horses from group III received 90 mL of corn oil/100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks. All horses were examined by gastroscopy at days 0, 7 and 21. The lesions were recorded and classified according to the number and severity. Samples from gastric fluid were taken to measure the concentrations of the acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. Results. Both PBZ protocols produced lesions in the both non-glandular and glandular areas of the stomach. All the treatments produced healing of the injured mucosa glandular. Neither of the two corn oil treatments affected healing of the gastric ulcers located in the non-glandular area. Conclusions. The concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were highest in the gastric juice. The corn oil and sucralfate did not lead to differences in the concentration of acetic acid and butyric acid.

  2. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  4. CT-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions: A survey of severe complication based on 9783 biopsies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Adachi, Shuji; Arai, Yasuaki; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Sakai, Fumikazu; Noguchi, Masayuki; Murata, Kiyoshi; Murayama, Sadayuki; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Mori, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to update the rate of severe complications following CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan via a mailed survey. Materials and methods: Postal questionnaires regarding CT-guided needle biopsy were sent out to multiple hospitals in Japan. The questions regarded: the total number and duration of CT-guided lung biopsies performed at each hospital, and the complication rates and numbers of pneumothorax, hemothorax, air embolism, tumor seeding, tension pneumothorax and other rare complications. Each severe complication was followed with additional questions. Results: Data from 9783 biopsies was collected from 124 centers. Pneumothorax was the most common complication, and occurred in 2412 (35%) of 6881 cases. A total of 39 (35%) hospitals reported 74 (0.75%) cases with severe complications. There were six cases (0.061%) with air embolism, six cases (0.061%) with tumor seeding at the site of the biopsy route, 10 cases (0.10%) with tension pneumothorax, six cases (0.061%) with severe pulmonary hemorrhage or hemoptysis, nine cases (0.092%) with hemothorax, and 27 cases (0.26%) with others, including heart arrest, shock, and respiratory arrest. From a total of 62 patients with severe complications, 54 patients (0.55%) recovered without sequela, however one patient (0.01%) recovered with hemiplegia due to cerebral infarction, and the remaining seven patients (0.07%) died. Conclusions: This is the first national study documenting severe complications with respect to CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan. The complication rate in Japan is comparable to internationally published figures. We believe this data will improve both clinicians as well as patients understanding of the risk versus benefit of CT-guided needle biopsy, resulting better decisions

  5. Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients had normal gastroduodenal mucosa. Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic ulcer disease had a point prevalence of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%, gastric erosions ...

  6. Social Cognition Impairments in Relation to General Cognitive Deficits, Injury Severity, and Prefrontal Lesions in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Milders, Maarten V.; Veenstra, Wencke S.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior are frequently found in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and are associated with an unfavorable outcome with regard to return to work and social reintegration. Neuropsychological tests measuring aspects of social cognition are thought to be

  7. The role of gastric scintigraphy in primary or post surgical disorders of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, R.; Lemann, M.; Rain, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric scintigraphy is the gold standard for the measurement of the gastric emptying of a meal because of its reliability and its reproducibility and the respect of physiological conditions. Moreover, this technique allows to measure the emptying of solid and liquid phases simultaneously. Symptoms motivating a gastric scintigraphy, suggest either a gastric stasis (dyspepsia) or a gastric incontinence (dumping syndrome). The two most frequent clinical conditions triggering this test are motility disorders following vagotomy, a delayed emptying of solids is often associated to an accelerated emptying of liquids. Gastric scintigraphy proves quite useful in these conditions, since the diagnosis of such complex abnormalities is uneasy to establish exclusively on a clinical basis. In idiopathic dyspepsia, gastric stasis is proved only in 50 % of the patients. However, a radionuclide study of gastric emptying is seldom ordered because of the common character and good tolerance of these symptoms. In everyday practice, gastric scintigraphy is considered only when gastric or intestinal obstructive lesions have been ruled out. A suggestive clinical picture and/or absence of a deteriorated general condition allow to prescribe a symptomatic treatment. More rarely, equivocal symptoms, degradation of the general condition and unresponsiveness to symptomatic drugs call for gastric scintigraphy. (authors). 241 refs., 2 figs

  8. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  9. Protective effect of bovine milk against HCl and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Lee, You-Suk; Ku, SaeKwang; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects of bovine milk on an acidified ethanol (HCl-ethanol) mixture that induced gastric ulcers in a mouse model. Mice received different doses of commercial fresh bovine milk (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg of body weight) by oral gavage once a day for 14 d. One hour after the last oral administration of bovine milk, the HCl-ethanol mixture was orally intubated to provoke severe gastric damage. Our results showed that pretreatment with bovine milk significantly suppressed the formation of gastric mucosa lesions. Pretreatment lowered gastric myeloperoxidase and increased gastric mucus contents and antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Administration of bovine milk increased nitrate/nitrite levels and decreased the malondialdehyde levels and the expression of proinflammatory genes, including transcription factor nuclear factor-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the stomach of mice. These results suggest that bovine milk can prevent the development of gastric ulcer caused by acid and alcohol in mice. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Convit

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe mucocutaneous (MCL and diffuse (DCL forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy .

  11. Image processing of early gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Umeda, Tokuo; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1992-01-01

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Grey scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions. (author)

  12. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  13. BALB/c mice infected with antimony treatment refractory isolate of Leishmania braziliensis present severe lesions due to IL-4 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Protection against infection is related to development of Th1 responses, but the mechanisms that mediate susceptibility are still poorly understood. Murine models have been the most important tools in understanding the immunopathogenesis of L. major infection and have shown that Th2 responses favor parasite survival. In contrast, L. braziliensis-infected mice develop strong Th1 responses and easily resolve the infection, thus making the study of factors affecting susceptibility to this parasite difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe an experimental model for the evaluation of the mechanisms mediating susceptibility to L. braziliensis infection. BALB/c mice were inoculated with stationary phase promastigotes of L. braziliensis, isolates LTCP393(R and LTCP15171(S, which are resistant and susceptible to antimony and nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Mice inoculated with LTCP393(R presented larger lesions that healed more slowly and contained higher parasite loads than lesions caused by LTCP15171(S. Inflammatory infiltrates in the lesions and production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β were similar in mice inoculated with either isolate, indicating that these factors did not contribute to the different disease manifestations observed. In contrast, IL-4 production was strongly increased in LTCP393(R-inoculated animals and also arginase I (Arg I expression. Moreover, anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb treatment resulted in decreased lesion thickness and parasite burden in animals inoculated with LTCP393(R, but not in those inoculated with LTCP15171(S. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the ability of L. braziliensis isolates to induce Th2 responses affects the susceptibility to infection with these isolates and contributes to the increased virulence and severity of disease associated with them. Since these data reflect

  14. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  15. Pneumatosis in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Saunders, H Mark; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Retrospectively, 243 dogs with radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) were studied for radiographic signs of pneumatosis (intramural gas), pneumoperitoneum, splenomegaly, and severity of gastric distention. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of these imaging signs as predictors of gastric wall necrosis, as determined by visual inspection at surgery or necropsy, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of gastric pneumatosis were 14.1% and 92.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gastric wall necrosis was 26.6%. The positive and negative predictive values of gastric pneumatosis for predicting gastric necrosis were 40.9% and 74.9%, respectively. Gastric pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum were identified together in four dogs. Pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in conjunction with pneumatosis, yielded similar results as a test for gastric necrosis. Splenomegaly and severity of gastric distention were insensitive and nonspecific for gastric wall necrosis. Splenomegaly did not predict the need for splenectomy at surgery. Although pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum are relatively specific signs of gastric wall necrosis, the utility of these signs as a test for gastric necrosis is limited in clinical practice. The significance of pneumatosis should be taken into consideration with previous treatments for gastric decompression, as percutaneous gastric trocharization or orogastric intubation may increase the number of false-positive results.

  16. A new index for differential diagnosis between mild hepatic lesions associated with chronic alcoholism (steatosis, steatofibrosis) and severe alcoholic liver disease (cirrhosis) by a combination of an aminopyrine breath test and a colloid hepatosplenic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, D.; Jeghers, O.; Lenaers, A.; Wanet, P.; Abramovici, J.; Preux, C.

    1984-01-01

    The severity of liver disease is related not only to the degree of hepatocellular lesions but also to the hemodynamic changes created by extensive fibrosis. Theoretically, the combination of two tests providing information on these two aspects should allow a better identification of patients with severe alcoholic liver disease. In the present work our new functional index clearly improves the ability in differentiating mild alcoholic hepatic lesions from alcoholic cirrhosis. (orig.)

  17. Clinicopathological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous gastric neoplasms after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Young; Oh, Wang Guk; Ko, Sung Jun; Han, Shang Hoon; Baek, Hoon Ki; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Ji Woong; Jung, Gum Mo; Cho, Yong Keun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for gastric neoplasms. However, the development of synchronous or metachronous gastric lesions after endoscopic resection has become a major problem. We investigated the characteristics of multiple gastric neoplasms in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) or gastric adenoma after ESD. Methods In total, 512 patients with EGC or gastric adenoma who had undergone ESD between January 2008 and December 2011 participated in this study. The incidence of and factors associated with synchronous and metachronous gastric tumors were investigated in this retrospective study. Results In total, 66 patients (12.9%) had synchronous lesions, and 13 patients (2.5%) had metachronous lesions. Older (> 65 years) subjects had an increased risk of multiple gastric neoplasms (p = 0.012). About two-thirds of the multiple lesions were similar in macroscopic and histological type to the primary lesions. The median interval from the initial lesions to the diagnosis of metachronous lesions was 31 months. The annual incidence rate of metachronous lesions was approximately 3%. Conclusions We recommend careful follow-up in patients of advanced age (> 65 years) after initial ESD because multiple lesions could be detected in the remnant stomach. Annual surveillance might aid in the detection of metachronous lesions. Large-scale, multicenter, and longer prospective studies of appropriate surveillance programs are needed. PMID:24307844

  18. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  19. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  20. Endoscopic Treatment of a Gastric Dieulafoy's Lesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was started empirically on Helicobacter pylori kit for. 14 days and planned to undergo repeat hemoglobin checks after 1 and 4 weeks. She was also advised to avoid use of NSAIDs. Ten days later, the patient had another episode of vomiting fresh blood of reported approximately. 500mL and her hemoglobin dropped to ...

  1. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  2. Reproducibilidad del diagnóstico histopatológico de lesiones precursoras del carcinoma gástrico en tres países latinoamericanos Reproducibility of histopathologic diagnosis of precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma in three Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kasamatsu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la concordancia en el diagnóstico de lesiones precursoras del carcinoma gástrico de tipo intestinal entre observadores con diferente experiencia. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 1 056 casos de biopsias gástricas: 341 de Colombia, 382 de México y 333 de Paraguay. En el diagnóstico de cada caso participaron patólogos sin experiencia en patología gastrointestinal (A, patólogos con experiencia en patología gastrointestinal (B y expertos que trabajan en un centro de referencia internacional (C. Resultados. La concordancia (k entre patólogos inexpertos y expertos fue pobre en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica (k=0.04 a 0.12 y displasia (k=0.11 a 0.05 y buena en el diagnóstico de metaplasia intestinal (k=0.52 a 0.58; la supervisión de un patólogo inexperto por un experto mejoró notablemente la concordancia en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica (k=0.65 y metaplasia intestinal (k=0.91 y, en un menor grado, de displasia (k=0.28. Al comparar la concordancia entre expertos antes y después de la reunión de consenso no hubo variación en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica (k=0.57; la concordancia varió de buena a excelente en el de metaplasia intestinal (k=0.67 a 0.81 y de pobre a buena en el de displasia (k=0.18 a 0.66. Conclusión. Los principales problemas se presentan en el diagnóstico de la gastritis crónica atrófica y la displasia. La concordancia interobservador depende de la experiencia del observador y la lectura de consenso.Objective. The aim was to evaluate the concordance in the diagnosis of precursor lesions of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma among observers with different levels of experience. Material and Methods. Gastric biopsies from 1 056 cases were studied: 341 from Colombia, 382 from Mexico, and 333 from Paraguay. Pathologists without experience (A and with experience (B in gastrointestinal pathology, as well as experts working in an international reference center (C participated in

  3. Diagnosis of the ulcerous and erosive gastroduodenal lesions with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccaro, A.M.; Rocha, A.F.G. da; Palencia, I.I.B.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gastric scintigraphy with technetium 99-m labeled sucralfate is analysed in a study of 25 cases evolving: controls (five), duodenal ulcer (six case), gastric ulcer (four), gastric and duodenal ulcer (two) and gastric mucous acute erosive lesion (eight). All patients were previously submitted to endoscopy and biopsy. Changes in the techniques of other authors were performed. An accurate diagnosis was achieved in 95% of the cases with a specificity of 100%. It is concluded that the method is indicated for the investigation of critical patients, elderly patients, children for the control of lesions identified through endoscopy. (author)

  4. 1 Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and diffuse benign gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Benign gastric inflammatory hyperplasic polyps are benign lesions that rarely occur in young age. We report a case of diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps in a 19 year old male patient who presented with cough, nausea, and haematemesis. In the presented case symptoms such as nausea and.

  5. THE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe ...

  6. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Romano, Stefania; Rossi, Giovanni; Muto, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions

  7. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassandro, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.lassandro@fastwebnet.it; Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Muto, Roberto [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Cappabianca, Salvatore [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions.

  8. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikata Hara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are very rare. As characteristics of breast cancer metastases to the stomach, metastases of lobular carcinoma, mainly with signet ring cells, are frequently observed, and they are often difficult to distinguish from a primary gastric cancer with signet ring cells. Moreover, because no characteristic symptoms are shown and they involve a submucosal lesion, it is difficult to make a radiographic diagnosis. However, if a gastric lesion is observed after breast carcinoma surgery, differentiation between a gastric primary lesion and a metastatic lesion is very important in order to determine treatment. We encountered a case that was diagnosed as early gastric cancer discovered using an endoscope 2 years after surgery and which was found to be breast cancer metastasis to the stomach by gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP and cytokeratin (CK 7/20 immunostaining of the biopsy tissue. Here, we report our findings of this unique case.

  9. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Gastric Sleeve Surgery What's in ... or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  10. Differential diagnosis of gastric adenoma and type IIa early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchigame, T.; Ogata, Y.; Sumi, M.; Fukui, K.; Saito, R.; Nakashima, K.; Urata, J.; Arakawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The endoscopic and radiographic findings of 45 gastric adenomas in 39 patients were followed for 6 months to 13 years and compared with type IIa early gastric cancer observed in 9 patients. Difficulties in the diffential diagnosis of these disorders were evaluated. The following features were suggestive of gastric adenomas: clustered lesions; protuberance with gentle slope; smooth surface; and relatively young patients. Discrimination of adenoma from type IIa early gastric cancer is often difficult by visual observation alone; biopsy was essential in most patients. A group III adenoma verified on biopsy should be followed closely because the lesion may harbor a cancer (so-called carcinoma-in-adenoma) or a cancer may later develop. (orig.)

  11. Efeito de um hidrolisado de proteínas de soro de leite e de seus peptídeos na proteção de lesões ulcerativas da mucosa gástrica de ratos Effects of a whey protein concentrate and it's peptides in the protection of ulcerative lesions at rat gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade do hidrolisado das proteínas de soro de leite bovino e uma fração de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular (peso molecular OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of bovine whey protein hydrolysate and its low molecular weight fraction (molecular weight <1kDa to protect the gastric mucosa of rats against ulcerative process induced by three different agents. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were subjected to the indomethacin-induced ulcer (30mg/kg body weigh, absolute ethanol (1ml/animal and immobilization and cold stress (4(0C/2h, models. RESULTS: Whey protein hydrolysate was obtained by treatment with pancreatin to a degree of hydrolysis of 20% and fractionated using a tangential flow membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1kDa to obtain the fraction containing low molecular weight peptides (<1kDa. In the ethanol-induced acute ulcer model (single dose, whey protein hydrolysate inhibited the gastric lesion index by 65.5% and the double dose resulted in a 77.4% inhibition. CONCLUSION: For the anti-inflammatory model, the cytoprotective effect of low molecular weight peptides was stronger than that of total hydrolysate (53.1 and 71.6%, ulcerative lesion index for single and double dose, respectively. No mucosa cytoprotective activity was found for whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate or WPHP in the immobilization and cold stress model.

  12. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Honda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO or gastric pneumatosis (GP. In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  13. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  14. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  15. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting. Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.M.; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm 3 vs. 86.9 mm 3 , respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm 3 ) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm 3 and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions. (author)

  16. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting: Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Toma, Naoki; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Hirose, Tomofumi; Miura, Youichi; Fujimoto, Masashi; Matsushima, Satoshi; Taki, Waro

    2009-09-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm(3) vs. 86.9 mm(3), respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm(3)) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm(3) and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions.

