WorldWideScience

Sample records for severe exposure conditions

  1. The effects of nicotine exposure during Pavlovian conditioning in rats on several measures of incentive motivation for a conditioned stimulus paired with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Elizabeth Glenn; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine enhances approach toward and operant responding for conditioned stimuli (CSs), but the effect of exposure during different phases of Pavlovian incentive learning on these measures remains to be determined. These studies examined the effects of administering nicotine early, late or throughout Pavlovian conditioning trials on discriminated approach behavior, nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement, extinction, and the reinstatement of responding for conditioned reinforcement. We also tested the effect of nicotine on approach to a lever-CS in a Pavlovian autoshaping procedure and for this CS to serve as a conditioned reinforcer. Thirsty rats were exposed to 13 conditioning sessions where a light/tone CS was paired with the delivery of water. Nicotine was administered either prior to the first or last seven sessions, or throughout the entire conditioning procedure. Responding for conditioned reinforcement, extinction, and the reinstatement of responding by the stimulus and nicotine were compared across exposure groups. Separately, the effects of nicotine on conditioned approach toward a lever-CS during autoshaping, and responding for that CS as a conditioned reinforcer, were examined. Nicotine exposure was necessary for nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement and the ability for nicotine and the stimulus to additively reinstate responding on the reinforced lever. Nicotine increased contacts with a lever-CS during autoshaping, and removal of nicotine abolished this effect. Prior nicotine exposure was necessary for nicotine-enhanced responding reinforced by the lever. Enhancements in the motivating properties of CSs by nicotine occur independently from duration and timing effects of nicotine exposure during conditioning.

  2. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  3. Noise exposure under hyperbaric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Objective evidence exists that divers demonstrate a hearing deficit greater than would be expected from ageing effects alone. Deafness in divers may be caused by a number of factors other than exposure to excessive noise levels, eg barotrauma, ear infection etc. This review concentrates on the concern that exposure of commercial divers to noise while at work may cause a hearing deficit. Sound pressure levels recorded both underwater and in diving chambers often exceed those allowable to workers onshore. However, the sound perceived by the diver is modified both in amplitude and in frequency when he is either underwater or in pressurised chambers. Broadly the effect of this modification is to attenuate the sound and thus offer some protection from high noise levels. The degree of attentuation varies with the frequency of the sound, however it is also possible under specific conditions associated with gas density for the sensitivity to particular frequencies to be amplified above that for normal atmospheric air. The levels of sound observed from some underwater tools are of concern even after allowing for a significant de-sensitisation of the divers` hearing. Reports of tinnitus and temporary hearing loss following a dive are sure signs that the noise levels have been harmful. It is not possible at present to describe risk criteria for hearing damage due to noise exposure associated with diving. (author)

  4. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concrete under severe conditions. Environment and loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the CONSEC Conferences is to focus on concrete infrastructures, either subjected to severe environment or severe loading, or any combination of severe conditions. Experience from the performance of existing concrete structures, and especially under severe environmental conditions, severe accidental loading or extended lifespan, has demonstrated the need for better integration of structural and durability design, new design concepts including reliability-based durability design, performance-based material requirements, structural robustness, and an improved basis for documentation of obtained construction quality and durability properties during concrete construction. An improved basis for operation and preventive maintenance of concrete structures including repairs and retrofitting is also very important. Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel, inadequate structural design for seismic or blast loading, are examples of reduced service life of concrete structures that not only represent technical and economical problems, but also a huge waste of natural resources and hence also, an environmental and ecological problem. Experience of structures effectively submitted to severe conditions represents a unique benchmark for quantifying the actual safety and durability margin of concrete structures. In fact for several reasons, most concrete design codes, job specifications and other requirements for concrete structures have frequently shown to yield insufficient and unsatisfactory results and ability to solve the above problems, as well as issues raised by specific very long-term or very severe requirements for nuclear and industrial waste management, or civil works of strategic relevance. Recently available high to ultra-high performance concrete may find rational and valuable application in such cases. It is very important, therefore, to bring people with different professional backgrounds together to exchange experience and develop multi

  6. Severe hepatic dysfunction after sevoflurane exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alotaibi, Wadha M.

    2008-01-01

    Sevoflurane is thought to have a potential for hepatotoxicity. A few cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported since it was introduced in 1999 into clinical practice in Japan. The underlying pathophysiology of hepatotoxicity is non-specific. We report a case of severe hepatic dysfunction after uneventful sevoflurane anesthesia in a child with posterior fossa resection of medulloblastoma. The case of sevoflurane being incriminated is unclear due to various confounding factors that is worthy of discussion. (author)

  7. Contribution of the Exposure Pathways After a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A radiological dose assessment calculates the amount of radiation energy absorbed by a potentially exposed individual as a result of a specific exposure. Public can be exposure from several exposure pathways. External doses occur when the body is exposed to radioactive material outside the body. When making the emergency preparedness for severe accident from NPPs, therefore, we need to have comprehension about those exposure pathways. Thus, in this study, an evaluation of external and internal dose from radioactive materials during severe accident was performed to find out exposure pathway from which the dose has the highest value for several radionuclides. The basic study to make out the relation between exposure pathways and dose from them was performed. In the emergency phase, the most affecting nuclide type on public was noble gas, especially {sup 133}Xe, and the dominant exposure pathway was could shine. Also, in the long term-phase, the most affecting nuclide type on public was fission product, especially {sup 90}Sr, and the dominant exposure pathway was water ingestion. The information of the dose composition from exposure pathway obtained in this study might be basic data for making emergency preparedness plan for severe accident. In the future, assessment of the source term is expected to enhance the reliability of dose assessment during severe accident.

  8. Chemical phenomena under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A severe nuclear reactor accident is expected to involve a vast number of chemical processes. The chemical processes of major safety significance begin with the production of hydrogen during steam oxidation of fuel cladding. Physico-chemical changes in the fuel and the vaporization of radionuclides during reactor accidents have captured much of the attention of the safety community in recent years. Protracted chemical interactions of core debris with structural concrete mark the conclusion of dynamic events in a severe accident. An overview of the current understanding of chemical processes in severe reactor accident is provided in this paper. It is shown that most of this understanding has come from application of findings from other fields though a few areas have in the past been subject to in-depth study of a fundamental nature. Challenges in the study of severe accident chemistry are delineated

  9. Interaction of radionuclides in severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrale, Dhanesh B.; Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj Kumar; Paul, U.K.; Prasad, M.; Gaikwad, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed with inherent engineering safety systems and associated operational procedures that provide an in-depth defence against accidents. Radionuclides such as Iodine, Cesium, Tellurium, Barium, Strontium, Rubidium, Molybdenum and many others may get released during a severe accident. Among these, Iodine, one of the fission products, behaviour is significant for the analysis of severe accident consequences because iodine is a chemically more active to the potential components released to the environment. During severe accident, Iodine is released and transported in aqueous, organic and inorganic forms. Iodine release from fuel, iodine transport in primary coolant system, containment, and reaction with control rods are some of the important phases in a severe accident scenario. The behaviour of iodine is governed by aerosol physics, depletion mechanisms gravitational settling, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. The presence of gaseous organic compounds and oxidizing compounds on iodine, reactions of aerosol iodine with boron and formation of cesium iodide which results in more volatile iodine release in containment play significant roles. Water radiolysis products due to presence of dissolved impurities, chloride ions, organic impurities should be considered while calculating iodine release. Containment filtered venting system (CFVS) consists of venturi scrubber and a scrubber tank which is dosed with NaOH and NaS_2O_3 in water where iodine will react with the chemicals and convert into NaI and Na_2SO_4. This paper elaborates the issues with respect to interaction of radionuclides and its consideration in modeling of severe accident. (author)

  10. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Taub, Anita; Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2008-01-01

    Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (Precovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  11. Thermal responses from repeated exposures to severe cold with intermittent warmer temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Enomoto-Koshimizu, H; Tochihara, Y; Nakamura, K

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate physiological reaction and manual performance during exposure to warm (30 degrees C) and cool (10 degrees C) environments after exposure to very low temperatures (-25 degrees C). Furthermore, this experiment was conducted to study whether it is desirable to remove cold-protective jackets in warmer rooms after severe cold exposure. Eight male students remained in an extremely cold room for 20 min, after which they transferred into either the warm room or the cool room for 20 min. This pattern was repeated three times, and the total cold exposure time was 60 min. In the warm and cool rooms, the subjects either removed their cold-protective jackets (Condition A), or wore them continuously (Condition B). Rectal temperature, skin temperatures, manual performance, blood pressure, thermal, comfort and pain sensations were measured during the experiment. The effects of severe cold on almost all measurements in the cool (10 degrees C) environment were greater than those in the warm (30 degrees C) environment under both clothing conditions. The effects of severe cold on all measurements under Condition A except rectal temperature and toe skin temperature were significantly greater than those under Condition B in the cool environment but, not at all differences between Condition A and Condition B in the warm environments were significant. It was recognized that to remove cold-protective jackets in the cool room (10 degrees C) after severe cold exposure promoted the effects of severe cold. When rewarming in the warm resting room (30 degrees C), the physiological and psychological responses and manual performance were not influenced by the presence or absence of cold-protective clothing. These results suggest that it is necessary for workers to make sure to rewarm in the warm room outside of the cold storage and continue to wear cold-protective clothing in the cool room.

  12. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  13. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors

  14. Acrolein and Human Disease: Untangling the Knotty Exposure Scenarios Accompanying Several Diverse Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C

    2017-01-17

    Acrolein is a highly toxic electrophile that participates in many diseases, yet efforts to delineate its precise mechanistic contributions to specific conditions are complicated by its wide distribution within human environments. This Perspective develops the proposal that due to its mixed status as environmental pollutant, metabolic byproduct, and endotoxicant which forms via ubiquitous pathophysiological processes, many diseases likely involve acrolein released from multiple sources. Although the category boundaries are indistinct, at least four identifiable exposure scenarios are identifiable. First, in some syndromes, such as those accompanying chronic or acute intoxication with smoke, whatever role acrolein plays in disease pathogenesis mainly traces to exogenous sources such as the combustion of tobacco or other organic matter. A second exposure category involves xenobiotics that undergo metabolism within the body to release acrolein. Still other health conditions, however, involve acrolein that forms via several endogenous pathways, some of which are activated upon intoxication with xenobiotics (i.e., Exposure Category 3), while still others accompany direct physical trauma to body tissues (Exposure Category 4). Further complicating efforts to clarify the role of endogenous acrolein in human disease is the likelihood that many such syndromes are complex phenomena that resemble "chemical mixture exposures" by involving multiple toxic substances simultaneously. This Perspective contends that while recent decades have witnessed much progress in describing the deleterious effects of acrolein at the cellular and molecular levels, more work is needed to define the contributions of different acrolein sources to "real-world" health conditions in human subjects.

  15. [Exposure to addictogenic substances, conditioned response and treatment of the exposure with response prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Y; Frésard, E; Zullino, D

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to drugs or related cues is associated with psycho-physiological reactivity. These responses are conditioned during periods of active consumption. Exposure with response prevention (EPR) is a treatment established for anxiety disorder and aims to reduce anxiety by an extinction of previously conditioned responses. The conditioning recognized in additive processes has led to research into EPR's therapeutic potential for treating addiction. This paper is a review of the main studies on reactivity to cues, and EPR, particularly with respect to addiction to alcohol, opiates, cocaine and tobacco. This review is based on information from the Medline database, dealing with cue reactivity, attentional bias during exposure to cues and exposure treatment for addiction in general and, in particular, for each of the aforementioned substances. Exposure to drug-related cues is clearly associated with psycho-physiological reactivity and with attentional bias. Those phenomena are associated with craving and more difficulty in maintaining abstinence. The subject's attention is thus held by a large number of drug-related environmental stimuli. These observations are linked with conditioning phenomena and suggest the possibility of treatment by EPR conditioning extinction procedures. EPR has been most widely studied for abuse and alcohol addiction. Case reports give favourable outcomes. Results from controlled studies are less clear. Studies on patients addicted to cocaine or heroine are still limited and not conclusive. Different controlled studies on EPR for nicotine addiction have not produced conclusions in favour of this treatment. Generally, the EPR procedures used vary among studies. Studies focussing particularly on the evolution of physiological responses in a laboratory setting after EPR have demonstrated reduced autonomic nervous system activity. These results do not consistently lead to a reduction in consumption behaviour and in craving when the patient is in

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  17. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, S; Tokura, H

    1997-11-01

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28 degrees C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  18. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Seika; Tokura, H.

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28° C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  19. Most likely failure location during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Allison, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from which finite element calculation results are used in conjunction with analytical calculation results to predict failure in different LWR vessel designs during a severe accident. Detailed analyses are being performed to investigate the relative likelihood of a BWR vessel and drain line penetration to fail during a wide range of severe accident conditions. Analytically developed failure maps, which were developed in terms of dimensionless groups, are applied to consider geometries and materials occurring in other LWR vessel designs. Preliminary numerical analysis results indicate that if ceramic debris relocates within the BWR drain line to a distance below the lower head, the drain line will reach failure temperatures before the vessel fails. Application of failure maps for these debris conditions to other LWR geometries indicate that in-vessel tube melting will occur in either BWR or PWR vessel designs. Furthermore, if this melt is assumed to fill the entire penetration flow area, the melt is predicted to travel well below the lower head in any of the reference LWR penetrations. However, failure maps suggest the result that ex-vessel tube temperatures exceed the penetration's ultimate strength is specific to the BWR drain line because of its material composition and relatively large effective diameter for melt flow

  20. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  1. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  2. Physiological responses and manual performance in humans following repeated exposure to severe cold at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Nagai, Y; Tochihara, Y

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated human physiological responses and the performance of manual tasks during exposure to severe cold (-25 degrees C) at night (0300-0500 hours) and in the afternoon (1500-1700 hours). Thirteen male students wearing standard cold protective clothing occupied a severely cold room (-25 degrees C) for 20 min, and were then transferred to a cool room (10 degrees C) for 20 min. This pattern of exposure was repeated three times, for a total time of exposure to extreme cold of 60 min. The experiments were started either at 1500 hours or 0300 hours and measurements of rectal temperature, skin temperature, blood pressure, performance in a counting task, hand tremor, and subjective responses were made in each condition. At the end of the experiment at night the mean decrease in rectal temperature [0.68 (SEM 0.04) degree C] was significantly greater than that at the end of the experiment in the afternoon [0.55 (SEM 0.08) degree C, P second cold exposure at night the mean increase in diastolic blood pressure [90 (SEM 2.0) mmHg] was significantly greater than that at the end of the second cold exposure in the afternoon [82 (SEM 2.8) mmHg, P second cold exposure at night, mean finger skin temperature [11.8 (SEM 0.8) degrees C] was significantly higher than that at the comparable time in the afternoon [9.0 (SEM 0.7) degrees C, P second cold exposure at night [25.6 (SEM 1.5) degrees C] was significantly higher than in the afternoon [20.1 (SEM 0.8) degrees C, P < 0.01]. The increased skin temperatures in the periphery resulted in increased heat loss. Since peripheral skin temperatures were highest at night, the subjects noted diminished sensations of thermal cold and pain at that time. Manual dexterity at the end of the first cold exposure at night [mean 83.7 (SEM 3.6) times.min-1] had decreased significantly more than at the end of the first cold exposure in the afternoon [mean 89.4 (SEM 3.5) times.min-1, P < 0.01]. These findings of a lowered rectal temperature and

  3. Pre-exposure to wheel running disrupts taste aversion conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C

    2002-05-01

    When rats are given access to a running wheel after drinking a flavored solution, they subsequently drink less of that flavor solution. It has been suggested that running produces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This study explored whether CTA is eliminated by prior exposure to wheel running [i.e., unconditioned stimulus (UCS) pre-exposure effect]. The rats in the experimental group (UW) were allowed to wheel run for 1 h daily for seven consecutive days of pre-exposure. Rats in the two other groups had either access to locked wheels (LW group) or were maintained in their home cages (HC group) during the pre-exposure days. All rats were then exposed to four paired and four unpaired trials using a "ABBAABBA" design. Conditioning trials were composed of one flavored liquid followed by 60-min access to wheel running. For the unpaired trials, rats received a different flavor not followed by the opportunity to run. All rats were then initially tested for water consumption followed by tests of the two flavors (paired or unpaired) in a counterbalanced design. Rats in the UW group show no CTA to the liquid paired with wheel running, whereas LW and HC groups developed CTA. These results indicate that pre-exposure to wheel running (i.e., the UCS), eliminates subsequent CTA.

  4. Methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning - 59138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondra, Frantisek; Vasko, Marek; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The article presents methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. Production of rails has been used as an example application of proposed methodology within the CONRELMAT project. The article presents a methodology for determination of radiological, material, organizational and other conditions for conditionally released materials reuse to ensure that workers and public exposure does not breach the exposure limits during scenario's life cycle (preparation, construction and operation of scenario). The methodology comprises a proposal of following conditions in the view of workers and public exposure: - radionuclide limit concentration of conditionally released materials for specific scenarios and nuclide vectors, - specific deployment of conditionally released materials eventually shielding materials, workers and public during the scenario's life cycle, - organizational measures concerning time of workers or public stay in the vicinity on conditionally released materials for individual performed scenarios and nuclide vectors. The above mentioned steps of proposed methodology have been applied within the CONRELMAT project. Exposure evaluation of workers for rail production is introduced in the article as an example of this application. Exposure calculation using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool was done within several models. The most exposed profession for scenario was identified. On the basis of this result, an increase of radionuclide concentration in conditional released material was proposed more than two times to 681 Bq/kg without no additional safety or organizational measures being applied. After application of proposed safety and organizational measures (additional shielding, geometry changes and limitation of work duration) it is possible to increase concentration of radionuclide in conditional released material more than ten times to 3092 Bq/kg. Storage

  5. Diameter of the useful diffraction halo in double-exposure speckle photographs recorded under various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Marti, L.; Moreno, A.; Ostrovskii, Iu. I.; Serra, R.

    1985-06-01

    Consideration is given to the relationship between the diffraction halo radius Theta(h) and the displacement (Delta) of the object in double exposed speckle photographs taken in various conditions. The numerical values of Theta(h)/Delta were obtained for several speckle recordings having exposure times in the range 0.5-3.8 s. It is shown that long exposure times did not significantly decrease the minimum measureable displacement of the object. The radii of the diffraction halo were the same in the case of both long and short exposure times.

  6. Smoke exposure and associated health effects across several fire seasons and locations in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K.; Ford, B.; Gan, R.; Liu, J.; Lassman, W.; Burke, M.; Pfister, G.; Vaidyanathan, A.; Volckens, J.; Magzamen, S.; Fischer, E. V.; Pierce, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires are a significant source of particulate matter in the western United States. Wildfire activity in this region has increased over the past few decades and is projected to continue to increase further due to warmer and drier conditions. Particulate matter with diameters smaller than or equal to 2.5 microns (PM2.5) has known adverse effects on human health. However, due to an inconsistent association of wildfire PM2.5 and several disease outcomes, it is unclear if wildfire PM exerts similar health impacts as anthropogenic PM. Improved wildfire smoke exposure estimates are needed to gain a clearer understanding of the health impacts of wildfire PM2.5. Characterizing PM2.5 concentrations from wildfire smoke is challenging due to the transient nature of smoke. Current methods of determining smoke exposure rely on satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD), estimates from chemical transport models (CTMs), or values reported by surface monitoring sites; each of these data sources has some limitations. To improve the accuracy of our exposure estimates, we developed new methods to blend these data. Our results indicate that blending information from the above-mentioned data sources along with counts of wildfire-smoke-related social-media posts results in better characterization of smoke exposure than any individual tool. We link our daily smoke PM2.5 exposure estimates with hospitalization and urgent-care admission data from Washington, Oregon, and Colorado during several fire seasons as well as prescription filling data from Oregon. We find a robust relationship, where a 10 μg m-3 increase in smoke is significantly associated with a 9.5% (95% CI: 6.2, 12.9) increase in the rate of asthma admissions and a 7.7% increase (95% CI: 6.5. 8.8) in the risk for respiratory rescue medication prescription refills. There was no significant association between smoke exposure and any cardiovascular endpoints. Our findings support the association of wildfire smoke

  7. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  8. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  9. Iodine/steel reactions under severe accident conditions in LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, F.; Greger, G-U.; Hellman, S.; Bleier, A.; Morell, W.

    1994-01-01

    Due to large surface areas, the reaction of volatile, molecular iodine (I 2 ) with steel surfaces in the containment may play an important role in predicting the source term to the environment. Both wall retention of iodine and conversion of volatile into non-volatile iodine compounds at steel surfaces have to be considered. Two types of laboratory experiments were carried out at Siemens/KWU in order to investigate the reaction of I 2 at steel surfaces representative for German power plants. 1) For steel coupons submerged in an I 2 solution at T = 50 deg C, 90 deg C or 140 deg C the reaction rate of the I 2 /I - conversion was determined. No iodine loading was observed on the steel in the aqueous phase tests. I 2 reacts with the steel components (Fe, Cr or Ni) to form metal iodides on the surface which are all immediately dissolved in water under dissociation into the metal and the iodide ions. From these experiments, the I 2 /I - conversion rate constants over the temperature range 50 deg C - 140 deg C as well as the activation energy were determined. The measured data are suitable to be included in severe accident iodine codes such as IMPAIR. 2) Steel tubes were exposed to a steam/I 2 flow under dry air at T=120 deg C and steam-condensing conditions at T= 120 deg C and 160 deg C. In dry air I 2 was retained on the steel surface and a deposition rate constant was measured. Under steam-condensing conditions there is an effective conversion of volatile I 2 to non-volatile I - which is subsequently washed off from the steel surface. The I 2 /I - conversion rate constants suitable for modelling this process were determined. No temperature dependency was found in the range 120 deg C - 160 deg C. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  11. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  12. Active war in Sri Lanka: Children's war exposure, coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Champika K; Azar, Sandra T

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to active war is understudied among Sinhalese children in Sri Lanka. We investigated PTSD symptom severity in children using child (n = 60) and mother (n = 60) reports; child-reported war exposure and coping; as well as self-reported maternal PTSD symptom severity. The study addressed active war in 2 rural locations (acute and chronic community war exposure). Child-reports were significantly greater than mother-reports of child PTSD symptom severity. Furthermore, children's war exposure, child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity, and maternal PTSD symptom severity were significantly greater in the acute versus chronic community war exposure location, but children's approach and avoidance coping did not significantly differ, indicating a potential ceiling effect. Children's war exposure significantly, positively predicted child-reported child PTSD symptom severity, controlling for age, gender, and maternal PTSD symptom severity, but only maternal PTSD symptom severity significantly, positively predicted mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity. Avoidance coping (in both acute and chronic war) significantly positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported child PTSD symptom severity relation, but not mother-reports of the same. Approach coping (in chronic but not acute war) significantly, positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity relations. We advanced the literature on long-term active war by confirming the value of children's self-reports, establishing that both approach and avoidance coping positively mediated the war-exposure-PTSD symptom severity relation, and that the mediation effect of approach coping was situationally moderated by acute verses chronic community war exposure among Sri Lankan children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Content of carbon monoxide in the tissues of rats intoxicated with carbon monoxide in various conditions of acute exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Majka, J.; Palus, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tissue carbon monoxide (CO) content was investigated in rats severely intoxicated with CO under various exposure conditions: 1% CO for 4 min, 0.4% CO for 40 min and 0.12% CO for 12 h. Extravascular CO was determined in the heart and skeletal muscles immediately after termination of exposure, and carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) percent saturation was calculated. Total brain CO was estimated immediately after termination of exposure and after the time periods of restitution. After the same exposure conditions, MbCO percent saturation was higher in the heart than in skeletal muscle. In both types of muscle, saturation on myoglobin (Mb) with CO depended on blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level and not on the duration of exposure. The time course of CO elimination was the same for blood and brain, irrespective of CO exposure conditions. The results obtained showed that acute CO intoxication induced by long duration exposures did not involve CO accumulation in the tissues.

  14. Evaluation of neutron exposure conditions for the Buffalo Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; Kellogg, L.S.; McElroy, W.N.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    The light water test reactor at the Nuclear Science and Technology Facility of the State University of New York at Buffalo is currently being used to irradiate specimens in in-core positions for NRC-sponsored metallurgical tests. It is important that the neutron exposures for these Buffalo tests be consistent with those determined for related irradiations in the BSR and ORR reactor at ORNL. Therefore, HEDL National Reactor Dosimetry Center dosimetry procedures and ORNL calculational procedures were used for an evaluation of typical test conditions

  15. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Occupational differences in exposure to hazardous work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Chiara; d'Errico, A; Cardano, M; Perini, F; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been aimed at describing organizational and psychosocial conditions of the Italian workforce by occupational group, and they have been mainly conducted within specific occupations. The present study aimed at identifying specific groups of occupations which have unfavourable profiles from the point of view of exposure to specific organizational factors and psychosocial risks, and to physical, chemical and ergonomic risks, and analyzing their distribution by worker age. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4,195 workers in the Piedmont Region who were members of the CGIL Trade Union (Italian General Confederation of Labour), who answered a self-administered questionnaire in 2000, aimed at assessing chemical, physical, and ergonomic risks, accidents, and psychosocial factors connected with work organization and work tasks. Psychosocial risks were assessed via three scales aimed at measuring the degree of control, psychophysical demands, and worker satisfaction. The proportion of workers exposed to the above mentioned risks was analysed according to occupational group. This group was then compared with all other groups taken together, according to prevalence of high strain condition (combination of high demand and low control) and HSUR condition (High Strain Unfairly Rewarded; combination of high strain and low satisfaction). Among males aged 25-44 years, restricted to the occupation groups with more than ten workers in high strain condition, significantly higher proportions of stress were observed in leather workers and shoemakers, paper factory workers, rubber workers, crane and bridge crane operators, plastic workers, painters, transport drivers and carpenters. For many of these groups, excesses were confirmed for the HSUR condition. Among subjects aged over 44 years, a higher risk for high strain was confirmed in rubber workers, transport drivers and carpenters. In addition, machine tool operators, assembly line and mechanical workers in this

  17. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified.