  17. Whole lesion histogram analysis of meningiomas derived from ADC values. Correlation with several cellularity parameters, proliferation index KI 67, nucleic content, and membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Hamerla, Gordian; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Schob, Stefan; Fiedler, Eckhard

    2018-09-01

    To analyze several histopathological features and their possible correlations with whole lesion histogram analysis derived from ADC maps in meningioma. The retrospective study involved 36 patients with primary meningiomas. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated: ADC mean , ADC max , ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , ADC percentiles: P10, P25, P75, P90, as well kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. All measures were performed by two radiologists. Proliferation index KI 67, minimal, maximal and mean cell count, total nucleic area, and expression of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. A perfect interobserver agreement for all ADC values (0.84-0.97) was identified. All ADC values correlated inversely with tumor cellularity with the strongest correlation between P10, P25 and mean cell count (-0.558). KI 67 correlated inversely with all ADC values except ADC min . ADC parameters did not correlate with total nucleic area. All ADC values correlated statistically significant with expression of AQP4. ADC histogram analysis is a valid method with an excellent interobserver agreement. Cellularity parameters and proliferation potential are associated with different ADC values. Membrane permeability may play a greater role for water diffusion than cell count and proliferation activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastric cancer review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Peirce Carcas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease.

  19. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  20. Low grade gastric MALT lymphoma: Radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Carson, B.W.; Gascoyne, R.D.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Connors, J.M.; Mason, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: Gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma is now recognized as a distinct entity within extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic findings in low grade gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the radiographic findings in 22 cases of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. The study group consisted of 15 men and seven women (median age 68 years, range 41-91 years). Lesions were designated as infiltrative or polypoid by consensus of two radiologists. Polypoid lesions were categorized by number and size. Anatomical site within the stomach and presence of transpyloric or oesophagogastric extension was determined for each case. The presence of abdominal lymphadenopathy was categorized as regional or distant. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. RESULTS: Computed tomography (CT) revealed abnormalities of the stomach in 19 cases of the 21 in which it was performed. There were 14 infiltrative lesions and five polypoid lesions. Of the 14 infiltrative lesions, the mean gastric wall thickness was 2.2 cm (range 0.8-6.0 cm). There were three single and two multiple polypoid lesions (mean size 2.2 cm, range 1.5-2.7 cm). Transpyloric extension was observed in two cases and oesophagogastric extension in one. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was observed in 10 of 21 patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 19 of 22 cases (86%). CONCLUSION: Low grade B cell gastric MALT lymphomas present with an infiltrative form on CT in about three-quarters of cases and a polypoid pattern in the remainder. Abdominal lymphadenopathy is seen in approximately one-half of cases. There is a high association with Helicobacter pylori. Brown, J.A. 2000. Clinical Radiology 55, 384-389

  1. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  2. Male non-insulin users with type 2 diabetes mellitus are predisposed to gastric corpus-predominant inflammation after H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jong; Wu, Chung-Tai; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, Chin-Han; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-10-30

    Both H. pylori infection and diabetes increase the risk of gastric cancer. This study investigated whether patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation and higher prevalence of precancerous lesions than non-diabetic controls. A total of 797 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for H. pylori, of whom 264 had H. pylori infection. Of these patients, 129 received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to obtain topographic gastric specimens for gastric histology according to the modified Updated Sydney System, corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI), Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment, and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled as controls. The male as well as total T2DM patients had higher acute/chronic inflammatory and lymphoid follicle scores in the corpus than non-diabetic controls (p H. pylori-infected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation than non-diabetic controls. Moreover, male gender and non-insulin users of T2DM patients were predisposed to have corpus-predominant gastritis after H. pylori infection. ClinicalTrial: NCT02466919 , retrospectively registered may 17, 2015.

  3. Gastric microbiota and carcinogenesis: the role of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Jácome, Emanuel; Libânio, Diogo; Borges-Canha, Marta; Galaghar, Ana; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. However, recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have revealed a complex microbial community in the stomach that could also contribute to the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to present recent scientific evidence regarding the role of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in gastric carcinogenesis. A systematic review of original articles published in PubMed in the last ten years related to gastric microbiota and gastric cancer in humans was performed. Thirteen original articles were included. The constitution of gastric microbiota appears to be significantly affected by gastric cancer and premalignant lesions. In fact, differences in gastric microbiota have been documented, depending on Helicobacter pylori status and gastric conditions, such as non-atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Gastric carcinogenesis can be associated with an increase in many bacteria (such as Lactobacillus coleohominis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii) as well as decrease in others (such as Porphyromonas spp, Neisseria spp, Prevotella pallens or Streptococcus sinensis). However, there is no conclusive data that confirms if these changes in microbiota are a cause or consequence of the process of carcinogenesis. Even though there is limited evidence in humans, microbiota differences between normal individuals, pre-malignant lesions and gastric cancer could suggest a progressive shift in the constitution of gastric microbiota in carcinogenesis, possibly resulting from a complex cross-talk between gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the specific role (if any) of different microorganisms.

  4. Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Valenciano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment.

  5. Evaluation of gastric carcinoma with CT three-dimensional imaging compared with conventional barium study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shenghong; Chen Feng; Zheng Kai'er; Sun Jun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging including CT virtual gastroscopy (CTVG), surface-shaded display (SSD), and Raysum Display in the evaluation of gastric carcinoma compared with upper gastrointestinal series (UGI). Methods: In 43 histologically proved gastric carcinoma patients (37 advanced gastric carcinomas and 6 early gastric carcinomas), the results of CTVG and 3D CT imaging were compared to that of UGI. Two observers blindly evaluated images with all four techniques in terms of image quality, artifacts, diagnostic confidence, and Borrmann classification. Sensitivities of lesion detection and classification based on Borrmann classification of CTVG and 3D CT were determined by comparing them to surgical and histological findings. Results: The lesion detection sensitivity of CTVG, SSD, Raysum, and UGI by two observers were 98%, 67%, 60% and 84%, and 98%, 70%, 70% and 88%, respectively. The Borrmann's classification sensitivity by two observers were 76%, 49%, 38% and 49%, and 78%, 51%, 35% and 43%, respectively. Overall image quality of CTVG, SSD, and Raysum was considered similar to that of UGI by both observers (P>0.05). There was no statistical significant difference for advanced lesion (with diagnostic confidence of 3 or above) in detection sensitivity between CTVG and UGI (χ 2 = 0.50 and 0.25, P>0.05), but the lesion detection sensitivity of SSD and Raysum display were lower than that of UGI (χ 2 4.17, 7.11 and 5.14, 4.17, P 2 = 4.90 and 4.92, P 2 = 2.25, P > 0.05). Excess fluid remained in the stomach and patient respiratory movement during breath holds were the reasons causing severe artifacts (6.1%) that influenced the diagnostic evaluation. Conclusion: The performance of CTVG was equivalent to UGI in the Borrmann's classification. CTVG has potential in the detection of early gastric carcinoma. The value of SSD and Raysum display was limited in the evaluation of gastric carcinoma when used alone clinically

  6. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  7. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Dong A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III)) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  8. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  9. Mesentero-axial gastric volvulus after removal of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmadjid, N; Pournaras, D J; Huan, S; Sujendran, V

    2017-02-01

    Despite the decreasing popularity of gastric banding, a large number of patients still have a band in situ. Although immediate postoperative complications are relatively rare, long-term complications of gastric banding are more common but are not reported to occur after band removal. We report a case of gastric volvulus and subsequent ischaemic perforation in a patient shortly after band removal, resulting in emergency laparotomy and total gastrectomy. Severe continuing pain persisting after band deflation and even gastric band removal should be treated as an emergency and urgent investigation should not be delayed.

  10. Biochanin a gastroprotective effects in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulceration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Salehen, NurAin; Karimian, Hamed; Zahedifard, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Al Batran, Rami; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Biochanin A notable bioactive compound which is found in so many traditional medicinal plant. In vivo study was conducted to assess the protective effect of biochanin A on the gastric wall of Spraguedawley rats` stomachs. The experimental set included different animal groups. Specifically, four groups with gastric mucosal lesions were receiving either a) Ulcer control group treated with absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg), b) 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as reference group, c) 25 of biochanin A, d) 50 mg/kg of biochanin A. Histopathological sectioning followed by immunohistochemistry staining were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the different treatments on gastric wall mucosal layer. The gastric secretions were collected in the form of homogenate and exposed to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide enzyme (NO) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein content were measured. Ulceration and patchy haemorrhage were clearly observed by light microscopy. The morphology of the gastric wall as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent microscopic observations, exhibited sever deformity with notable thickness, oedematous and complete loss of the mucosal coverage however the biochanin-pretreated animals, similar to the omeprazole-pretreated animals, showed less damage compared to the ulcer control group. Moreover, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and down-regulation of Bax protein were detected in the biochanin A pre-treated groups and the gastric glandular mucosa was positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and the Leucocytes infiltration was commonly seen. Biochanin A displayed a great increase in SOD and NO levels and decreased the release of MDA. This gastroprotective effect of biochanin A could be attributed to the enhancement of cellular metabolic cycles perceived as an increase in the SOD, NO activity, and decrease in the level of MDA, and also decrease in level of Bax expression and increase the Hsp70 expression level.

  11. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  12. Sonographic Findings of Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus in a Young Infant: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yun Jung

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of sonographically-diagnosed mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in a neonate. Plain radiography revealed severe gaseous gastric distension. Ultrasonography (US) showed a displaced and compressed antrum and pylorus above the gastroesophageal junction. The provisional diagnosis was mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy and a mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was found. This case shows that US can be useful for diagnosing mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in neonates.

  13. Sonographic Findings of Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus in a Young Infant: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yun Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    We present a case of sonographically-diagnosed mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in a neonate. Plain radiography revealed severe gaseous gastric distension. Ultrasonography (US) showed a displaced and compressed antrum and pylorus above the gastroesophageal junction. The provisional diagnosis was mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy and a mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was found. This case shows that US can be useful for diagnosing mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in neonates.

  14. Gastric heterotopia in the rectum. A rare cause of ectopic gastric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, George A; Fazili, Javid; Ali, Tauseef

    2017-03-01

    Gastric heterotopia refers to the discovery of normal gastric tissue at foreign, unexpected sites. It has been described anywhere in the alimentary tract, even in the mediastinum, scrotum, and spinal cord. It is not uncommonly seen in the oesophagus or small intestine. However, large bowel lesions are rare, with the most common location of colonic lesions is the rectum. Although it is a rare entity, it may be the source for significant problems such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, deep rectal pain, and malignancy. Here, we report an additional case of gastric heterotopia in the rectum of a 56year old gentleman, and review the literature. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study of digital GI and CT in diagnosis of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiangrong; Chen Guoqin; Ding Xinmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital GI and CT in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Methods: Total 42 patients with gastric carcinoma received digital GI and CT examination. The digital GI and CT findings were analyzed comparatively. Results: 42 cases of patients with gastric carcinoma were examined with digital GI and CT. Digital GI demonstrated mucosal erosion in 40 cases, narrowed gastric lumen in 12, malignant ulceration in 10, filling defect in 12 and abnormal peristalsis in 36. CT revealed gastric wall thickening in 30 cases, intra-gastric masses in 36, narrowed gastric lumen in 36, regional lymphadenopathy and/or distant metastases in 19 and pyloristenosis in 4. Conclusion: The lesions in stomach could be demonstrated on digital GI, the imaging is clear and precise. CT is valuable for assessing the extra-gastric involvement, lymphadenopathy and distant metastases, which is an important pre-operative examination

  16. The distinctive gastric fluid proteome in gastric cancer reveals a multi-biomarker diagnostic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Alvin KH

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall gastric cancer survival remains poor mainly because there are no reliable methods for identifying highly curable early stage disease. Multi-protein profiling of gastric fluids, obtained from the anatomic site of pathology, could reveal diagnostic proteomic fingerprints. Methods Protein profiles were generated from gastric fluid samples of 19 gastric cancer and 36 benign gastritides patients undergoing elective, clinically-indicated gastroscopy using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on multiple ProteinChip arrays. Proteomic features were compared by significance analysis of microarray algorithm and two-way hierarchical clustering. A second blinded sample set (24 gastric cancers and 29 clinically benign gastritides was used for validation. Results By significance analysyis of microarray, 60 proteomic features were up-regulated and 46 were down-regulated in gastric cancer samples (p Conclusion This simple and reproducible multimarker proteomic assay could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions.

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer on the lesser curvature in upper third of the stomach is a risk factor for postoperative delayed gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Obata, Daisuke; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Norihiro; Hashimura, Hiroki; Kano, Chise; Matsushita, Megumi; Kanamori, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kei; Tsujimae, Masahiro; Momose, Kenji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Okuyama, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mikio; Okada, Akihiko

    2018-02-07

    Advances in Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technology have established ESD for early gastric cancer as a safe and stable technique. However, ESD may induce delayed gastric emptying and the cause of food residue retention in the stomach after ESD is not clear. This study aimed to clarify risk factors for delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD. We retrospectively examined for food residue in the stomach 1 week after ESD was performed for early gastric carcinoma at Osaka Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital from February 2008 to November 2016. Food residue was observed in 68 (6.1%) of 1114 patients who underwent gastric ESD. The percentage of lesions located on the lesser curvature of the upper third of the stomach was 45.6% (31/68) in the food residue group and 3.5% (37/1046) in the non-food residue group, which was significantly different (P gastric ESD. Of the 68 patients, 3 had food residue in the stomach on endoscopic examination for follow-up observation after the ESD ulcer had healed. Delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD was associated with lesions located in the lesser curvature of the upper stomach, submucosal invasion of the lesion, age older than 80 years, and post-ESD bleeding, though it was temporary in most cases.

  19. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; Román, L S

    1995-05-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  20. Is It Barrett's Esophagus or Gastric Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Mungan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Columnar epithelium in the distal part of the esophagus is generally related to Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Therefore, its diagnosis and surveillance are important. Columnar epithelium in the esophagus other than Barrett's esophagus can be gastric heterotopia, which generally takes place in the upper part of the esophagus and is named inlet patch. The presence of gastric metaplasia in the distal part of the esophagus is rare and can cause misdiagnosis. Therefore, its differentiation from Barrett's esophagus is important. Here we present a case of gastric heterotopia located in the distal part of the esophagus that caused reflux-like symptoms and needed differentiation from Barrett's esophagus.

  1. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsukamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.

  2. Gastric pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drugs and drug classes are also linked to a range of mechanisms through which the drugs ... meal, occurring several times per ... Burning or distressing pain, relieved by food ..... antimicrobial agents, and several other drug interactions are.

  3. Effects of sucralfate on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Takano, Tatsunori; Tomisato, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Koura, Yuko; Nishimoto, Kiyo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that several gastric irritants, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid, induced both necrosis and apoptosis in cultured gastric mucosal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralfate, a unique gastroprotective drug, on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis produced in vitro. Sucralfate strongly inhibited ethanol-induced necrosis in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. The preincubation of cells with sucralfate was not necessary for its cytoprotective effect to be observed, thus making its mechanism of action different from that of other gastroprotective drugs. Necrosis of gastric mucosal cells induced by hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was also suppressed by sucralfate. On the other hand, sucralfate only weakly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosa in vivo can be explained, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on gastric irritant-induced necrosis.

  4. AN UPWARD TREND IN DNA P16INK4A METHYLATION PATTERN AND HIGH RISK HPV INFECTION ACCORDING TO THE SEVERITY OF THE CERVICAL LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nahoum Carestiato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical cancer development. Recently, P16INK4A gene silencing through hypermethylation has been proposed as an important cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis due to its tumor suppressor function. We aimed to investigate P16INK4A methylation status in normal and neoplastic epithelia and evaluate an association with HPV infection and genotype. This cross-sectional study was performed with 141 cervical samples from patients attending Hospital Moncorvo Filho, Rio de Janeiro. HPV detection and genotyping were performed through PCR and P16INK4A methylation by nested-methylation specific PCR (MSP. HPV frequency was 62.4% (88/141. The most common HPV were HPV16 (37%, HPV18 (16.3% and HPV33/45(15.2%. An upward trend was observed concerning P16INK4A methylation and lesion degree: normal epithelia (10.7%, low grade lesions (22.9%, high grade (57.1% and carcinoma (93.1% (p < 0.0001. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate an association between methylation, age, tobacco exposure, HPV infection and genotyping. A correlation was found concerning methylation with HPV infection (p < 0.0001, hr-HPV (p = 0.01, HSIL (p < 0.0007 and malignant lesions (p < 0.0001. Since viral infection and epigenetic alterations are related to cervical carcinoma, we suggest that P16INK4A methylation profile maybe thoroughly investigated as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of cancer.