  18. The Role of Drinking Severity on Sex Risk Behavior and HIV Exposure among Illicit Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Trenz, Rebecca; Harrell, Paul; Mauro, Pia; Latimer, William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined how drinking severity among injection and non-injection drug users is associated with sex risk behaviors and risk of HIV exposure. Methods The study is a secondary analysis of an investigation of risk factors among drug users in Baltimore known as the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study. Participants (N = 557) completed an interview, self-reported 30-day alcohol use, lifetime injection and non-injection drug use, and provided blood samples to screen for HIV. Participants were grouped into one of three drinking severity conditions: Abstinent (no reported alcohol use in prior 30-days), Moderate Alcohol Use (≤30 drinks for females, or ≤ 60 drinks for males), or Problematic Alcohol Use (>30 drinks for females, or >60 drinks for males). Drinking severity groups were significantly different on lifetime injection drug use, heroin injection, snorting/sniffing cocaine, and smoking crack. Results Logistic regression analyses found problematic alcohol users to be more likely than alcohol abstainers to inject drugs before or during sex (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.07-16.10), and more likely than moderate alcohol users to use alcohol before/during sex (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI = 2.09-11.81), inject drugs before/during sex (AOR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.29-6.80) and to be HIV+ among Black participants (AOR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.14-6.49). Conclusions These results outline the necessity for research and clinical intervention among this population to reduce sex risk behaviors and potential HIV exposure, while highlighting the need to examine drinking severity as a predictor of sex risk behaviors. PMID:23617865

  19. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J.J.; Draijer, Nel; Achterberg, Theo van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice.Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and traumarelated dis...

  20. Numerical module for debris behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Kobelev, G.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vasiliev, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The late phase of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear reactor is characterized by the appearance of porous debris and liquid pools in core region and lower head of the reactor vessel. Thermal hydraulics and heat transfer in these regions are very important for adequate analysis of severe accident dynamics. The purpose of this work is to develop a universal module which is able to model above-mentioned phenomena on the basis of modern physical concepts. The original approach for debris evolution is developed from classical principles using a set of parameters including debris porosity; average particle diameter; temperatures and mass fractions of solid, liquid and gas phases; specific interface areas between different phases; effective thermal conductivity of each phase, including radiative heat conductivity; mass and energy fluxes through the interfaces. The calculation results of several tests on modeling of porous debris behavior, including the MP-1 experiment, are presented in comparison with experimental data. The results are obtained using this module implemented into the Russian best estimate code, RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST, which was developed for modeling severe accident thermal hydraulics and late phase phenomena in VVER nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Failure Mode Estimation of Wolsong Unit 1 Containment Building with respect to Severe Accident Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil

    2009-01-01

    The containment buildings in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are final barriers against the exposure of harmful radiation materials at severe accident condition. Since the accident at Three Mile Island nuclear plant in 1979, it has become necessary to evaluate the internal pressure capacity of the containment buildings for the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants. According to this necessity, many researchers including Yonezawa et al. and Hu and Lin analyzed the ultimate capacity of prestressed concrete containments subjected to internal pressure which can be occurred at sever accident condition. Especially in Wolsong nuclear power plant, the Unit 1 containment structures were constructed in the late 1970 to early 1980, so that the end of its service life will be reached in near future. Since that the complete decommission and reconstruction of the NPP may cause a huge expenses, an extension of the service time can be a cost-effective alternative. To extend the service time of NPP, an overall safety evaluation of the containment building under severe accident condition should be performed. In this study, we assessed the pressure capacity of Wolsong Unit 1 containment building under severe accident, and estimated the responses at all of the probable critical areas. Based on those results, we found the significant failure modes of Wolsong Unit 1 containment building with respect to the severe accident condition. On the other hand, for the aged NPP, the degradation of their structural performance must also be explained in the procedure of the internal pressure capacity evaluation. Therefore, in this study, we performed a parametric study on the degradation effects and evaluated the internal pressure capacity of Wolsong Unit 1 containment building with considering aging and degradation effects

  2. Sex and Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Influence Pavlovian Conditioned Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madayag, Aric C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Reissner, Kathryn J; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Robinson, Donita L

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to AIE (5 g/kg, intragastric) or water intermittently 2 days on and 2 days off from postnatal day (P) 25 to 54. Around P70, animals began 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), where they learned that a cue predicted noncontingent reward delivery. Lever pressing indicated interaction with the cue, or sign-tracking, and receptacle entries indicated approach to the reward delivery location, or goal-tracking. To test for effects of AIE on nucleus accumbens (NAcc) excitatory signaling, we isolated membrane subfractions and measured protein levels of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 after animals completed behavior as a measure of glutamate homeostasis. Females exhibited elevated sign-tracking compared to males with significantly more lever presses, faster latency to first lever press, and greater probability to lever press in a trial. AIE significantly increased lever pressing while blunting goal-tracking, as indicated by fewer cue-evoked receptacle entries, slower latency to receptacle entry, and lower probability to enter the receptacle in a trial. No significant sex-by-exposure interactions were observed in sign- or goal-tracking metrics. Moreover, we found no significant effects of sex or exposure on membrane GLT-1 expression in the NAcc. Females exhibited enhanced sign-tracking compared to males, while AIE decreased goal-tracking compared to control exposure. Our findings support the

  3. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We

  4. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; van Achterberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We

  5. Hypoglycemia and severe lactic acidosis in a dog following metformin exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Barrella, Nicole; Eisenberg, Beth; Simpson, Stephanie Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis are rare complications with metformin use in humans. As metformin is not commonly used in veterinary medicine, severe adverse effects secondary to exposure are not known. Awareness of potentially life‐threatening complications with metformin exposure is an important addition to the veterinary literature.

  6. Basal exposure therapy: A new approach for treatment resistant patients with severe and comorbid mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didrik Heggdal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New treatment approaches are needed for patients with severe and composite mental disorders who appear resistant to conventional treatments. Such treatment resistant patients often have diagnoses of psychotic or bipolar disorders or severe personality disorders and comorbid conditions. Here we evaluate Basal Exposure Therapy (BET, a novel ward-integrated psychotherapeutic approach for these patients. Central to BET is the conceptualization of undifferentiated existential fear as basic to the patients’ problem, exposure to this fear, and the therapeutic platform Complementary External Regulation (CER which integrates and governs the totality of interventions throughout the treatment process. BET is administered at a locked-door ward with six patient beds and 13.5 full time employees, including a psychiatrist and two psychologists. Thirty-eight patients who had completed BET were included, all but two being female, mean age 29.9 years. Fourteen patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (F20/25, eight had bipolar disorder or recurrent depressive disorder (F31/33, eight had diagnoses in the F40-49 domain (anxiety, stress, dissociation, five were diagnosed with emotionally unstable personality disorder (F60.3, and three patients had other diagnoses. Twenty of the patients (53% had more than one ICD-10 diagnosis. Average treatment time in BET was 13 months, ranging from 2 to 72 months. Time-series data show significant improvements in symptoms and functioning from enrolment to discharge, with effect sizes at 0.76 for the Dissociation Experience Scale, 0.93 for the Brief Symptom Inventory, 1.47 for the Avoidance and Action Questionnaire, and 1.42 and 1.56, respectively for the functioning and symptom subscales of the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. In addition, the patients used significantly less antiepileptic, antipsychotic, anxiolytic and antidepressant medications at discharge than at treatment enrolment

  7. Modeling concrete under severe conditions as a multiphase material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Pont, S., E-mail: dalpont@lcpc.f [Division Betons et Composites Cimentaires, BCC-LCPC, 58 Bd.Lefebvre 75738 Paris cedex 15 (France); Meftah, F. [Laboratoire Mecanique et Materiaux du Genie Civil, Universite Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Schrefler, B.A. [Dipartimento di Costruzioni e Trasporti, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The description as well as the prediction of the behavior of concrete under severe high temperature-pressure loading such as those typical of a loss-of-coolant accidental scenario considered for PWR containment buildings, matter in the study of such engineering applications and are also of interest in other fields such as safety evaluations during fire. The purpose of this paper is to present a flexible staggered finite element thermo-hygral model and then to use it as a numerical tool to determine the temperature and gas pressure fields that develop in concrete when heated.

  8. Oxidative conditions prevail in severe IUGR with vascular disease and Doppler anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Emeline; Delvin, Edgard; Edgard, Annie; Morin, Lucie; Dubé, Johanne; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Fouron, Jean-Claude; Klam, Stephanie; Levy, Emile; Leduc, Line

    2015-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and prenatal exposure to oxidative stress are thought to lead to increased risks of cardiovascular disease later in life. The objective of the present study was to document whether cord blood oxidative stress biomarkers vary with the severity of IUGR and of vascular disease in the twin pregnancy model in which both fetuses share the same maternal environment. This prospective cohort study involved dichorionic twin pairs, with one co-twin with IUGR. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in venous cord blood samples from each neonate of 32 twin pairs, and compared, according to severity of IUGR (IUGR <5th percentile), Doppler anomalies of the umbilical artery and early onset IUGR (in the second trimester) of the growth restricted twin. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins (oxLDL) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased proportionally in cases of severe IUGR. OxLDL concentrations were also increased in cases of IUGR with Doppler anomaly. Our data indicate that severe IUGR, is related to a derangement in redox balance, illustrated by increased venous cord blood oxidative stress biomarkers concentrations. Severe IUGR and IUGR with abnormal Doppler can be translated into conditions with intense oxidative stress.

  9. Accelerated Testing with Multiple Failure Modes under Several Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyue Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A complicated device may have multiple failure modes, and some of the failure modes are sensitive to low temperatures. To assess the reliability of a product with multiple failure modes, this paper presents an accelerated testing in which both of the high temperatures and the low temperatures are applied. Firstly, an acceleration model based on the Arrhenius model but accounting for the influence of both the high temperatures and low temperatures is proposed. Accordingly, an accelerated testing plan including both the high temperatures and low temperatures is designed, and a statistical analysis method is developed. The reliability function of the product with multiple failure modes under variable working conditions is given by the proposed statistical analysis method. Finally, a numerical example is studied to illustrate the proposed accelerated testing. The results show that the proposed accelerated testing is rather efficient.

  10. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China 230032 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.

  11. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.

  12. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  13. Radiation deterioration of several aromatic polymers under oxidative conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced oxidative irradiation effects (with γ-rays under oxygen pressure) or poly(aryl sulphones) (U-PS and PES), poly(aryl ester) (U-Polymer), poly(aryl amide) (A-Film) and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) have been studied based on changes in tensile properties. The deterioration dose estimated from the decrease in the elongation at break was as low as one-fifth to one-tenth of that in high-dose-rate electron-beam irradiation, but the order of radiation resistance of the polymers did not differ from that in electron-beam irradiation, i.e. PEEK > A-Film > U-Polymer > U-PS > PES. The radiation stability of aromatic units under oxidative conditions was estimated from a comparison of the radiation resistance of the polymers themselves and their chemical structures. The following order was obtained: diphenyl ether, diphenyl ketone > aromatic amide>> bisphenol A > diphenyl sulphone. The deterioration mechanism of PEEK under oxidative irradiation was studied by measuring dynamic viscoelastic properties. It was concluded that deterioration in mechanical properties under oxidative irradiation was brought about by chain scission only. (author)

  14. Trace methane oxidation studied in several Euryarchaeota under diverse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Moran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used 13C-labeled methane to document the extent of trace methane oxidation by Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus, Archaeoglobus profundus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina acetivorans. The results indicate trace methane oxidation during growth varied among different species and among methanogen cultures grown on different substrates. The extent of trace methane oxidation by Mb. thermoautotrophicum (0.05 ± 0.04%, ± 2 standard deviations of the methane produced during growth was less than that by M. barkeri (0.15 ± 0.04%, grown under similar conditions with H2 and CO2. Methanosarcina acetivorans oxidized more methane during growth on trimethylamine (0.36 ± 0.05% than during growth on methanol (0.07 ± 0.03%. This may indicate that, in M. acetivorans, either a methyltransferase related to growth on trimethylamine plays a role in methane oxidation, or that methanol is an intermediate of methane oxidation. Addition of possible electron acceptors (O2, NO3–, SO22–, SO32– or H2 to the headspace did not substantially enhance or diminish methane oxidation in M. acetivorans cultures. Separate growth experiments with FAD and NAD+ showed that inclusion of these electron carriers also did not enhance methane oxidation. Our results suggest trace methane oxidized during methanogenesis cannot be coupled to the reduction of these electron acceptors in pure cultures, and that the mechanism by which methane is oxidized in methanogens is independent of H2 concentration. In contrast to the methanogens, species of the sulfate-reducing genus Archaeoglobus did not significantly oxidize methane during growth (oxidizing 0.003 ± 0.01% of the methane provided to A. fulgidus, 0.002 ± 0.009% to A. lithotrophicus and 0.003 ± 0.02% to A. profundus. Lack of observable methane oxidation in the three Archaeoglobus species examined may indicate that methyl-coenzyme M reductase, which is not present in

  15. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Mehu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 'Hygiene, Health and Environment' of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, 'runoff' and 'stagnation', and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO 2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials

  16. Severity and exposure associated to tsunami actions in urban waterfronts. The case of Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2014-05-01

    The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to tsunami occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's tsunami hazard map, having been affected by several tsunamis (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to tsunami events. For that purpose, the propagation of a tsunami similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each modelling scenario but the magnitude of the tsunami remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian model for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine

  17. Comments on the exposure distance as a factor of severity of A-bomb cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmological Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    In the study of A-bomb disorders, it is important in decision of exposure dose to consider not only exposure distance from the hypocenter but also shelter factors, and 8 cases were reported as examples. Group 1 (4 cases) was exposed to A-bomb in the train 750 m east of the hypocenter, and group 2 (4 cases) was exposed in the concrete steel building 620 m east of the hypocenter. Age, exposure distance, exposure place, shelter condition, wounds, acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, radiation dose, condition of turbidity of the crystalline lens, effect of A-bomb on visual acuity of eight cases were listed in table. Group 1 was exposed to A-bomb at the place 130 m from the place where group 2 was exposed, but the exposed dose of group 1 was equivalent to twice that of group 2. Acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, turbidity of the crystalline lens, and effect of A-bomb on visual acuity were by far stronger in group 1 than in group 2. It was stressed that physical history and treatment course of the patients with A-bomb cataract were enough to be important materials on the study of A-bomb disorders.

  18. Bright Light Delights: Effects of Daily Light Exposure on Emotions, Restactivity Cycles, Sleep and Melatonin Secretion in Severely Demented Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Mirjam; Schmieder, Michael; Bieler, Katharina; Goldbach, Rolf; Fuhrmann, Timo; Zumstein, Naomi; Vonmoos, Petra; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We tested whether the effects of a dynamic lighting system are superior to conventional lighting on emotions, agitation behaviour, quality of life, melatonin secretion and circadian restactivity cycles in severely demented patients. As a comparison, an age matched control patient group was exposed to conventional lighting. For none of the output measures were significant differences between the two lighting conditions found during the 8 study weeks in fall/winter. Thus, we divided the patient cohort (n = 89) into two groups, solely based on the median of their daily individual light exposure. Patients with higher average daily light exposure (>417 lx) showed significantly longer emotional expressions of pleasure and alertness per daily observations than patients with lower daily light exposure. Moreover, they had a higher quality of life, spent less time in bed, went to bed later and initiated their sleep episodes later, even though the two groups did not differ with respect to age, severity of cognitive impairment and mobility. In general, men were more agitated, had shorter sleep with more wake episodes, had a lower circadian amplitude of relative rest-wake activity and interdaily circadian stability than women. In particular, lower daily light exposures significantly predicted lower circadian amplitudes of rest-activity cycles in men but not in women. This may indicate sex specific susceptibility to daily light exposures for rest-activity regulation in older demented patients. Our results provide evidence that a higher daily light exposure has beneficial effects on emotions and thus improved quality of life in a severely demented patient group. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations

  20. Reduced infant birthweight consequent upon maternal exposure to severe life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and fetal growth (birthweight and small for gestational age). Stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Mothers of 1.38 million singleton live births in Denmark between January 1......). There was a significant association between maternal exposure to death of a relative and risk of a baby weighing below the 10th percentile (adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.22) and 5th percentile (adjusted RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: Mothers exposed to severe life events before...... conception or during pregnancy have babies with significantly lower birthweight. If this association is causal, the potential mechanisms of stress-related effects on birthweight include changes in lifestyle due to the exposure and stress-related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during...

  1. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  2. A NOVEL EFFECT OF DIOXIN: EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY SEVERELY IMPAIRS MAMMARY GLAND DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel effect of dioxin: Exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation.Beth A. Vorderstrasse1, Suzanne E. Fenton2, Andrea A. Bohn3, Jennifer A. Cundiff1, and B. Paige Lawrence1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State Universi...

  3. Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, T P; Madsen, P V; Ebbehøj, N E

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging rev...

  4. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  5. Real-time personal exposure and health condition monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Isamu; Kanda, Hiroaki; Asai, Akio; Takeishi, Naoki; Ota, Yoshito [Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Hisao; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have proposed novel monitoring system for workers of nuclear facility. In these facilities, exposure management for workers is mainly used access control and personal exposure recordings. This system is currently only for reports management but is not confirmative for surveillance when work in progress. Therefore, JAEA and HAM integrate access control and personal exposure recordings and two real-time monitoring systems which are position sensing and vital sign monitor. Furthermore change personal exposure management to real-time management, this system integration prevents workers from risk of accidents, and makes possible take appropriate action quickly. This novel system is going to start for tentative operation, using position sensing and real-time personal dosimeter with database in Apr. 2012. (author)

  6. The mediating effect of mindful non-reactivity in exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Hesser, Hugo; Andersson, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2017-08-01

    Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI). Participants with severe health anxiety (N=158) were randomized to internet-delivered exposure-based CBT or behavioral stress management (BSM) and throughout the treatment, both the mediator and outcome were measured weekly. As previously reported, exposure-based CBT was more effective than BSM in reducing health anxiety. In the present study, latent process growth modeling showed that treatment condition had a significant effect on the FFMQ-NR growth trajectory (α-path), estimate=0.18, 95% CI [0.04, 0.32], p=.015, indicating a larger increase in mindful non-reactivity among participants receiving exposure-based CBT compared to the BSM group. The FFMQ-NR growth trajectory was significantly correlated with the SHAI trajectory (β-path estimate=-1.82, 95% CI [-2.15, -1.48], panxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-01-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material.

  9. Higher risk of offspring schizophrenia following antenatal maternal exposure to severe adverse life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; Abel, Kathryn; McNamee, R.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Most societies believe that a mother's psychological state can influence her unborn baby. Severe adverse life events during pregnancy have been consistently associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight and prematurity. Such events during the first trimester have also been...... associated with risk of congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect in offspring of antenatal maternal exposure to an objective measure of stress on risk of adverse neurodevelopment, specifically schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the strongest relationship would be to maternal exposures...... not linked with a higher risk of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that severe stress to a mother during the first trimester may alter the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. This finding is consistent with ecological evidence from whole populations exposed to severe stressors...

  10. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  11. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  12. Modified expression of several sperm proteins after chronic exposure to the antiandrogenic compound vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Maceiras, Paula; Broussard, Cédric; Chafey, Philippe; Lesaffre, Corinne; Vaiman, Daniel; Camoin, Luc; Auer, Jana

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the molecular impact of in vivo exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) on sperm structures and functions. We recently reported that the lifelong exposure of rats to the antiandrogenic compound vinclozolin results in low epididymal weight, changes in sperm kinematic parameters, and immature sperm chromatin condensation, together with the impairment of several fertility end points. These results led us to focus specifically on possible molecular abnormalities in sperm. Sperm samples were recovered from the frozen epididymides of rats exposed during the previous study. The proteins present in the samples from six exposed and six control rats were analyzed in pairs, by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, to investigate possible exposure-induced changes to sperm protein profiles. Twelve proteins, from the 380 matched spots observed in at least five gels, were present in larger or smaller amounts after vinclozolin exposure. These proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and several are known to play a crucial role in the sperm fertilizing ability, among which, two mitochondrial enzymes, malate dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (both of which were present in smaller amounts after treatment) and A-kinase anchor protein 4 (larger amounts of precursor after treatment). Finally, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed highly significant interactions between proteins over- and underexpressed after treatment. This is the first study to show an association between in vivo exposure to an ED and changes to the sperm protein profile. These modifications may be at least partly responsible for the reproductive abnormalities and impaired fertility recently reported in this rat model of vinclozolin exposure.

  13. Simple preconditioning technique: empirical formula for condition number reduction at a junction of several wires

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition number for a method-of-moments’ impedance matrix resulting from a junction of several wires is frequency dependant and can be minimized at a given frequency using several approaches. An empirical formula for an optimum, condition...

  14. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  15. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  16. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  17. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  18. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B; Hirschi, Kelsey M; Arroyo, Juan A; Bikman, Benjamin T; Kooyman, David L; Reynolds, Paul R

    2017-03-17

    Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed.

  19. Atmospheric conditions important for the assessment of population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric distribution of a pollutant can be predicted using numerical weather prediction models and atmospheric dispersion models. The first provides prediction on the evaluation of the meteorological fields for specified time period and the second uses this information to determine the evolution of the dispersing cloud in time and space. There is a number of conditions and features that limit the performance of both models, as they contain a degree of parametrisation that may be a source of error. This paper discusses influential parameters and conditions.(author)

  20. [Some aspects of animal-to-human approximation of low frequency electromagnetic field exposure conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    Appropriateness of representation of a biological object surface as an equipotential surface has been proved for conditions of a quasistatic exposure to EMF of frequencies lower than 1 MHz. The conditions, at which a self capacitance of a biological object is its basic electrical parameter, have been considered. A factor of animal-to-human approximation of low-frequency EMF exposure conditions was estimated on the basis of equal dose loading in biological objects of different geometric sizes.

  1. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and their implications for human exposure in several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zifeng; Alomirah, Husam; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Li, Yi-Fan; Liao, Chunyang; Minh, Tu Binh; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Nakata, Haruhiko; Ren, Nanqi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-08-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Due to the potential of this compound to disrupt normal endocrinal functions, concerns over human exposure to BPA have been raised. Although several studies have reported human exposure to BPA in Western nations, little is known about exposure in Asian countries. In this study, we determined total urinary BPA concentrations (free plus conjugated) in 296 urine samples (male/female: 153/143) collected from the general population in seven Asian countries, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). On the basis of urinary BPA concentrations, we estimated the total daily intake. The results indicated that BPA was detected in 94.3% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from Malaysia (1.06 ng/mL, 2.31 μg/g), and Japan (0.95 ng/mL, 0.58 μg/g). Among the five age groups studied (≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), the highest median concentration of BPA was found in urine samples from the age group of ≤ 19 years. There was no significant difference in BPA concentrations between genders (male and female) or domicile of residence (rural and urban). The estimated median daily intakes of BPA for the populations in Kuwait, Korea, India, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Japan were 5.19, 3.69, 2.90, 2.13, 2.01, 1.80, and 1.61 μg/day, respectively. The estimated daily intake of BPA in the seven Asian countries was significantly lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This is the first study to document the occurrence of and human exposure to BPA in several Asian countries.

  2. Shrimp Tropomyosin Retains Antibody Reactivity after Exposure to Acidic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denatura...

  3. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  4. Analyzing Traffic Crash Severity in Work Zones under Different Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated various factors that contribute to the severity of work zone crashes. However, little has been done on the specific effects of light conditions. Using the data from the Enhanced Tennessee Roadway Information Management System (E-TRIMS, crashes that occurred in the Tennessee work zones during 2003–2015 are categorized into three light conditions: daylight, dark-lighted, and dark-not-lighted. One commonly used decision tree method—Classification and Regression Trees (CART—is adopted to investigate the factors contributing to crash severity in highway work zones under these light conditions. The outcomes from the three decision trees with differing light conditions show significant differences in the ranking and importance of the factors considered in the study, thereby indicating the necessity of examining traffic crashes according to light conditions. By separately considering the crash characteristics under different light conditions, some new findings are obtained from this study. The study shows that an increase in the number of lanes increases the crash severity level in work zones during the day while decreasing the severity at night. Similarly, drugs and alcohol are found to increase the severity level significantly under the dark-not-lighted condition, while they have a limited influence under daylight and dark-lighted conditions.

  5. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam; Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon

    2009-01-01

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  6. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  7. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  8. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbraer, A N [St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproject, St. Petersburt (Russian Federation)

    1993-07-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  9. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  10. Using the Aerasense NanoTracer for simultaneously obtaining several ultrafine particle exposure metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J

    2011-01-01

    The expanding production and use of nanomaterials increases the chance of human exposure to engineered nanoparticles (NP), also referred to as ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤ 100 - 300 nm). This is particularly true in workplaces where they can become airborne and thereafter inhaled by workers during nanopowder processing. Considering the suspected hazard of many engineered UFPs, the general recommendation is to take measures for minimizing personal exposure while monitoring the UFP pollution for assessment and control purposes. The portable Aerasense NanoTracer accomplishes this UFP monitoring, either intermittently or in real time. This paper reviews its design and operational characteristics and elaborates on a number of application extensions and constraints. The NanoTracer's output signals enable several UFP exposure metrics to be simultaneously inferred. These include the airborne UFP number concentration and the number-averaged particle size, serving as characteristics of the pertaining UFP pollution. When non-hygroscopic particles are involved, the NanoTracer's output signals also allow an estimation of the lung-deposited UFP surface area concentration and the lung-deposited UFP mass concentration. It is thereby possible to distinguish between UFP depositions in the alveolar region, the trachea-bronchial region and the head airway region, respectively, by making use of the ICRP particle deposition model.

  11. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010 and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results: Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%, sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD 30% (range 20–47%. Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  12. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W; Goossens, Peter J J; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25-72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24-49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20-47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  13. Estimation of Exposure Doses for Several Scenarios of the Landfill Disposal of NORM Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ko, Nak Yul; Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Hoon [Korea Institude of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Act on safety control of radioactive materials around living environment was promulgated to protect citizen's health and environment in 2013. According to this Act, the integrated plan for radiation protection and the necessary safety guides for treatment, reuse, and disposal of NORM wastes have to be made. And NORM wastes have to be disposed in landfill sites by reducing the concentration of radionuclide, and they should not be reutilized. In this study, we estimated exposure doses for several scenarios for NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) waste disposal into a reference landfill site to check the radiological safety. Also, we estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of important radionuclides in wastes to be disposed into a landfill site based on the exposure dose limits to support the establishment of technical bases for safety guide. We estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of wastes containing U series, Th series, and {sup 40}K based on the exposure dose limits. The results of this study can be used as technical bases to support the establishment of a guide for the safe management of NORM waste disposal.

  14. An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger

  15. Excretion of lead and its biological activity several years after termination of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přerovská, I.; Teisinger, J.

    1970-01-01

    Přerovská, and Teisinger, J. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 352-355. Excretion of lead and its biological activity several years after termination of exposure. A group of 27 persons who had been treated some years previously for chronic lead poisoning at our clinic, and who had not come into occupational contact with lead since, was examined. Half of them had had no occupational exposure to lead for 3 to 5 years and the others for 8 to 17 years. In most of these persons there is still an increased lead excretion, originating from an increased deposit in the bones. The mobilization test after calcium versenate (CaEDTA) injection was greater than 0·350 mg/24 hours. The values found for haemoglobin, punctate basophilia, coproporphyrin and ALA in urine were normal, but there was, in all cases, a decreased ALA-D activity. This finding suggests biological activity of such negligible lead flow many years after termination of exposure. PMID:5488694

  16. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments

  17. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  18. Risk of early or severe pre-eclampsia related to pre-existing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catov, Janet M; Ness, Roberta B; Kip, Kevin E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE), especially severe or early PE, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among mothers and infants. We estimated the population attributable fractions of severe or early PE associated with pre-existing conditions among nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS...

  19. Identification of severe wind conditions using a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Johansen, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of a Navier-Stokes solver to predict the presence of severe flow conditions in complex terrain, capturing conditions that may be critical to the siting of wind turbines in the terrain. First it is documented that the flow solver is capable of predicting...

  20. Reducing condition number by appropriate current decomposition on a multiplet of several wires

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a numerical investigation in connection with the dependency of the condition number of the impedance matrix on the decomposition of current on a junction with several attached wires (multiplet). It is shown that the condition...

  1. Estrogen exposure, obesity and thyroid disease in women with severe pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Lori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe pulmonary hypertension is a lethal group of disorders which preferentially afflicts women. It appears that in recent years the patient profile has shifted towards older, obese, and postmenopausal women, suggesting that endocrine factors may be important. Several studies have revealed an increased prevalence of thyroid disease in these patients, but no studies have evaluated for a coexistence of endocrine factors. In particular, no studies have attempted to evaluate for concurrent thyroid disease, obesity and long-term estrogen exposure in patients. 88 patients attending the Pulmonary Hypertension Association 8th International meeting completed a questionnaire and were interviewed. Information was collected regarding reproductive history, height, weight, and previous diagnosis of thyroid disease. 46% met criteria for obesity. 41% reported a diagnosis of thyroid disease. 81% of women reported prior use of hormone therapy. 70% reported greater than 10 years of exogenous hormone use. 74% of female patients reported two or more of potentially disease modifying endocrine factors (obesity, thyroid disease or estrogen therapy. The coexistent high prevalence in our cohort of exogenous estrogen exposure, thyroid disease and obesity suggests that an interaction of multiple endocrine factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and may represent epigenetic modifiers in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  2. Assessment of Equipment Capability to Perform Reliably under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The experience from the last 40 years has shown that severe accidents can subject electrical and instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment to environmental conditions exceeding the equipment’s original design basis assumptions. Severe accident conditions can then cause rapid degradation or damage to various degrees up to complete failure of such equipment. This publication provides the technical basis to consider when assessing the capability of electrical and I&C equipment to perform reliably during a severe accident. It provides examples of calculation tools to determine the environmental parameters as well as examples and methods that Member States can apply to assess equipment reliability.

  3. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  4. Identification of severe wind conditions using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, N N; Bechmann, A; Johansen, J; Myllerup, L; Botha, P; Vinther, S; Nielsen, B S

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of a Navier-Stokes solver to predict the presence of severe flow conditions in complex terrain, capturing conditions that may be critical to the siting of wind turbines in the terrain. First it is documented that the flow solver is capable of predicting the flow in the complex terrain by comparing with measurements from two meteorology masts. Next, it is illustrated how levels of turbulent kinetic energy can be used to easily identify areas with severe flow conditions, relying on a high correlation between high turbulence intensity and severe flow conditions, in the form of high wind shear and directional shear which may seriously lower the lifetime of a wind turbine

  5. Explicit formula of finite difference method to estimate human peripheral tissue temperatures during exposure to severe cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M A; Hussain, Fida

    2015-02-01

    During cold exposure, peripheral tissues undergo vasoconstriction to minimize heat loss to preserve the maintenance of a normal core temperature. However, vasoconstricted tissues exposed to cold temperatures are susceptible to freezing and frostbite-related tissue damage. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a mathematical model for the estimation of tissue necrosis due to cold stress. To this end, an explicit formula of finite difference method has been used to obtain the solution of Pennes' bio-heat equation with appropriate boundary conditions to estimate the temperature profiles of dermal and subdermal layers when exposed to severe cold temperatures. The discrete values of nodal temperature were calculated at the interfaces of skin and subcutaneous tissues with respect to the atmospheric temperatures of 25 °C, 20 °C, 15 °C, 5 °C, -5 °C and -10 °C. The results obtained were used to identify the scenarios under which various degrees of frostbite occur on the surface of skin as well as the dermal and subdermal areas. The explicit formula of finite difference method proposed in this model provides more accurate predictions as compared to other numerical methods. This model of predicting tissue temperatures provides researchers with a more accurate prediction of peripheral tissue temperature and, hence, the susceptibility to frostbite during severe cold exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  7. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  8. Study some mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with nano silica under severe saline environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Ghalib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of Nano silica self-compacting concrete which is subjected to severe saline conditions that contain sulfates and chlorides at concentrations similar to those existing in the soils and ground water of the middle and southern parts of Iraq. For this purpose, ordinary and sulfate resistant Portland cement without and with 3% Nano silica addition by weight of cementitious materials were used. Splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity were investigated for all exposure conditions and all types of mixes of self-compacting concrete at ages of 28, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days. Test results revealed that the inclusion of Nano Silica in concrete mixes improved clearly the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete compared with reference concrete.

  9. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Bracken, Michael B.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 μg/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 μg/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for ≥10.0 μg/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  10. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  11. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E dep ) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated

  12. The effect of post-conditioning exposure to morphine on the retention of a morphine-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W J; Zellner, D A; LoLordo, V M; Riley, A L

    1981-06-01

    In the following experiment, multiple injections of morphine sulfate following the acquisition of a morphine-induced taste aversion had no effect on the retention of the previously acquired aversion. Post-conditioning injections of morphine resulted in the development of physical dependence to morphine and led to a decrement in the ability of morphine to induce a subsequent aversion to a second novel taste. This failure of post-conditioning exposures to morphine to affect a previously acquired morphine-induced taste aversion even though tolerance to morphine had occurred was discussed in the context of Rescorla's event-memory model of conditioning.

  13. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  14. Exploration of exposure conditions with a novel wireless detector for bedside digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Hilde; Nens, Joris; Delzenne, Louis; Marshall, Nicholas; Pauwels, Herman; De Wever, Walter; Oyen, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    We propose, apply and validate an optimization scheme for a new wireless CsI based DR detector in combination with a regular mobile X-ray system for bedside imaging applications. Three different grids were tested in this combination. Signal-difference-to-noise was investigated in two ways, using a 1mm Cu piece in combination with different thicknesses of PMMA and by means of the CDRAD phantom using 10 images per condition and an automated evaluation method. A Figure of Merit (FOM), namely SDNR2/Imparted Energy, was calculated for a large range of exposure conditions, without and with grid in place. Misalignment of the grids was evaluated via the same FOMs. This optimization study was validated with comparative X-ray acquisitions performed on dead bodies. An experienced radiologist scored the quality of several specific aspects for all these exposures. Signal difference to noise ratios measured with the Cu method correlated well with the threshold contrasts from the CDRAD analysis (R2 > 0.9). The analysis showed optimal FOM with detector air kerma rates as typically used in clinical practice. Lower tube voltages provide higher FOM than the higher values but their practical use depends on the limitations of X-ray tubes, linked to patient motion artefacts. The use of high resolution grids should be encouraged, as the FOM increases with 47% at 75kV. These scores from the Visual grading study confirmed the results obtained with the FOM. The switch to (wireless) DR technology for bedside imaging could benefit from devices to improve grid positioning or any scatter reduction technique.

  15. IgE sensitization and sociodemographic conditions as determinant factors in asthma severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gaviria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Latin America there are few data about the factors that influence the control and severity of asthma. Objective: To describe the association between IgE sensitization to intra-home allergens and housing conditions in the severity of asthma. Methods: Sensitization to aero-allergens was evaluated by skin prick test and socio-demographic data by a questionnaire in a population between 6 and 14 years of age with diagnosis of asthma. Asthma control was measured according to spirometric results and to the application of the ACT (Asthma Control Test; the severity and symptom control was evaluated according to the GINA guideline. Results: A total of 150 resident patients from the Aburra Valley (Colombia were included. The median age of participants was 11 years, 95 (63.3 % male. 92 % of the patients resided in the urban area. Mite sensitization was the most prevalent in controlled and uncontrolled patients. Sensitization to cockroach and some poverty conditions were risk factors for asthma severity. Conclusion: Poverty conditions appear to favor the development of severe asthma and in turn IgE sensitization to cockroaches. This sensitization could serve as a biomarker of severity.

  16. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  17. Suggestion of the manual exposure condition guideline for reducing patient dose in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The conditions after exposure to digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis were analyzed. The examinations for the ACR phantom were done using manual exposure, not auto exposure, to examine image discrimination and patient dose. As a result, the following results were derived: In the CC exposure , the kVp was 2kVp higher while mAs decreased to 58.6% for the 3D tomography. Such result showed an approximate decrease of 60mAs. At that time, the patients Average Glandular Dose (AGD) was 1.65mGy in 2D and 1.87mGy in 3D; thus, AGD of 3D was shown to have about 1.13 times higher. The result of the manual exposure revealed a reduced mAs of up to 80%; there was no effect in the assessment standard in terms of image discrimination, resulting in more than 10 points. When mAs was reduced to 80% in the manual exposure for ACR phantom, AGD was decreased to 0.66mGy. The diagnostic values of images were maintained and patients dose was reduced in the manual exposure in the AEC condition for 3D. Since the use of 3D has recently increased, using the manual exposure has been recommended in this study to improve the diagnostic value, while, simultaneously reducing patients dose.

  18. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A handbood of environmental exposures. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    A comprehensive review of the technical literature was conducted regarding the impact of environmental conditions on hyman performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits (e.g., decreased dexterity, impaired vision, hearing loss, memory deficiency) along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from exposures that result in no deficit to exposures that resulted in significant performance problems. Specific deficits were included in the report if there was sound scientific evidence that environmental exposure resulted in those performance deficits. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 1 is a handbook for use by NRC inspectors to help them determine the impact of specific environmental conditions on licensee personnel performance. it discusses the units used to measure each condition, discusses the effects of the condition on task performance, presents an example of the assessment of each condition in a nuclear power plant, and discusses potential methods for reducing the effects of

  19. Analysis of the behaviour of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 3 under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, V.; Saraeva, V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the analysis is to study the behaviour of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 3 under severe accident conditions. The analysis is performed using computer code MELCOR 1.8.4. This report includes a brief description of Unit 3 active core as well as description and comparison of the key events

  20. [Circadian blood pressure variation under several pathophysiological conditions including secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-08-01

    Abnormality of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation, i.e. non-dipper, riser, nocturnal hypertension etc, is brought by several pathophysiological conditions especially by secondary hypertension. These pathophysiological conditions are classified into several categories, i.e. disturbance of autonomic nervous system, metabolic disorder, endocrine disorder, disorder of Na and water excretion (e.g. sodium sensitivity), severe target organ damage and ischemia, cardiovascular complications and drug induced hypertension. Each pathophysiological condition which brings disturbance of circadian BP variation is included in several categories, e.g. diabetes mellitus is included in metabolic disorder, autonomic imbalance, sodium sensitivity and endocrine disorder. However, it seems that unified principle of the genesis of disturbance of circadian BP variation in many pathophysiological conditions is autonomic imbalance. Thus, it is concluded that disturbance of circadian BP variation is not purposive biological behavior but the result of autonomic imbalance which looks as if compensatory reaction such as exaggerated Na-water excretion during night in patient with Na-water retention who reveals disturbed circadian BP variation.

  1. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Schreur, B. G. J. Wichers; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high-resolution NWP model Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High Resolution Limited Area Model (H I RLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  2. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high resolution NWP model. Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  3. Operating features of decorative polymer-impregnated concretes under severe operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustina, I.B.; Lobasenok, V.A.; Yakimtsiv, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the possibility of a decorative polymer-impregnated concrete as a lining material in radiation-endangered rooms. Their extreme properties such as radiation resistance, decontamination ability, fire resistance and melting-freezing cycle resistance were studied. The material proposed shows substantially high resistance under severe operating conditions

  4. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  5. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saalfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1 and >3 weeks (CTA2 post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS, respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25% or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P 25–45 (early AIE or P45-65 (late AIE, or were left non-manipulated (NM. During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  6. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparations for Severe Winter Conditions by Emergency Health Personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Cüneyt; Algan, Aysun; Koçak, Hüseyin; Biçer, Burcu Küçük; Sengelen, Meltem; Cakir, Banu

    2014-04-23

    Emergency and core ambulance personnel work under all environmental conditions, including severe weather condtions. We evaluated emergency medical personnel in Çanakkale, Turkey, for their degree of preparedness. A descriptive study was conducted in Çanakkale, Turkey, within 112 emergency service units and their 17 district stations. Surveys were developed to measure the level of preparedness for serious winter conditions that individual workers made for themselves, their homes, and their cars. Of the 167 survey participants, the mean age was 29.8 ± 7.9 years; 52.7% were women; more than half (54.75%) were emergency medical technicians; and 53.3% were married. Only 10.4% of those who heated their homes with natural gas had carbon monoxide detectors. Scores relating to household and individual preparation for severe winter conditions increased by participants' age (P tires (P winter conditions (P = .016). Many of the surveyed emergency health personel demonstrated insufficient preparations for serious winter conditions. To increase the safety and efficiency of emergency medical personnel, educational training programs should be rountinely conducted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  8. Association between Air Pollution Exposure, Cognitive and Adaptive Function, and ASD Severity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Tara; Volk, Heather; Li, Weiyan; Lurmann, Fred; Eckel, Sandrah; McConnell, Rob; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk but no study has examined associations with ASD severity or functioning. Cognitive ability, adaptive functioning, and ASD severity were assessed in 327 children with ASD from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study using the…

  9. Hydrogen generation, distribution and combustion under severe LWR accident conditions: a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report include hydrogen generation, distribution in containment, and combustion characteristics. A companion report addresses hydrogen control. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  10. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented

  11. Seed vigour tests for predicting field emergence of maize under severe conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García de Yzaguirre, Álvaro; Lasa Dolhagaray, José Manuel

    1989-01-01

    [EN] With 40 to 50 different seed vigour tests available, appropiate procedures for choosing the best single test or combination the best predictors of seedling emergence of maize (Zea Mays L.) under severe conditions. Thirteen vigour tests and various field emergence trials were performed on six inbred lines and two commercial hybrids. The best single predictors of field emergence were identified by calculating simple correlation coefficients. The calculation of the geometric mean of the res...

  12. Maltreatment Exposure, Brain Structure, and Fear Conditioning in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gold, Andrea L; Duys, Andrea; Lambert, Hilary K; Peverill, Matthew; Heleniak, Charlotte; Shechner, Tomer; Wojcieszak, Zuzanna; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in learning processes and the neural circuitry that supports fear conditioning and extinction represent mechanisms through which trauma exposure might influence risk for psychopathology. Few studies examine how trauma or neural structure relates to fear conditioning in children. Children (n=94) aged 6-18 years, 40.4% (n=38) with exposure to maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or domestic violence), completed a fear conditioning paradigm utilizing blue and yellow bells as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) and an aversive alarm noise as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children. Children without maltreatment exposure exhibited strong differential conditioning to the CS+ vs CS-, based on SCR and self-reported fear. In contrast, maltreated children exhibited blunted SCR to the CS+ and failed to exhibit differential SCR to the CS+ vs CS- during early conditioning. Amygdala and hippocampal volume were reduced among children with maltreatment exposure and were negatively associated with SCR to the CS+ during early conditioning in the total sample, although these associations were negative only among non-maltreated children and were positive among maltreated children. The association of maltreatment with externalizing psychopathology was mediated by this perturbed pattern of fear conditioning. Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children. Poor threat-safety discrimination might reflect either enhanced fear generalization or a deficit in associative learning, which may in turn represent a central mechanism underlying the development of maltreatment-related externalizing psychopathology in children.

  13. Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of Beijing winter severe haze episodes has increased substantially over the past decades, and is commonly attributed to increased pollutant emissions from China’s rapid economic development. During such episodes, levels of fine particulate matter are harmful to human health and the environment, and cause massive disruption to economic activities, as occurred in January 2013. Conducive weather conditions are an important ingredient of severe haze episodes, and include reduced surface winter northerlies, weakened northwesterlies in the midtroposphere, and enhanced thermal stability of the lower atmosphere. How such weather conditions may respond to climate change is not clear. Here we project a 50% increase in the frequency and an 80% increase in the persistence of conducive weather conditions similar to those in January 2013, in response to climate change. The frequency and persistence between the historical (1950-1999) and future (2050-2099) climate were compared in 15 models under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). The increased frequency is consistent with large-scale circulation changes, including an Arctic Oscillation upward trend, weakening East Asian winter monsoon, and faster warming in the lower troposphere. Thus, circulation changes induced by global greenhouse gas emissions can contribute to the increased Beijing severe haze frequency.

  14. Severe malformations of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) fry are induced by maternal estrogenic exposure during early embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant eelpout were exposed via the water to known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to clarify if EDCs could be causing the increased eelpout fry malformation frequencies observed in coastal areas receiving high anthropogenic input. The presence of a teratogenic window for estrogen...... induced by EE2 (5.7 and 17.8 ng/L) but not by 4-t-OP and pyrene. A critical period for estrogen-induced fry malformations was identified and closed between 14 and 22 days post fertilization (dpf). Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) between 0 and 14 dpf caused severe malformations and severity increased...... the closer exposure start was to fertilization, whereas malformations were absent by exposure starting later than 14 dpf. Data on ovarian fluid volume and larval length supported the suggested teratogenic window. Larval mortality also increased when exposure started right after fertilization....

  15. The Conditional Scope of Selective Exposure to Political Television Media, 1996-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Leeper, Thomas

    Pew Research Center data from 1996 to 2012, we document that exposure to ideological or partisan media is heavily conditioned by time, audience size, and individuals’ interest in national politics. Selective exposure seems to be limited to partisans with a high interest in politics viewing a handful......A considerable amount of research documents an ideological or partisan bias in media exposure: liberals and Democrats are more likely to be exposed to liberal-leaning media while conservatives and Republicans are more likely to be exposed to conservative-leaning media. Much of this research......, however, was conducted in the mid-2000’s, a politically contentious period in American politics. We argue that there are many reasons to expect this political context to be a period that encouraged high degrees of selective exposure, especially among partisans and those with high political interest. Using...

  16. Thermalydraulic processes in the reactor coolant system of a BWR under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) incorporate many unique structural features that make their expected response under severe accident conditions very different from that predicted in the case of pressurized water reactor accident sequences. Automatic main steam isolation valve (MIV) closure as the vessel water level approaches the top of the core would cause reactor vessel isolation while automatic recirculation pump trip would limit the in-vessel flows to those characteristic of natural circulation (as disturbed by vessel relief valve actuation). This paper provides a discussion of the BWR control blade, channel box, core plate, control rod guide tube, and reactor vessel safety relief valve (SRV) configuration and the effects of these structural components upon thermal hydraulic processes within the reactor vessel under severe accident conditions. The dominant BWR severe accident sequences as determined by probabilistic risk assessment are described and the expected timing of events for the unmitigated short-term station blackout severe accident sequence at the Peach Bottom atomic power station is presented

  17. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica forest in Siberia. A time-series of remote sensing images was analyzed to estimate post-fire recovery as a response variable across the burned area in 1996. Our results suggested that burn severity and water content were primary controllers of both Larch forest recruitment and green vegetation cover as defined by the forest recovery index (FRI and the fractional vegetation cover (FVC, respectively. We found a high rate of Larch forest recruitment in sites of moderate burn severity, while a more severe burn was the preferable condition for quick occupation by vegetation that included early seral communities of shrubs, grasses, conifers and broadleaf trees. Sites close to water and that received higher solar energy during the summer months showed a higher rate of both recovery types, defined by the FRI and FVC, dependent on burn severity. In addition to these factors, topographic variables and pre-fire condition were important predictors of post-fire forest patterns. These results have direct implications for the post-fire forest management in the Siberian boreal Larch region.

  18. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kim

    Full Text Available The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers' health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain.We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure.Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all p<0.05. The odds ratios between each exposure and headache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination.The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache

  19. Does pre-exposure to warming conditions increase Mytilus galloprovincialis tolerance to Hg contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Coppola, Francesca; Henriques, Bruno; Wrona, Fredrick; Figueira, Etelvina; Pereira, Eduarda; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which marine invertebrate populations can tolerate extreme weather events, such as short-term exposure to high temperatures, and the underlying biochemical response mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, scarce information is available on how marine organisms respond to the presence of pollutants after exposure to heat stress conditions. Therefore, the present study aimed to understand how the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis responds to Hg pollution after pre-exposure to warming conditions. Mussels were exposed to control (17°C) and warming (21°C) conditions during 14days, followed by Hg contamination during 28days under different temperature regimes (17 and 21°C). The results obtained demonstrated significantly higher Hg concentrations in mussels under 17°C during the entire experiment than in organisms exposed to 21°C during the same period, which resulted in higher oxidative stress in mussels under control temperature. Significantly higher Hg concentrations were also observed in mussels pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure comparing with organisms maintained the entire experiment at 21°C. These results may be explained by higher metabolic capacity in organisms exposed to 17°C after pre-exposure to 21°C that although induced antioxidant defences were not enough to prevent oxidative stress. No significant differences in terms of Hg concentration were found between mussels exposed to 17°C during the entire experiment and organisms pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure, leading to similar oxidative stress levels in mussels exposed to both conditions. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that pre-exposure to warming conditions did not change mussels' accumulation and tolerance to Hg in comparison to Hg contaminated mussels maintained at control temperature. Furthermore, the present study indicate that organisms maintained under warming conditions for long periods may prevent the accumulation of

  20. Conditions for oxygen-deficient combustion during accidents with severe core concrete thermal attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.; Elicson, G.T.; Berger, W.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the interactions between MCCI (molten core-concrete interactions)-induced offgas releases, mostly the combustible gases, natural circulation between the cavity and the lower containment based on recent research developments in the area of mixed convection flow (Epstein, et al., 1989; Epstein, 1988; Epstein, 1992) between compartments, and their effects on combustion in PWR containments during prolonged severe accidents. Specifically, large dry PWR containments undergoing severe core-concrete attack during station blackouts where the containment atmosphere is expected to be inerted are objects of this analysis. The purpose of this paper, given the conditions that oxygen can be brought to the cavity, is to demonstrate that consumption of most oxygen present in the containment can be achieved in a reasonable time scale assuming that combustion is not subject to flammability limits due to the high cavity temperatures. The conditions for cavity combustion depend on several factors including good gas flowpaths between the cavity and other containment regions, and combustion processes within the cavity with the hot debris acting as the ignition source

  1. Thermal stress analysis of reactor containment building considering severe weather condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun; Kim, Yun-Yong; Hyun, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Do-Gyeum

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine that through-wall crack risk in cold weather is high. • It is predicted that cracking in concrete wall will not happen in hot region. • Cracking due to hydration heat can be controlled by appropriate curing condition. • Temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small in hot weather. - Abstract: Prediction of concrete cracking due to hydration heat in mass concrete such as reactor containment building (RCB) in nuclear power plant is a crucial issue in construction site. In this study, the numerical analysis for heat transfer and stress development is performed for the containment wall in RCB by considering the severe weather conditions. Finally, concrete cracking risk in hot and cold weather is discussed based on analysis results. In analyses considering severe weather conditions, it is found that the through-wall cracking risk in cold weather is high due to the abrupt temperature difference between inside concrete and the ambient air in cold region. In hot weather, temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small, and accordingly the relevant cracking risk is relatively low in contrast with cold weather

  2. Evaluation of the leakage behavior of inflatable seals subject to severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently developing test validated methods to predict the pressure capacity of light water reactor containment buildings when subjected to postulated severe accident conditions. These conditions are well beyond the design basis. Scale model tests of steel and reinforced concrete containments have been conducted as well as tests of typical containment penetrations. As a part of this effort, a series of tests was recently conducted to determine the leakage behavior of inflatable seals. These seals are used to prevent leakage around personnel and escape lock doors of some containments. The results of the inflatable seals tests are the subject of this report. Inflatable seals were tested at both room temperature and at elevated temperatures representative of postulated severe accident conditions. Both aged (radiation and thermal) and unaged seals were included in the test program. The internal seal pressure at the beginning of each test was varied to cover the range of seal pressures actually used in containments. For each seal pressure level, the external (containment) pressure was increased until significant leakage past the seals was observed. Parameters that were monitored and recorded during the tests were the internal seal pressure, chamber pressure, leakage past the seals, and temperature of the test chamber and fixture to which the seals were attached. 8 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Alchris Woo; Sutanto, Sylviana; NguyenThi, Bich Thuyen; Cabatingan, Luis K.; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  4. Durability study and lifetime prediction of baseline proton exchange membrane fuel cell under severe operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrony, M.; Quenet, S.; Aslanides, A. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether Strasse 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R.; Ginocchio, S.; Montelatici, L. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy)

    2008-08-01

    Comparative studies of mechanical and electrochemical properties of Nafion{sup registered} - and sulfonated polyetheretherketone polymer-type membranes are carried out under severe fuel cell conditions required by industrials, within stationary and cycling electric load profiles. These membranes are proposed to be used in PEM between 70 and 90 C as fluorinated or non-fluorinated baseline membranes, respectively. Thus, though the performance of both membranes remains suitable, Nafion{sup registered} backbone brought better mechanical properties and higher electrochemical stabilities than sulfonated polyetheretherketone backbone. The performance stability and the mechanical strength of the membrane-electrode assembly were shown to be influenced by several intrinsic properties of the membrane (e.g., thermal pre-treatment, thickness) and external conditions (fuel cell operating temperature, relative humidity). Finally, a lifetime prediction for membranes under stationary conditions is proposed depending on the operation temperature. At equivalent thicknesses (i.e. 50 {mu}m), Nafion{sup registered} membranes were estimated able to operate into the 80-90 C range while sulfonated polyetheretherketone would be limited into the 70-80 C range. This approach brings baseline information about the capability of these types of polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell critical operations. Finally, it is revealed as a potential tool for the selection of the most promising advanced polymers for the ensuing research phase. (author)

  5. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nano-scale topography of bearing surface in advanced alumina/zirconia hip joint before and after severe exposure in water vapor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Saito, Takuma; Padeletti, Giuseppina; Cossari, Pierluigi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a surface morphology assessment with nanometer scale resolution on femoral heads made of an advanced zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite. Femoral heads were characterized to a degree of statistical accuracy in the as-received state and after exposures up to 100 h in severe vapor-moist environment. Surface screening was made using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scanning was systematically repeated on portions of surface as large as several tens of micrometers, randomly selected on the head surface, to achieve sufficient statistical reliability without lowering the nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the roughness measurement. No significant difference was found in the recorded values of surface roughness after environmental exposure (at 134 degrees C, under 2 bar), which was always comparable to that of the as-received head. Surface roughness safely lay <10 nm after environmental exposures up to 100 h, which corresponded to an exposure time in vivo of several human lifetimes (i.e., according to an experimentally derived thermal activation energy). In addition, the roughness results were significantly (about one order of magnitude) lower as compared to those recorded on femoral heads made of monolithic zirconia tested under the same conditions. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  8. The relationship between occupational noise and vibration exposure and headache/eyestrain, based on the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Wanhyung; Won, Jong-Uk; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Seunghyun; Roh, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    The individual and combined effect of occupational noise and vibration exposures, on workers' health has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to find better ways to prevent and manage workers' headache, this study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational noise and vibration exposure on headache/eyestrain. We used data from the fourth Korean Working Condition Survey (2014). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25,751 workers were included. Occupational noise and vibration exposure and the prevalence of headache/eyestrain were investigated by self-reported survey. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in baseline characteristics between the group with headache/eyestrain and the group without. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analysis was used to evaluate the effect of occupational noise and/or vibration exposure. Among the 25,751 study subjects, 4,903 had experienced headache/eyestrain in the preceding year. There were significant differences in age, education level, household income, occupational classification, shift work, occupational vibration exposure, and occupational noise exposure between the two groups (all pheadache/eyestrain increased proportionally with the level of exposure, increasing from 1.08 to 1.26 with increasing vibration exposure, and from 1.25 to 1.41 with increasing noise exposure. According to the AUROC analysis, the predictive power of each exposure was significant, and increased when the two exposures were considered in combination. The findings of this study show that both occupational noise and vibration exposures are associated with headache/eyestrain; noise exposure more strongly so. However, when the two exposures are considered in combination, the explanatory power for headache/eyestrain is increased. Therefore, efforts aimed at reducing and

  9. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents

  10. Experiments to evaluate behavior of containment piping bellows under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall. In a severe accident they may be subjected to high pressure and temperature, and a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, are being subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen tests have been conducted. The tests showed that withstanding relatively large bellows are capable of deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  11. Capability of LOFT vital batteries to supply emergency power demands during severe cold weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of the vital batteries (PPS) to provide electrical power via the vital DC-AC motor generator sets to the LOFT PPS loads during severe cold weather conditions. It is concluded that these batteries while at a temperature of 5 0 F will supply the necessary PPS electrical loads for a time in excess of the one hour permitted to start the diesel generators and are, therefore, adequate at this temperature. This Revision B of the LTR includes revised, more recent, and complete technical data relating to MG set efficiency, battery operating procedures and cold temperature derating. Revision B supersedes and replaces all previous issues

  12. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Jeppson, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  13. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFWC) design and operation takes into account several variables which affect performance its performance. These aspects had been evaluated and documented among others in countries like USA, Denmark, Austria. In contrast, VFCW had not been studied in tropical...... countries and, specifically in Colombia, design and operation parameters are not defined yet. The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of filter medium, the feeding frequency and Heliconia psittacorum presence, a typical local plant, on the domestic wastewater treatment in tropical conditions....