  5. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  6. Prevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e das lesões precusoras do câncer gástrico em pacientes dispéticos Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer precursor lesions in patients with dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bizarro Muller

    2007-06-01

    foi menor que 1. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência da infecção por H. pylori foi alta (76% e os indivíduos infectados apresentaram probabilidade 10 vezes maior para a ocorrência de lesão da mucosa gástrica. Gastrite crônica não-atrófica apresentou prevalência de 77%, gastrite atrófica 3% e metaplasia intestinal 15%. A infecção pelo H. pylori determinou uma probabilidade 3 vezes maior para o desenvolvimento de gastrite crônica não-atrófica e não determinou risco para a ocorrência de gastrite atrófica e metaplasia intestinal, sugerindo que possivelmente outros fatores de risco, além do H. pylori, estejam envolvidos no processo da carcinogênese gástrica.BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has been considered to play significant role in gastric carcinogenesis, but only a minority of people who harbor this organism will develop gastric cancer. H. pylori infection first causes chronic non atrophic gastritis. Chronic non atrophic gastritis may evolve to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia and finally to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the precancerous gastric lesions and their relationship, in patients with dyspeptic symptoms who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at a reference center in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed gastric biopsies taken from corpus and antrum of patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for H. pylori detection, between 1994 and 2003. According to Sydney system, chronic non atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were diagnosed by histological examination (H-E stain. The histological diagnoses were related to H. pylori infection status. RESULTS: Biopsies from 2,019 patients were included in the study. Patients mean age was 52 (±15 and 59% were female. Seventy six percent had H. pylori infection. Normal mucosa, chronic non atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal

  7. [Benefit from bio-enteric Intra-gastric balloon (BIB) to modify lifestyle and eating habits in severely obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, S; Kornmuller, A M; Agagliati, D; Saber, B; Ferrari, D; Maffeis, P; Labate, M; Bauducco, E; Manghisi, L; Martignone, L; Spanu, M; Rovera, G M

    2006-02-01

    The therapeutic model for severe obesity includes bariatric surgery, representing the safest way to keep weight down and to prevent relapses. The selection of patients for the most suitable type of surgery implies multidisciplinary approach (nutritionist, dietist, clinical psychologist and surgeon). The intragastric balloon may represent a relatively invasive method to help the medical team to select and prepare severely obese patients for restrictive bariatric surgery. In our study we considered 48 severely obese patients: initial weight 111+/-14.8 kg, BMI 43+/-5.02, excess weight 77.47+/-16.14%. These patients have been treated with intragastric balloon (BIB) filled to a volume of 500 cc for 6 months. We considered variations induced by BIB treatment on a number of parameters--clinical, anthropometric, food intake, partition of nourishing elements and psychological and psychometric data. At the end of the treatment the patients showed significant reductions of excess weight (67.35+/-20.19%), of weight (103.4+/-16.72 kg) and food intake, without modification of the items in the EDI2 test, but with important motivational support for a change in life style between the beginning and the end of the treatment, clearly resulting from the medical, dietist and clinical-psychological follow-up. BIB is a relatively invasive means capable of modifying eating habits in the short term; it induces weight loss, may help to reduce the anaesthesiological risk and to foster a change in the patient's behaviour. In our experience treatment with BIB is useful from the educational point of view and can be used to select patients for bariatric surgery only within a multidisciplinary team. Further clinical studies are necessary.

  8. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  9. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings.

  10. Gastric cancer and obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Yukihisa; Tsunoda, H.S.; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Kuramoto, Kenmei

    1990-01-01

    In recent 5 years, we have experienced 24 cases of advanced gastric cancer associated with obstructive uropathy. Included were 19 cases of undifferentiated, 3 cases of differentiated and 2 cases of unknown histological type. Obstructive uropathy is diagnosed based on the typical radiological findings such as dilatation and delayed demonstration of the upper collecting systems. Pathologically, undifferentiated type of gastric cancer had tendency to spread infiltratively along the vessels, nerves and the lymphatics without alteration of the ordinary anatomical structures. In such cases, mucosal surface of the urinary tract tended to be spared in spite of extensive tumor invasion. It was proven that several radiological findings were characteristic of urinary tract involvement secondary to gastric cancer. Either thread-like ureteral stricture by IVU or ring-like appearance of the ureter by CT is one of those typical findings. Renal sinus involvement may occur continuously to diffuse retroperitoneal invasion and it appears as a thickened wall of renal pelvis or soft tissue mass directly extending into the fatty tissue of renal sinus by CT. In such cases IVU has less diagnostic ability because of the lack of mucosal destruction. If the urinary bladder is involved, it typically shows chestnut-bur appearance by IVU and diffuse wall thickening by CT. In cases of advanced gastric cancer, particularly in cases of histologically undifferentiated type, CT and IVU images should be carefully interpreted in consideration of the infiltrative part of tumor extention. (author)

  11. Occurrence and severity of enamel decalcification adjacent to bracket bases and sub-bracket lesions during orthodontic treatment with two different lingual appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Elisabeth; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Using lingual enamel surfaces for bracket placement not only has esthetic advantages, but may also be suitable in terms of reducing frequencies of enamel decalcifications. Objective: To test the null-hypothesis that there is no significant difference in enamel decalcification or cavitation incidence adjacent to and beneath bracket bases between two lingual multi-bracket (MB) appliances that are different in terms of design, material composition, and manufacturing technology (group A: WIN, DW-LingualSystems; group B: Incognito, 3M-Unitek), taking into account patient- and treatment-related variables on white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Methods: Standardized, digital, top-view photographs of 630 consecutive subjects (16214 teeth; n Incognito = 237/6076 teeth; n WIN = 393/10138 teeth; mean age: 17.47±7.8; m/f 43.2/56.8%) with completed lingual MB treatment of the upper and lower permanent teeth 1–7 were screened for decalcification or cavitation adjacent to and beneath the bracket bases before and after treatment, scored from 0 to 7. Non-parametric ANOVA was used for main effects ‘appliance type’, ‘gender’, ‘treatment complexity’, ‘grouped age’ (≤16/>16 years), and ‘treatment duration’ as covariable, at an α-level of 5%. Results: About 2.57% [5.94%] of all teeth in group A [B] developed decalcifications. Subject-related incidence was 9.59% [16.17%] for upper incisors in group A [B], and 12.98% [25.74%] for all teeth 16–46. There were significant effects by gender, age, and treatment duration. Conclusion: The null-hypothesis was rejected: sub-bracket lesions were significantly less frequent in group A, while frequencies of WSL adjacent to brackets were not significantly affected by appliance type. In view of the overall low incidences of lingual post-orthodontic white-spot lesions, the use of lingual appliances is advocated as a valid strategy for a reduction of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. PMID

  12. Metastatic Carcinoma Occurring in a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: The First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Groisman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are regarded as benign. However, in rare cases they may contain incipient primary carcinomas. To our knowledge, breast carcinoma metastatic to a gastric hyperplastic polyp has not yet been reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman to whom a gastric polyp was endoscopically excised. The patient had previously undergone a right mastectomy for mixed, invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma 5 years earlier. Histological sections from the gastric lesion showed typical features of hyperplastic polyp with foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma including signet ring cells infiltrating the lamina propria. The histologic findings were consistent with a primary gastric cancer. However, the carcinoma cells were immunopositive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and GATA3 and negative for CDX2, Hep Par 1, and MUC5AC. E-cadherin showed membranous reactivity in some of the carcinoma cells while in others it was negative. Accordingly, metastatic mixed, lobular and ductal breast carcinoma was diagnosed. We conclude that metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer can be rarely encountered in hyperplastic gastric polyps.

  13. Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Amanda T; Volk, Susan W; Weisse, Chick

    2006-06-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-An 8-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of abdominal distension, retching, and vomiting. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Gastric dilatation-volvulus was suspected on the basis of the dog's signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic analyses and abdominal radiography. Celiotomy was performed, and gastric dilatation-volvulus was confirmed along with splenomegaly. Gastric invagination was performed over an area of gastric necrosis. The dog was reevaluated 21 days later after an episode of collapse. Findings of physical examination and clinicopathologic analyses were suggestive of internal hemorrhage. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent celiotomy revealed severe gastric ulceration at the gastric invagination site, splenic torsion, and a focal splenic infarct. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-Splenectomy and gastrectomy of the necrotic tissue were performed. The dog was discharged from the hospital, and the owner was instructed to administer gastroprotectants and feed the dog a bland diet. The dog was reported to be healthy 3.25 years after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Findings suggest that complications associated with the gastric invagination procedure include severe gastric ulceration that may require subsequent surgery. Prolonged treatment with gastroprotectants following gastric invagination surgery may be necessary to avoid gastric ulceration in dogs.

  14. Studies on gastric emptying time in patients with liver cirrhosis by radioisotope technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Hideaki

    1984-10-01

    In order to elucidate changes in gastric emptying in liver cirrhosis patients, gastric emptying half time (T1/2) was measured using /sup 99/Tc-DTPA. The study was performed by analyzing the gastroscintigram and the gastric emptying curve using the nuclear medicine data analyzer (shimazu Scinti Pack 1200). As a result, a distinctive delay in T1/2 was recognized in patients with liver cirrhosis, in comparison with normal subjects. In addition, the delay in T1/2 is more remarkable in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices and/or gastric varices. Furthermore, cirrhotic patients with erosive gastritis and/or gastric ulcer showed a more distinctive delay than those without gastric lesions. In cases in which the T1/2 emptying time exceeds 80 minutes, incidence of gastric lesions was high (80%). From the above observation, the delay in gastric emptying is considered as one of the factors contributing to the high incidence of gastric lesions in liver cirrhosis patients.

  15. Gastric teratoma in a 6-month-old boy | Wildbrett | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric teratomas are very rare embryonal neoplasms, accounting for 2.6% of all perinatal diagnosed germ cell tumours. About 85% are well-differentiated mature lesions and about 15% are immature tumours with the potential of malignant transformation. The recommended therapy for gastric teratomas is surgical excision.

  16. The diagnostic value of tumor markers and endoscopy in patients with gastric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Tumor markers cannot detect any kind of digestive system malignancy. Physicians must pay attention to premalignant lesions due to gastric cancer development. We must pay more attention to diagnose gastric malignancy in patients who have increased CEA and CA 19-9 levels. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 74-78

  17. Gastropericardial Fistula as a Late Complication of Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Rudd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB is a bariatric procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency as an alternative management option for morbid obesity. Several common complications have been reported including gastric band slippage and associated pouch dilatation, intragastric erosion of the band, gastric wall perforation, and abscess formation. We present a case of gastropericardial fistula occurring nine years after an LAGB. There have been no previous documented cases of the complication after this procedure.

  18. Randomized trials and quality assurance in gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikken, Johan L; Cats, Annemieke; Verheij, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2013-03-01

    A D2 lymphadenectomy can be considered standard of surgical care for advanced resectable gastric cancer. Currently, several multimodality strategies are used, including postoperative monochemotherapy in Asia, postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the United States, and perioperative chemotherapy in Europe. As the majority of gastric cancer patients are treated outside the framework of clinical trials, quality assurance programs, including referral to high-volume centers and clinical auditing are needed to improve gastric cancer care on a nationwide level. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J. (Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham (UK); Birmingham General Hospital (UK))

    1982-06-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera.

  20. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  1. Efficiency of photodynamic treatment in patients with early gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of photodynamic therapy for early gastric cancer is described in the article. The treatment results in 68 patients who were excluded for convenient surgical treatment because of advanced age or severe co-morbidity are represented. 63 patients had single tumor, 5 patients – 2 tumors. Four Russian agents: photogem, photosens, radaсhlorin and alasens, were used for photodynamic therapy. The treatment session was performed under local anesthesia during routine endoscopy with diode laser with wavelength consistent with photosensitizer (photogem – 630 nm, photosens – 670 nm, alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX – 635 nm, radaсhlorin – 662 nm. The short-term results were analyzed 1 month after treatment according to endoscopy, morphological study, CT, ultrasound or endosonography. For 73 lesions complete regression was observed in 53 (72.6% and partial regression in 20 tumors (27.4%. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy was shown to be directly associated with tumor size. Thus, for tumors up to 1 cm regression occurred in 100% of cases, up to 1.5 cm – in 70.8%, up to 3 cm – in 65.2%, up to 5 cm – in 58.3%. The median survival rates accounted for 7.31 years, 3-year survival – 83±5%, 5-year - 69±8%. The experience showed that the developed method of photodynamic therapy was promising in treatment for early gastric cancer as an alternative to surgery. 

  2. [Giant gastric ulcer by cytomegalovirus in infection VIH/SIDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pereyra, Julia; Morales, Domingo; Díaz, Ramiro; Yoza, Max; Frisancho, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is an important cause of morbidity in immunosupressed patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In this paper we present a 43 years old man with renal failure under hemodialysis, several blood transfusions because of anemia and three months of disease characterized by epigastric pain, specially at nights, ameliorated with antacid drugs. Other symptoms were early satisfy, vomits and weigh loss (18Kg). At clinical exam, the patient was pallid, presented adenopathies at cervical and inguinal regions and had a pain at epigastric region in profound touch palpation. The most important exams were HB: 10mg/dl, CMV: 83.5, leukocytes 7000, lymphocytes: 1715, erythrocyte sedimentation rate 49mm/h, the venon test (-), and Giardia lamblia trophozoites in stools. The studies demonstrated the patient was seropositive for HIV and the tests for IgG CMV and IgG Herpes virus resulted seropositives too. At endoscopy the esophagus mucosa was covered by a white plaque which suggests candida infection. In the stomach, over the body gastric, we found a big and deep ulcerated lesion (45 x 41mm), with defined rims and white fund. Biopsy from the edges of the gastric ulcer had the characteristic CMV intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions; we confirmed the diagnosis by immunohystochemistry. The patient receives ganciclovir an then HAART and is getting well.

  3. Superpixel-based classification of gastric chromoendoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetto, Davide; Grisan, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    Chromoendoscopy (CH) is a gastroenterology imaging modality that involves the staining of tissues with methylene blue, which reacts with the internal walls of the gastrointestinal tract, improving the visual contrast in mucosal surfaces and thus enhancing a doctor's ability to screen precancerous lesions or early cancer. This technique helps identify areas that can be targeted for biopsy or treatment and in this work we will focus on gastric cancer detection. Gastric chromoendoscopy for cancer detection has several taxonomies available, one of which classifies CH images into three classes (normal, metaplasia, dysplasia) based on color, shape and regularity of pit patterns. Computer-assisted diagnosis is desirable to help us improve the reliability of the tissue classification and abnormalities detection. However, traditional computer vision methodologies, mainly segmentation, do not translate well to the specific visual characteristics of a gastroenterology imaging scenario. We propose the exploitation of a first unsupervised segmentation via superpixel, which groups pixels into perceptually meaningful atomic regions, used to replace the rigid structure of the pixel grid. For each superpixel, a set of features is extracted and then fed to a random forest based classifier, which computes a model used to predict the class of each superpixel. The average general accuracy of our model is 92.05% in the pixel domain (86.62% in the superpixel domain), while detection accuracies on the normal and abnormal class are respectively 85.71% and 95%. Eventually, the whole image class can be predicted image through a majority vote on each superpixel's predicted class.

  4. Evaluation of gastric cancer detectability on respiratory triggered-diffusion weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Noriatsu; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Naoto; Nikaido, Takashi; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of respiratory triggered diffusion-weighted image (RT-DWI) to detect gastric cancer and to determine whether there is any correlation between the detectability of RT-DWI and the location of cancerous tissues. Sixty-nine gastric cancer patients (71 lesions) underwent pre-operative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and total or partial gastrectomy. Scans of the stomach were acquired using a 1.5T MR scanner. Our protocol consisted of T1WI, T2WI and DWI (b value=800 sec/mm 2 ). The location of gastric cancer was classified into three areas -U, M and L. The condition of the gastric contents and the relation between the location of intraluminal gas and gastric lesions were also evaluated. There were 42 early gastric cancers and 29 advanced cancers in a total of 71 lesions. In early gastric cancers, 15 lesions were detected out of 42 lesions (35.7%) and, in advanced gastric cancers, 27 lesions were detected out of 29 lesions (93.0%). Pathological volumes of the detected lesions ranged between 12 mm x 8 mm x 1 mm and 190 mm x 135 mm x 10 mm (median 57 mm x 35 mm x 5 mm), and those of the undetected lesions ranged between 5 mm x 2 mm x 1 mm and 67 mm x 47 mm x 1.5 mm (median 23 mm x 17 mm x 1 mm). Detectability of the lesions appeared to be higher in the following three conditions when the gastric lumen was filled with mainly fluid rather than gas when there was no intraluminal gas adjacent to the lesion when the imaging quality of RT-DWI was good. RT-DWI was found to have a high detection (93.0%) rate of advanced gastric cancers. To improve the detectability of early gastric cancers, we should endeavor to minimize the susceptibility artifact from intraluminal gas in the stomach and select higher resolution protocols. (author)

  5. Precancerous lesions in the stomach: from biology to clinical patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Capelle, Lisette G; Cappellesso, Rocco; Nitti, Donato; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the final step in a multi-stage cascade triggered by long-standing inflammatory conditions (particularly Helicobacter pylori infection) resulting in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: these lesions represent the cancerization field in which (intestinal-type) gastric cancer develops. Intraepithelial neoplasia is consistently recognized as the phenotypic bridge between atrophic/metaplastic lesions and invasive cancer. This paper addresses the epidemiology, pathology, molecular profiling, and clinical management of advanced precancerous gastric lesions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation syndrome. Individual radiosensitivity assessment in patients undergoing medical exposures presenting severe cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Perez, Maria R.; Portas, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burn Center) is one of the reference hospitals of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina. In the frame of an agreement between the Burn Center and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, a research project for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions is in progress. Individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC). DNA repair capacity and its kinetics were evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. In this paper, two representative cases, in which the research protocol was applied, are presented. Therapeutic response and its correlation with radiosensitivity test results are described. Case 1: female patient undergoing external radiotherapy for invasive ductal breast cancer that presented acute cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 3 (confluent moist epithelitis, )that led to treatment break. Case 2: male patient undergoing coronary angioplasty (interventional radiology), which developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 4 (ulceration at the dorsal region). Patients were treated with: topic administration of trolamine and silver sulfadiazine with lidocaine, associated with systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and anti-oxidants. The therapeutic response was evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). Case 1 response was positive (favorable) with early local recovery and complete remission of signs and symptoms after 5 months. Both MN frequencies and comet assay showed values compatible with normal radiosensitivity

  7. Entirely Laparoscopic Gastrectomy and Colectomy for Remnant Gastric Cancer with Gastric Outlet Obstruction and Transverse Colon Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kim, Min Gyu

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that gastrectomy with curative intent is the best way to improve outcomes of patients with remnant gastric cancer. Recently,several investigators reported their experiences with laparoscopic gastrectomy of remnant gastric cancer. We report the case of an 83-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer with obstruction. She underwent an entirely laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with colectomy because of direct invasion of the transverse colon. The opera...

  8. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  10. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Heung Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘 which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里, which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol

  11. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Quantitative Non-Gaussian Diffusion MR Imaging: Evaluation of the Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Several Markers of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iima, Mami; Kataoka, Masako; Kanao, Shotaro; Onishi, Natsuko; Kawai, Makiko; Ohashi, Akane; Sakaguchi, Rena; Toi, Masakazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of integrated approaches that combined intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and non-Gaussian diffusion parameters compared with the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) to establish multiparameter thresholds scores or probabilities by using Bayesian analysis to distinguish malignant from benign breast lesions and their correlation with molecular prognostic factors. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and March 2015, 411 patients were prospectively enrolled and 199 patients (allocated to training [n = 99] and validation [n = 100] sets) were included in this study. IVIM parameters (flowing blood volume fraction [fIVIM] and pseudodiffusion coefficient [D*]) and non-Gaussian diffusion parameters (theoretical apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] at b value of 0 sec/mm 2 [ADC 0 ] and kurtosis [K]) by using IVIM and kurtosis models were estimated from diffusion-weighted image series (16 b values up to 2500 sec/mm 2 ), as well as a synthetic ADC (sADC) calculated by using b values of 200 and 1500 (sADC 200-1500 ) and a standard ADC calculated by using b values of 0 and 800 sec/mm 2 (ADC 0-800 ). The performance of two diagnostic approaches (combined parameter thresholds and Bayesian analysis) combining IVIM and diffusion parameters was evaluated and compared with BI-RADS performance. The Mann-Whitney U test and a nonparametric multiple comparison test were used to compare their performance to determine benignity or malignancy and as molecular prognostic biomarkers and subtypes of breast cancer. Results Significant differences were found between malignant and benign breast lesions for IVIM and non-Gaussian diffusion parameters (ADC 0 , K, fIVIM, fIVIM · D*, sADC 200-1500, and ADC 0-800 ; P < .05). Sensitivity and specificity for the validation set by radiologists A and B were as follows: sensitivity, 94.7% and 89.5%, and specificity, 75.0% and 79.2% for sADC 200-1500 , respectively; sensitivity, 94.7% and 96.1%, and

  12. Comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography for the prediction of functional severity in true bifurcation lesions: Insights from the randomized DK-CRUSH II, III, and IV trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zhu, Hao; Shi, Shun-Yi; Muramatsu, Takashi; Pan, Dao-Rong; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Tian, Nai-Liang; Bourantas, Christos V; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) compared with conventional 2D-QCA for predicting functional severity assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR) for true bifurcation lesions. Based on pooled data from the randomized DK-CRUSH II, III, and IV trials, we evaluated the patients with true bifurcation lesions who underwent coronary angiography together with functional evaluations using FFR in both the main vessel and the side branch. Off-line 2D- and 3D-QCA analyses were conducted using dedicated bifurcation QCA analysis software. Measurements of minimum lumen diameter (MLD), percentage diameter stenosis (% DS), and minimum lumen area (MLA) were compared between 2D- and 3D-QCA, and we evaluated their predictive values of functionally significant FFR. Ninety patients were eligible for enrollment in the present study. In the main vessel, MLA measured by 3D-QCA was the most accurate predictor of FFR <0.75 (C statistic 0.85, P < 0.001), while MLD measured by 2D-QCA was a similarly accurate predictor (C statistic 0.85, P < 0.001). In the side branch, the best metrics for predicting FFR <0.75 were % DS measured by 2D-QCA with a C statistic value of 0.91 (P < 0.001) and MLA measured by 3D-QCA with a C statistic value of 0.81 (P < 0.001). However, both 2D- and 3D-QCA metrics exhibited low accuracies for predicting FFR <0.75 in intermediate bifurcation lesions. 3D-QCA analysis for true bifurcation lesions did not improve the predictive accuracy of functionally significant FFR compared with 2D-QCA analysis. In lesions with intermediate stenosis, the diagnostic performance of both 2D- and 3D-QCA-derived measurements in differentiating functional severity is limited. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs: comparison with other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-07-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  14. [A case of advanced gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis effectively treated by 5-FU and low-dose CDDP therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, E; Kunii, Y; Wada, G; Tsuchiya, S; Yamasaki, T; Sakakibara, N

    1997-07-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic for appetite loss and abdominal distension in August 1995. Endoscopic study revealed an advanced gastric cancer in the upper body of her stomach. Abdominal CT study revealed massive ascites and para-aortic lymph nodal involvement. Cytological study of the ascites revealed class V. She was diagnosed to be in the terminal stage of gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis. Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was given by continuous intravenous injection of 5-FU 500 mg/day, and intermittent intravenous injection of CDDP 30 mg/week was performed for reduction of the ascites and her complaint. Endoscopic study 6 weeks after starting chemotherapy could not find crater of the gastric cancer but only a shallow ulcerative lesion. The biopsy specimen of that lesion was group III. No ascites and over 50% reduction of the para-aortic lymph node were found by the abdominal CT study. This state persisted over 4 weeks. No myelo-suppression, renal dysfunction or any severe side effect were observed during chemotherapy. Her performance status improved from 3 to 1.

  15. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

    2014-10-14

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended.

  16. VacA and CagA Status as Biomarker of Two Opposite End Outcomes of Helicobacter pylori Infection (Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer) in a Moroccan Population

    OpenAIRE

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection induces inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which may progress to precancerous lesions leading to gastric cancer. Pathological determinism is associated to some virulence genes of the bacterium, notably the vacA and cagA genes. The present study aimed to determine the H. pylori genotypes distribution and their association with sex, age and gastric diseases in a Moroccan population. Gastric biopsy was taken from 1079 consenting patients. The specimens ...

  17. The epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David M

    2002-01-01

    Gastric cancer mortality has declined markedly around the world. In South Australia, the reduction approximated 40% over the last 20 years. Possible reasons include: better refrigeration; reduced consumption of salted, smoked, and chemically preserved foods; increased intake of fruit and vegetables; and improved living standards and a greater use of antibiotics, which may have reduced Helicobacter pylori infection. Reductions generally have been greater for intestinal than diffuse histopathologies. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, probably accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed cancers. High rates apply to Japan, China. Central and South America, Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East, and low rates to North America, Australia and New Zealand, Northern Europe, and India. Rates usually are higher in lower socioeconomic groups. Five-year relative survivals of around 20% or less are frequently reported. A figure of 50% or more has been cited for Japan, where there has been radiological screening, although this exceptional figure could have been affected artificially by lead-time and related effects. Male-to-female incidence ratios generally are in the 1.5-2.5 range, with higher ratios for intestinal than diffuse cancers and higher-risk populations. In South Australia, the ratio has been 1.8 to one, although higher at 4.6 to one for cardia lesions. Recent increases in cardia cancers, especially in males in populations of European extraction, often are accompanied by increases for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is estimated that the global burden of gastric cancer could be reduced by up to 50% by dietary changes that included an increased intake of fruit and vegetables.

  18. Gastric Osteoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Kye, J. S. Park, S. K. Ku1, S. H. Yun, T. H. Oh, K.W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old female dog was referred with anorexia, nervousness and emaciation. At the point of time, severe lifelessness was the only symptom. Then euthanasia was done according to the owner’s decision. As a result of postmortem examination, thin white matters were found on the gastric mucosa of the greater curvature and there were no other significant gross findings. Tissue specimens were collected from the gastric wall, esophagus, gall bladder, aorta, heart, kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph node, lungs, urinary bladder and spleen and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the masses of stomach were consisted of well-differentiated osteoid tissues, the compact bone-osteocytes and the matured lamellated bone with Haversian system. It was diagnosed as osteoma of the stomach. Other organs were free on such histological findings.

  19. Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrav Abreve, Mona

    2008-03-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo microscopic analysis during ongoing endoscopy, using systemically or topically administered fluorescent agents. It allows targeted biopsies to be taken, potentially improving the diagnostic rate in certain gastrointestinal diseases. Worldwide experience with CLE for upper gastrointestinal malignant and premalignant lesions is still reduced. Potential clinical applications are presented, including diagnosis of NERD, Barrett's esophagus, atrophic gatritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, gastric adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps, gastric cancer.

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Jun, E-mail: junnis@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi [Department of Microbiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enyacho, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro [Department of Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Oga, Atsunori [Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yanai, Hideo [Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1 Sotoura, Chofu, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-8510 (Japan); Sakaida, Isao [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation

  2. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  3. Traumatic gastric rupture following blunt abdominal trauma: a case report about an atypical modality of presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Giambelluca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is a rare presentation with a reported incidence of 0.02-1.7% in current literature. Traumatic gastric rupture is usually associated with other visceral injuries, such as splenic lesions and fractures. Prompt diagnosis and early intervention reduce mortality and morbidity. History of a recent meal has been implicated in traumatic gastric rupture. We report a case of blunt abdominal trauma with an isolated gastric rupture after a motor vehicle accident, managed successfully without any post-operative morbidity and mortality.

  4. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca ÖZGÜN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  5. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  6. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Gastric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ayush; Mukewar, Saurabh; Chari, Suresh T; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

    2017-12-01

    Gastric ischemia is a rare condition associated with poor prognosis. Our study aim was to highlight the clinical features and outcomes of patients with gastric ischemia. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with isolated gastric ischemia at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 5, 2016, was performed. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and outcome variables were abstracted for analysis. Seventeen patients (65% men) with mean age of 69.3 ± 11.3 years and body mass index of 28.8 ± 11.1 were identified. The etiologies for gastric ischemia included local vascular causes (n = 8), systemic hypoperfusion (n = 4), and mechanical obstruction (n = 5). The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), and altered mental status (23%). The typical endoscopic appearance was mucosal congestion and erythema with or without ulceration. Gastric pneumatosis and portal venous air were more commonly seen on CT imaging. Radiologic and/or surgical intervention was needed in 9 patients, while the remaining 8 patients were managed conservatively with acid suppression, antibiotics, and nasogastric tube decompression. The median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (range 1-36 days). There were no cases of rebleeding and the mortality rate as a direct result of gastric ischemia was 24% within 6 months of diagnosis. Although uncommon, gastric ischemia is associated with significant mortality. Endoscopy and CT imaging play an important role in its diagnosis. The management of gastric ischemia is dictated by its severity and associated comorbidities.

  7. Syndromic Gastric Polyps : At the Crossroads of Genetic and Environmental Cancer Predisposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Giardiello, Francis M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur in 1-4 % of patients undergoing gastroscopy. Although most are sporadic, some gastric polyps are part of an underlying hereditary syndrome. Gastric polyps can be seen in each of the well-known gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, but also in Lynch syndrome and in several rare

  8. Human Gastric Mucosal Hydrophobicity Does dot Decrease with Helicobacter Pylori Infection or Chronological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Al-Marhoon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infection with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe gastric diseases. Previous studies in humans have reported a decreased gastric hydrophobicity with H pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between the effect of cagA+ and cagA- strains on gastric mucus hydrophobicity.

  9. Factores asociados con la gravedad de lesiones ocurridas en la vía pública en Cuernavaca, Morelos, México Severity of injuries in public streets of an urban area in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Hidalgo-Solórzano

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Identificar los factores asociados con la gravedad de las lesiones ocurridas en la vía pública en personas que demandaron atención médica de urgencia en tres hospitales de la ciudad de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal efectuado en la ciudad de Cuernavaca, estado de Morelos, durante los meses de febrero a abril de 2001. Incluyó individuos lesionados que demandaron atención a hospitales o que fallecieron en el lugar del accidente. Variables: edad, sexo, ingesta de alcohol, día y hora de ocurrencia, atención pre-hospitalaria, causa externa, tipo de lesión y gravedad con base en la Escala Abreviada de Lesiones. Se utilizó análisis simple bivariado y multivariado. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 492 lesionados, de los cuales 23 fallecieron en el lugar. La principal causa externa fue accidentes de tránsito (52%, 72% de los lesionados fueron leves. La variable asociada con gravedad fue accidentes de tránsito (RM 6.59, IC95% 2.52-17.23, ajustada por edad y escolaridad. CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes de tránsito de vehículos de motor son los que provocan el mayor número de lesionados graves. El uso de la Escala Abreviada de Lesiones facilita el estudio de su magnitud y distribución de gravedad.OBJECTIVE:To identify risk factors associated with severity of injuries occurring in public streets of an urban area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and April 2001, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among injured people seeking emergency care at three hospitals in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Information was also obtained for those who died on accident sites. Data on the following variables were collected: age, sex, alcohol intake, day and time of injury, prehospital care, external cause and nature of injury. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS was used to define severity of injuries. Data analysis consisted of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate regression models. RESULTS: A total of 492

  10. Selection of chemotherapy for hyperthermic intraperitoneal use in gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, H. J.; Schellens, J. H.; Boot, H.; van Sandick, J. W.; Knibbe, C. A.; Boerma, D.; van Ramshorst, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have shown the potential benefit of cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in gastric cancer patients. At present the most effective chemotherapeutic regime in HIPEC for gastric cancer is unknown. The aim of this review was to

  11. Bone metastases from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi

    1983-01-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)

  12. Gastric microbiota and carcinogenesis: the role of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Dias-Jácome

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. However, recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have revealed a complex microbial community in the stomach that could also contribute to the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to present recent scientific evidence regarding the role of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in gastric carcinogenesis. Methods: A systematic review of original articles published in PubMed in the last ten years related to gastric microbiota and gastric cancer in humans was performed. Results: Thirteen original articles were included. The constitution of gastric microbiota appears to be significantly affected by gastric cancer and premalignant lesions. In fact, differences in gastric microbiota have been documented, depending on Helicobacter pylori status and gastric conditions, such as non-atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Gastric carcinogenesis can be associated with an increase in many bacteria (such as Lactobacillus coleohominis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii as well as decrease in others (such as Porphyromonas spp, Neisseria spp, Prevotella pallens or Streptococcus sinensis. However, there is no conclusive data that confirms if these changes in microbiota are a cause or consequence of the process of carcinogenesis. Conclusions: Even though there is limited evidence in humans, microbiota differences between normal individuals, pre-malignant lesions and gastric cancer could suggest a progressive shift in the constitution of gastric microbiota in carcinogenesis, possibly resulting from a complex cross-talk between gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the specific role (if any of different microorganisms.