  14. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Final report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometries and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. There are indications that for such non-uniform distributions size effects may be stronger than for uniform distributions. Thus size effects on the failure strains and failure processes are determined under realistic conditions. Several tests with nominal identical parameters are performed for small size specimens. In this way some information is obtained about the scatter. A reduced number of tests is carried out for medium size specimens and only a few tests are carried out for large size specimens to reduce the costs to an acceptable level. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C consisting of the material 22NiMoCr37. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are quite small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was the definition of failure and the determination of the local strains at failure for very different specimens under varying load conditions. Here appropriate methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method' and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields

  15. Sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the severity of autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behaviour and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviours in children with ASC. 36 children took part: 18 (13 male, 5 female with ASC (ages 7-16: mean age 9.93 years and 18 (7 male, 11 female typically developing (TD children (ages 6-12; mean age 9.16 years. Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised.. Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination and sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity.

  16. TYPHOID FEVER WITH FATAL OUTCOME IN PEOPLE WITH SEVERE TROPHOLOGICAL FAILURE IN EXTREME CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Lyashenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For purpose of clinical and morphological characterization of typhoid fever with fatal outcome was perform analysis of medical documentation as well as postmortem studies of internal tissues in 36men aged 21 to 34 years with severe body weight loss and in the conditions of combat stress in period from 1983 to 1985. The results of the study find a number of clinical and pathomorphological features of typhoid fever in patients with body weight deficiency that were in extreme conditions. Focal changes of the central nervous system were detected. The defeat of the respiratory system was characterized from the first days of the disease by bronchitis, and in the subsequent development of pneumonia, plevritis and empyema of the pleura. Majority of patients had symptoms of cardiovascular and renal failure. In died in the first week of the disease and in 2/3 parts – in a later period were combined with the symptoms of infectious-toxic encephalopathy and severe acute respiratory failure. All died had postmortem dystrophic changes of cardiomyocytes, and in patients had fatal outcome in 2–5 weeks – also focal or diffuse myocarditis. In a third of the patients who died, the disease was complicated by intestinal perforations. In a number of cases, peritonitis was a consequence of necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes. In all patients with a fatal outcome, hemorrhagic (thrombohemorrhagic syndrome was diagnosed. A significant proportion of patients posthumously detected signs of sepsis and other complications, many of which could be the cause of death.

  17. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  18. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  19. Reports of Severe Physical Punishment and Exposure to Animal Cruelty by Inmates Convicted of Felonies and by University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…

  20. In vitro exposure of human lung cells to emissions of several indoor air sources created in a climate chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Alblas, M.J.; Tuinman, I.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, studies on indoor air pollution suggest a link between exposure to indoor particulate matter and compounds, in particular ultrafine particles and secondary organic aerosols, and several health effects. The mechanisms of how those complex mixtures relate to health effects are

  1. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodbury-Smith Marc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed

  2. Failure strains and proposed limit strains for an reactor pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    2005-01-01

    The local failure strains of essential design elements of a reactor vessel are investigated. The size influence of the structure is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial load. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for the reactor vessel. A key problem is to determine the local failure strain. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method', and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post-test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element models. The results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Local failure strains could be determined. The values are rather high and size dependent. Statistical evaluation allow the proposal of limit strains which are also size dependent. If these limit strains are not exceeded, the structures will not fracture

  3. Cardiovascular conditions, hearing difficulty, and occupational noise exposure within US industries and occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Ellen; Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure. National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of self-reported hearing difficulty, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and coronary heart disease or stroke were estimated by level of occupational noise exposure, industry, and occupation. Twenty-five percent of current workers had a history of occupational noise exposure (14% exposed in the last year), 12% had hearing difficulty, 24% had hypertension, 28% had elevated cholesterol; 58%, 14%, and 9% of these cases can be attributed to occupational noise exposure, respectively. Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and hearing difficulty are more prevalent among noise-exposed workers. Reducing workplace noise levels is critical. Workplace-based health and wellness programs should also be considered. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oana Docea

    Full Text Available The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases. Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Cytochrome P450, Genetic polymorphisms, Pathogenesis, Environmental pollutants

  5. Study On Safety Analysis Of PWR Reactor Core In Transient And Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dai Dien; Hoang Minh Giang; Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy; Nguyen Thi Tu Oanh; Le Thi Thu; Pham Tuan Nam; Tran Van Trung; Le Van Hong; Vo Thi Huong

    2014-01-01

    The cooperation research project on the Study on Safety Analysis of PWR Reactor Core in Transient and Severe Accident Conditions between Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), VINATOM and Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Korea has been setup to strengthen the capability of researches in nuclear safety not only in mastering the methods and computer codes, but also in qualifying of young researchers in the field of nuclear safety analysis. Through the studies on the using of thermal hydraulics computer codes like RELAP5, COBRA, FLUENT and CFX the thermal hydraulics research group has made progress in the research including problems for safety analysis of APR1400 nuclear reactor, PIRT methodologies and sub-channel analysis. The study of severe accidents has been started by using MELCOR in collaboration with KAERI experts and the training on the fundamental phenomena occurred in postulated severe accident. For Vietnam side, VVER-1000 nuclear reactor is also intensively studied. The design of core catcher, reactor containment and severe accident management are the main tasks concerning VVER technology. The research results are presented in the 9 th National Conference on Mechanics, Ha Noi, December 8-9, 2012, the 10 th National Conference on Nuclear Science and Technology, Vung Tau, August 14-15, 2013, as well as published in the journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vietnam Nuclear Society and other journals. The skills and experience from using computer codes like RELAP5, MELCOR, ANSYS and COBRA in nuclear safety analysis are improved with the nuclear reactors APR1400, Westinghouse 4 loop PWR and especially the VVER-1000 chosen for the specific studies. During cooperation research project, man power and capability of Nuclear Safety center of INST have been strengthen. Three masters were graduated, 2 researchers are engaging in Ph.D course at Hanoi University of Science and Technology and University of Science and Technology, Korea

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  8. Suitable exposure conditions for CB Throne? New model cone beam computed tomography unit for dental use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Kouji; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Yajima, Aya; Mizuta, Shigeru; Sano, Tsukasa; Yajima, Yasutomo; Nakagawa, Kanichi; Kousuge, Yuuji

    2008-01-01

    The CB Throne is a cone beam computed tomography unit for dental use, and the smaller version of the CB MercuRay developed by Hitachi Medico Co. We investigated which exposure conditions were suitable in the clinical use. Suitable exposure conditions were determined by simple subjective comparisons. The right temporomandibular joint of the head phantom was scanned at all possible combinations of tube voltage (60, 80, 100, 120 kV) and tube current (10, 15 mA). Oblique-sagittal images of the same position were obtained using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) function. Images obtained at 120 kV and 15 mA, which are the highest exposure conditions and certain to produce images of the best quality, were used to establish the standard. Eight oral radiologists observed each image and standard image on a LCD monitor. They compared subjectively spatial resolution and noise between each image and standard image using a 10 cm scale. Evaluation points were obtained from the check positions on the scales. The Steel method was used to determine significant differences. The images at 60 kV/10 mA and 80 kV/15 mA showed significantly lower evaluation points on spatial resolution. The images at 60 kV/10 mA, 60 kV/15 mA and 80 kV/10 mA showed significantly lower evaluation points on noise. In conclusion, even if exposure conditions are reduced to 100 kV/10 mA, 100 kV/15 mA or 120 kV/10 mA, the CB Throne will produce images of the best quality. (author)

  9. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet, E-mail: zivgal1@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Zhou, Changqing, E-mail: czhou27@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-05-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.

  10. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Changqing; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature

  11. Rates of preterm birth following antenatal exposure to severe life events: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Abel, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and other pregnancy complications have been linked to maternal stress during pregnancy. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: Mothers of all singleton live births (n = 1.35 million births...... to estimate the effect of exposure on preterm birth, very preterm birth and extremely preterm birth. RESULTS: There were 58 626 (4.34%) preterm births (births and 3288 (0.24%) extremely preterm births in the study cohort. Severe life events in close relatives in the 6...... months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 16% (relative risk, RR = 1.16, [95% CI: 1.08-1.23]). Severe life events in older children in the 6 months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 23% (RR = 1.23, [95% CI: 1.02-1.49]) and the risk of very preterm birth by 59...

  12. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers

  13. Analysis of effects of calandria tube uncovery under severe accident conditions in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Currie, T.C.; Atkinson, J.C.; Dick, R.

    1983-01-01

    A study is being undertaken for the Atomic Energy Control Board to assess the thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores under accident conditions more severe than those normally considered in the licensing process. In this paper, we consider the effects on a coolant channel of the uncovery of a calandria tube by moderator boil-off following a LOCA in a Bruce reactor unit in which emergency cooling is ineffective and the moderator heat sink is impaired by the failure of the moderator cooling system. Calandria tube uncovery and its immediate consequences, as described here, constitute only one part of the entire accident sequence. Other aspects of this sequence as well as results of the analysis of the other accident sequences studied will be described in the final report on the project and in later papers

  14. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Y., E-mail: yano.yasuhide@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, S.; Oono, N. [Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hayashi, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Torimaru, T. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1313 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900–1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  15. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Y.; Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T.; Ukai, S.; Oono, N.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.; Torimaru, T.

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900-1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  16. Vaporization of low-volatile fission products under severe CANDU reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Corse, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; Kaye, M.H.; Iglesias, F.C.; Elder, P.; Dickson, R.; Liu, Z.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to describe the release behaviour of low-volatile fission products from uranium dioxide fuel under severe reactor accident conditions. The effect of the oxygen potential on the chemical form and volatility of fission products is determined by Gibbs-energy minimization. The release kinetics are calculated according to the rate-controlling step of diffusional transport in the fuel matrix or fission product vaporization from the fuel surface. The effect of fuel volatilization (i.e., matrix stripping) on the release behaviour is also considered. The model has been compared to data from an out-of-pile annealing experiment performed in steam at the Chalk River Laboratories. (author)

  17. Modelling of Zircaloy-steam-oxidation under severe fuel damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Neitzel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Small break loss-of-coolant accidents and special transients in an LWR, in combination with loss of required safety systems, may lead to an uncovered core for an extended period of time. As a consequence, the cladding temperature could rise up to the melting point due to the decay heat, resulting in severely damaged fuel rods. During heat-up the claddings oxidize due to oxygen uptake from the steam atmosphere in the core. The modeling and assessment of the Zircaloy-steam oxidation under such conditions is important, mainly for two reasons: The oxidation of the cladding influences the temperature transients due to the exothermic heat of reaction; the amount of liquified fuel depends on the oxide layer thickness and the oxygen content of the remaining Zircaloy metal when the melting point is reached. (author)

  18. Effects of prior amphetamine exposure on approach strategy in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicholas W; Mendez, Ian A; Setlow, Barry

    2009-03-01

    Pavlovian conditioning with a discrete reward-predictive visual cue can elicit two classes of behaviors: "sign-tracking" (approach toward and contact with the cue) and "goal-tracking" (approach toward the site of reward delivery). Sign-tracking has been proposed to be linked to behavioral disorders involving compulsive reward-seeking, such as addiction. Prior exposure to psychostimulant drugs of abuse can facilitate reward-seeking behaviors through enhancements in incentive salience attribution. Thus, it was predicted that a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine exposure would increase sign-tracking behavior. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how a regimen of exposure to amphetamine affects subsequent sign-tracking behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were given daily injections of d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg) or saline for 5 days, then given a 7-day drug-free period followed by testing in a Pavlovian conditioning task. In experiment 1, rats were presented with a visual cue (simultaneous illumination of a light and extension of a lever) located either to the left or right of a centrally located food trough. One cue (CS+) was always followed by food delivery, whereas the other (CS-) was not. In experiment 2, rats were tested in a nondiscriminative (CS+ only) version of the task. In both experiments, amphetamine-exposed rats showed less sign-tracking and more goal-tracking compared to saline controls. Contrary to predictions, prior amphetamine exposure decreased sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking behavior. However, these results do support the hypothesis that psychostimulant exposure and incentive sensitization enhance behavior directed toward reward-proximal cues at the expense of reward-distal cues.

  19. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la, E-mail: juan-carlos.de-la-rosa-blul@ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre (Netherlands); Fornós, Joan, E-mail: jfornosh@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H{sub 2} and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  20. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.C. de la; Fornós, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H_2 and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  1. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  2. influence of severe conditions on the concrete employed in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, W.M.K.S.

    2006-01-01

    this thesis is mainly concentrating on honing the efficiency of heavy-weight high -performance (HWHP) concrete, developed from local aggregates together with additives that are waste products of other manufacturing processes, for the purpose of producing radiation shields, to attenuate gamma-rays in peaceful active-service facilitations . in other words, the thesis is in attempt to develop a special type of heavy concrete of various advantages that would enhance its performance in severe environment. such advantages may embrace concurrent improvements; such as high specific gravity, workability, high compressive strength, efficient attenuator for gamma radiation, and resistant to elevated temperature along with chemical attack.the named HWHP concrete was mainly prepared using two types of heavy aggregates, ilmenite (iron ore) and barite . in addition usual concrete (dolomite/sand) was also employed in this thesis to compare the obtained HWHP concrete. the practical facet of this thesis accounts for evaluating the influence of severe conditions, concomitantly and consecutively, on mechanical , morphological and attenuation characteristics for the three types of concrete

  3. The Influence of Safety, Efficacy, and Medical Condition Severity on Natural versus Synthetic Drug Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Lappas, Courtney M

    2016-11-01

    Research indicates that there is a preference for natural v. synthetic products, but the influence of this preference on drug choice in the medical domain is largely unknown. We present 5 studies in which participants were asked to consider a hypothetical situation in which they had a medical issue requiring pharmacological therapy. Participants ( N = 1223) were asked to select a natural, plant-derived, or synthetic drug. In studies 1a and 1b, approximately 79% of participants selected the natural v. synthetic drug, even though the safety and efficacy of the drugs were identical. Furthermore, participants rated the natural drug as safer than the synthetic drug, and as that difference increased, the odds of choosing the natural over synthetic drug increased. In studies 2 and 3, approximately 20% of participants selected the natural drug even when they were informed that it was less safe (study 2) or less effective (study 3) than the synthetic drug. Finally, in study 4, approximately 65% of participants chose a natural over synthetic drug regardless of the severity of a specific medical condition (mild v. severe hypertension), and this choice was predicted by perceived safety and efficacy differences. Overall, these data indicate that there is a bias for natural over synthetic drugs. This bias could have implications for drug choice and usage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  5. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350 0 F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage

  6. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  7. Development of systematic models for aerosol agglomeration and spray removal under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide behavior during various severe accident conditions has been addressed as one of the important issues to discuss environmental safety in nuclear power plants. The present paper deals with the development of analytical models and their validations for the agglomeration of multiple-component aerosol and spray removal that controls source terms to the environment of both aerosols and gaseous radionuclides during recirculation mode operation in a containment system for a light water reactor. As for aerosol agglomeration, the single collision kernel model that can cover all types of two-body collision of aerosol was developed. In addition, the dynamic model that can treat aerosol and vapor transfer leading to the equilibrium condition under the containment spray operation was developed. The validations of the present models for multiple-component aerosol growth by agglomeration were performed by comparisons with Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and AB experiments at Hanford Engineering National Laboratory (HEDL). In addition, the spray removal models were applied to the analysis of containment spray experiment (CSE) at HEDL. The results calculated by the models showed good agreements with experimental results. (author)

  8. Inclusion of models to describe severe accident conditions in the fuel simulation code DIONISIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Martín; Soba, Alejandro [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Daverio, Hernando [Gerencia Reactores y Centrales Nucleares, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Denis, Alicia [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-15

    The simulation of fuel rod behavior is a complex task that demands not only accurate models to describe the numerous phenomena occurring in the pellet, cladding and internal rod atmosphere but also an adequate interconnection between them. In the last years several models have been incorporated to the DIONISIO code with the purpose of increasing its precision and reliability. After the regrettable events at Fukushima, the need for codes capable of simulating nuclear fuels under accident conditions has come forth. Heat removal occurs in a quite different way than during normal operation and this fact determines a completely new set of conditions for the fuel materials. A detailed description of the different regimes the coolant may exhibit in such a wide variety of scenarios requires a thermal-hydraulic formulation not suitable to be included in a fuel performance code. Moreover, there exist a number of reliable and famous codes that perform this task. Nevertheless, and keeping in mind the purpose of building a code focused on the fuel behavior, a subroutine was developed for the DIONISIO code that performs a simplified analysis of the coolant in a PWR, restricted to the more representative situations and provides to the fuel simulation the boundary conditions necessary to reproduce accidental situations. In the present work this subroutine is described and the results of different comparisons with experimental data and with thermal-hydraulic codes are offered. It is verified that, in spite of its comparative simplicity, the predictions of this module of DIONISIO do not differ significantly from those of the specific, complex codes.

  9. Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behaviour of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, Kay; Hoogenboom, Mia O

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour. The amount of plastics found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was low, with a range of one to eight particles remaining in the gut of individual fish at the end of a 6-week plastic-exposure period, suggesting that these fish are able to detect and avoid ingesting microplastics in this size range. However, in a second experiment the number of plastics in the GI tract vastly increased when plastic particle size was reduced to approximately one quarter the size of the food particles, with a maximum of 2102 small (< 300μm diameter) particles present in the gut of individual fish after a 1-week plastic exposure period. Under conditions where food was replaced by plastic, there was a negative effect on the growth and body condition of the fish. These results suggest plastics could become more of a problem as they break up into smaller size classes, and that environmental changes that lead to a decrease in plankton concentrations combined with microplastic presence is likely have a greater influence on fish populations than microplastic presence alone.

  10. Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behaviour of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour. The amount of plastics found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was low, with a range of one to eight particles remaining in the gut of individual fish at the end of a 6-week plastic-exposure period, suggesting that these fish are able to detect and avoid ingesting microplastics in this size range. However, in a second experiment the number of plastics in the GI tract vastly increased when plastic particle size was reduced to approximately one quarter the size of the food particles, with a maximum of 2102 small (plastic exposure period. Under conditions where food was replaced by plastic, there was a negative effect on the growth and body condition of the fish. These results suggest plastics could become more of a problem as they break up into smaller size classes, and that environmental changes that lead to a decrease in plankton concentrations combined with microplastic presence is likely have a greater influence on fish populations than microplastic presence alone. PMID:29494635

  11. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Synthesis report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are rather small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was to determine the local strain at failure. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called ''vanishing gap method'' and the ''forging die method''. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element calculations, for instance. To deepen the understanding of structural degradation and fracture and to allow extrapolations, advanced computational methods including damage models have been developed and validated. Several approaches were tried in parallel including so-called non-local concepts and descriptions of stochastic properties at grain size level. The experimental results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Also the maximum stress is approximately size independent, if failure occurs after the maximum stress is reached

  12. Modelling the effects of pulse exposure of several PSII inhibitors on two algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    Subsequent to crop application and during precipitation events, herbicides can reach surface waters in pulses of high concentrations. These pulses can exceed the Annual Average Environmental Quality Standards (AA-EQS), defined in the EU Water Framework Directive, which aims to protect the aquatic environment. A model was developed in a previous study to evaluate the effects of pulse exposure for the herbicide isoproturon on the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus. In this study, the model was extended to other substances acting as photosystem II inhibitors and to other algae. The measured and predicted effects were equivalent when pulse exposure of atrazine and diuron were tested on S. vacuolatus. The results were consistent for isoproturon on the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The model is thus suitable for the effect prediction of phenylureas and triazines and for the algae used: S. vacuolatus and P. subcapitata. The toxicity classification obtained from the dose-response curves (diuron>atrazine>isoproturon) was conserved for the pulse exposure scenarios modelled for S. vacuolatus. Toxicity was identical for isoproturon on the two algae when the dose-response curves were compared and also for the pulse exposure scenarios. Modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of photosystem II inhibitors on algae is therefore feasible and only requires the determination of the dose-response curves of the substance and growth rate of unexposed algae. It is crucial to detect the longest pulses when measurements of herbicide concentrations are performed in streams because the model showed that they principally affect the cell density inhibition of algae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhavsky, B Ya; Lebedko, O A; Belolubskaya, D S

    2008-08-01

    The effects of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate were studied in the rat brain. Exposure of pregnant rats to lead nitrate during activation of free radical oxidation reduced activity of NADH- and NADPH-dehydrogenases in cortical neurons of their 40-day-old progeny, reduced the number of neurons in a visual field, increased the number of pathologically modified neurons, and stimulated rat motor activity in an elevated plus-maze. Two intraperitoneal injections of histochrome in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before and after lead citrate challenge attenuated the manifestations of oxidative stress and prevented the changes in some morphological and histochemical parameters of the brain, developing under the effect of lead exposure.

  14. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Severe Toxicological Exposures: Review of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G S; Levitan, R; Wiegand, T J; Lowry, J; Schult, R F; Yin, S

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89 years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60 % female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004 %) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (18 years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4 h to 4 days, with duration from 15 h to 12 days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80 %. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality.

  16. Severity of ASD symptoms and their correlation with the presence of copy number variations and exposure to first trimester ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara Jane; Garrison, Michelle M; Bernier, Raphael; McClintic, Abbi M; King, Bryan H; Mourad, Pierre D

    2017-03-01

    Current research suggests that incidence and heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms may arise through a variety of exogenous and/or endogenous factors. While subject to routine clinical practice and generally considered safe, there exists speculation, though no human data, that diagnostic ultrasound may also contribute to ASD severity, supported by experimental evidence that exposure to ultrasound early in gestation could perturb brain development and alter behavior. Here we explored a modified triple hit hypothesis [Williams & Casanova, ] to assay for a possible relationship between the severity of ASD symptoms and (1) ultrasound exposure (2) during the first trimester of pregnancy in fetuses with a (3) genetic predisposition to ASD. We did so using retrospective analysis of data from the SSC (Simon's Simplex Collection) autism genetic repository funded by the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative. We found that male children with ASD, copy number variations (CNVs), and exposure to first trimester ultrasound had significantly decreased non-verbal IQ and increased repetitive behaviors relative to male children with ASD, with CNVs, and no ultrasound. These data suggest that heterogeneity in ASD symptoms may result, at least in part, from exposure to diagnostic ultrasound during early prenatal development of children with specific genetic vulnerabilities. These results also add weight to on-going concerns expressed by the FDA about non-medical use of diagnostic ultrasound during pregnancy. Autism Res 2017, 10: 472-484. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. An analysis of gender differences in patients with hand eczema - everyday exposures, severity, and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Annette; Veien, Niels Kren; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    , aggravating factors, hand eczema-related consequences and quality of life were obtained from a questionnaire. RESULTS: Men and women had equal clinical severities of disease, with an overall median HECSI of 43. Self-reported medication adherence was equal between the genders, but, among patients aged > 40...... years, more reported higher adherence. The impact of disease was larger in women than in men. Women reported significantly more aggravating factors and sick leave. Also, women had a more impaired quality of life than men at equal levels of disease severity, and this could be associated with the higher......BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is often related to high-risk occupations and aggravating exposures in everyday life. The disease is twice as frequent in women as in men, partly because of diverse exposure patterns. Other gender differences may be relevant for treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To gain...