  13. Occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids in atrophic gastritis during prospective long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Purchiaroni, Flaminia; Corleto, Vito D; Di Giulio, Emilio; Annibale, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a risk condition for gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids. Recent studies assessing the overall risk of gastric cancer and carcinoids in AG at long-term follow up are lacking. This study aimed to investigate in a prospective cohort of AG patients the occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids at long-term follow up. A total of 200 AG patients from a prospective cohort (67% female, median age 55 years) with a follow up of 7.5 (range: 4-23.4) years were included. Inclusion criteria were presence of AG and at least one follow-up gastroscopy with biopsies at ≥4 years after AG diagnosis. Follow-up gastroscopies at 4-year intervals were performed. Overall, 22 gastric neoplastic lesions were detected (crude incidence 11%). Gastric cancer was diagnosed in four patients at a median follow up of 7.2 years (crude incidence 2%). Eleven type I gastric carcinoids were detected at a median follow up of 5.1 years (crude incidence of 5.5%). In seven patients, six low-grade and one high-grade dysplasia were found. The annual incidence rate person-year were 0.25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.067-0.63%), 0.43% (95% CI: 0.17-0.89%), and 0.68% (95% CI: 0.34-1.21%) for gastric cancer, dysplasia, and type I-gastric carcinoids, respectively. The incidence rates of gastric cancer and carcinoids were not different (p = 0.07). This study shows an annual incidence rate of 1.36% person-year for gastric neoplastic lesions in AG patients at long-term follow up. AG patients are similarly exposed to gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids.

  14. Comparative analysis of the frequency and the severity of diagnosed lesions between pedestrians struck by motor vehicles and other blunt trauma mechanisms victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ GUSTAVO PARREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:to compare the frequency and the severity of diagnosed injuries between pedestrians struck by motor vehicles and victims of other blunt trauma mechanisms.Methods:retrospective analysis of data from the Trauma Registry, including adult blunt trauma patients admitted from 2008 to 2010. We reviewed the mechanism of trauma, vital signs on admission and the injuries identified. Severity stratification was carried using RTS, AIS-90, ISS e TRISS. Patients were assigned into group A (pedestrians struck by motor vehicle or B (victims of other mechanisms of blunt trauma. Variables were compared between groups. We considered p<0.05 as significant.Results:a total of 5785 cases were included, and 1217 (21,0% of which were in group A. Pedestrians struck by vehicles presented (p<0.05 higher mean age, mean heart rate upon admission, mean ISS and mean AIS in head, thorax, abdomen and extremities, as well as lower mean Glasgow coma scale, arterial blood pressure upon admission, RTS and TRISS. They also had a higher frequency of epidural hematomas, subdural hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain swelling, cerebral contusions, costal fractures, pneumothorax, flail chest, pulmonary contusions, as well as pelvic, superior limbs and inferior limbs fractures.Conclusion:pedestrian struck by vehicles sustained intracranial, thoracic, abdominal and extremity injuries more frequently than victims of other blunt trauma mechanism as a group. They also presented worse physiologic and anatomic severity of the trauma.

  15. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  16. Gastric heterotopia in rectum: A literature review and its diagnostic pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Vareedayah, Ashley A; Phillips, Nancy J; Hachem, Christine; Lai, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    The term heterotopia, in pathology, refers to the presence of normal tissues at foreign sites. Gastric heterotopia has been reported anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of gastric heterotopia in the rectum is very rare. We, here, report a rare case of a localized 2-cm area of cratered mucosa with heaped-up borders in the rectum of a 51-year-old, asymptomatic woman who underwent screening colonoscopy. Histologic examination of the biopsy from the lesional tissue in rectum demonstrated fragments of rectal mucosa co-mingling with oxyntic- and antral-type gastric mucosa. No intestinal metaplasia or Helicobacter pylori is identified. Patients with gastric heterotopia in rectum usually present with bleeding and/or abdominal pain. Definite treatment of choice is surgical or endoscopic resection, although the lesions also respond to histamine-2 receptor blockers. In this article, most recent literature about gastric heterotopia in rectum is reviewed, following a case presentation about it.

  17. Detection of secondary involvement of the colon from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study with CT and barium enema (BE) was performed on 60 patients (121 lesions) with secondary involvement to the colon from gastric carcinoma. The lesions were visualized as abnormally thick colonic walls (more than 5 mm in thickness) on CT as well as stenotic or striped appearance on BE. The colonic lesions were equally detected by CT and BE in 49 patients (103 lesions). Although CT was superior to BE in only one patient (one lesion), BE was more accurated in 10 patients (17 lesions). CT failed to demonstrate early changes of secondary involvement to the colon. The presence of ascites or mesenteric abnormalities was not detected by CT in 15 patients, even though spread of gastric carcinoma to the colon mainly occurred by the direct invasion along mesenteric reflections or intraperitoneal seeding. As a conclusion, it was found that BE was more accurate for the detection of secondary involvement to the colon from gastric carcinoma comparing to CT. Normal findings on CT did not eliminate the possibility of colonic metastasis, therefore, BE study was desirable if clinical findings suggest the involvement of colonic metastasis. (author)

  18. Influence of plant-originated gastroproteciive and antiulcer substances on gastric mucosal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Brzozowski, T; Gzhegotsky, M R

    2004-01-01

    Fundamental basis of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in mucosal injury and repair in gastrointestinal tract helps to develop new therapeutic approaches to various gut mucosal injury- related diseases. The study was aimed to assess the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulceric activities and to deteminate if these effects are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically. The following plant-originated substances were considered: Solon, capsaicin, grapefruit-seed extract and amaranth. The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study, 100% ethanol was applied ig to induced gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment-with L-NNA. Plant-originated substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of NOS I, NO release and an increase in gastric microcirculation.

  19. Antral hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Ozer, Ender; Rakici, Halil; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gastric polyps are usually found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. These polyps are generally benign, with hyperplasia being the most common. While gastric polyps are often asymptomatic, they can cause gastric outlet obstruction. A 64 years-old female patient presented to our polyclinic with a history of approximately 2 months of weakness, occasional early nausea, vomiting after meals and epigastric pain. A polypoid lesion of approximately 25mm in diameter was detected in the antral area of the stomach, which prolapsed through the pylorus into the duodenal bulbus, and subsequently caused gastric outlet obstruction, as revealed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of the patient. The polyp was retrieved from the pyloric canal into the stomach with the aid of a tripod, and snare polypectomy was performed. Currently, widespread use of endoscopy has led to an increase in the frequency of detecting hyperplastic polyps. While most gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they can cause iron deficiency anemia, acute pancreatitis and more commonly, gastric outlet obstruction because of their antral location. Although there are no precise principles in the treatment of asymptomatic polyps, polyps >5mm should be removed due to the possibility of malignant transformation. According to the medical evidence, polypectomy is required for gastric hyperplastic polyps because of the risks of complication and malignancy. These cases can be successfully treated endoscopically. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  1. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching – an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Baptista PAULA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed.Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals.Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa.Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group.Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized.

  2. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching--an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Anabela Baptista; Dias, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Teresa; Marto, Carlos Miguel; Casalta, João; Cabrita, António Silvério; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-10-01

    The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed. This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals. Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days) at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa. The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group. Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized.

  3. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching – an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAULA, Anabela Baptista; DIAS, Maria Isabel; FERREIRA, Manuel Marques; CARRILHO, Teresa; MARTO, Carlos Miguel; CASALTA, João; CABRITA, António Silvério; CARRILHO, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed. Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals. Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days) at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa. Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized. PMID:26537721

  4. Role of toll-like receptor 10 gene polymorphism and gastric mucosal pattern in patients with chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Bartpho, Theeraya; Wattanawongdon, Wareeporn; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori stimulates the host's toll-like receptors (TLRs). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLRs is related to the manipulation of regulatory cytokines and also implicated in the varied outcomes of the inflammatory response, including the development of precancerous lesions of gastric mucosa and disease progression. We hypothesized that TLR10 rs10004195 polymorphism is associated with gastric mucosal patterns. TLR10 rs10004195 polymorphisms were identified in a total of 400 gastritis patients using the TagMan SNP genotyping assay. Gastric mucosal patterns were classified by Conventional Narrow Band Imaging gastroscopy (C-NBI gastroscopy). Logistic regression was used to analyze the association. The gastritis patients was Type 1, 37.5% of Thai patients. The T/T homozygous genotype was exhibited by the highest percentage (46.5%) of patients, and the A/A homozygous and A/T heterozygous genotypes were exhibited by 20.25% and 33.25%, respectively, of patients. TLR10 rs10004195 was significantly associated with gastric mucosal patterns. After adjusting for confounding factors, patients with the A/A homozygous genotype showed a significantly increased risk of severe inflammation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.97-2.13, p=0.028). Patients with the A/T heterozygous and T/T homozygous genotypes showed a significantly increased risk of mild inflammation (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.78-2.07, p=0.042 and OR=1.78, 95% CI=0.51-3.35, p=0.001, respectively). Our results indicate that the presence of TLR10 rs10004195, A/T heterozygous, and T/T homozygous genotypes is associated with type 1, 2, and 3 whereas that of the A/A homozygous genotype is associated with type 4 and 5 of gastric mucosal patterns. This suggests that the A/A homozygous genotype contributes to severe inflammation in H. pylori-associated gastritis in Thai patients.

  5. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT

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    Pan, Zilai; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Huang, Baisong; Chen, Kemin [Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Chao [Jiaotong University, Department of Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has been widely used to detect primary lesions and to evaluate TNM staging. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of dynamic MDCT in the preoperative determination of the resectability of gastric cancer. MDCT was used to image 350 cases of gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy before surgery. MDCT findings regarding TNM staging and resectability were correlated with surgical and pathological findings. The accuracy of MDCT for staging gastric cancer was high, especially for tumour stage T1 (94.3%), lymph node stage N2 (87.3%), and for predicting distant metastases (>96.6%). When resectability was considered to be the outcome, the total accuracy of MDCT was 87.4%, sensitivity was 89.7% and specificity was 76.7%. Results showed high sensitivity for identifying peritoneal seeding (90.0%) and for predicting liver metastasis (80.0%). Dynamic enhanced MDCT is useful for TNM staging of gastric cancers and for predicting tumour respectability preoperatively. (orig.)

  6. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zilai; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Huang, Baisong; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has been widely used to detect primary lesions and to evaluate TNM staging. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of dynamic MDCT in the preoperative determination of the resectability of gastric cancer. MDCT was used to image 350 cases of gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy before surgery. MDCT findings regarding TNM staging and resectability were correlated with surgical and pathological findings. The accuracy of MDCT for staging gastric cancer was high, especially for tumour stage T1 (94.3%), lymph node stage N2 (87.3%), and for predicting distant metastases (>96.6%). When resectability was considered to be the outcome, the total accuracy of MDCT was 87.4%, sensitivity was 89.7% and specificity was 76.7%. Results showed high sensitivity for identifying peritoneal seeding (90.0%) and for predicting liver metastasis (80.0%). Dynamic enhanced MDCT is useful for TNM staging of gastric cancers and for predicting tumour respectability preoperatively. (orig.)

  7. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  8. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  9. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    Full Text Available The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features.A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored.The majority of EGCs (63/64 were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001. The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05. The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers.Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  11. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Carruthers, S.G.; Grace, D.M.; King, M.; Mowbray, R.D.; Bondy, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  12. Histologic and molecular-genetic characteristics of precancerous lesions in chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zidar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory condition of the gastric mucosa, which may include glandular alterations. It is most frequently caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, a smaller proportion is related to chemical agents and autoimmune mechanisms. Chronic gastritis may lead to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, depending on environmental factors, bacterial strain and host immune response. The vast majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are the final step in a complex cascade process of cancerogenesis involving sequential steps of precancerous lesions – atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.The process of cancerogenesis is associated with progressive genetic and epigenetic alterations, these being more frequent in dysplasia than in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Despite extensive research of gastric cancerogenesis, there are no molecular markers to be used for detecting patients at risk for cancer development.Biopsy remains among the most reliable ways of detecting gastric precancerous lesions. Apart from the correct histologic diagnosis, the assessment of topography is important. Biopsies must be taken according to the updated Sydney protocol. For further classifying patients at risk for gastric cancer, two systems have been developed: OLGA (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment and OLGIM (Operative Link for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment.Slovenian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Slovenian Society for Pathology and Forensic Medicine have accepted guidelines for endoscopic and histologic management of patients with gastric precancerosis. The aim of these recommendations is to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage and to improve survival of patients with gastric cancer in Slovenia.

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor structural alterations in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Cátia; Mateus, Ana R; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    EGFR overexpression has been described in many human tumours including gastric cancer. In NSCLC patients somatic EGFR mutations, within the kinase domain of the protein, as well as gene amplification were associated with a good clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. In gastric tumours data concerning structural alterations of EGFR remains controversial. Given its possible therapeutic relevance, we aimed to determine the frequency and type of structural alterations of the EGFR gene in a series of primary gastric carcinomas. Direct sequencing of the kinase domain of the EGFR gene was performed in a series of 77 primary gastric carcinomas. FISH analysis was performed in 30 cases. Association studies between EGFR alterations and the clinical pathological features of the tumours were performed. Within the 77 primary gastric carcinomas we found two EGFR somatic mutations and several EGFR polymorphisms in exon 20. Six different intronic sequence variants of EGFR were also found. Four gastric carcinomas showed balanced polysomy or EGFR gene amplification. We verified that gastric carcinoma with alterations of EGFR (somatic mutations or copy number variation) showed a significant increase of tumour size (p = 0.0094) in comparison to wild-type EGFR carcinomas. We demonstrate that EGFR structural alterations are rare in gastric carcinoma, but whenever present, it leads to tumour growth. We considered that searching for EGFR alterations in gastric cancer is likely to be clinically important in order to identify patients susceptible to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  14. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

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    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  15. Applications of nanotechnology in gastric cancer: detection and prevention by nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elingarami, Sauli; Liu, Ming; Fan, Jing; He, Nongyue

    2014-01-01

    New and emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, have the potential to advance nutrition science by assisting in the discovery, development, and delivery of several intervention strategies to improve health and reduce the risk and complications of several diseases, including gastric cancer. This article reviews gastric cancer in relation to nutrition, discussing gastric carcinogenesis in-depth in relation to prevention of the disease by nutrition, as well as current detection approaches using nanotechnology. The current status of molecular nutritional biomarkers for gastric cancer is also discussed, as well as future strategies for the tailored management of gastric cancer.

  16. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  17. Effects of two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes on the gastric mucosa in weanlings: alfalfa chaff versus alfalfa pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Vondran, Sarah; Venner, Monica; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information regarding the influence of alfalfa particle size on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes (alfalfa chaff vs alfalfa pellets) in comparison with grass hay on the gastric mucosa in weanling horses....

  18. Evaluation of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal lesions associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, D L; Lee, A C Y; Johnston, A N; Bowman, D D; Simpson, K W

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the utility of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Capsules were administered to 2 healthy controls and 8 patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Images were evaluated for quality, gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time and presence of lesions. There were no adverse effects of capsule endoscopy in dogs weighing from 7·7 to 58 kg. The capsule traversed the entire gastrointestinal tract in 5 of 8 patients, with high quality images obtained in the stomach and small intestine. Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time ranged from 1 to 270 and 15 to 180 minutes, respectively. In 3 of 8 patients, the capsule remained in the stomach despite pro-kinetics. Gastric lesions included mild haemorrhage and pinpoint erosion (4 of 8), a mass (1) and thickened bleeding pyloric mucosa (2). Two of 3 dogs with capsule retention had gastric lesions. Intestinal lesions included a healing duodenal ulcer, abnormal villi, ileal ulceration and colonic bleeding. Lesions identified by capsule endoscopy were considered a significant source of haemorrhage in 4 of 7 dogs with active bleeding. The relevance of pinpoint gastric mucosal erosions to blood loss is unclear. Capsule endoscopy can enable the non-invasive detection of gastric and small intestinal mucosal lesions in dogs presenting for evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. A case report of prostate cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Takuto; Kitagawa, Yoshiyasu; Hara, Taro; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2017-08-07

    Occurrence of metastatic cancer to the stomach is rare, particularly in patients with prostate cancer. Gastric metastasis generally presents as a solitary and submucosal lesion with a central depression. We describe a case of gastric metastasis arising from prostate cancer, which is almost indistinguishable from the undifferentiated-type gastric cancer. A definitive diagnosis was not made until endoscopic resection. On performing both conventional and magnifying endoscopies, the lesion appeared to be slightly depressed and discolored area and it could not be distinguished from undifferentiated early gastric cancer. Biopsy from the lesion was negative for immunohistochemical staining of prostate-specific antigen, a sensitive and specific marker for prostate cancer. Thus, false initial diagnosis of an early primary gastric cancer was made and endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Pathological findings from the resected specimen aroused suspicion of a metastatic lesion. Consequently, immunostaining was performed. The lesion was positive for prostate-specific acid phosphatase and negative for prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20. Accordingly, the final diagnosis was a metastatic gastric lesion originating from prostate cancer. In this patient, the definitive diagnosis as a metastatic lesion was difficult due to its unusual endoscopic appearance and the negative stain for prostate-specific antigen. We postulate that both of these are consequences of hormonal therapy against prostate cancer.