  18. Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

    1983-01-01

    Seven non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke under natural conditions for two hours in a public house. Measures of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine and expired air carbon monoxide all showed reliable increases. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and nicotine after exposure averaged 15.7% and 7.5% respectively of the values found in heavy smokers. Although the increase in expired air carbon monoxide of 5.9 ppm was similar to increases in smokers after a single cigarette, the amount of nicotine absorbed was between a tenth and a third of the amount taken in from one cigarette. Since this represented a relatively extreme acute natural exposure, any health risks of passive smoking probably depend less on quantitative factors than on qualitative differences between sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:6648864

  19. Assessment of medical radiation exposure to patients and ambient doses in several diagnostic radiology departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulieman, A.; Elhadi, T.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alnaaimi, M.; Alduaij, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    In many countries diagnostic medical exposures typically account for a very large fraction of the collective effective dose that can be assigned to anthropological sources and activities. This in part flags up the question of whether sufficient steps are being taken in regard to potential dose saving from such medical services. As a first step, one needs to survey doses to compare against those of best practice. The present study has sought evaluation of the radiation protection status and patient doses for certain key radiological procedures in four film-based radiology departments within Sudan. The radiation exposure survey, carried out using a survey meter and quality control test tools, involved a total of 299 patients their examinations being carried out at one or other of these four departments. The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was determined from exposure settings using DosCal software and an Unfors -Xi-meter. The mean ESAK for x-ray examination of the chest was 0.30±0.1 mGy, for the skull it was 0.96±0.7 mGy, for the abdomen 0.85±0.01 mGy, for spinal procedures 1.30±0.6 mGy and for procedures involving the limbs it was 0.43±0.3 mGy. Ambient dose-rates in the reception area, at the closed door of the x-ray room, recorded instantaneous values of up to 100 μSv/h. In regard to protection, the associated levels were found to be acceptable in three of the four departments, corrective action being required for one department, regular quality control also being recommended.

  20. Impact of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia and mild sustained hypercapnia on apnea severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokhana, Sanar S; Gerst, David G; Lee, Dorothy S; Badr, M Safwan; Qureshi, Tabarak; Mateika, Jason H

    2012-02-01

    We examined whether exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during wakefulness impacted on the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) during sleep in individuals with sleep apnea. Participants were exposed to twelve 4-min episodes of hypoxia in the presence of sustained mild hypercapnia each day for 10 days. A control group was exposed to sustained mild hypercapnia for a similar duration. The intermittent hypoxia protocol was completed in the evening on day 1 and 10 and was followed by a sleep study. During all sleep studies, the change in esophageal pressure (ΔPes) from the beginning to the end of an apnea and the tidal volume immediately following apneic events were used to measure respiratory drive. Following exposure to IH on day 1 and 10, the AHI increased above baseline measures (day 1: 1.95 ± 0.42 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01, vs. day 10: 1.53 ± 0.24 fraction of baseline, P < 0.06). The indexes were correlated to the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) measured during the IH protocol but were not correlated to the magnitude of ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF). Likewise, ΔPes and tidal volume measures were greater on day 1 and 10 compared with baseline (ΔPes: -8.37 ± 0.84 vs. -5.90 ± 1.30 cmH(2)0, P ≤ 0.04; tidal volume: 1,193.36 ± 101.85 vs. 1,015.14 ± 119.83 ml, P ≤ 0.01). This was not the case in the control group. Interestingly, the AHI on day 10 (0.78 ± 0.13 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly less than measures obtained during baseline and day 1 in the mild hypercapnia control group. We conclude that enhancement of the HVR initiated by exposure to IH may lead to increases in the AHI during sleep and that initiation of vLTF did not appear to impact on breathing stability. Lastly, our results suggest that repeated daily exposure to mild sustained hypercapnia may lead to a decrease in breathing events.

  1. Fission product releases at severe LWR accident conditions: ORNL/CEA measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, B.; Ducros, G.; Leveque, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maro, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations

    1995-12-31

    Experimental programs in the United States and France have followed similar paths in supplying much of the data needed to analyze severe accidents. Both the HI/VI program, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the HEVA/VERCORS program, supported by IPSN-Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and carried out at the Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, have studied fission product release from light water reactor (LWR) fuel samples during test sequences representative of severe accidents. Recognizing that more accurate data, i.e., a better defined source term, could reduce the safety margins included in the rather conservative source terms originating from WASH-1400, the primary objective of these programs has been to improve the data base concerning fission product release and behavior at high temperatures. To facilitate the comparison, a model based on fission product diffusion mechanisms that was developed at ORNL and adapted with CEA experimental data is proposed. This CEA model is compared with the ORNL experimental data in a blind test. The two experimental programs used similar techniques in out-of-pile studies. Highly irradiated fuel samples were heated in radiofrequency induction furnaces to very high temperatures (up to 2700 K at ORNL and 2750 K at CEA) in oxidizing (H{sub 2}O), reducing (H{sub 2}) or mixed (H{sub 2}O+H{sub 2}) environments. The experimental parameters, which were chosen from calculated accident scenarios, did not duplicate specific accidents, but rather emphasized careful control of test conditions to facilitate extrapolation of the results to a wide variety of accident situations. This paper presents a broad and consistent database from ORNL and CEA release results obtained independently since the early 1980`S. A comparison of CORSOR and CORSOR Booth calculations, currently used in safety analysis, and the experimental results is presented and

  2. Risk of affective disorders following prenatal exposure to severe life events: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.

  3. Basic study on PWR plant behavior under the condition of severe accident (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Ida, Shohma; Nakamura, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results using the PWR plant simulator about the plant behavior under the condition of the severe accident that LOCA occurs but ECCS fails the water irrigation into the reactor core. As for the results about the relationship between the LOCA area and the time from LOCA occurs until fuel temperature rise start, the time became shorter as the area was the larger. But, in LOCA area of 1000 cm 2 or more large, the time was almost constant regardless of the area. For small LOCA of 25 cm 2 area, from the results of the comparative experiments for RCS natural circulation cooling effect in the case of SG open or not, in SG open condition compared with SG not open, the effect was observed more, but the reactor water level was greatly reduced and the time until the fuel temperature rise start was shortened, so the fuel temperature at the time of water irrigation into the reactor core has become higher. On the other hand, for the large LOCA of 1000 cm 2 , the effect was not observed regardless of SG open or not. In addition, the reactor core damage was not spared in the irrigation into the reactor core after 30 minutes from LOCA, however, the hydrogen concentration in the containment building is less than the lower limit of hydrogen detonation, and also the pressure in the containment building is less than the designed value. That is, although suffered the core damage, the integrity of the containment building has been shown to be secured. (author)

  4. Intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor affects osteoblast behaviour more severely than estrogen deficiency does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Paola; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Borsari, Veronica; Rimondini, Lia; Rimondini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio; Giardino, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    With rising rates of alcohol consumption acute and chronic damage from alcohol is expected to increase all over the world. Habitual excessive alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate comparatively the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts (OB) isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor, sham-aged rats and long-term estrogen deficient rats. Cell proliferation (WST1) and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen I (CICP), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα) were measured at 3, 7 and 14 days of culture. Osteoblast proliferation rate and TGF-β1, IL-6 and TNFα syntheses were significantly affected by alcohol exposure. Estrogen deficiency and alcohol consumption share many common pathophysiological mechanisms of damage to bone, but alcohol affects OB proliferation and TNFα synthesis significantly more than menopause does. Therefore, these in vitro data suggest that alcohol has even more deleterious effects on bone than estrogen deficiency does

  5. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  6. [Collagenolytic activity in several species of deuteromycetes under various storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M B; Khoang, T L; Nikitina, Z K

    2006-01-01

    The ability of deuteromycetes of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Botrytis to retain collagenolytic activity was studied after both 2 and 10 years of storage on a Czapek medium under a layer of mineral oil at 4 degrees C, as well as in silica gel granules at 20 and -60 degrees C. The enzymatic activity of several species, including Botrytis terrestris, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, was retained under both conditions of storage. Aspergillus repens retained enzymatic activity only if stored under a layer of mineral oil. The viability of conidia and the collagenolytic activity of Botrytis terrestris, P. janthinellum, P. chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, maintained on silica gel for 10 years, depended on the storage temperature. The viability of the test strains improved after storage on a silica gel at -60 degrees C. A strain of Aspergillus repens lost its ability to dissolve collagen at various storage temperatures on the silica gel. The index of lysis for three strains of Penicillium deuteromycetes (Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum) increased after a 10-year storage on silica gel at -60 degrees C.

  7. Fission product release in conditions of a spent fuel pool severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Depending on the residence time, fuel burnup, and fuel rack configuration, there may be sufficient decay heat for the fuel clad to heat up, swell, and burst in case of a loss of pool water. Initiating event categories can be: loss of offsite power from events initiated by severe weather, internal fire, loss of pool cooling, loss of coolant inventory, seismic event, aircraft impact, tornado, missile attack. The breach in the clad releases the radioactive gases present in the gap between the fuel and clad, what is called 'gap release'. If the fuel continues to heat up, the zirconium clad will reach the point of rapid oxidation in air. This reaction of zirconium and air, or zirconium and steam is exothermic. The energy released from the reaction, combined with the fuel's decay energy, can cause the reaction to become self-sustaining and ignite the zirconium. The increase in heat from the oxidation reaction can also raise the temperature in adjacent fuel assemblies and propagate the oxidation reaction. Simultaneously, the sintered UO 2 pellets resulting from pins destroying are oxidized. Due to the self-disintegration of pellets by oxidation, fission gases and low volatile fission products are released. The release rate, the chemical nature and the amount of fission products depend on powder granulation distribution and environmental conditions. The zirconium burning and pellets self-disintegration will result in a significant release of spent fuel fission products that will be dispersed from the reactor site. (author)

  8. Structural performance of circular columns confined by recycled GFRP stirrups and exposed to severe conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Sayed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, Egyptian government investment has been directed to the infrastructure projects. Water supply and water drainage networks are among those projects which are very costly; therefore they are designed with a life span of about one hundred years. There is a new trend toward the use of durable and maintenance free systems. The “GFRP” pipes are one of the economic solutions if the project life span is taken into consideration. A number of investors currently produce the “GFRP” pipes in the Egyptian market and although they follow the latest technologies in their production lines, they still suffer 2–5% deficiency of their produced pipes which consequently regarded as rejected pipes. This percentage has a negative impact on the environmental and economical issues. This research is a trial to investigate the behavior of circular columns confined by GFRP stirrups and exposed to severe conditions. A number of waste pipes were randomly selected and sliced to be used as circular column transverse reinforcement. An experimental program consisting of ten short circular columns was designed to study the effect of corrosion, high degrees of temperature, and sulfate attack on the structural behavior of the axially loaded short circular columns. The experimental results showed that columns laterally reinforced by GFRP slices have a comparable behavior to conventionally reinforced concrete columns especially for those columns exposed to corrosion and sulfate attack.

  9. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  10. Aerosol resuspension in the reactor cooling system of LWR's under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Bolado, R.; Hontanon, E.

    1991-07-01

    Aerosol resuspension from the pipes of the RCS under severe accident conditions happens when the carrier gas flow is turbulent. The origin of such phenomenon seems to be the existence of turbulent bursts in the neighbourhood of the pipe wall. These bursts are of random nature, in space and time. Three theoretical models have been found in available literature; those are: Cleaver and Yates', RESUS and Reeks' models. The first two of them are force balance models, in which particle detachment is supposed whenever aerodynamic lift or drag forces, respectively exceed adhesive forces, and the third one is an energy balance model in which resuspension happens when particle vibrational energy exceeds adhesive potential. From experimental evidence it seems that the studied phenomenon is a force balance problem and RESUS seems to be the most appropriate to it, among the available ones. Small-scale experiments have shown, as main parameters affecting resuspension, the Reynolds number of the flow, aerosol composition and initial loading per unit of area. Moreover, the resuspension rate decreases with time in all experiments where temporal measurements were taken

  11. Perspectives on Severe Accident Management by Depressurization and External Water Injection under Extended SBO Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Wookcheol; Park, Jongwoon

    2014-01-01

    Three major issues of severe accident management guideline (SAMG) after this sort of extended SBO would be depressurization of the primary system, external water injection and hydrogen management inside a containment. Under this situation, typical SAM actions would be depressurization and external water delivery into the core. However, limited amount of external water would necessitate optimization between core cooling, containment integrity and fission product removal. In this paper, effects of SAM actions such as depressurization and external water injection on the reactor and containment conditions after extended SBO are analyzed using MAAP4 code. Positive and negative aspects are discussed with respect to core cooling and fission product retention inside a primary system. Conclusions are made as following: Firstly, early depressurization action itself has two-faces: positive with respect to delay of the reactor vessel failure but negative with respect to the containment failure and fission product retention inside the primary system. Secondly, in order to prevent containment overpressure failure after external water injection, re-closing of PORV later should be considered in SAM, which has never been considered in the previous SAMG. Finally, in case of external water injection, the flow rate should be optimized considering not only the cooling effect but also the long term fission product retention inside the primary system

  12. Multi-phase model development to assess RCIC system capabilities under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Karen Vierow [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beeny, Bradley [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Luthman, Nicholas [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States); Strater, Zachary [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-12-23

    The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) System is a safety-related system that provides makeup water for core cooling of some Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with a Mark I containment. The RCIC System consists of a steam-driven Terry turbine that powers a centrifugal, multi-stage pump for providing water to the reactor pressure vessel. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents demonstrated that the RCIC System can play an important role under accident conditions in removing core decay heat. The unexpectedly sustained, good performance of the RCIC System in the Fukushima reactor demonstrates, firstly, that its capabilities are not well understood, and secondly, that the system has high potential for extended core cooling in accident scenarios. Better understanding and analysis tools would allow for more options to cope with a severe accident situation and to reduce the consequences. The objectives of this project were to develop physics-based models of the RCIC System, incorporate them into a multi-phase code and validate the models. This Final Technical Report details the progress throughout the project duration and the accomplishments.

  13. Comparison of ESD and major organ absorbed doses of 5 year old standard guidekines and clinical exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, A Ram; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, The Graduate School, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic technology, Dongnam health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Pediatrics are more sensibility to radiation than adults and because they are organs that are not completely grown, they have a life expectancy that can be adversely affected by exposure. Therefore, the management of exposure dose is more important than the case of adult. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the 10 year old phantom for the 5 year old pediatric's recommendation and the incident surface dose, and to measure the organ absorbed dose. This study is compared the organ absorbed dose and the entrance surface dose in the clinical conditions at 5 and 10 years old pediatric. Clinical 5 year old condition was slightly higher than recommendation condition and 10 year old condition was very high. In addition, recommendation condition ESD was found to be 43% higher than the ESD of the 5 year old group and the ESD of the 10 year old group was 126% higher than that of the 5 year old group. The recommended ESD at 5 years old and the ESD according to clinical imaging conditions were 31.6%. There was no significant difference between the 5 year old recommended exposure conditions and the organ absorbed dose due to clinical exposure conditions, but there was a large difference between the Chest and Pelvic. However, it was found that there was a remarkable difference when comparing the organ absorbed dose by 10 year clinical exposure conditions. Therefore, more detailed standard exposure dose for the recommended dose of pediatric should be studied.

  14. Comparison of ESD and major organ absorbed doses of 5 year old standard guidekines and clinical exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, A Ram; Ahn, Sung Min; Lee, In Ja

    2017-01-01

    Pediatrics are more sensibility to radiation than adults and because they are organs that are not completely grown, they have a life expectancy that can be adversely affected by exposure. Therefore, the management of exposure dose is more important than the case of adult. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the 10 year old phantom for the 5 year old pediatric's recommendation and the incident surface dose, and to measure the organ absorbed dose. This study is compared the organ absorbed dose and the entrance surface dose in the clinical conditions at 5 and 10 years old pediatric. Clinical 5 year old condition was slightly higher than recommendation condition and 10 year old condition was very high. In addition, recommendation condition ESD was found to be 43% higher than the ESD of the 5 year old group and the ESD of the 10 year old group was 126% higher than that of the 5 year old group. The recommended ESD at 5 years old and the ESD according to clinical imaging conditions were 31.6%. There was no significant difference between the 5 year old recommended exposure conditions and the organ absorbed dose due to clinical exposure conditions, but there was a large difference between the Chest and Pelvic. However, it was found that there was a remarkable difference when comparing the organ absorbed dose by 10 year clinical exposure conditions. Therefore, more detailed standard exposure dose for the recommended dose of pediatric should be studied

  15. Influence of test conditions and exposure duration on the result of ecotoxicological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj

    be calculated from results of ecotoxicological tests performed according to internationally approved guidelines, such as from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or International Standardization Organisation (ISO). Such guidelines were originally developed to enable classification......H and exposure duration on the toxicity recorded in tests using four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) and the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba as study objects. The study showed that changing the physical and chemical test conditions influenced the toxicity of sulfonylurea herbicides towards L. gibba. Lowering...

  16. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (FGlu), lithium chloride (FLiCl), or saline (control treatment, FNaCl). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three 18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the FLiCl than the FNaCl or FGlu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the FNaCl and FGlu foods were significantly preferred over the FLICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the FNaCl food was also preferred over the FGlu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake. PMID:22685528

  17. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d. infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu, lithium chloride (F(LiCl, or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl. One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl than the F(NaCl or F(Glu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl and F(Glu foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl food was also preferred over the F(Glu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  18. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu)), lithium chloride (F(LiCl)), or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl)). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18)FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl) than the F(NaCl) or F(Glu) meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl) and F(Glu) foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl) food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl) food was also preferred over the F(Glu) food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  19. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents the results of measurements of dosimetric properties of simple extremity phantoms suitable for use in extremity dosimeter performance testing. Two sizes of phantoms were used in this study. One size represented the forearm or lower leg and the other size represented the finger or toe. For both phantom sizes, measurements were performed on solid plastic phantoms and on phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the bone on the surface dose. Exposure-to-dose conversion factors (C/sub x/ factors) were determined for photon energies ranging from 16 to 1250 keV (average for 60 Co). The effect of the presence of a phantom was also measured for a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source. Significant differences in the measured C/sub x/ factors were found among the phantoms investigated. The factors for the finger-sized phantoms were uniformly less than for the arm-sized phantoms

  20. Enhanced eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited individuals is disrupted by proactive interference following US alone pre-exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from CS or US alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012. US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent CR acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al., (2012 reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI. Sixty six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible learned helplessness. Applications of these findings of

  1. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  2. Non-Monotonic Relation Between Noise Exposure Severity and Neuronal Hyperactivity in the Auditory Midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Li Hesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of tinnitus can be linked to hearing loss in the majority of cases, but there is nevertheless a large degree of unexplained heterogeneity in the relation between hearing loss and tinnitus. Part of the problem might be that hearing loss is usually quantified in terms of increased hearing thresholds, which only provides limited information about the underlying cochlear damage. Moreover, noise exposure that does not cause hearing threshold loss can still lead to hidden hearing loss (HHL, i.e. functional deafferentation of auditory nerve fibres (ANFs through loss of synaptic ribbons in inner hair cells. Whilst it is known that increased hearing thresholds can trigger increases in spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, i.e. a putative neural correlate of tinnitus, the central effects of HHL have not yet been investigated. Here, we exposed mice to octave-band noise at 100 and 105 dB SPL, to generate HHL and permanent increases of hearing thresholds, respectively. Deafferentation of ANFs was confirmed through measurement of auditory brainstem responses and cochlear immunohistochemistry. Acute extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus demonstrated increases in spontaneous neuronal activity (a putative neural correlate of tinnitus in both groups. Surprisingly the increase in spontaneous activity was most pronounced in the mice with HHL, suggesting that the relation between hearing loss and neuronal hyperactivity might be more complex than currently understood. Our computational model indicated that these differences in neuronal hyperactivity could arise from different degrees of deafferentation of low-threshold ANFs in the two exposure groups.Our results demonstrate that HHL is sufficient to induce changes in central auditory processing, and they also indicate a non-monotonic relationship between cochlear damage and neuronal hyperactivity, suggesting an explanation for why tinnitus might

  3. Community nurses’ perceptions of and exposure to children with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bornman

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In primary health care clinics nurses are faced with individuals of different ages with different problems, ranging from minor ailments to severe disabilities. ABSTRAK In primêre gesondheidsorgklinieke kom verpleegkundiges in aanraking met individue van verskillende ouderdomme met ‘n verskeidenheid probleme, wat strek vanaf geringe kwale tot erge gestremdhede.

  4. Infections and exposure to anti-infective agents and the risk of severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Mors, O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe infections are associated with increased risks of mental disorders; however, this is the first large-scale study investigating whether infections treated with anti-infective agents in the primary care setting increase the risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders. METHOD: We...

  5. Research activities at JAERI on core material behaviour under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetsuka, H.; Katanashi, S.; Ishijima, K.

    1996-01-01

    At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), experimental studies on physical phenomena under the condition of a severe accident have been conducted. This paper presents the progress of the experimental studies on fuel and core materials behaviour such as the thermal shock fracture of fuel cladding due to quenching, the chemical interaction of core materials at high temperatures and the examination of TMI-2 debris. The mechanical behaviour of fuel rod with heavily embrittled cladding tube due to the thermal shock during delayed reflooding have been investigated at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSSR) of JAERI. A test fuel rod was heated in steam atmosphere by both electric and nuclear heating using the NSSR, then the rod was quenched by reflooding at the test section. Melting of core component materials having relatively low melting points and their eutectic reaction with other materials significantly influence on the degradation and melt down of fuel bundles during severe accidents. Therefore basic information on the reaction of core materials is necessary to understand and analyze the progress of core melting and relocation. Chemical interactions have been widely investigated at high temperatures for various binary systems of core component materials including absorber materials such as Zircaloy/Inconel, Zircaloy/stainless steel, Zircaloy/(Ag-In-Cd), stainless steel B 4 C and Zircaloy/B 4 C. It was found that the reaction generally obeyed a parabolic rate law and the reaction rate was determined for each reaction system. Many debris samples obtained from the degraded core of TMI-2 were transported to JAERI for numerous examinations and analyses. The microstructural examination revealed that the most part of debris was ceramic and it was not homogeneous in a microscopic sense. The thermal diffusivity data was also obtained for the temperature range up to about 1800K. The data from the large scale integral experiments were also obtained through the

  6. Modelling of RPV lower head under core melt severe accident condition using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madokoro, Hiroshi; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    Although six years have been passed since the tragic severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi, still large uncertainties exist in modeling of core degradation and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure. It is extremely important to obtain a better understanding of complex phenomena in the lower head in order to improve accident management measures. The possible failure mode of reactor pressure vessel and its failure time are especially a matter of importance. Thermal behavior of the molten pool can be simulated by the Phase-change Effective Convectivity Model (PECM), which is a distributed-parameter model developed in the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. The model calculates convective currents not using a pure CFD approach but based on so called “characteristic velocities” that are determined by empirical correlations depending on the geometry and physical properties of the molten pool. At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the PECM has been implemented in the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM in order to receive detailed predictions of a core melt behavior in the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions. An advantage of using OpenFOAM is that it is very flexible to add and modify models and physical properties. In the current work, the solver is extended to couple PECM with a structure analysis model of the vessel wall. The model considers thermal expansion, plasticity, creep and damage. The model and physical properties are based on those implemented in ANSYS. Although the previous implementation had restriction that the amount of and geometry of the melt cannot be changed, our coupled model allows flexibility of the melt amount and geometry. The extended solver was used to simulate the LIVE-L1 and -L7V experiments and has demonstrated good prediction of the temperature distribution in the molten pool and heat flux distribution through the vessel wall. Regarding the vessel failure the model was applied to one of the FOREVER tests

  7. Prenatal exposure to very severe maternal obesity is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, T H; Lahti, M; Drake, A J; Räikkönen, K; Minnis, H; Denison, F C; Norman, J E; Reynolds, R M

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively. Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and

  8. Assessment of dermal exposure and skin condition of workers exposed to nickel at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Johannes L; Eloff, Frederik C; Badenhorst, Casper J; Olivier, Johretha; Laubscher, Petrus J; Van Aarde, Michiel N; Franken, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess dermal exposure of cell workers to nickel at a South African base metal refinery and to characterize their skin condition by measuring the skin hydration and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) indices. The skin hydration index of the index finger, palm, neck, and forehead was measured before, during and at the end of the shift. The TEWL index was measured before and at the end of the shift. Dermal exposure samples were collected with Ghostwipes from the index finger and palm of the dominant hand, before, during, and at the end of the shift. Neck and forehead samples were collected before and at the end of the shift. Wipe samples of various surfaces in the workplace were also collected. Wipes were analyzed for nickel according to NIOSH method 9102, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Hydration indices measured on the hands decreased significantly during the shift, but recovered to normal levels by the end of the shift. TEWL indices for the index finger and palm of the hands are indicative of a low barrier function even before commencement of the shift, which further deteriorated significantly during the shift. During the shift, substantial nickel skin loading occurred on the index finger and palm of the hand. Levels on the neck and forehead were much lower. Various workplace surfaces, which workers come into contact with, were also contaminated with nickel. The skin condition and high levels of nickel on the skin were most probably caused by inadequate chemical protection provided by protective gloves. Although, the permeability of nickel through intact skin is considered to be low, a decreased barrier function of dehydrated or slightly damaged skin will increase its permeability for nickel. The ethnicity of these exposed workers may contribute significantly toward the low incidence of allergic contact dermatitis observed. Several measures to lower dermal exposure to nickel are also recommended.

  9. Re-exposure to low osmolar iodinated contrast media in patients with prior moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions: A multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Gun-Woo; Kim, Sujeong; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Jong-Sook; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of re-exposure to low-osmolar iodinated contrast medium (LOCM) in patients with a history of moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). We retrospectively evaluated a cohort comprising all subjects satisfying the following conditions at 11 centres: (1) experienced a moderate-to-severe HSR to LOCM by December 2014, and (2) underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography after the initial HSR between January 2014 and December 2014. A total of 150 patients with 328 instances of re-exposure were included; the recurrence rate of HSR was 19.5%. Patients with severe initial HSR exhibited a higher recurrence rate of severe HSR compared to patients with moderate initial HSR, despite more intensive premedication. In the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for recurrence of HSR were diabetes, chronic urticaria, drug allergy other than to iodinated contrast media (ICM) and severe initial HSR. The risk of recurrent HSR was 67.1% lower in cases where the implicated ICM was changed to another one (odds ratio: 0.329; P = 0.001). However, steroid premedication did not show protective effects against recurrent HSR. In high-risk patients who have previously experienced a moderate-to-severe initial HSR to LOCM, we should consider changing the implicated ICM to reduce recurrence risk. • In patients with moderate-to-severe HSR, steroid premedication only shows limited effectiveness. • Changing the implicated ICM can reduce the recurrence of HSR to ICM. • Diabetes, chronic urticaria and drug allergies increase the risk of ICM HSR.

  10. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  11. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EXPOSURE CONDITIONS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL MATRICES STABILIZING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Król

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mineral binders are more and more often used in the difficult process of disposal of inorganic hazardous waste containing heavy metals. Composites solidifying hazardous waste are deposited in the environment, which exposes them to the interaction of many variable factors. The paper presents the effect of different exposure conditions on physical and mechanical properties of concrete stabilizing galvanic sewage sludge (GO. The effect of the cyclic freezing and thawing, carbon dioxide (carbonation and high temperatures (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C on the properties of stabilizing matrices has been described. The results, in most cases, show a loss of durability of composites solidifying sewage sludge (GO by the influence of external conditions.

  12. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (74-90 mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments. Under severe accident loading conditions, the steel containment vessel in a typical Mark-I or Mark-II plant may deform under internal pressurization such that it contacts the inner surface of a shield building wall. (Thermal expansion from increasing accident temperatures would also close the gap between the SCV and the shield building, but temperature effects are not considered in these analyses.) The amount and location of contact and the pressure at which it occurs all affect how the combined structure behaves. A preliminary finite element model has been developed to analyze a model of a typical steel containment vessel con-ling into contact with an outer structure. Both the steel containment vessel and the outer contact structure were modelled with axisymmetric shell finite elements. Of particular interest are the influence that the contact structure has on deformation and potential failure modes of the containment vessel. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction between the two structures was varied to study its effects on the behavior of the containment vessel and on the uplift loads transmitted to the contact structure. These analyses show that the material properties of an outer contact structure and the amount

  13. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Determines the Severity of the Dry Eye Conditions in Visual Display Terminal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nuo; Yang, Fan; Lin, Zhirong; Shang, Xumin; Li, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. Methodology Prospective, case-control study carried out in China.106 eyes of 53 patients (VDT work time >4 hour per day) were recruited as the Long time VDT group; 80 eyes of 40 control subjects (VDT work time ≤4 hour per day) served as the Short time VDT group. A questionnaire of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and multiple tests were performed. Three dry eye tests: tear film breakup time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test; and three MGD parameters: lid margin abnormality score, meibum expression assessment (meibum score), and meibomian gland dropout degree (meiboscore) using Keratograph 5 M. Principal Findings OSDI and corneal fluorescein score were significantly higher while BUT was dramatically shorter in the long time VDT group than the short time VDT group. However, the average of Schirmer tear volumes was in normal ranges in both groups. Interestingly, the three MGD parameters were significantly higher in the long time VDT group than the short time one (Peyes with Schirmer eyes with Schirmer ≥10 mm were separated from the long time VDT workers, no significant differences were found between the two subgroups in OSDI, fluorescein staining and BUT, as well as the three MGD parameters. All three MGD parameters were positively correlated with VDT working time (Pdry eye patients in long term VDT workers with higher OSDI scores whereas some of those patients presenting a normal tear volume. PMID:25144638

  14. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Johnson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC health-related quality of life (HRQoL indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions.Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods.Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs.Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed

  15. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this

  16. Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. P.; Pratt, L. M.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Pfiffner, S.; Bryan, R. A.; Dadachova, E.; Whyte, L.; Radtke, K.; Chan, E.; Tronick, S.; Borgonie, G.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Rothschild, L. J.; Rogoff, D. A.; Horikawa, D. D.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-02-01

    Recent orbital and landed missions have provided substantial evidence for ancient liquid water on the martian surface as well as evidence of more recent sedimentary deposits formed by water and/or ice. These observations raise serious questions regarding an independent origin and evolution of life on Mars. Future missions seek to identify signs of extinct martian biota in the form of biomarkers or morphological characteristics, but the inherent danger of spacecraft-borne terrestrial life makes the possibility of forward contamination a serious threat not only to the life detection experiments, but also to any extant martian ecosystem. A variety of cold and desiccation-tolerant organisms were exposed to 40 days of simulated martian surface conditions while embedded within several centimeters of regolith simulant in order to ascertain the plausibility of such organisms' survival as a function of environmental parameters and burial depth. Relevant amino acid biomarkers associated with terrestrial life were also analyzed in order to understand the feasibility of detecting chemical evidence for previous biological activity. Results indicate that stresses due to desiccation and oxidation were the primary deterrent to organism survival, and that the effects of UV-associated damage, diurnal temperature variations, and reactive atmospheric species were minimal. Organisms with resistance to desiccation and radiation environments showed increased levels of survival after the experiment compared to organisms characterized as psychrotolerant. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of an oxidation mechanism that migrated downward through the samples during the course of the experiment and likely represents the formation of various oxidizing species at mineral surfaces as water vapor diffused through the regolith. Current sterilization protocols may specifically select for organisms best adapted to survival at the martian surface, namely species that show tolerance to radical

  17. Modulation of Radiation responses by pre-exposure to irradiated Cell conditioned medium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maguire, Paula

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure of HPV-G cells to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) could induce an adaptive response if the cells were subsequently challenged with a higher ICCM dose. Clonogenic survival and major steps in the cascade leading to apoptosis, such as calcium influx and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, were examined to determine whether these events could be modified by giving a priming dose of ICCM before the challenge dose. Clonogenic survival data indicated an ICCM-induced adaptive response in HPV-G cells "primed" with 5 mGy or 0.5 Gy ICCM for 24 h and then exposed to 0.5 Gy or 5 Gy ICCM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to be involved in the bystander-induced cell death. Calcium fluxes varied in magnitude across the exposed cell population, and a significant number of the primed HPV-G cells did not respond to the challenge ICCM dose. No significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed when HPV-G cells were exposed to 0.5 Gy ICCM for 24 h followed by exposure to 5 Gy ICCM for 6 h. Exposure of HPV-G cells to 5 mGy ICCM for 24 h followed by exposure to 0.5 Gy ICCM for 18 h caused a significant increase in mitochondrial mass and a change in mitochondrial location, events associated with the perpetuation of genomic instability. This study has shown that a priming dose of ICCM has the ability to induce an adaptive response in HPV-G cells subsequently exposed to a challenge dose of ICCM.

  18. Growth Responses of Fish During Chronic Exposure of Metal Mixture under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz and Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth responses of five fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were determined, separately, under chronic exposure of binary mixture of metals (Zn+Ni at sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50 for 12 weeks. Randomized complete block design (RCBD was followed to conduct this research work. The groups (10 fish each of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix having almost similar weights were investigated for their growth responses and metals bioaccumulation patterns in their body organs during chronic exposure of Zn+Ni mixture. The bioaccumulation of metals in the fish body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, fins, bones, muscle and skin were also determined before and after growth trails under the stress of metals mixture. The exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentrations of mixture caused significant impacts on the average wet weight increments of five fish species. Ctenopharyngodon idella and Labeo rohita attained significantly higher weights, followed by that of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla. However, the growth of metals mixture exposed fish species was significantly lesser than that of control fish (un-stressed. Significantly variable condition factor values reflected the degree of fish well-beings that correlated directly with fish growth and metal exposure concentration. Any significant change in feed intake, due to stress, is reflected in terms of fish growth showing the impacts of metal mixture on fish growth were either additive or antagonist / synergistic. Accumulation of all the metals in fish body followed the general order: liver>kidney>gills> skin >muscle> fins >bones.

  19. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E; Bryant, Christopher; González-González, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes, cognitive abilities (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R), and serum inflammatory mediators were collected in 20 Mexico City (MC) children (10 with white matter hyperintensities, WMH(+), and 10 without, WMH(-)) and 10 matched controls (CTL) from a low polluted city. There were significant differences in white matter volumes between CTL and MC children - both WMH(+) and WMH(-) - in right parietal and bilateral temporal areas. Both WMH(-) and WMH(+) MC children showed progressive deficits, compared to CTL children, on the WISC-R Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests. The cognitive deficits in highly exposed children match the localization of the volumetric differences detected over the 1 year follow-up, since the deficits observed are consistent with impairment of parietal and temporal lobe functions. Regardless of the presence of prefrontal WMH, Mexico City children performed more poorly across a variety of cognitive tests, compared to CTL children, thus WMH(+) is likely only partially identifying underlying white matter pathology. Together these findings reveal that exposure to air pollution may perturb the trajectory of cerebral development and result in cognitive deficits during childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in reducing worker pain severity through physical exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Andrew C; Frazer, Mardon B; Cole, Donald C; Kerr, Mickey S; Wells, Richard P; Norman, Robert W

    2005-02-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory. An ergonomics change team was formed composed of members from management and the organized labour union. It was hypothesized that the physical change projects implemented as part of this process would result in decreased worker exposures to peak and cumulative physical demands and reduced worker perceptions of physical effort and pain severity. A quasi-experimental design was employed, utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group. A longitudinal questionnaire approach was used to document pre-post changes in worker perceptions. In general, the physical change projects were rated as improvements by workers and were successful at reducing peak and/or cumulative mechanical exposures. However, there were few systematic changes in perceived effort or pain severity levels. Explanations include the confounding effects of differential production rate and staffing changes at the intervention and referent plants and/or insufficient overall intervention intensity due to a relatively short intervention period, plant and team ambivalence towards the process and the low overall impact on exposure of the particular changes implemented.

  1. Steam oxidation of TP 347H FG. Laboratory exposures versus service conditions at the power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Anette N. [DONG Energy A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Montgomery, Melanie [DONG Energy A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    TP347H FG is often used as final superheater tubing at Danish Power Plants. The oxidation behaviour of TP347H FG in steam was investigated both in laboratory conditions and field conditions. Short time exposures (336 hours) were performed in the laboratory at 500, 600 and 700 C in gasses with 8 or 46% H{sub 2}O and varying oxygen partial pressures. The shortest exposure time at the power plant was 7720 h, the temperature varied between 500 and 650 C. Surprisingly, thicker oxide layers formed within the laboratory facility at 600 and 700 C than during the long time exposures at the power plant. This could not be explained by spallation. Double-layered oxides developed during oxidation. The outer layer consist of Fe-oxides and the inner oxide contained Fe and the remaining alloy elements. Investigations with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the morphology of the inner oxide was different for the two types of exposures. However, investigation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the inner oxide in both cases consisted of particles of Fe-Mn-Cr spinel embedded in a metallic Fe-Ni matrix in the bulk of the (former) alloy grains and Cr-rich oxide layer along the (former) alloy grain boundaries. The main difference between the layers formed at the two locations is that the Cr-rich oxide layer is thicker for the samples exposed at the power plant than that for the samples exposed at the laboratory conditions. Furthermore, the depth of Cr depletion in the alloy adjacent the oxide layer is greater for the samples exposed at the power plant compared to those exposed in the laboratory. The microstructure investigation suggests that the slower oxidation rate of TP347H FG at the power plant as compared to the laboratory is due to a larger reservoir of Cr for the samples exposed at the power plant probably combined with a higher mobility of Cr within the alloy. (orig.)

  2. Filters from taxis air conditioning system: A tool to characterize driver's occupational exposure to bioburden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Monteiro, Ana; Dos Santos, Mateus; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Marchand, Geneviève; Lacombe, Nancy; Viegas, Susana

    2018-07-01

    Bioburden proliferation in filters from air conditioning systems of taxis represents a possible source of occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of fungi and bacteria in filters from the air conditioning system of taxis used for patient transportation and to assess the exposure of drivers to bioburden. Filters from the air conditioning systems of 19 taxis and 28 personal vehicles (used as controls) operating in three Portuguese cities including the capital Lisbon, were collected during the winter season. The occurrence and significance of bioburden detected in the different vehicles are reported and discussed in terms of colony-forming units (CFU) per 1 m 2 of filter area and by the identification of the most frequently detected fungal isolates based on morphology. Azole-resistant mycobiota, fungal biomass, and molecular detection of Aspergillus species/strains were also determined. Bacterial growth was more prevalent in taxis (63.2%) than in personal vehicles (26.3%), whereas fungal growth was more prevalent in personal vehicles (53.6%) than in taxis (21.1-31.6%). Seven different azole-resistant species were identified in this study in 42.1% taxi filters. Levels of fungal biomass were above the detection limit in 63% taxi filters and in 75% personal vehicle filters. No toxigenic species were detected by molecular analysis in the assessed filters. The results obtained show that bioburden proliferation occurs widely in filters from the air conditioning systems of taxis, including the proliferation of azole-resistant fungal species, suggesting that filters should be replaced more frequently. The use of culture based-methods and molecular tools combined enabled an improved risk characterization in this setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case of Severe Neutropenia From Short-Term Exposure to Moxifloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihan Chen BS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is commonly prescribed in the inpatient and outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia and other common infections. We report a case of a 76-year-old man who developed severe neutropenia after several days of treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. The patient had a history of alcohol abuse; however, there were no other offending medications prescribed, and a thorough laboratory workup for other possible causes of neutropenia was negative. The patient’s neutrophils and white blood count responded quickly to cessation of fluoroquinolones. This case highlights the importance of identifying patients that might be at high risk for neutropenia that may need closer monitoring on this commonly prescribed medication.

  4. Neurological condition in 42-month-old children in relation to pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Fidler, [No Value; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1998-01-01

    Adverse neurological effects of exposure to PCBs have been found up to 18 months of age. Now we report on the effect of pre-and postnatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on the neurological condition at 42 months of age. For this purpose, PCB levels were determined in cord and maternal plasma, and used

  5. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FOR EXPOSURE TO REFRIGERANTS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING IN THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fault tree analysis was used to estimate the number of refrigerant exposures of automotive service technicians and vehicle occupants in the United States. Exposures of service technicians can occur when service equipment or automotive air-conditioning systems leak during servic...

  6. In Vivo acrylamide exposure may cause severe toxicity to mouse oocytes through its metabolite glycidamide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duru Aras

    Full Text Available High acrylamide (ACR content in heat-processed carbohydrate-rich foods, as well as roasted products such as coffee, almonds etc., has been found to be as a risk factor for carcinogenicity and genotoxicity by The World Health Organization. Glycidamide (GLY, the epoxide metabolite of ACR, is processed by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system and has also been found to be a genotoxic agent. The aim of this study was to determine whether ACR and/or GLY have any detrimental effect on the meiotic cell division of oocytes. For this purpose, germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes were treated with 0, 100, 500, or 1000 μM ACR or 0, 25, or 250 μM GLY in vitro. In vivo experiments were performed after an intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg/day ACR of female BALB/c mice for 7 days. The majority of in vitro ACR-treated oocytes reached the metaphase-II stage following 18 hours of incubation, which was not significantly different from the control group. Maturation of the oocytes derived from in vivo ACR-treated mice was impaired significantly. Oocytes, reaching the M-II stage in the in vivo ACR-treated group, were characterized by a decrease in meiotic spindle mass and an increase in chromosomal disruption. In vitro GLY treatment resulted in the degeneration of all oocytes, indicating that ACR toxicity on female germ cells may occur through its metabolite, GLY. Thus, ACR exposure must be considered, together with its metabolite GLY, when female fertility is concerned.

  7. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of adult great tits (Parus major)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauwe, Tom; Janssens, Ellen; Eens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    We examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the quality and health of adult great tits (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. Tarsus length, wing length, body mass and condition of great tits were compared with respect to study site, age (first-year and older great tits), sex and season (birds caught in winter and during breeding). Tarsus length did not differ significantly among study sites. The wing length of great tits was larger at the study site furthest from the smelter, especially for older great tits. The length of the outermost tail feathers, however, did not differ significantly among study sites. We found no signs of loss of body mass or condition towards the pollution source. The body mass and condition was lowest for female great tits at the site furthest from the smelter, especially during winter. Haematocrit values did not differ significantly among sites. Overall, we found no clear significant effects of heavy metal pollution on morphological measurements and health parameters of great tits. - Heavy metal pollution had no clear effect on condition and health, but this may have been masked by habitat quality differences and gene flow

  8. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  9. A single exposure to severe stressors causes long-term desensitisation of the physiological response to the homotypic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Antonio; Vallès, Astrid; Dal-Zotto, Silvina; Márquez, Cristina; Belda, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Although some laboratories have reported that a single session of stress is able to induce a long-lasting sensitisation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to further exposures to stress, we have found that a single exposure to severe emotional (immobilisation, restraint or shock) or systemic (endotoxin) stressors reduces the responsiveness of the HPA to the same, but not to a novel (heterotypic), stressor, in which case a slight sensitisation was observed. Long-term desensitisation has been found to reduce not only secretion of peripheral HPA hormones (ACTH and corticosterone), but also to reduce responses of central components of the HPA axis (c-fos and CRF gene expression at the level of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, PVN). In addition, desensitisation also applies to the impact of the stressor on food intake and, probably, to stress-induced hyperglycaemia. The development of long-term desensitisation of the HPA axis does not appear to be a universal consequence of exposure to severe stressors as it was not observed in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Whether or not the development of long-term effects of stress depend on the specific pathways activated by particular stressors remains to be tested. The observed desensitisation of the HPA axis in response to the homotypic stressor shows two special features which makes it difficult to be interpreted in terms of an habituation-like process: (a) the effect increased with time (days to weeks) elapsed between the first and second exposure to the stressor, suggesting a progressive maturational process; and (b) the stronger the stressor the greater the long-term desensitisation. Therefore, it is possible that desensitisation of the HPA axis is the sum of two different phenomena: long-term effects and habituation-like processes. The contribution of the former may be more relevant with severe stressors and longer inter-stress intervals, and that of the latter with mild

  10. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Carbon monoxide can be produced in severe accidents from interaction of ex-vessel molten core with concrete. Depending on the particular core-melt scenario, the type of concrete and geometric factors affecting the interaction, the quantities of carbon monoxide produced can vary widely, up to several volume percent in the containment. Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas. The carbon monoxide thus produced is in addition to the hydrogen produced by metal-water reactions and by radiolysis, and represents a possibly significant contribution to the combustible gas inventory in the containment. Assessment of possible accident loads to containment thus requires knowledge of the combustion properties of both CO and H 2 in the containment atmosphere. Extensive studies have been carried out and are still continuing in the nuclear industry to assess the threat of hydrogen in a severe reactor accident. However the contribution of carbon monoxide to the combustion threat has received less attention. Assessment of scenarios involving ex-vessel interactions require additional attention to the potential contribution of carbon monoxide to combustion loads in containment, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed for hydrogen to effectively deal with particular aspects of carbon monoxide. The topic of core-concrete interactions has been extensively studied; for more complete background on the issue and on the physical/thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved, the reader is referred to Proceedings of CSNI Specialists Meetings (Ritzman, 1987; Alsmeyer, 1992) and a State-of-Art Report (European Commission, 1995). The exact amount of carbon monoxide present in a reactor pit or in various compartments (or rooms) in a containment building is specific to the type of concrete and the accident scenario considered. Generally, concrete containing limestone and sand have a high percentage of CaCO 3 . Appendix A provides an example of results of estimates of CO and CO 2

  11. Basic study on BWR plant behavior under the condition of severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Jyohko, Shingo; Dohgo, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results using the BWR plant simulator about the plant behavior under the condition of the severe accident that LOCA occurs but ECCS fails the water irrigation into the reactor core. The simulation experiments were carried out for the cases that LOCA has occurred in the main steam piping or in the recirculation piping, respectively. As for the results about the relationship between the LOCA area and the time from LOCA occurs until the fuel temperature rise start, the effect that RCIC operated was extremely big for LOCA area of up to 100 cm"2 for both type LOCA. In the case of main steam system LOCA, the core water level suddenly decreased for large LOCA of 2000 cm"2 area, however, if the irrigation into the reactor core was carried out 30 min after LOCA occurrence, the core had little damage. In addition, the H_2 concentration in the containment vessel did not exceed both limits of H_2 explosion nor detonation. The pressure of the containment vessel was around 3 kg/cm"2 of design value, so the soundness of the containment vessel was confirmed. On the other hand, for the recirculation system LOCA of 2000 cm"2 area, a drop of the core water level was extremely in comparison with main steam system LOCA, and the fuel assemblies were completely exposed during up to 30 min, to the irrigation from approximately 100 sec, after LOCA occurrence. Therefore, the fuel temperature during the irrigation had reached approximately 1900degC. Thus, the fuel cladding were damaged approximately less than 10%, and H_2 concentration in the containment vessel was approximately 9% which did not exceed H_2 detonation limit of 13% but exceeded H_2 explosion limit of 4%. However, the containment vessel internal pressure was settled around design pressure value of containment vessel. As the results, some core damage could not be avoided, but soundness of the containment vessel, which should take the role of 'confine', was found to be secured. (author)

  12. Basic study on BWR plant behavior under the condition of severe accident (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Sasaki, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results using the BWR plant simulator about the plant behavior under the condition of the two types of severe accidents that LOCA occurs but ECCS fails the water irrigation into the reactor core and SBO occurs and at the same time the reclosed failure of SRV occurs. The simulation experiments were carried out for the cases that LOCA has occurred in the main feed-water piping. As for the results about the relationship between the LOCA area and the time from LOCA occurs until the fuel temperature rise start, the effect that RCIC operated was extremely big for small and middle LOCA area. In the case of main feed-water system LOCA, the core water level suddenly decreased for large LOCA of 2000 cm"2 area, however, if the irrigation into the reactor core was carried out 30 min after LOCA occurrence, the core had little damage. In addition, the H_2 concentration in the containment vessel did not exceed both limits of H_2 explosion nor detonation. The pressure of the containment vessel was around 3 kg/cm"2 of design value, so the soundness of the containment vessel was confirmed. On the other hand, for the accident of SBO with reclosed failure of SRV, it has been shown that the accidents continue to progress rapidly as compared with the case of normally operating of SRV. Because SRV has the function that keep the inside pressure of reactor core by repeating opened and closed in response of the inside pressure and prevent the decrease of water level inside reactor core. However, if the irrigation into the reactor core was carried out 30 min after SBO occurrence, the core had little damage and also the H_2 concentration in the containment vessel did not exceed limits of H_2 explosion. Further, as for the accident of reclosed failure of SRV, it has been shown that there are very good correspondence with the simulation results of main steam piping LOCA of area 180 cm"2 corresponding to the inlet cross-sectional area SRV installed on the piping

  13. Out-of-pile UO2/Zircaloy-4 experiments under severe fuel damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical interactions between UO 2 fuel and Zircaloy-4 cladding up to the melting point of zircaloy (Zry) are described. Out-of-pile UO 2 /zircaloy reaction experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical interaction behavior under possible severe fuel damage conditions (very high temperatures and external overpressure). The tests have been conducted in inert gas (1 to 80 bar) with 10-cm-long zircaloy cladding specimens filled with UO 2 pellets. The annealing temperature varied between 1000 and 1700 deg. C and the annealing period between 1 and 150 min. The extent of the chemical reaction depends decisively on whether or not good contact between UO 2 and zircaloy has been established. If solid contact exists, zircaloy reduces the UO 2 to form oxygen-stabilized α-Zr(O) and uranium metal. The uranium reacts with zircaloy to form a (U,Zr) alloy rich in uranium. The (U,Zr) alloy, which is liquid above approx. 1150 deg. C, lies between two α-Zr(O) layers. The UO 2 /zircaloy reaction obeys a parabolic rate law. The degree of chemical interaction is determined by the extent of oxygen diffusion into the cladding, and hence by the time and temperature. The affinity of zirconium for oxygen, which results in an oxygen gradient across the cladding, is the driving force for the reaction. The growth of the reaction layers can be represented in an Arrhenius diagram. The UO 2 /Zry-4 reaction occurs as rapidly as the steam/Zry-4 reaction above about 1100 deg. C. The extent of the interaction is independent of external pressure above about 10 bar at 1400 deg. C and 5 bar at 1700 deg. C. The maximum measured oxygen content of the cladding is approx. 6wt.%. Up to approx. 9 volume % of the UO 2 can be chemically dissolved by the zircaloy. In an actual fuel rod, complete release of the fission products in this region of the fuel must therefore be assumed. (author)

  14. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer

  15. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  16. Report of questionnaire concerning the conditions and exposure doses at thoracoabdominal radiography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Japan Association of Radiological Technologists, at 2 years after its presentation of the Guideline for Medical Radiation Exposure (2006), made a questionnaire in the title on its homepage on Nov. 6-Dec. 5, 2008, and this paper is its report. The questionnaire asked the conditions and exposure doses at thoracoabdominal radiography and CT: in the former, asked were conditions like the machine/detector, tube voltage, filter, incident angle, entrance plane dose (EPD) (mGy) etc., and 237 facilities including 56 public hospitals and 15 universities answered. EPD calculated by numerical dose determination was found to be 0.22 and 0.76 mGy at the frontal and lateral thoracic projection, respectively, which were less than the upper limit defined in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidance (0.4 and 1.5 mGy). However, doses in 6 and 2.6% of facilities at the respective projection exceeded the IAEA levels. EPD at the frontal abdominal projection calculated was 2.22 mGy, and all facilities met with the IAEA demand level (<10 mGy). In the CT questionnaire, conditions asked were the machine manufacturer/brand, scanning mode and range, tube voltage, rotation time, beam width and pitch, slice width, CTDIvol (CT Dose Index weighted/pitch) (mGy) and so on, which 212 facilities involving 58 public hospitals and 14 universities answered. CTDIvol was found to be 91.7 mGy at head CT which greatly exceeded the maximal levels of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), IAEA and the Association (60, 50 and 65 mGy, respectively). CTDIvol at thoracic CT was 15.2 mGy (no standard upper limit at present), and at abdominal CT, 20.0 mGy (the same as the Association level). The latter suggested the suitable dose setting at this CT. Thus the problem at head CT was much highlighted here. (K.T.)