  20. Activity of Brucea javanica oil emulsion against gastric ulcers in rodents

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    Qian Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE in animals. Gastroprotective potential of BJOE was studied on absolute ethanol, aspirin, reserpine and restraint plus water immersion-induced gastric ulcers in mice as well as glacial acetic acid (GAA and pyloric ligation (PL-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Except for ulcer scores, total acidity as well as pepsin activity as for the PL-induced gastric ulcer model and ulcer incidence as for the GAA-induced gastric ulcer model were also determined. Histopathological evaluation as for aspirin, reserpine, PL-induced models was conducted. Results showed that BJOE significantly (P < 0.05 reduced ulcer index in the mouse and rat models in a dose-dependent manner. It had significant (P < 0.05 suppressive effect on total activity of gastric juice as well in PL-induced model. Histopathological examination for the stomach samples confirmed the findings in the aspirin, reserpine or PL-induced gastric lesion models, which showed relatively complete mucosa structure and less inflammation. It is concluded that BJOE could be effective on gastric ulcer in rodents and its gastroprotective activity might be related to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory ability and promote gastric mucus secreted. The results may provide beneficial basis for increasing BJOE's clinical indication in future. Keywords: Gastric ulcer, Brucea javanica oil emulsion, Gastric mucosa, Ulcer scores, Glacial acetic acid, Pepsin activity

  1. Effect of depression on Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer and its correlation with oncogene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Rong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of depression on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with gastric cancer and its correlation with oncogene expression. Methods: A total of 82 patients who accepted radical operation for gastric cancer in Zigong Third People's Hospital between March 2015 and February 2017 were selected as the research subjects and divided into depression group and non-depression group according to the preoperative HAMD scores, and helicobacter pylori infection as well as the mRNA expression of proliferation genes and invasion genes in gastric cancer lesions was detected. Results: The positive rate of H. pylori in gastric cancer lesions of depression group was significantly higher than that of non-depression group; LOXL2, RAB1A, UHRF1, Slug and ADAM8 mRNA expression in gastric cancer lesions of depression group were significantly higher than those of non-depression group while MTS1, NOX, E-cadherin and TIMP1 mRNA expression were significantly lower than those of non-depression group; LOXL2, RAB1A, UHRF1, Slug and ADAM8 mRNA expression in H. pylori-positive gastric cancer lesions of depression group were significantly higher than those in H. pylori-negative gastric cancer lesions of depression group while MTS1, NOX, E-cadherin and TIMP1 mRNA expression were significantly lower than those in H. pylori-negative gastric cancer lesions of depression group. Conclusion: Depression can increase the H. pylori infection rate and promote the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells in gastric cancer lesions.

  2. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body will not get all of the calories from the food you eat. ... to a small hole in your pouch. The food you eat will now travel ... absorb fewer calories. Gastric bypass can be done in two ways. ...

  3. CT features of gastric heterotopic pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guangyao; Tian Zhixiong; Zhang Zaipeng; Huang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT findings correlated with pathologic findings in ectopic pancreas of the stomach. Methods: CT scans of 15 surgically proven eases of ectopic pancreas of the stomach were reviewed, and enhanced CT scan was performed in 11 cases. CT findings were correlated with the pathologic findings. Results: All cases had single lesion, and all lesions showed homogeneous density on plain scans without cystic or malignant changes. The size ranged from 1.3 to 3.1 cm, with mean diameter of (1.9±0.2) cm. The lesions were round or oval in shape with broad base against the gastric wall. Two showed central umbilication sign. Only 2 cases were correctly diagnosed prior to operation and the rest were misdiagnosed or diagnosed indistinctly. The locations were in the gastric antrum in 11 cases, in the body in 3, and in fundus in one; The ectopic pancreas located in the greater curvature in 10, and in the lesser curvature in 5. Homogeneous or inhomogeneous strong enhancement similar to the pancreas was seen in 8 cases and they consisted mainly of pancreatic acini with the same histologic features as the pancreas. Three cases showed poor enhancement and consisted mainly of ducts and hypertrophied muscle, pancreatic acini were a minor component. Conclusion: Ectopic pancreas of the stomach showed characteristic locations with the findings of submucosal diseases. Different enhancing patterns were correlated with their pathologic findings. (authors)

  4. Treatment of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. Methods. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pylori infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15% of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Conclusion. Durable complete re-mission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  5. Clinicopathological features of alpha-fetoprotein producing early gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Akazawa, Yoichi; Komori, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Murakami, Takashi; Asaoka, Daisuke; Hojo, Mariko; Tomita, Natsumi; Nagahara, Akihito; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-09-28

    To investigate clinicopathological features of early stage gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation (GCED). We retrospectively investigated data on 6 cases of early stage GCED and 186 cases of early stage conventional gastric cancer (CGC: well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma) who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection from September 2011 to February 2015 in our hospital. GCED was defined as a tumor having a primitive intestine-like structure composed of cuboidal or columnar cells with clear cytoplasm and immunohistochemical positivity for either alpha-fetoprotein, Glypican 3 or SALL4. The following were compared between GCED and CGC: age, gender, location and size of tumor, macroscopic type, ulceration, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, positive horizontal and vertical margin, curative resection rate. Six cases (5 males, 1 female; mean age 75.7 years; 6 lesions) of early gastric cancer with a GCED component and 186 cases (139 males, 47 females; mean age 72.7 years; 209 lesions) of early stage CGC were investigated. Mean tumor diameters were similar but rates of submucosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and non-curative resection were higher in GCED than CGC (66.6% vs 11.4%, 33.3% vs 2.3%, 66.6% vs 0.4%, 83.3% vs 11% respectively, P < 0.01). Deep submucosal invasion was not revealed endoscopically or by preoperative biopsy. Histologically, in GCED the superficial mucosal layer was covered with a CGC component. The GCED component tended to exist in the deeper part of the mucosa to the submucosa by lymphatic and/or venous invasion, without severe stromal reaction. In addition, Glypican 3 was the most sensitive marker for GCED (positivity, 83.3%), immunohistochemically. Even in the early stage GCED has high malignant potential, and preoperative diagnosis is considered difficult. Endoscopists and pathologists should know the clinicopathological features of this highly malignant type

  6. Coexistence of borderline ovarian epithelial tumor, primary pelvic hydatid cyst, and lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Tayfun; Altinkaya, Sunduz Ozlem; Sirvan, Levent; Lafuente, Roberto Alvarez; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2011-06-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent a heterogeneous group of ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Despite a favorable prognosis, 10-20% of BOTs exhibit progressively worsening clinic. Primary involvement of pelvic organs with echinococcus is very rare. Lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the stomach. A 58-year-old woman referred with abdominal swelling and gastric complaints. Imaging studies revealed a huge cystic mass with multiple septations and solid component, another cystic mass with an appearance of cyst hydatid in the pelvis, and thickening of the small curvature of stomach. Gastroscopy revealed an ulcer with a suspicious malignant appearance, and histology of the endoscopic specimen showed severe chronic inflammation and lymphocytic infiltration. No other involvement of hydatid cyst was detected. In the exploration, there was a 25cm cystic lesion with solid components arising from right ovary, another 6cm cyst over the former, 7cm cystic lesion arising from left ovary, and 10cm mass near the small curvature of the stomach. Excision of the masses; total gastrectomy with esophagojejunal anastomosis; total abdominal hysterectomy; bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; omentectomy; appendectomy; splenectomy; and pelvic, paraaortic, and coeliac lympadenectomy were performed. Final pathology revealed lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, bilateral serous BOT, and hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominopelvic masses in endemic regions of the world. Preoperative diagnosis of primary pelvic hydatid disease is difficult and awareness of its possibility is very important especially in patients residing in or coming from endemic areas. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  9. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  10. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may be defined as a dysfunction of the distal esophagus causing return of gastric contents into the esophagus. GER is a rather common problem during infancy, with an incidence estimated as 1 in 500 infants. Several methods are available to diagnose and quantitate GER. These include fluoroscopy after barium feedings, in conjunction with an upper gastrointestinal series; esophageal manometry; endoscopy; pH probe monitoring, in conjunction with a Tuttle Test; and extended pH probe evaluation for a 24-h period. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy has been advocated as an alternative noninvasive study requiring no sedation. Scintigraphy offers the advantages of prolonged observation, high sensitivity, and low radiation exposure

  12. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  13. Gastric involvement in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Levesque, H; Ducrotté, P; Denis, P; Hellot, M F; Benichou, J; Cailleux, N; Courtois, H

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of gastric electrical activity dysfunction with cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG), disturbances of gastric emptying function using radiopaque pellets, and gastric endoscopic abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We also investigate for an association between EGG and gastric-emptying data with clinical manifestations and esophageal motor disturbances. Fasting and postprandial gastric electrical activity was studied in 22 consecutive patients with SSc (17 with and 5 without clinical gastric manifestations) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets and gastroscopy were also performed in SSc patients. The prevalence of EGG disturbances was as high as 81.82% in SSc patients. SSc patients exhibited, compared with controls, higher median percentage of dominant frequency in bradygastria during the fasting period and lower median values for postprandial electrical power and postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets was delayed in 11 SSc patients, and gastroscopy demonstrated "watermelon stomach" in 3 SSc patients. No correlation was found between the severity of gastric impairment and clinical presentation, SSc duration and subsets, and esophageal manometric impairment. Our study underlines the high frequency of gastric dysfunction in SSc patients. It suggests the usefulness of EGG in SSc in noninvasively detecting disorders of gastric electrical activity at an early stage and symptomatic patients with gastroparesis (because there was a correlation between values of postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power of watermelon stomach diagnosis should be excluded in SSc patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage or with anemia related to iron deficiency.

  14. CARCINOMA OF THE OESOPHAGUS AND GASTRIC CARDIA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the cricopharyngeus muscle to the gastric cardia. It is however .... Dysphagia is the commonest symptom and sooner or later will ... Loss of weight is almost invariable, although adequate nourishment can .... of moderate or severe degree, nutrition is seriously affected. ... anaemia. Serum-protein estimations must always be.

  15. Dysbiosis of the microbiome in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Goh, Khean-Lee; Fock, Kwong Ming; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kaakoush, Nadeem O

    2017-11-21

    The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome α-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.

  16. Incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury after gastric surgery for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI, a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline. RESULTS: Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4% developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2% were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl; use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.

  17. The effect of isoperistaltic jejunal interposition upon gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, C.R.; Hall, A.W.; Clark, J.; Wisbey, M.; Baker, P.R.; Cuschieri, A.

    1981-12-01

    Ten patients with severe postgastrectomy-postvagotomy symptoms, all of whom had the features of vasomotor dumping, underwent gastric emptying studies, using a 300 milliliter meal of 15 per cent dextrose labeled with 99mTc-sulphur colloid. Studies were repeated two to 11 months following remedial operative treatment, using a 12.5 to 15.0 centimeter isoperistaltic jejunal interposition. Preoperatively, all patients had rapid gastric emptying with a typical biphasic pattern. Following isoperistaltic interposition, the rate of gastric emptying was similar to that found in control patients. Gastric emptying reverted to a more normal pattern but, as in the preoperative studies, was best described by a double exponential function, consisting of slow and fast components. Analysis of these particular functions suggests the manner in which isoperistaltic interposition modified the underlying disorder of gastric motility.

  18. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  19. OCT investigation of dental lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiac, Eugen; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Rǎzvan; Mercuţ, Veronica; Vǎtu, Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    There are several important non carious lesions affecting the tooth structure, lesions which may be classified into four clinical forms of dental wear: abfraction, erosion, attrition and abrasion, and different types of root resorption. Search for new, non-invasive and fast methods able to detect and describe such injuries is of utmost importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved itself as an appropriate investigation method for several medical fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology etc. Our study reveals OCT preliminary investigations as a promising tool for detecting and evaluating of the mentioned lesions.

  20. How to stomach an epigenetic insult: the gastric cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Nisha; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Tan, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a deadly malignancy afflicting close to a million people worldwide. Patient survival is poor and largely due to late diagnosis and suboptimal therapies. Disease heterogeneity is a substantial obstacle, underscoring the need for precision treatment strategies. Studies have identified different subgroups of gastric cancer displaying not just genetic, but also distinct epigenetic hallmarks. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities in gastric cancer are not mere bystander events, but rather promote carcinogenesis through active mechanisms. Epigenetic aberrations, induced by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, are an early component of gastric carcinogenesis, probably preceding genetic abnormalities. This Review summarizes our current understanding of the gastric cancer epigenome, highlighting key advances in recent years in both tumours and pre-malignant lesions, made possible through targeted and genome-wide technologies. We focus on studies related to DNA methylation and histone modifications, linking these findings to potential therapeutic opportunities. Lessons learned from the gastric cancer epigenome might also prove relevant for other gastrointestinal cancers.

  1. Independent occurence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ito, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    The selective occurence of gastric tumors and intestinal metaplasias in the stomach by X-irradiation were described both in mice and rats. The appearance of both lesions was greatly influenced by animal's strains in both species and also by the sex in rats. A few gastric tumors were observed in the animals given a high does with spilt into low doses of X-irradiation. The adequate dose for gastric tumorigenesis may be around 20 Gy in mice and 15 Gy in rats. A good relationship between X-ray dose and incidence of gastric tumor was observed in ICR mice. Frequency of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation was much higher in rats compared to that in mice. X-ray dose requested for moderate and induction of intestinal metaplasia was decreased with a dose which was induced erosion and gastric tumor. It has been empirically clarified that an elevation of pH value in the gastric juice is one of the principal factors responsible for the development of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa among the conditions thus for introduced. In this article, we have introduced the relevant examples about intestinal metaplasia without carcinogenic insult, and the relationship between gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia were described. The intestinal metaplasia was not always observed within or adjacent to neoplastic gastric glands. A combined treatment of X-ray and MNNG was not effective for gastric tumor and frequency of intestinal metaplasia was inversely related to the incidence of gastric tumors. In conclusion, occurrence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia may be independent, and intestinal metaplasia might not be a prerequite for the occurrence of gastric tumor. (author)

  2. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  3. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  4. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high .... tubes were removed and oral nutrition resumed. The .... surgical approach for perforated gastric cancer: One‑stage vs. two‑stage ...

  5. Development of gastric cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2004-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with histological gastritis, gastric atrophy, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the stomach. However, gastric cancer only develops in a minority of infected individuals. Such clinical diversity is caused by variations in the interactions between H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Based on evidence from three prospective epidemiological studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (IARC/WHO) concluded in 1994 that H. pylori has a causal linkage to gastric carcinogenesis and is a definite carcinogen in humans. Two large-scale, prospective, epidemiological studies have recently been reported in Japan and have confirmed that H. pylori infection constitutes a high risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, at least in males. In order to obtain evidence that eradication of H. pylori leads to a reduction in the occurrence of gastric cancer, reversibility of precancerous lesions, gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia should be proven after eradication treatment. A biopsy specimen from the lesser curvature of the corpus is the most sensitive for evaluating the regression of gastric atrophy on histology, and the evaluation needs be conducted at least 13 months after treatment. In a Mongolian gerbil model with or without low-dose chemical carcinogens, it has been demonstrated that H. pylori can lead to the development of gastric cancer. Experimental studies have elucidated that virulence factors of H. pylori interact with gastric epithelial cell signaling related to carcinogenesis. The cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is a major virulence gene cluster; it encodes the type IV secretion machinery system forming a cylinder-like structure. The CagA protein is translocated into target cells via this secretion system and induces a hummingbird phenotype, a growth factor-like effect. The other gene products are

  6. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G A; Brawley, O W

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has generated public health interest since its identification in 1983. Past studies have suggested that the bacterium plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. More recent studies support the conclusion that the association of H. pylori with gastric cancer is causal. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence supporting the association of H. pylori with gastric cancer. We performed a critical review of the relevant literature published in the English language on H. pylori and gastric cancer using MEDLINE, Index Medicus for the years 1985 to 1997. The reference lists of selected articles also were reviewed to capture citations for further pertinent studies. H. pylori is thought to be the major cause of chronic atrophic gastritis. H. pylori gastritis is worldwide in distribution. H. pylori is now categorized by the International Agency for Cancer Research as a group 1 carcinogen, i.e., an agent that is carcinogenic to humans. Several reports from the United States have found the highest frequencies of gastric cancer in geographic areas and populations with the highest rates of acquisition of H. pylori infection. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been documented most notably in blacks and Hispanics, who also are at high risk for gastric cancer. New studies that focus on the epidemiology and pathology of H. pylori improve our understanding of its relationship with gastric cancer and advance the development of gastric cancer prevention and control strategies that are proposed.