  17. The estimation of effective doses using measurement of several relevant physical parameters from radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzikova, A; Fronka, A.; Maly, B.; Moucka, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present investigation, we will be study the dose relevant factors from continual monitoring in real homes into account getting more accurate estimation of 222 Rn the effective dose. The dose relevant parameters include the radon concentration, the equilibrium factor (f), the fraction (fp) of unattached radon decay products and real time occupancy people in home. The result of the measurement are the time courses of radon concentration that are based on estimation effective doses together with assessment of the real time occupancy people indoor. We found out by analysis that year effective dose is lower than effective dose estimated by ICRP recommendation from the integral measurement that included only average radon concentration. Our analysis of estimation effective doses using measurement of several physical parameters was made only in one case and for the better specification is important to measure in different real occupancy houses. (authors)

  18. View-invariant object recognition ability develops after discrimination, not mere exposure, at several viewing angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Wang, Gang; Tanaka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    One usually fails to recognize an unfamiliar object across changes in viewing angle when it has to be discriminated from similar distractor objects. Previous work has demonstrated that after long-term experience in discriminating among a set of objects seen from the same viewing angle, immediate recognition of the objects across 30-60 degrees changes in viewing angle becomes possible. The capability for view-invariant object recognition should develop during the within-viewing-angle discrimination, which includes two kinds of experience: seeing individual views and discriminating among the objects. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of each factor to the development of view-invariant object recognition capability. Monkeys were first extensively trained in a task that required view-invariant object recognition (Object task) with several sets of objects. The animals were then exposed to a new set of objects over 26 days in one of two preparatory tasks: one in which each object view was seen individually, and a second that required discrimination among the objects at each of four viewing angles. After the preparatory period, we measured the monkeys' ability to recognize the objects across changes in viewing angle, by introducing the object set to the Object task. Results indicated significant view-invariant recognition after the second but not first preparatory task. These results suggest that discrimination of objects from distractors at each of several viewing angles is required for the development of view-invariant recognition of the objects when the distractors are similar to the objects.

  19. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined

  20. Laboratory modeling of air-sea interaction under severe wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vasiliy, Kazakov; Nicolay, Bogatov; Olga, Ermakova; Mikhail, Salin; Daniil, Sergeev; Maxim, Vdovin

    2010-05-01

    velocity profile was measured by WindSonic ultrasonic wind sensor. The water elevation was measured by the three-channel wave-gauge. Top and side views of the water surface were fixed by CCD-camera. Wind friction velocity and surface drag coefficients were retrieved from the measurements by the profile method. Obtained values are in good agreement with the data of measurements by Donelan et al (2004). The directional frequency-wave-number spectra of surface waves were retrieved by the wavelet directional method (Donelan et al, 1996). The obtained dependencies of parameters of the wind waves indicate existing of two regimes of the waves with the critical wind speed Ucr about 30 m/s. For U10Ucr the dependencies of peak wave period, peak wavelength, significant wave height on the wind speed tend to saturation, in the same time the peak wave slope has the maximum at approximately Ucr and then decreases with the tendency to saturation. The surface drag also tends to saturation for U10>Ucr similarly to (Donelan et al, 2004). Video filming indicates onset of wave breaking with white-capping and spray generation at wind speeds approximately equal to Ucr. We compared the obtained experimental dependencies with the predictions of the quasi-linear model of the turbulent boundary layer over the waved water surface (Reutov&Troitskaya, 1995). Comparing shows that theoretical predictions give low estimates for the measured drag coefficient and wave fields. Taking into account momentum flux associated with the spray generation yields theoretical estimations in good agreement with the experimental data. Basing on the experimental data a possible physical mechanism of the drag is suggested. Tearing of the wave crests at severe wind conditions leads to the effective smoothing (decreasing wave slopes) of the water surface, which in turn reduces the aerodynamic roughness of the water surface. Quantitative agreement of the experimental data and theoretical estimations od the surface drag occurs

  1. Clinical significance of detection of serum markers of several viral infections in hospitalized patients before blood exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kai; Chen Linxing; Chen Yichang; Ding Yingshu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the desirability of setting a routine of test for detection of the serum markers of several viral infections hospitalized patients before anticipated blood exposure. Methods: Serum levels of five HBV markers, anti-HCV, anti-HIV (with ELISA) and ALT were determined in 214 hospitalized patients before forthcoming blood exposure as well as in 2468 controls. Results: The positive rate of each of the above-mentioned markers in the patients was: HBsAg 15.2% (397/2614), HBcAb- IgG 72.5% (1895/2614), anti-HCV 3.91% (102/2614), anti- HIV 0.08% (2/2614) and ALT level was above 40 u in 8.7% of the patients (227/2614). Each of the positive rate was significantly higher than that in the controls. Conclusion: There is a substantial portion of subjects harboring viral infections in the hospitalized patients. It is imperative to have these patients identified before blood exposure so that proper cautions can be taken and preventive measures implemented to minimize possible nosocomial as well as patients-to-staff infections. Moreover, any potential legal problems can also be appropriately dealt with. (authors)

  2. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  3. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  4. Analysis of the injury severity of crashes by considering different lighting conditions on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Anarkooli, A; Hadji Hosseinlou, M

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have examined different factors contributing to the injury severity of crashes; however, relatively few studies have focused on the crashes by considering the specific effects of lighting conditions. This research investigates lighting condition differences in the injury severity of crashes using 3-year (2009-2011) crash data of two-lane rural roads of the state of Washington. Separate ordered-probit models were developed to predict the effects of a set of factors expected to influence injury severity in three lighting conditions; daylight, dark, and dark with street lights. A series of likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine if these lighting condition models were justified. The modeling results suggest that injury severity in specific lighting conditions are associated with contributing factors in different ways, and that such differences cannot be uncovered by focusing merely on one aggregate model. Key differences include crash location, speed limit, shoulder width, driver action, and three collision types (head-on, rear-end, and right-side impact collisions). This paper highlights the importance of deploying street lights at and near intersections (or access points) on two-lane rural roads because injury severity highly increases when crashes occur at these points in dark conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiologic exposure conditions and resultant skin doses in application of xeroradiography to the orthodontic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasima, A.; Nakata, S.; Shimizu, K.; Takahama, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Xeroradiography is the recording of radiologic image by a photoelectric process rather than the photochemical one used in conventional radiography. In order to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of xeroradiography in the orthodontic field, minimum xeroradiologic exposure conditions for skull projections, joint projections, and hand projections were established by thirteen examiners and the relationship between the image production and x-ray radiation was compared with conventional film techniques. The advantages of xeroradiograph were finer and clear images caused by the edge effect and wide latitude of xeroradiography; the main hazard was the unavoidable larger skin dose required by the projection procedures. The skin doses with xeroradiography were 2.4 to 16.2 times larger than those with conventional film techniques

  6. Severe, multimodal stress exposure induces PTSD-like characteristics in a mouse model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Eagle, Andrew L; George, Sophie A; Mulo, Kostika; Kohler, Robert J; Gerard, Justin; Harutyunyan, Arman; Hool, Steven M; Susick, Laura L; Schneider, Brandy L; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Galloway, Matthew P; Liberzon, Israel; Conti, Alana C

    2016-04-15

    Appropriate animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed because human studies remain limited in their ability to probe the underlying neurobiology of PTSD. Although the single prolonged stress (SPS) model is an established rat model of PTSD, the development of a similarly-validated mouse model emphasizes the benefits and cross-species utility of rodent PTSD models and offers unique methodological advantages to that of the rat. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and describe a SPS model for mice and to provide data that support current mechanisms relevant to PTSD. The mouse single prolonged stress (mSPS) paradigm, involves exposing C57Bl/6 mice to a series of severe, multimodal stressors, including 2h restraint, 10 min group forced swim, exposure to soiled rat bedding scent, and exposure to ether until unconsciousness. Following a 7-day undisturbed period, mice were tested for cue-induced fear behavior, effects of paroxetine on cue-induced fear behavior, extinction retention of a previously extinguished fear memory, dexamethasone suppression of corticosterone (CORT) response, dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA expression, and prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. Exposure to mSPS enhanced cue-induced fear, which was attenuated by oral paroxetine treatment. mSPS also disrupted extinction retention, enhanced suppression of stress-induced CORT response, increased mRNA expression of dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and decreased prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. These data suggest that the mSPS model is a translationally-relevant model for future PTSD research with strong face, construct, and predictive validity. In summary, mSPS models characteristics relevant to PTSD and this severe, multimodal stress modifies fear learning in mice that coincides with changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, brain glucocorticoid systems, and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex

  7. Enhanced Eyeblink Conditioning in Behaviorally Inhibited Individuals is Disrupted by Proactive Interference Following US Alone Pre-exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Todd; Miller, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US) alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012). US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent conditioned response (CR) acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al. (2012) reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI). Sixty-six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI) individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible

  8. Analysis of overload conditions in distance relay under severe system contingencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim Abu Bakar, Ab. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Malaya (Malaysia); Yatim, Fazilah Mat; Othman, Mohd Ridzal [Transmission Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Yusof, Sallehuddin [Advanced Powor Solutions (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Distance relay protection is widely used worldwide for protection scheme on high voltage transmission lines. This protection tends to be prone to load encroachment condition causing possible undesired tripping condition. Investigations of two system disturbances that occurred in TNB's (Tenaga Nasional Berhad) Grid in the year 2003 and 2005 have clearly revealed the occurrence of load encroachment condition following line overloads after large number of line tripping. Examination of the impedance locus trajectory during the overload events have enabled a distinction be made between power swing and load encroachment phenomena. This paper presents the analysis and findings of the investigation of the load encroachment phenomena of the two events, including other related transmission line contingencies. (author)

  9. Activation analysis of several species of marine invertebrates as indicators of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are well known to accumulate trace metals from seawater, plankton, sea plants, and sediments. To test the usefulness of such organisms as a bio-indicator of environmental conditions, we have determined levels of trace elements in tissue of twelve species of marine invertebrates by photon and neutron activation analysis. Relatively higher concentration of elements were observed for Ni and Sn in mid-gut gland, for Cu and Zn in oyster tissues, for Se in swimming crabs, for Cu, Fe, and Se in gills of swimming crabs. Our results indicate that mid-gut gland of ear-shell will be useful as the indicator of environmental conditions. (author)

  10. Consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats on fear conditioning and extinction in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret A.

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol

  11. Evaluation of High-Pressure RCS Natural Circulations Under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Bang, Young Suk; Suh, Nam Duk

    2006-01-01

    Since TMI-2 accident, the occurrence of severe accident natural circulations inside RCS during entire in-vessel core melt progressions before the reactor vessel breach had been emphasized and tried to clarify its thermal-hydraulic characteristics. As one of consolidated outcomes of these efforts, sophisticated models have been presented to explain the effects of a variety of engineering and phenomenological factors involved during severe accident mitigation on the integrity of RCS pressure boundaries, i.e. reactor pressure vessel(RPV), RCS coolant pipe and steam generator tubes. In general, natural circulation occurs due to density differences, which for single phase flow, is typically generated by temperature differences. Three natural circulation flows can be formed during severe accidents: in-vessel, hot leg countercurrent flow and flow through the coolant loops. Each of these flows may be present during high-pressure transients such as station blackout (SBO) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). As a part of research works in order to contribute on the completeness of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) in domestic plants by quantitatively assessing the RCS natural circulations on its integrity, this study presents basic approach for this work and some preliminary results of these efforts with development of appropriately detailed RCS model using MELCOR computer code

  12. Lack of the correlation between biochemical effects on rats and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in various conditions of single acute exposure to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between conditions of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and biochemical effects was investigated in experiments on rats. The magnitude and the time of biochemical disturbances in the tissues resulting from two different exposures consisting of 1 vol. percent CO for 4 min and 0.4 vol. percent CO for 40 min respectively were compared. In both cases, at the end of exposure the same level of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) (about 50 percent) was reached. The biochemical determinations in the blood (pH, glucose, lactate, pyruvate) and brain tissue (lactate, pyruvate) were carried out immediately after termination of the exposure and after the time periods of restitution. CO exposure resulted in a decreased blood pH, increased level of blood glucose, as well as that of lactate and pyruvate both in blood and brain tissue. These changes were much more pronounced following the longer-lesser exposure than after the shorter-intense one, although blood concentrations of COHb was the same. The observed phenomenon puts some light on the frequently encountered lack of the correlation between COHb level in blood and severity of CO intoxication in clinical practice.

  13. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heams, T.J.; Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Mason, A.; Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J.; Wheatley, C.J.; Dickson, L.W.; Osborn-Lee, I.; Domagala, P.; Zawadzki, S.; Rest, J.; Alexander, C.A.; Lee, R.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided

  14. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  15. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  16. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  17. Florida Red Tide and Human Health: A Pilot Beach Conditions Reporting System to Minimize Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While may of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida’s west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway lower symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting

  18. Simulation of experiment on aerosol behaviour at severe accident conditions in the LACE experimental facility with the ASTEC CPA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment LACE LA4 on thermal-hydraulics and aerosol behavior in a nuclear power plant containment, which was performed in the LACE experimental facility, was simulated with the ASTEC CPA module of the severe accident computer code ASTEC V1.2. The specific purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the module (code) to simulate thermal-hydraulic conditions and aerosol behavior in the containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. The test was simulated with boundary conditions, described in the experiment report. Results of thermal-hydraulic conditions in the test vessel, as well as dry aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere, are compared to experimental results and analyzed. (author)

  19. Short-term effect of severe exposure to methylmercury on atherosclerotic heart disease and hypertension mortality in Minamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-15

    Recent studies suggest potential adverse effects of methylmercury exposure on myocardial infarction and hypertension, although the evidence is still limited. We thus evaluated this association using age-standardized mortality ratios (ASMRs) in Minamata, where severe methylmercury poisoning had occurred. We obtained mortality data from annual vital statistics and demographic statistics from census. We then compared mortality of atherosclerotic heart disease including degenerative heart disease and hypertension in Minamata-city with those in Kumamoto Prefecture, which includes Minamata city, as a control. We estimated ASMRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) during the period from 1953 to 1970. ASMRs of atherosclerotic heart disease were continuously decreased during the period from 1953 to 1967. In contrast, the ASMR of hypertension was significantly elevated during the period from 1963 to 1967 (SMR=1.38, CI; 1.06-1.80); but they decreased later. Although dilution is present in this ecological study, our study supports the notion that methylmercury exposure induces hypertension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A microfluidic device with multi-valves system to enable several simultaneous exposure tests on Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Masaru, Takeuchi; Nakajima, Masahiro; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a microfluidic device with a multi-valve system to conduct several exposure tests on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) simultaneously. It has pneumatic valves and no-moving-parts (NMP) valves. An NMP valve is incorporated with a chamber and enables the unidirectional movement of C. elegans in the chamber; once worms are loaded into the chamber, they cannot exit, regardless of the flow direction. To demonstrate the ability of the NMP valve to handle worms, we made a microfluidic device with three chambers. Each chamber was used to expose worms to Cd and Cu solutions, and K-medium. A pair of electrodes was installed in the device and the capacitance in-between the electrode was measured. When a C. elegans passed through the electrodes, the capacitance was changed. The capacitance change was proportional to the body volume of the worm, thus the body volume change by the heavy metal exposure was measured in the device. Thirty worms were divided into three groups and exposed to each solution. We confirmed that the different solutions induced differences in the capacitance changes for each group. These results indicate that our device is a viable method for simultaneously analyzing the effect of multiple stimuli on C. elegans. (paper)

  1. Study on association between genetic polymorphisms of haem oxygenase-1, tumour necrosis factor, cadmium exposure and malaria pathogenicity and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangweerayut Ronnatrai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most important public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Haem oxygenase (HO enzyme and the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF have been proposed as one of the factors that may play significant role in pathogenicity/severity of malaria infection. HO is the enzyme of the microsomal haem degradation pathway that yields biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. In this study, the association between malaria disease pathogenicity/severity and (GTn repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the inducible HO-1 including the effect of cadmium exposure (potent inducer of HO-1 transcription as well as polymorphism of TNF were investigated. Methods Blood samples were collected from 329 cases non-severe malaria with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (UM and 80 cases with Plasmodium vivax malaria (VM, and 77 cases with severe or cerebral malaria (SM for analysis of genetic polymorphisms of HO-1 and TNF and cadmium levels. These patients consisted of 123 (25.3% Thai, 243 (50.0% Burmese and 120 (24.7% Karen who were present at Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Results The number of (GTn repeats of the HO-1 gene in all patients varied between 16 and 39 and categorized to short (S, medium (M and long (L GTn repeats. The genotype of (GTn repeat of HO-1 was found to be significantly different among the three ethnic groups of patients. Significantly higher frequency of S/L genotype was found in Burmese compared with Thai patients, while significantly lower frequencies of S/S and M/L but higher frequency of M/M genotype was observed in Burmese compared with Karen patients. No significant association between HO-1 and TNF polymorphisms including the inducing effect of cadmium and malaria pathogenicity/severity was observed. Conclusions Difference in the expression of HO-1 genotype in different ethnic groups may contribute to different severity of malaria

  2. Toxicity assessment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Z., E-mail: zairaclemente@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Funcional e Molecular, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, V.L.S.S. [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Moura, M.A.M. [Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas, Instituto Biológico, APTA/SAA, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Jonsson, C.M. [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Fraceto, L.F. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Funcional e Molecular, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •Nano-TiO{sub 2} accelerated hatching of the larvae. •Exposure to anatase/rutile mixture under UV light altered the equilibrium and survival of the larvae. •Nano-TiO{sub 2} caused alterations in the activities of CAT and GST. -- Abstract: The popularity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO{sub 2} under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the

  3. Toxicity assessment of TiO2 nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V.L.S.S.; Moura, M.A.M.; Jonsson, C.M.; Fraceto, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Nano-TiO 2 accelerated hatching of the larvae. •Exposure to anatase/rutile mixture under UV light altered the equilibrium and survival of the larvae. •Nano-TiO 2 caused alterations in the activities of CAT and GST. -- Abstract: The popularity of TiO 2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO 2 under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of nano-TiO 2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO 2 appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the factors involved in the toxicity

  4. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  5. Development of high-performance monitoring system under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Masahiro; Komanome, H.; Miura, K.

    2017-01-01

    A research and development of a monitoring system for NPPs situations even during severe accidents have been performed. The R and D consists of the three objectives. The major findings are briefly summarized in the followings: 1) Radiation-resistant monitoring camera. The image sensor with the photogate and three transistors was found to be advantageous in terms of dark current and sensitivity. In addition, radiation-resistant optical parts and signal circuits were successfully fabricated. The results suggested that the monitoring camera system with 10 6 Gy in radiation resistance was possible. 2) Radiation-resistant in-water wireless transmission system. A two-dimensional LED matrix with 10 6 Gy in radiation resistance and a camera were used as the transmission devices. The results of the in-water transmission tests suggested that stable wireless transmission between 5 m distance was possible even with bubble, turbidity, or obstacles. 3) Heat-resistant signal cable. In order to develop a cable that can transmit the data inside reactor pressure vessels, heat-proof tests were performed for candidate metallic sheath materials of mineral insulation (MI) cables. The results indicated MI cables which can be used at 1000degC in air were possible. These results indicate the feasibility of the monitoring system even during severe accidents. (author)

  6. Preliminary safety analysis of the PWR with accident-tolerant fuels during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Liu, Tong; Deng, Yongjun; Huang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of severe accident scenarios for a PWR fueled with ATF system is performed. • A large-break LOCA without ECCS is analyzed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • Extended SBO cases are discussed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • The accident-tolerance of ATF system for application in PWR is illustrated. - Abstract: Experience gained in decades of nuclear safety research and previous nuclear accidents direct to the investigation of passive safety system design and accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) system which is now becoming a hot research point in the nuclear energy field. The ATF system is aimed at upgrading safety characteristics of the nuclear fuel and cladding in a reactor core where active cooling has been lost, and is preferable or comparable to the current UO 2 –Zr system when the reactor is in normal operation. By virtue of advanced materials with improved properties, the ATF system will obviously slow down the progression of accidents, allowing wider margin of time for the mitigation measures to work. Specifically, the simulation and analysis of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) without ECCS and extended station blackout (SBO) severe accident are performed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) loaded with ATF candidates, to reflect the accident-tolerance of ATF

  7. CN molecule vibrational spectra excitation in several LTE plasma sources conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iova, I.; Iova, Floriana; Ionita, I.; Bazavan, M.; Ilie, Gh.; Stanescu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Our interest in CN plasma study steams of the facilities to obtain the CN radicals in a free atmosphere electric discharge where the C of the coal electrodes can to combine in the enough high temperature plasma with the atmospheric nitrogen. Also of much interest is the very important phenomena in which the CN vibrational spectra can be implied and used as a diagnostic tool (plasma chemistry, astrophysics and so on). A peculiar importance presents the CN vibrational spectra in the transient plasmas. It is the reason why we have investigated here some internal processes of a continued and interrupted arc of various pulse lengths. To these purposes we present with enough accuracy the behaviour of the relative band head intensities of the sequences Δ v = +1 and Δ v = 0 belonging to the CN electronic transition (B 2 Σ - X 2 Σ), as a function of the pulse length (50 - 200 ms) as well as a function of the cathode to anode separation. These behaviours give us indications on the vibrational levels of the electronic state populations in several regions of the arc plasma as well on the efficiency of these levels excitation for several plasma pulse lengths. (authors)

  8. Exposure to Folate Receptor Alpha Antibodies during Gestation and Weaning Leads to Severe Behavioral Deficits in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Sequeira

    Full Text Available The central nervous system continues to develop during gestation and after birth, and folate is an essential nutrient in this process. Folate deficiency and folate receptor alpha autoantibodies (FRα-AuAb have been associated with pregnancy-related complications and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this pilot study, we investigated the effect of exposure to FRα antibodies (Ab during gestation (GST, the pre-weaning (PRW, and the post weaning (POW periods on learning and behavior in adulthood in a rat model. In the open field test and novel object recognition task, which examine locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior, deficits in rats exposed to Ab during gestation and pre-weaning (GST+PRW included more time spent in the periphery or corner areas, less time in the central area, frequent self-grooming akin to stereotypy, and longer time to explore a novel object compared to a control group; these are all indicative of increased levels of anxiety. In the place avoidance tasks that assess learning and spatial memory formation, only 30% of GST+PRW rats were able to learn the passive place avoidance task. None of these rats learned the active place avoidance task indicating severe learning deficits and cognitive impairment. Similar but less severe deficits were observed in rats exposed to Ab during GST alone or only during the PRW period, suggesting the extreme sensitivity of the fetal as well as the neonatal rat brain to the deleterious effects of exposure to Ab during this period. Behavioral deficits were not seen in rats exposed to antibody post weaning. These observations have implications in the pathology of FRα-AuAb associated with neural tube defect pregnancy, preterm birth and neurodevelopmental disorders including autism.

  9. Thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU cores under severe accident conditions - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    This volume of appendices presents listings and sample runs of the computer codes used in the study of the thermalhydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores during severe loss of coolant accidents. The codes, written in standard FORTRAN, are MODBOIL, to calculate moderator temperatures, pressures and water levels; DEBRIS, to calculate the transient temperature distribution in the debris of calandria and pressure tubes and fuel pellets; MOLTENPOOL, to calculate the temperature history in a pool of molten debris; CONFILM, to calculate the behaviour of a condensing film of vaporized core debris on the calandria wall, and BLDG, to calculate the pressurization of the containment during the expulsion of moderator through pressure relief ducts. In addition there are discussions of the average condensation heat transfer coefficient for vaporized core material on the calandria wall, and of vapor explosions

  10. Bioactivity of Several Herbicides on the Nanogram Level Under Different Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S C; Kuk, Y I; Senseman, S A; Ahn, H G; Seong, C N; Lee, D J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a double-tube centrifuge method was employed to determine the effects of soil moisture on the bioactivity of cafenstrole, pretilachlor, benfuresate, oxyfluorfen and simetryn. In general, the available herbicide concentration in soil solution (ACSS) showed little change as soil moisture increased for herbicides. The total available herbicide in soil solution (TASS) typically increased as soil moisture increased for all herbicides. The relationship between TASS and % growth rate based on dry weight showed strong linear relationships for both cafenstrole and pretilachlor, with r2 values of 0.95 and 0.84, respectively. Increasing TASS values were consistent with increasing herbicide water solubility, with the exception of the ionizable herbicide simetryn. Plant absorption and % growth rate exhibited a strong linear relationship with TASS. According to the results suggested that TASS was a better predictor of herbicidal bioactivity than ACSS for all herbicides under unsaturated soil moisture conditions.

  11. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianfeng, E-mail: jianfeng-mao@163.com [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Li, Xiangqing [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Bao, Shiyi [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Luo, Lijia [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  12. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  13. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jianfeng; Li, Xiangqing; Bao, Shiyi; Luo, Lijia; Gao, Zengliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  14. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  15. Impact of desiccation and heat exposure stress on Salmonella tolerance to acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kurt E; Cox, Nelson A; Cosby, Douglas E; Berrang, Mark E

    2018-02-01

    In a recent study, the pH of commonly used Salmonella pre-enrichment media became acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) when feed or feed ingredients were incubated for 24 h. Acidic conditions have been reported to injure or kill Salmonella. In this study, cultures of four known feed isolates (S. montevideo, S. senftenberg, S. tennessee, and S. schwarzengrund) and four important processing plant isolates (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, and S. heidelberg) were grown on meat and bone meal and later subjected to desiccation and heat exposure to stress the microorganism. The impact of stress on the isolates ability to survive in acidic conditions ranging from pH 4.0 to 7.0 was compared to the non-stressed isolate. Cell injury was determined on xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) and cell death determined on nutrient agar (NA). When measured by cell death in non-stressed Salmonella, S. typhimurium was the most acid tolerant and S. heidelberg was the most acid sensitive whereas in stressed Salmonella, S. senftenberg was the most acid tolerant and S. tennessee was the most acid sensitive. The pH required to cause cell injury varied among isolates. With some isolates, the pH required for 50% cell death and 50% cell injury was similar. In other isolates, cell injury occurred at a more neutral pH. These findings suggest that the pH of pre-enrichment media may influence the recovery and bias the serotype of Salmonella recovered from feed during pre-enrichment.

  16. Driver exposure to volatile organic compounds, CO, ozone, and NO2 under different driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changchuan Chan; Oezkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Sheldon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The in-vehicle concentrations of 24 gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and three criteria air pollutants, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide, were measured in the summer of 1988, in Raleigh, NC. Two four-door sedan of different ages were used to evaluate in-vehicle concentrations of these compounds under different driving conditions. Factors that could influence driver exposure, such as different traffic patterns, car model, vehicle ventilation conditions, and driving periods, were evaluated. Isopentane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon and toluene was the most abundant aromatic VOC measured inside the vehicles. In-vehicle VOC and CO concentrations were highest for the urban roadway, second highest for the interstate highway, and lowest for the rural road. The median concentration ratio of urban/interstate/rural for each VOC was about 10/6/1. No differences in in-vehicle VOC concentrations were found between morning and afternoon rush hour driving, but higher in-vehicle ozone and NO 2 concentrations were found during afternoon driving. In-vehicle VOC levels were lowest with the air conditioner on and highest when the vent was open with the fan on. The in-vehicle/car exterior concentration ratio for VOCs, CO, and NO 2 was slightly higher than 1. The VOC concentration measured by a pedestrian on the urban sidewalk was lower than the in-vehicle measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements on urban roadways 50 m from streets. The VOC measurements were positively correlated with the CO measurement and negatively correlated with the ozone measurement

  17. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lowen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be applied more quantitatively to rodent models. Here, changes in neuronal activation in response to cocaine-conditioned cues were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in juvenile rats that were made to over-express either D1 receptors or green fluorescent protein by viral-mediated transduction. Reduced activation was observed in the amygdala and dopamine cell body regions in the low cue-preferring/control juvenile rats in response to cocaine cues. In contrast, increased activation was observed in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and dopamine cell bodies in high cue-preferring/D1 juveniles. The increase in cue salience that is mediated by increased D1 receptor density, rather than excessive cocaine experience, appears to underlie the transition from aversion to reward in cue-induced neural response and may form the basis for habit-forming vulnerability.

  19. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Steven B; Rohan, Michael L; Gillis, Timothy E; Thompson, Britta S; Wellons, Clara B W; Andersen, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be applied more quantitatively to rodent models. Here, changes in neuronal activation in response to cocaine-conditioned cues were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in juvenile rats that were made to over-express either D1 receptors or green fluorescent protein by viral-mediated transduction. Reduced activation was observed in the amygdala and dopamine cell body regions in the low cue-preferring/control juvenile rats in response to cocaine cues. In contrast, increased activation was observed in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and dopamine cell bodies in high cue-preferring/D1 juveniles. The increase in cue salience that is mediated by increased D1 receptor density, rather than excessive cocaine experience, appears to underlie the transition from aversion to reward in cue-induced neural response and may form the basis for habit-forming vulnerability.

  20. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  1. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vanhauteghem

    Full Text Available Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG, but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine, under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  2. Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia coli Viability Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  3. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis. A Gate to an Effective Treatment of Severe Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2014-07-01

        Table 1. Different clinical use of conventional and selective apheresis techniques in relation to the pathology to be treated in emergency or on long (chronic-term.  Throughout the acute phase of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis (HLP, PEX (Lipid-apheresis could be of considerable assistance not only in lowering TG levels but also in the prevention of recurrent HLP (3. Furthermore, patients with homo-, double- compound-, and heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia and HyperLp(a lipoproteinemia would benefit lipoprotein-apheresis (LA as an extracorporeal procedure providing selective removal of lipids and lipoproteins including Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL and other apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins (4, 5. Having numerous metabolic and clinical superiorities, LA characterizes an upgraded selective form of conventional extracorporeal therapies, e.g. plasma-exchange (PEX- Lipid-apheresis, which were broadly-used for managing severe hypercholesterolemia in the seventies. However, LA is primarily used in the treatment of previously-mentioned severe forms of dyslipidemia. FH patients are particularly prone to coronary ischemic events necessitating a tailored, intensive, efficient, continuous, and unceasing form of treatment. Obviously, a therapeutic approach exclusively relying on existing accessible medications would not lead to preferred clinical outcomes. The above reported clinical examples clearly suggest what differences exist between the non-selective and selective apheresis techniques as far as different pathologies exhibiting affinity are concerned. In particular, the clinical presentation, emergency or not, greatly affects the use of a given extracorporeal technique. However, depending upon the indication, a selective technique not usually utilized in emergency, such as selective dextran sulfate cellulose LA was recently suggested to treat acutely preeclampsia, where targeted therapies to stabilize the clinical manifestations and prolong

  4. Does heavy metal exposure affect the condition of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzańska-Pietras, Katarzyna; Chachulska, Justyna; Polechońska, Ludmiła; Borowiec, Marta

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition. Excrement samples contained all the studied elements. The contents of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc in the excreta of nestlings from nests located close to a slag dump were several times higher than in the soil near the dump, which suggested accumulation in food consumed by the birds. Condition parameters (body mass and haemoglobin concentration) were not related to heavy metal concentrations in the nestlings' excreta, except of Zn. It is possible that Whitethroats are able to detoxicate heavy metals to a certain extent. Detailed, multi-element analysis of the environment, food and bird tissues or excreta should be performed to explore relations between different chemicals and bird condition.

  5. Raim – A model for iodine behavior in containment under severe accident condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chul Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risks for the public. Because the amount of iodine released largely depends on its volatility, iodine's behavior in containment has been extensively studied in international programs such as International Source Term Programme-Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation (EPICUR, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD-Behaviour of Iodine Project, and OECD-Source Term Evaluation and Mitigation. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS has joined these programs and is developing a simplified, stand-alone iodine chemistry model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model, based on the IMOD methodology and other previous studies. This model deals with chemical reactions associated with the formation and destruction of iodine species and surface reactions in the containment atmosphere and the sump in a simple manner. RAIM was applied to a simulation of four EPICUR tests and one Radioiodine Test Facility test, which were carried out in aqueous or gaseous phases. After analysis, the results show a trend of underestimation of organic and molecular iodine for the gas-phase experiments, the opposite of that for the aqueous-phase ones, whereas the total amount of volatile iodine species agrees well between the experiment and the analysis result.

  6. Tourette syndrome and comorbid conditions: a spectrum of different severities and complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Pellico, Alessandra; Calì, Paola Valeria; Curatolo, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate clinical correlates of Tourette syndrome and to identify the impact of comorbidities, we retrospectively recruited 92 young people affected by Tourette syndrome compared with 102 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessment included: Youth Quality of Life-Research, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, and Conner's and Child Behavior Checklist; moreover, Tourette syndrome patients completed the Yale Global Tic Severity Rating Scale and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Four clinical subgroups were identified: pure Tourette syndrome (49.8%), Tourette syndrome plus attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (22.2%), Tourette syndrome plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (21.5%), and Tourette syndrome plus ADHD plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (6.5%). Our findings suggested that emotional lability appeared in all Tourette syndrome subgroups, independently from comorbidities, representing a clinical feature of Tourette syndrome itself. Moreover, our data suggested that all 4 clinical subgroups had higher statistically significant behavioral problems compared with the healthy controls (P = .000), whereas affective and anxiety symptoms were overrepresented in Tourette syndrome plus comorbidities subgroups. Finally, Tourette syndrome patients had a lower quality of life compared with the healthy controls. These differences were statistically significant between the pure Tourette syndrome subgroups and Tourette syndrome plus comorbidities subgroups, as well as Tourette syndrome plus comorbidities subgroups and healthy controls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. RAIM-A model for iodine behavior in containment under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Chul; Cho, Yeong Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Following a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risks for the public. Because the amount of iodine released largely depends on its volatility, iodine's behavior in containment has been extensively studied in international programs such as International Source Term Programme-Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation (EPICUR), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-Behaviour of Iodine Project, and OECD-Source Term Evaluation and Mitigation. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has joined these programs and is developing a simplified, stand-alone iodine chemistry model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model), based on the IMOD methodology and other previous studies. This model deals with chemical reactions associated with the formation and destruction of iodine species and surface reactions in the containment atmosphere and the sump in a simple manner. RAIM was applied to a simulation of four EPICUR tests and one Radioiodine Test Facility test, which were carried out in aqueous or gaseous phases. After analysis, the results show a trend of underestimation of organic and molecular iodine for the gas-phase experiments, the opposite of that for the aqueous-phase ones, whereas the total amount of volatile iodine species agrees well between the experiment and the analysis result.

  8. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behavior under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1985-10-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behavior considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a zircaloy-uranium eutectic melt. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally irradiated fuel are highlighted

  9. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  10. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behaviour considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a Zircaloy-Uranium eutectic melt. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during the tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. Whereas fuel liquefaction leads to an enhanced release of fission products in trace-irradiated fuel, the occurrence of fuel liquefaction in normally-irradiated fuel can degrade fission product release. This phenomenon is due in part to reduced gas-bubble mobilities in a viscous medium as compared to vapor transport, and in part to a degradation of grain growth rates and the subsequent decrease in grain-boundary sweeping of intragranular fission products into the liquified lamina. The analysis shows that total UO 2 dissolution due to eutectic melting leads to increased release for both trace-irradiated and normally-irradiated fuel. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally

  11. Thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU cores under severe accident conditions - final report. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the thermo-hydraulic aspects of severe accident sequences in CANDU reactors. The accident sequences considered are the loss of the moderator cooling system and the loss of the moderator heat sink, each following a large loss-of-coolant accident accompanied by loss of emergency coolant injection. Factors considered include expulsion and boil-off of the moderator, uncovery, overheating and disintegration of the fuel channels, quenching of channel debris, re-heating of channel debris following complete moderator expulsion, formation and possible boiling of a molten pool of core debris and the effectiveness of the cooling of the calandria wall by the shield tank water during the accident sequences. The effects of these accident sequences on the reactor containment are also considered. Results show that there would be no gross melting of fuel during moderator expulsion from the calandria, and for a considerable time thereafter, as quenched core debris re-heats. Core melting would not begin until about 135 minutes after accident initiation in a loss of the moderator cooling system and until about 30 minutes in a loss of the moderator heat sink. Eventually, a pool of molten material would form in the bottom of the calandria, which may or may not boil, depending on property values. In all cases, the molten core would be contained within the calandria, as long as the shield tank water cooling system remains operational. Finally, in the period from 8 to 50 hours after the initiation of the accident, the molten core would re-solidify within the calandria. There would be no consequent damage to containment resulting from these accident sequences, nor would there be a significant increase in fission product releases from containment above those that would otherwise occur in a dual failure LOCA plus LOECI

  12. The ability of silicide coating to delay the catastrophic oxidation of vanadium under severe conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaia, N., E-mail: nabil.chaia@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Mathieu, S., E-mail: stephane.mathieu@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Rouillard, F., E-mail: fabien.rouillard@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vilasi, M., E-mail: michel.vilasi@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Oxidation protection is due to the formation of a pure silica layer. • V–4Cr–4Ti with V{sub x}Si{sub y} silicide coating withstands 400 1-h cycles (1100 °C-T{sub amb}) in air. • Three-point flexure testing at 950 °C and 75 MPa does not induce coating breakdown. • No delamination between coating and substrate is observed in any test. - Abstract: V–4Cr–4Ti vanadium alloy is a potential cladding material for sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors (SFRs). However, its affinity for oxygen and the subsequent embrittlement that oxygen induces causes a need for an oxygen diffusion barrier, which can be obtained by manufacturing a multi-layered silicide coating. The present work aims to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling (using a cyclic oxidation device) and tensile and compressive stresses (using the three-point flexure test) on the coated alloy system. Tests were performed in air up to 1100 °C, which is 200 °C higher than the accidental temperature for SFR applications. The results showed that the VSi{sub 2} coating was able to protect the vanadium substrate from oxidation for more than 400 1-h cycles between 1100 °C and room temperature. The severe bending applied to the coated alloy at 950 °C using a load of 75 MPa did not lead to specimen breakage. It can be suggested that the VSi{sub 2} coating has mechanical properties compatible with the V–4Cr–4Ti alloy for SFR applications.

  13. Patterns of nocturnal rehydration in root tissues of Vaccinium corymbosum L. under severe drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Richards, James H; Diaz, Andres; Eissensat, David M

    2009-01-01

    Although roots in dry soil layers are commonly rehydrated by internal hydraulic redistribution during the nocturnal period, patterns of tissue rehydration are poorly understood. Rates of nocturnal rehydration were examined in roots of different orders in Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Bluecrop' (Northern highbush blueberry) grown in a split-pot system with one set of roots in relatively moist soil and the other set of roots in dry soil. Vaccinium is noted for a highly branched and extremely fine root system. It is hypothesized that nocturnal root tissue rehydration would be slow, especially in the distal root orders because of their greater hydraulic constraints (smaller vessel diameters and fewer number of vessels). Vaccinium root hydraulic properties delayed internal water movement. Even when water was readily available to roots in the wet soil and transpiration was minimal, it took a whole night-time period of 12 h for the distal finest roots (1st to 4th order) under dry soil conditions to reach the same water potentials as fine roots in moist soil (1st to 4th order). Even though roots under dry soil equilibrated with roots in moist soil, the equilibrium point reached before sunrise was about -1.2 MPa, indicating that tissues were not fully rehydrated. Using a single-branch root model, it was estimated that individual roots exhibiting the lowest water potentials in dry soil were 1st order roots (distal finest roots of the root system). However, considered at the branch level, root orders with the highest hydraulic resistances corresponded to the lowest orders of the permanent root system (3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots), thus indicating possible locations of hydraulic safety control in the root system of this species.

  14. The effect of self-leveling on debris bed coolability under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, S.; Konovalenko, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Yakush, S.E. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ave. Vernadskogo 101 Bldg 1, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation); Kudinov, P. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A model for coolability of a self-leveling, variable-shape debris bed is proposed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to screen out the less influential input parameters. • A small fraction of scenarios has initially a non-coolable debris bed configuration. • The fraction of non-coolable scenarios decreases with time due to self-leveling. - Abstract: Nordic-type boiling water reactors employ melt fragmentation, quenching, and long term cooling of the debris bed in a deep pool of water under the reactor vessel as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy. The height and shape of the bed are among the most important factors that determine if decay heat can be removed from the porous debris bed by natural circulation of water. The debris bed geometry depends on its formation process (melt release, fragmentation, sedimentation and settlement on the containment basemat), but it also changes with time afterwards, due to particle redistribution promoted by coolant flow (self-leveling). The ultimate goal of this work is to develop an approach to the assessment of the probability that debris in such a variable-shape bed can reach re-melting (which means failure of SA mitigation strategy), i.e. the time necessary for the slumping debris bed to reach a coolable configuration is larger than the time necessary for the debris to reach the re-melting temperature. For this purpose, previously developed models for particulate debris spreading by self-leveling and debris bed dryout are combined to assess the time necessary to reach a coolable state and evaluate its uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis was performed to screen out less important input parameters, after which Monte Carlo simulation was carried out in order to collect statistical characteristics of the coolability time. The obtained results suggest that, given the parameters ranges typical of Nordic BWRs, only a small fraction of debris beds configurations exhibits the occurrence of dryout. Of the

  15. Guidance of reactor operators and TSC personnel with the severe accident management guidance under shutdown and low power conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haesendonck, M.F.; Prior, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance (WOG SAMG) was developed between 1991 and 1994. The primary goals for severe accident management that form the basis of the WOG SAMG are to terminate any radioactive releases to the environment; to prevent failure of any containment fission product boundary and to return the plant to a controlled stable condition. The WOG SAMG is primarily a TSC tool for mitigation of low probability core damage events. The philosophy is that control room operators should remain focused on the prevention of core damage, whereas the TSC personnel should concentrate on the mitigation of the severe accident. The symptom based package is built up as a structured process for choosing appropriate actions based on actual plant conditions. No detailed knowledge of severe accident phenomena is required. The scope of the WOG SAMG is limited to severe accidents resulting from initiating events occurring during full power operation. However, a number of studies such as the EdF EPS 1300 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the shutdown Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for Surry, the BERA shutdown PRA for Beznau, the EPRI/ Westinghouse ORAM methodology etc. have shown that the frequency of core damage (a severe accident) during shutdown and low power operation can be of the same order of magnitude as for full power operation. The at-power SAMG is viewed as the resolution of the severe accident issue. Similarly, it is expected that as shutdown PRAs mature, the final resolution of the severe accident issue will lie in SAMG for low power and shutdown operation. Therefore in resolution of this issue, Westinghouse has developed the Shutdown Severe Accident Management Guidance (SSAMG) which gives guidance for both control room and TSC personnel to mitigate a severe accident under shutdown or low power conditions. In the last few years, many LWR plants have been implementing SAMG. In the US, all plants have developed SAMG, and many

  16. Severe obesity and comorbid condition impact on the weight-related quality of life of the adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Inge, Thomas H; Modi, Avani C; Jenkins, Todd M; Michalsky, Marc P; Helmrath, Michael; Courcoulas, Anita; Harmon, Carroll M; Rofey, Dana; Baughcum, Amy; Austin, Heather; Price, Karin; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Brandt, Mary L; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    To assess links between comorbid health status, severe excess weight, and weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) in adolescents with severe obesity and undergoing weight-loss surgery (WLS) to inform clinical care. Baseline (preoperative) data from Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery, a prospective multicenter observational study of 242 adolescents with severe obesity (MedianBMI = 50.5 kg/m(2); Meanage = 17.1; 75.6% female; 71.9% white) undergoing WLS, were used to examine the impact of demographics, body mass index (BMI), presence/absence of 16 comorbid conditions, and a cumulative comorbidity load (CLoad) index on WRQOL scores (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids). WRQOL was significantly lower than reference samples of healthy weight, overweight, and obese samples. Of 16 comorbid conditions, the most prevalent were dyslipidemia (74.4%), chronic pain (58.3%), and obstructive sleep apnea (56.6%). Male subjects had a greater CLoad (P = .01) and BMI (P = .01), yet less impairment in total WRQOL (P conditions (eg, stress urinary incontinence) also emerged as contributors to lower WRQOL. WRQOL impairment is substantial for adolescents with severe obesity undergoing WLS, with predictors varying by sex. These patient-data highlight targets for education, support, and adjunctive care referrals before WLS. Furthermore, they provide a comprehensive empirical base for understanding heterogeneity in adolescent WRQOL outcomes after WLS, as weight and comorbidity profiles change over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  18. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.; Dhiman, M.; Kulkarni, P. P.; Vijayan, P. K.; Vaze, K. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  20. ROLE OF PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF SEVERE PLANT CONDITIONS IN INDIAN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS JAIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor ‘AHWR’ is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  1. Relationship between exposure duration, carboxyhemoglobin, blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate and the severity of intoxication in 39 cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Kralkowska, E.

    1985-08-01

    The relationship between exposure duration, COHb, blood glucose, pyruvate and lactate and the severity of intoxication was investigated in a group of 39 cases of acute CO poisoning treated in the Clinical Toxicology Center in Lodz, Poland. On the basis of clinical criteria the patients were classified into cases of mild, moderate, severe and very severe CO poisoning. COHb and carbohydrate metabolites were estimated in venous blood taken immediately after admission of the patient to hospital prior to treatment. The severity of intoxication did not correlate with blood COHb; variation in exposure duration seems to be responsible for this phenomenon. Severe and very severe poisonings were associated with longer exposures and were accompanied by a markedly higher blood lactate level, compared to mild and moderate cases. Blood pyruvate depended less than lactate on the severity of intoxication. Blood glucose depended neither on exposure duration nor on the severity of intoxication. Among the carbohydrate metabolic parameters studied, blood lactate determination can be helpful in the evaluation of the severity of CO poisoning in man.

  2. Studies on the role of molybdenum on iodine transport in the RCS in nuclear severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grégoire, A.-C.; Kalilainen, J.; Cousin, F.; Mutelle, H.; Cantrel, L.; Auvinen, A.; Haste, T.; Sobanska, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In oxidising conditions, Mo reacts with Cs and thus promotes gaseous iodine release. • In reducing conditions, CsI remains the dominant form for released iodine. • The nature of released iodine is well reproduced by the ASTEC code. - Abstract: The effect of molybdenum on iodine transport in the reactor coolant system (RCS) under PWR severe accident conditions was investigated in the framework of the EU SARNET project. Experiments were conducted at the VTT-Institute and at IRSN and simulations of the experimental results were performed with the ASTEC severe accident simulation code. As molybdenum affects caesium chemistry by formation of molybdates, it may have a significant impact on iodine transport in the RCS. Experimentally it has been shown that the formation of gaseous iodine is promoted in oxidising conditions, as caesium can be completely consumed to form caesium polymolybdates and is thus not available for reacting with gaseous iodine and leading to CsI aerosols. In reducing conditions, CsI remains the dominant form of iodine, as the amount of oxygen is not sufficient to allow formation of quantitative caesium polymolybdates. An I–Mo–Cs model has been developed and it reproduces well the experimental trends on iodine transport

  3. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Clinical condition of the newborn versus tobacco smoke exposure during fetal life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Marzenna; Florek, Ewa; Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the assessment of the clinical condition, birth weight, frequency of premature birth and incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the newborns whose mothers were active and passive smokers. This was a prospective study conducted in a group of 147 newborns born during the years 2003-2004 in the Princess Anna Mazowiecka Hospital, Warsaw, and hospitalized in the Neonatal and Intensive Care Department of Warsaw Medical University. Based on a questionnaire identifying the exposure to tobacco smoke and cotinine concentration in the mother's urine, the newborns were assigned to three groups: the newborns whose mothers were active smokers, the newborns whose mothers were passive smokers and the newborns of non-smoking mothers. There were no statistically significant differences in the Apgar score assessment at the 1st and 5th minute between the three groups of the newborns. Acid-base balance parameters (pH, BE) were also similar. The birth weight of the newborns of mothers who were active smokers was 325g lower than the birth weight of the newborns of non-smoking mothers. This difference was statistically significant p = 0.033. Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of deficit in birth weight 2.6 (1.0-6.9, CI 95%). In the group of the newborns whose mothers were active smokers, the incidence of lower birth weight (< 2500g) was also statistically significantly higher p = 0.01. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of premature birth and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

  5. Antifouling effect of hydrogen peroxide release from enzymatic marine coatings: Exposure testing under equatorial and Mediterranean conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Kristensen, J.B.; Laursen, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean and equatorial climatic conditions, is investigated. During seawater exposure of the coatings, starch is first converted to glucose by glucoamylase (rate-controlling step) and subsequently glucose is rapidly oxidised by hexose oxidase in a reaction producing hydrogen peroxide. The coatings...

  6. Response of TLD badge for the estimation of exposure conditions in diagnostic x-ray departments - use of lead aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Chatterjee, S.; Bakshi, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain the conditions of exposure of the TLD badge and to evaluate the inaccuracy involved in the estimation of dose received by the worker using an averaged lead apron transmission factor for the use of the badge above lead apron

  7. Responses of the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, to ocean acidification conditions and zinc or nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Christina G; Picariello, Codie R; Thomason, Rachel K; Patel, Krina S; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO 2 , as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni). After exposure to four concentrations (nominal values=control, 10, 50, 100μg/L) of Zn or Ni over 7days, both metals accumulated in the tissues of E. pallida in a concentration-dependent manner. Anemones exposed to elevated CO 2 (1000ppm) accumulated significant tissue burdens of Zn or Ni faster (by 48h) than those exposed to the same metal concentrations at ambient CO 2 . No differences were observed in catalase activity due to Zn exposure; however, 50μg/L Ni caused a significant increase in catalase activity at ambient CO 2 . No significant effect on catalase activity from CO 2 exposure alone was observed. Glutathione reductase activity was affected by increased Zn or Ni exposure and those effects were influenced by increased CO 2 . Results of this study provide insight into the toxic mechanisms and environmental implications of CO 2 and Zn or Ni exposure to the cnidarian E. pallida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in 'like-new' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the 'like-new' condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  9. Embryonic Methamphetamine Exposure Inhibits Methamphetamine Cue Conditioning and Reduces Dopamine Concentrations in Adult N2 Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, Simon N; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S; Engleman, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MAP) addiction is substantially prevalent in today's society, resulting in thousands of deaths and costing billions of dollars annually. Despite the potential deleterious consequences, few studies have examined the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. Using the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans allows for a controlled analysis of behavioral and neurochemical changes due to early developmental drug exposure. The objective of the current study was to determine the long-term behavioral and neurochemical effects of embryonic exposure to MAP in C. elegans. In addition, we sought to improve our conditioning and testing procedures by utilizing liquid filtration, as opposed to agar, and smaller, 6-well testing plates to increase throughput. Wild-type N2 C. elegans were embryonically exposed to 50 μM MAP. Using classical conditioning, adult-stage C. elegans were conditioned to MAP (17 and 500 μM) in the presence of either sodium ions (Na+) or chloride ions (Cl-) as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-). Following conditioning, a preference test was performed by placing worms in 6-well test plates spotted with the CS+ and CS- at opposite ends of each well. A preference index was determined by counting the number of worms in the CS+ target zone divided by the total number of worms in the CS+ and CS- target zones. A food conditioning experiment was also performed in order to determine whether embryonic MAP exposure affected food conditioning behavior. For the neurochemical experiments, adult worms that were embryonically exposed to MAP were analyzed for dopamine (DA) content using high-performance liquid chromatography. The liquid filtration conditioning procedure employed here in combination with the use of 6-well test plates significantly decreased the time required to perform these experiments and ultimately increased throughput. The MAP conditioning data found that pairing an ion with MAP at 17 or 500 μM significantly increased the preference

  10. Investigation of Focusing Effect according to the Cooling Condition and Height of the Metallic layer in a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident has led to renewed research interests in severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of core melt is one of key severe accident management strategies adopted in nuclear power plant design. The metallic layer is heated from below by the radioactive decay heat generated at the oxide pool, and is cooled from above and side walls. During the IVR process, reactor vessel may be cooled externally (ERVC) and the heat fluxes to the side wall increase with larger temperature difference than above. This {sup F}ocusing effect{sup i}s varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. A sulfuric acid–copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system. Numerical analysis using the commercial CFD program FLUENT 6.3 were carried out with the same material properties and cooling conditions to examine the variation of the cell. The experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate the focusing effect according to cooling condition of upper boundary and the height in metallic layer. The height of the side wall was varied for three different cooling conditions: top only, side only, and both top and side. Mass transfer experiments, based on the analogy concept, were carried out in order to achieve high Rayleigh number. The experimental results agreed well with the Rayleigh-Benard convection correlations of Dropkin and Somerscales and Globe and Dropkin. The heat transfer on side wall cooling condition without top cooling is highest and was enhanced by decreasing the aspect ratio. The numerical results agreed well with the experimental results. Each cell pattern (cell size, cell direction, central location of cell) differed in the cooling condition. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the internal flow due to complexity of cell formation behavior.

  11. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  12. Acute Illness Among Surfers After Exposure to Seawater in Dry- and Wet-Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Steele, Joshua A; Griffith, John F; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Paul; McGee, Charles D; Wilson, Richard; Nelsen, Chad; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2017-10-01

    Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  13. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  14. Effects of long-term exposure of tuffs to high-level nuclear waste-repository conditions. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.; Carter, J.; Halleck, P.; Johnson, P.; Shankland, T.; Andersen, R.; Spicochi, K.; Heller, A.

    1982-02-01

    