  7. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis: a cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; de Bock, Geertruida H; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based cohort study, 928 randomly selected, healthy, Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in Ardabil Province, Iran, were followed for 10 years. The association between baseline precancerous lesions and lifestyle risk factors (including hookah/opium) was analyzed using logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of lifestyle risk factors and endoscopic and histological parameters with incident gastric cancers using Cox regression models. Additionally, the proportion of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors was calculated. During 9,096 person-years of follow-up, 36 new cases of gastric cancer were observed (incidence rate: 3.96/1,000 persons-years). Opium consumption was strongly associated with baseline antral (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and body intestinal metaplasia (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.5-21.5). Opium (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), hookah (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.1) and cigarette use (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.5), as well as high salt intake, family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and histological atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia of body were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer. The fraction of cancers attributable jointly to high salt, low fruit intake, smoking (including hookah) and opium was 93% (95% CI: 83-98). Hookah and opium use are risk factors for gastric cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Hookah, opium, cigarette and high salt intake are important modifiable risk factors in this high-incidence gastric cancer area. © 2013 UICC.

  8. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  9. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  10. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  11. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  12. The role of gastric scintigraphy in primary or post surgical disorders of gastric emptying; Interet de la scintigraphie gastrique dans l`exploration des troubles primitifs et postchirurgicaux de la vidange gastrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, R.; Lemann, M.; Rain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    Gastric scintigraphy is the gold standard for the measurement of the gastric emptying of a meal because of its reliability and its reproducibility and the respect of physiological conditions. Moreover, this technique allows to measure the emptying of solid and liquid phases simultaneously. Symptoms motivating a gastric scintigraphy, suggest either a gastric stasis (dyspepsia) or a gastric incontinence (dumping syndrome). The two most frequent clinical conditions triggering this test are motility disorders following vagotomy, a delayed emptying of solids is often associated to an accelerated emptying of liquids. Gastric scintigraphy proves quite useful in these conditions, since the diagnosis of such complex abnormalities is uneasy to establish exclusively on a clinical basis. In idiopathic dyspepsia, gastric stasis is proved only in 50 % of the patients. However, a radionuclide study of gastric emptying is seldom ordered because of the common character and good tolerance of these symptoms. In everyday practice, gastric scintigraphy is considered only when gastric or intestinal obstructive lesions have been ruled out. A suggestive clinical picture and/or absence of a deteriorated general condition allow to prescribe a symptomatic treatment. More rarely, equivocal symptoms, degradation of the general condition and unresponsiveness to symptomatic drugs call for gastric scintigraphy. (authors). 241 refs., 2 figs.

  13. [Synchronous Double Cancer Involving Gastric Cancer Resembling a Submucosal Tumor with Stenosis in the Pylorus and Ascending Colon Cancer - A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Tatsuomi; Miyaki, Akira; Ida, Arika; Kishibe, Saki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Usui, Takebumi; Kuhara, Kotaro; Kono, Teppei; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-11-01

    An 82-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a complaint of frequent vomiting. She was admitted for intensive examination and treatment. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that her stomach was severely expanded, and the wall of the ascending colon was thickened throughout its circumference. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy uncovered severe stenosis in the pylorus and an elevated lesion resembling a submucosal tumor on the posterior wall of the pylorus. Biopsies of the lesion revealed that it was of Group 1. On colonoscopy, type 2 cancer was found in the ascending colon throughout the circumference, and the biopsies revealed that it was of Group 5. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was repeated, and the same result was obtained. The possibility of malignancy could not be excluded; therefore, distal gastrectomy and right colectomy were performed. In terms of histopathology, both resected specimens displayed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma; however, immunohistochemical studies revealed differences in staining at the two sites. The case was diagnosed as synchronous double cancer involving gastric cancer resembling a submucosal tumor with stenosis in the pylorus and ascending colon cancer. Gastric cancer resembling a submucosal tumor is usually difficult to diagnose on biopsy. If the endoscopic findings reveal an elevated lesion resembling a submucosal tumor with stenosis, then the possibility of carcinoma should be considered, and the most suitable treatment should be selected.

  14. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Will Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Childhood Alter the Risk of Developing Gastric Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Bourke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen for gastric cancer. It is estimated that there is between a two- and sixfold increase in the risk of developing gastric cancer among infected patients. Among different populations, the risk of H pylori-infected individuals developing gastric cancer varies greatly. However, on a worldwide scale, gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, H pylori eradication could help prevent up to three to four million gastric cancer deaths per year. H pylori is usually acquired in childhood. Because infected children have not harboured the organism for long enough to have developed precancerous lesions, childhood is theoretically an attractive time for H pylori eradication and, thus, could help prevent gastric cancer later in life. However, as H pylori prevalence and the incidence of gastric cancer are falling rapidly in developed nations, widespread population screening programs aimed at the eradication of H pylori in these countries would be enormously expensive. Therefore, except in groups with a high risk for development of gastric cancer (eg, Japanese or those with a strong positive family history of gastric cancer, a population-based test-and-treat policy is not justified.

  17. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in supragingival dental plaque of individuals with periodontal disease and upper gastric diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.G.; Stevens, R.H.; Macedo, J.M.B.; Albano, R.M.; Falabella, M.E.V.; Fisher, R.G.; Veerman, E.C.; Tinoco, E.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative microorganism which is able to colonize the gastric mucosa and is associated with peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Several studies have detected this bacterium in the oral cavity, suggesting it

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient value of gastric cancer by diffusion-weighted imaging: Correlations with the histological differentiation and Lauren classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Song; Guan, Wenxian; Wang, Hao; Pan, Liang; Zhou, Zhuping; Yu, Haiping; Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gastric cancers’ ADC values were significantly lower than normal gastric wall. • Gastric adenocarcinomas with different differentiation had different ADC values. • Gastric adenocarcinomas’ ADC values correlated with histologic differentiations. • Gastric cancers’ ADC values correlated with Lauren classifications. • Mean ADC value was better than min ADC value in characterizing gastric cancers. - Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between histological differentiation and Lauren classification of gastric cancer and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients with gastric cancer lesions underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) and surgical resection. DWI was obtained with a single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence in the axial plane (b values: 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 ). Mean and minimum ADC values were obtained for each gastric cancer and normal gastric walls by two radiologists, who were blinded to the histological findings. Histological type, degree of differentiation and Lauren classification of each resected specimen were determined by one pathologist. Mean and minimum ADC values of gastric cancers with different histological types, degrees of differentiation and Lauren classifications were compared. Correlations between ADC values and histological differentiation and Lauren classification were analyzed. Results: The mean and minimum ADC values of gastric cancers, as a whole and separately, were significantly lower than those of normal gastric walls (all p values <0.001). There were significant differences in the mean and minimum ADC values among gastric cancers with different histological types, degrees of differentiation and Lauren classifications (p < 0.05). Mean and minimum ADC values correlated significantly (all p < 0.001) with histological differentiation (r = 0.564, 0.578) and Lauren

  19. Current Concepts on Gastric Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Nikou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoid tumors (GCs are rare lesions representing less than 10% of carcinoid tumors and less than 1% of all stomach neoplasms. There are three distinct types of gastric carcinoids; type I includes the vast majority (70–85% of these neoplasms that are closely linked to chronic atrophic gastritis. Type II which accounts for 5–10 %, is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and often occurs in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Type III, finally, represents 15–25% of gastric carcinoids and is characterized by a far more aggressive course. The optimal clinical approach to GCs remains to be elucidated, depending upon type, size, and number of carcinoids. While there is universal agreement about the surgical treatment of type III GCs, current options for type I and II include simple surveillance, endoscopic polypectomy, surgical excision associated with or without surgical antrectomy, or total gastrectomy. Moreover, the introduction of somatostatin analogues could represent another therapeutic option.

  20. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Molecular classification of gastric cancer: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Klimstra, David S; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P

    2011-05-01

    Gastric cancer may be subdivided into 3 distinct subtypes--proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer--based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (National Cancer Institute, NCI #5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. Four to 6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was carried out to ensure more than 80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the 3 gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross-validation error was 0.14, suggesting that more than 85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the false discovery rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinctions are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. ©2011 AACR.

  2. Candidiasis, A Rare Cause of Gastric Perforation: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukekwe, F I; Nwajiobi, C; Agbo, M O; Ebede, S O; Eni, A O

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are unusually rare causes of gastric perforation, with most cases of gastric perforation occurring as complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and gastric neoplasms. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old Nigerian male who presented with severe epigastric pain, with no associated history of PUD, NSAIDs use or gastric neoplasm. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed and a gastric perforation was discovered and repaired. Histopathological examination of the gastric perforation edge biopsy revealed an intense Candida growth consisting of numerous fungal spores and hyphae invading and destroying the gastric wall. He was subsequently treated with fluconazole antifungal and discharged home after an uneventful postoperative period.

  3. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  4. Diagnostic significance of computed tomography in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in Korea. Identification and evaluation of gastric mass lesions and regional-distant metastasis by abdominal CT scan are important for the treatment planning and prognostic implications of gastric cancer patients. Author reviewed CT scans of 61 cases of pathology proven gastric cancer, retrospectively, for recent 20 month from July 1983 to Feb. 1985 at Department of Radiology, Korea University, Hae Wha Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. There were 50 cases of advanced adenocarcinoma, 8 cases of early gastric cancer, 2 cases of leiomyosarcoma, and 1 case of lymphoma in total 61 cases. 2. The sex ratio of male to female was 2 : 1. Age distribution was from 24 to 75 year old and peak incidence was in 6th decade. 3. The most frequent site of involvement with gastric cancer was gastric antrum in 51% 4. 48 of 50 patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (96%) had a wall thickness greater than 1 cm, and all of 8 cases of early gastric cancer had a wall thickness less than 1 cm. Regional lymph node tumor infiltration was found in 100% of gastric wall thickness greater than 2.0 cm, in 64% of cases of 1.5 to 2.0 cm, in 50% of cases of 1.0 to 1.5 cm, and 12.5% of cases of less than 1.0 cm. 5. In a comparison of enlargement of regional lymph node by CT scan to tumor infiltration of regional lymph node by histology, sensitivity was 52%, specificity was 87%, and reliability was 66%. 6. The structure involved by distant metastasis of these cases were the retroperitoneal lymph node in 15, liver in 8, and pancreas in 3. 7. The diagnostic accuracy of CT staging was considered about 68% by correlation of the surgical and histological findings. 8. The CT scan is one of the accurate and simple tool for evaluation of size, shape, extent, as well as distant metastasis in the cases of gastric malignancies

  5. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  6. Gastric Volvulus in Guinea Pigs: Comparison with Other Species

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-01-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of g...

  7. Jejunal Gastric Heterotopia causing Multiple Strictures and Perforation Peritonitis- A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, M; Nambiar, Ajit; Geetha, K; Kundil, Byju

    2017-03-01

    Gastric heterotopias beyond the ligament of Treitz though rare, should be thought of in the differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions presenting with gastrointestinal bleed or obstructive symptoms especially in children and in the young. Here is a 24-year-old male with multifocal jejunal gastric heterotopias causing multiple strictures and perforation peritonitis. Patient presented with acute abdomen pain and an emergency laparotomy was performed revealing jejunum with multiple strictures and perforation, followed by jejunal resection. On gross examination polypoid mucosa was noted at the stricture sites which showed heterotopic gastric mucosa on microscopy. Jejunal gastric heterotopias are extremely rare with less than ten reported cases and those presenting with multiple strictures are even rarer. To our knowledge this is the second case of jejunal gastric heterotopia presenting with multiple strictures.

  8. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion......The role of submandibular epidermal growth factor in protection of the gastric mucosa was investigated in rats. Removal of the submandibular glands and thereby submandibular epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rats to develop gastric lesions (ulcerations and ulcers) after administration......, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may...

  9. The endothelial lipase protein is promising urinary biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xueyan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Guoqing; Ni, Zhaohui; Suo, Jian; Cui, Juan; Cui, Ai; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ying; Li, Fan

    2013-03-19

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Finding effective diagnostic biomarkers in urine or serum would represent the most ideal solution to detecting gastric cancer during annual physical examination. This study was to evaluate the potential of endothelial lipase (EL) as a urinary biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer. The expression levels of EL was measured using Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining experiments on (tissue, serum, and urine) samples of gastric cancer patients versus healthy people. We also checked the EL levels in the urine samples of other cancer types (lung, colon and rectum cancers) and benign lesions (gastritis and gastric leiomyoma) to check if EL was specific to gastric cancer. We observed a clear separation between the EL expression levels in the urine samples of 90 gastric cancer patients and of 57 healthy volunteers. It was approximately 9.9 fold average decrease of the EL expression levels in the urine samples of gastric cancer compared to the healthy controls (P cancer. Interestingly, the expression levels of EL in tissue and serum samples were not nearly as discriminative as in urine samples (P = 0.90 and P = 0.79). In immunohistochemical experiments, positive expression of the EL protein was found in 67% (8/12) of gastric adjacent noncancerous and in 58% (7/12) of gastric cancer samples. There was no significant statistical in the expression levels of this protein between the gastric cancer and the matching noncancerous tissues (P =0.67). The urinary EL as a highly accurate gastric cancer biomarker that is potentially applicable to the general screening with high sensitivity and specificity. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4527331618757552.

  10. [Efficiency of famotidin in prophylaxis of NSAIDs-induced gastropathy: result of multicenter research ZASLON-1 (protection of gastric mucosa from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, L B; Drozdov, V N; Kim, V A

    2009-01-01

    This article presents results of the first Russian randomized study of NSAID-gastropaty prevention at patients receiving NSAIDS. Results of clinical and endoscopic monitoring of two groups of patients: 1st - 108 patients with AA or RA treated with diclofenac and famotidin and 2nd--116 patients with AA or RA receiving diclofenac treatment only. It was shown that combined use of diclofenac and famotidin reduces to 2.6 times frequency and significantly reduces severity of painful dyspepsia symptoms and antipain manifestations reduces more than twice frequency of erosive-ulcerous lesions of gastric mucosa and duodenum.

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soussan Irani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000, inside the blood vessels (P=0.003, inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036, and muscle layer (P=0.122. Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested.

  12. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Giant gastric lipoma presenting as GI bleed: Enucleation or Resection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Termos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastric lipomas are unusual benign lesions and account for less than 1% of all tumours of the stomach and 5% of all gastrointestinal lipomas (Thompson et al.2003; Fernandez et al. 1983 [1,2]. Although predominantly asymptomatic and indolent; they may present with gastric outlet obstruction and upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding owing to size and ulceration. Only a few cases have been reported, presenting large in size with massive GI bleeding (Alcalde Escribano et al. 1989; Johnson et al. 1981 [3,4]. Presentation of case: We report the case of a 62-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department with massive upper GI hemorrhage. He was initially resuscitated and stabilized. Later gastroscopy showed a large submucosal tumour (Fig. 1. Biopsy revealed adipose tissue. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge well defined oval soft tissue lesion measuring about 16 × 8 × 8 cm. The mass noted a homogenous fat density arising from the posterior wall of stomach with no extramural infiltration (Fig. 2. The tumour was completely enucleated through an explorative gastrotomy incision (Fig. 4. Discussion and conclusion: Massive bleeding secondary to a giant gastric lipoma is a rare finding of a rare disease. The majority of cases in the literature result in major gastric resection. Familiarity with its radiological findings and a high index of suspicion can lead to proper diagnosis in the acute setting. If malignancy is carefully ruled out, stomach preserving surgery is an optimal treatment option. Keywords: Case report, Lipoma, Gastric lipoma, G I bleeding, Enucleation, Gastric resection

  14. Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... were sarcomas and 2 (1.9%) cases were lymphomas. Of 102 cases of ..... Kaposi's sarcoma (Obekpa et al., 1994). Our findings .... Milne ANA, Carvalho R, Morsink FM, Musler AR, de Leng WWJ,. Ristimaki A (2006).

  15. Endoscopic Treatment of a Gastric Dieulafoy's Lesion | Ranketi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is associated with significant mortality and a prompt search and treatment of the etiology is important. Upper GI endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment after initial resuscitation of the patient. In a majority of cases, the cause will be easily identified during endoscopy.

  16. Warty gastric cancer with polypoid metastases to the gallbladder and urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuyama M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutsushi Matsuyama,1,2 Kazuo Kato,3 Seiichi Goto,4 Suzuko Moritani,5 Kazuhiro Sentani,6 Makoto Kuroda7 1Clinical Laboratory, Hekinan Municipal Hospital, Hekinan, Aichi, 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, 3Clinical Laboratory, Rousai Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Hekinan Municipal Hospital, Hekinan, Aichi, 5Department of Advanced Diagnosis, Division of Pathology, National Hospital Organization, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima, 7Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Abstract: An 80-year-old man had severe lumbago that was diagnosed as multiple myeloma. He was treated with melphalan, prednisone, and zoledronic acid, with a good response. However, he had severe anemia, and endoscopic examination revealed gastric cancer. He died 3 months later. Autopsy revealed verrucous gastric cancer consisting of numerous polypoid mucosal excrescences that had metastasized to the gallbladder and urinary bladder, showing similar polypoid mucosal lesions. The cancer consisted of poorly differentiated cells (about 85% and signet ring cells (15% in the stomach. The cancerous tissue was not associated with a desmoplastic reaction, and the signet ring cells showed a positive reaction to cytokeratin 7 and regenerating islet-derived family member 4 antibodies. The cancer cells had a propensity to proliferate on the mucosal surface of the stomach, gallbladder, and urinary bladder. Keywords: warty gastric cancer, polypoid metastases, signet ring cells, cytokeratin 7, regenerating islet-derived family member 4

  17. Gastric cancer in coal miners: an hypothesis of coal mine dust causation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, T M; Whong, W Z; Ames, R G

    1983-10-01

    An hypothesis is proposed to explain the elevated incidence of gastric cancer among coal miners. Inhaled coal mine dust, especially the larger particles, is cleared from the lung and tracheobronchial tree by mucociliary function, swallowed, and introduced into the stomach. Organic and/or inorganic materials in the dust can undergo intra-gastric nitrosation and/or interaction with exogenous chemicals to form carcinogenic compounds which in turn may lead to precancerous lesions, which may subsequently develop into gastric cancer. This sequence of events, however, depends upon occupational exposures as well as life-style features and individual genetic predisposition.

  18. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE M. SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. did not alter glutathione levels (GSH, but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus.

  19. Incidence of metachronous gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after synchronous multiple cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Isao; Hato, Shinji; Kobatake, Takaya; Ohta, Koji; Kubo, Yoshirou; Nishimura, Rieko; Kurita, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In the preoperative evaluation for gastric cancer, high-resolution endoscopic technologies allow us to detect small accessory lesions. However, it is not known if the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy for synchronous multiple gastric cancers has a greater risk for metachronous cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of metachronous cancer in this patient subset compared with that after solitary cancer surgery. Data on a consecutive series of 1,281 patients gastrectomized for early gastric cancer from 1991 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The 715 gastric remnants after distal gastrectomy were periodically surveyed by endoscopic examination in Shikoku Cancer Center. Among those surveyed cases, 642 patients were pathologically diagnosed with solitary lesion (SO group) and 73 patients with synchronous multiple lesions (MU group) at the time of the initial surgery. In the follow-up period, 15 patients in the SO group and 3 patients in the MU group were diagnosed as having metachronous cancer in the gastric remnant. The cumulative 4-year incidence rate was 1.9 % in the SO group and 5.5 % in the MU group. The difference did not reach the significant level by the log-rank test. The incidence of metachronous cancer is higher after multiple cancer surgery; however, the difference is not statistically significant.

  20. Epstein Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori co-infection are positively associated with severe gastritis in pediatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Cárdenas-Mondragón

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is acquired during childhood and causes a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, which is considered the main risk factor to acquire gastric cancer (GC later in life. More recently, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV have also been associated with GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory responses and its relationship with H. pylori infection remains poorly studied. Here, we assessed whether EBV infection in children correlated with the stage of gastritis and whether co-infection with H. pylori affected the severity of inflammation.333 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain were studied. From them, gastric biopsies were taken and inflammation graded according to the Sydney system; peripheral blood was drawn and antibodies against EBV (IgG and IgM anti-VCA and H. pylori (IgG anti-whole bacteria and anti-CagA were measured in sera. We found that children infected only by EBV presented mild mononuclear (MN and none polymorphonuclear (PMN cell infiltration, while those infected by H. pylori presented moderate MN and mild PMN. In contrast, patients co-infected with both pathogens were significantly associated with severe gastritis. Importantly, co-infection of H. pylori CagA+/EBV+ had a stronger association with severe MN (PR 3.0 and PMN (PR 7.2 cells than cases with single H. pylori CagA+ infection.Co-infection with EBV and H. pylori in pediatric patients is associated with severe gastritis. Even single infections with H. pylori CagA+ strains are associated with mild to moderate infiltration arguing for a cooperative effect of H. pylori and EBV in the gastric mucosa and revealing a critical role for EBV previously un-appreciated. This study points out the need to study both pathogens to understand the mechanism behind severe damage of the gastric mucosa, which could identified children with increased risk to present more serious lesions later in life.

  1. ADMINISTRATION OF H2 BLOCKERS IN NSAID INDUCED GASTROPATHY IN RATS: effect on histopathological changes in gastric, hepatic and renal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin MANOCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induces gastric mucosal lesions because of its acidic properties. Ranitidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, has proved beneficial in patients with gastric ulcers. Objective The present study was performed to assess the effect of administering ranitidine in Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide induced gastropathy, and their effect on the histopathology of stomach, kidney and liver. Methods Diclofenac, nimesulide, and ranitidine were administered in doses of 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 14 days, and their effect on gastric volume, acidity, mean ulcer number, and gastric pH. In addition, histopathological examination was also performed on sections of stomach, kidney and liver. Results Following the administration of diclofenac or nimesulide, all the gastric parameters were significantly altered as well as the histopathology of stomach, liver and kidney. In the control group, the renal sections showed normal glomeruli with no thickening of glomerular basement membrane, while in diclofenac alone, nimesulide alone, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed. These alterations were observed to be reversed in the ranitidine with diclofenac group. In the sections from the liver, the control group showed anastomosing plates and cords of cuboidal hepatocytes with round well stained nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, mild dilatation of sinusoids is seen coupled with prominence of central vein. In the diclofenac alone and nimesulide alone groups, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules show mild focal tubular necrosis. In the gastric sections, the control group showed several folds forming villi, and the epithelial lining surface of the mucosa. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the duodenum showed

  2. ADMINISTRATION OF H2 BLOCKERS IN NSAID INDUCED GASTROPATHY IN RATS: effect on histopathological changes in gastric, hepatic and renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Sachin; Lal, Dushyant; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induces gastric mucosal lesions because of its acidic properties. Ranitidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, has proved beneficial in patients with gastric ulcers. The present study was performed to assess the effect of administering ranitidine in Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide) induced gastropathy, and their effect on the histopathology of stomach, kidney and liver. Diclofenac, nimesulide, and ranitidine were administered in doses of 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 14 days, and their effect on gastric volume, acidity, mean ulcer number, and gastric pH. In addition, histopathological examination was also performed on sections of stomach, kidney and liver. Following the administration of diclofenac or nimesulide, all the gastric parameters were significantly altered as well as the histopathology of stomach, liver and kidney. In the control group, the renal sections showed normal glomeruli with no thickening of glomerular basement membrane, while in diclofenac alone, nimesulide alone, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed. These alterations were observed to be reversed in the ranitidine with diclofenac group. In the sections from the liver, the control group showed anastomosing plates and cords of cuboidal hepatocytes with round well stained nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, mild dilatation of sinusoids is seen coupled with prominence of central vein. In the diclofenac alone and nimesulide alone groups, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules show mild focal tubular necrosis. In the gastric sections, the control group showed several folds forming villi, and the epithelial lining surface of the mucosa. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the duodenum showed scattered inflammatory cells composed predominantly of lymphocytes. In

  3. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  4. Histologic scoring of gastritis and gastric cancer in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arlin B

    2012-01-01

    Histopathology is a defining endpoint in mouse models of experimental gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma. Presented here is an overview of the histology of gastritis and gastric cancer in mice experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori or H. felis. A modular histopathologic scoring scheme is provided that incorporates relevant disease-associated changes. Whereas the guide uses Helicobacter infection as the prototype challenge, features may be applied to chemical and genetically engineered mouse models of stomach cancer as well. Specific criteria included in the combined gastric histologic activity index (HAI) include inflammation, epithelial defects, oxyntic atrophy, hyperplasia, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and dysplasia or neoplasia. Representative photomicrographs accompany descriptions for each lesion grade. Differentiation of genuine tumor invasion from pseudoinvasion is highlighted. A brief comparison of normal rodent versus human stomach anatomy and physiology is accompanied by an introduction to mouse-specific lesions including mucous metaplasia and eosinophilic droplets (hyalinosis). In conjunction with qualified pathology support, this guide is intended to assist research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and medical professionals from affiliated disciplines in the interpretation and histologic grading of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinoma in mouse models.

  5. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  6. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  7. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related ... in the developing world,4 although cancer records are not readily available for .... gastric cancers are identified at a late stage due to lack of ...

  8. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  9. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  10. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus: an autopsy case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available First described by Berti in 1866, gastric volvulus (GV is an uncommon and potentially lethal entity. GV occurs when the stomach twists by more than 180º resulting in obstruction of the alimentary tract, visceral ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. It is classified according to the rotation axis in organoaxial, mesenteroaxial or a combination of both. The clinical presentation can be acute, and is usually severe or chronic, which sometimes may be asymptomatic. It predominantly occurs in the fifth decade of life, but children, mainly those under the age of 1 year, may be affected. No ethnicity or gender was observed to show predominance. This entity is related to gastric, diaphragmatic disorders as well as laxity of gastric ligaments. Acute GV may complicate with incarceration and strangulation of the stomach when gastric necrosis ensues. These cases show a mortality rate of 60%. The authors report the fatal case of a surgically treated GV in a 43-year-old female patient who looked for medical care only after 1 month of initial symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed with a thoracic and abdominal axial computed tomography. Besides the entire stomach being herniated and twisted into the thoracic cavity, the pancreas was pulled up through the hiatal orifice, provoking acute pancreatitis. Because of gastric necrosis and perforation, gastroenteric fluid drained into the mediastinum and left pleural space. The postoperative outcome was unfavorable resulting in the patient’s death. The authors call attention to the severeness of the disease, and therefore the need of precocity of diagnosis and surgical treatment.

  11. Rare case of isolated splenic metastases from gastric cancer detected with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Shibu, Deepu; Sugunan Shinto, Ajit; Sivanesan, Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of isolated splenic metastasis from gastric cancer detected with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A 55-year-old man with gastric cancer 1 year post surgery, evaluated with PET/CT showed focal, intense uptake in the spleen, with no other abnormal findings. On splenectomy, the lesion was confirmed as metastasis from gastric cancer pathologically. (author)

  12. Gastric and small intestinal dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fynne, L; Worsøe, J; Gregersen, T; Schlageter, V; Laurberg, S; Krogh, K

    2012-02-01

    Many patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer from constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, or bloating, and colonic transit times are prolonged in most. Gastric and small intestinal dysfunction could contribute to symptoms but remain to be described in detail. Also, it is obscure whether the level of SCI affects gastric and small intestinal function. To study orocecal transit time and gastric emptying (GE) in patients with SCI. Nineteen patients with SCI (7 ♀, median age 54 years) and 15 healthy volunteers (9 ♀, median age 32 years) were included. All were referred because of neurogenic bowel problems. Eleven patients had low SCI (located at conus medullaris or cauda equina) affecting only the parasympathetic nerves to the left colon and eight had high SCI (above Th6) affecting parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. Subjects ingested a small magnetic pill that subsequently was tracked by the Motility Tracking System - MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland). Orocecal transit time was longer than normal both in individuals with high lesions (P < 0.01) and in individuals with low lesions (P < 0.01). Individuals with high lesions had slower GE than those with conal/cauda equina lesions (P < 0.05). Basic contractile frequencies of the stomach and small intestine were unaffected by SCI. Surprisingly, upper gastrointestinal transit is prolonged in subjects with SCI suffering from bowel problems, not only in subjects with cervical or high thoracic lesions but also in subjects with conal/cauda equina lesions. We speculate that this is secondary to colonic dysfunction and constipation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  14. Definitive proton beam radiation therapy for inoperable gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Susumu; Takase, Yasuhiro; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Orii, Kazuo; Sharma, N.; Iwasaki, Yoji; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tsujii, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Proton beam radiation therapy using 250 MeV protons was carried out on two patients with early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0). One patient was an 85-year-old man with early gastric cancer of type IIa + IIc. The other one was a 70-year-old man with early gastric cancer of type IIc. In both cases histological examination of biopsy specimens showed differential adenocarcinoma; distant metastasis was not found by other examinations. Both patients were considered inoperable due to their poor cardiac and/or respiratory functions. Therefore, it was decided to treat them by definitive proton irradiation, delivering total doses of 86 Gy and 83 Gy, respectively. In both patients, skin erythema that did not require any special treatment was found in the irradiation field. Hematobiological examinations did not show any abnormality. Although endoscopic examination at two years after irradiation in the former case and at seven months in the latter case showed persistent gastric ulcer at the site of the cancerous lesions, cancer cells were not found histologically. Therefore, we concluded that proton irradiation therapy was useful for inoperable early gastric cancers. (author)

  15. Application of artificial intelligence using a convolutional neural network for detecting gastric cancer in endoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Aoyama, Kazuharu; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Ishihara, Soichiro; Shichijo, Satoki; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tatsuya; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Keigo; Fujisaki, Junko; Tada, Tomohiro

    2018-07-01

    Image recognition using artificial intelligence with deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has dramatically improved and been increasingly applied to medical fields for diagnostic imaging. We developed a CNN that can automatically detect gastric cancer in endoscopic images. A CNN-based diagnostic system was constructed based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector architecture and trained using 13,584 endoscopic images of gastric cancer. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, an independent test set of 2296 stomach images collected from 69 consecutive patients with 77 gastric cancer lesions was applied to the constructed CNN. The CNN required 47 s to analyze 2296 test images. The CNN correctly diagnosed 71 of 77 gastric cancer lesions with an overall sensitivity of 92.2%, and 161 non-cancerous lesions were detected as gastric cancer, resulting in a positive predictive value of 30.6%. Seventy of the 71 lesions (98.6%) with a diameter of 6 mm or more as well as all invasive cancers were correctly detected. All missed lesions were superficially depressed and differentiated-type intramucosal cancers that were difficult to distinguish from gastritis even for experienced endoscopists. Nearly half of the false-positive lesions were gastritis with changes in color tone or an irregular mucosal surface. The constructed CNN system for detecting gastric cancer could process numerous stored endoscopic images in a very short time with a clinically relevant diagnostic ability. It may be well applicable to daily clinical practice to reduce the burden of endoscopists.

  16. Histopathological analysis of gastric mucosal biopsies in non ulcer dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Hafeez, M.; Tariq, H.; Azhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the pattern of gastric mucosal histopathological findings in gastric biopsies of patients with non ulcer dyspepsia. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian Pakistan from Jan to Dec 2015. Material and Methods: One hundred patients presenting at outpatient gastroenterology department with dyspepsia having no endoscopic lesion were included in the study. Two gastric mucosal biopsies from antrum and two from corpus were taken. The specimens were processed and examined histologically to see the changes. Results: Gastric biopsies of 100 patients including 65 males and 35 females presenting with non ulcer dyspepsia were studied. Most of the patients were between the age group of 31-50 years. Histological examination of gastric biopsies revealed 70 percent of patients having histological features of gastritis, while 30 percent having no significant histological finding. Chronic inflammation was seen in 70 cases (70 percent), activity in 15 cases (15 percent), glandular atrophy in 2 cases (2 percent) and intestinal metaplasia in 2 cases (2 percent). H.Pylori were identified in 25 cases (25 percent) based on haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and modified giemsa staining. Conclusion: Most the cases of non ulcer dyspepsia show histological evidence of gastritis, however a significant number of patients showed no gastric mucosal histological abnormality. A significantly low frequency of H. Pylori in gastric biopsies noted in non ulcer dyspepsia cases may be due to more frequent use of antibiotics and acid suppressant drugs used by general practitioners at some stage of disease. (author)

  17. Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula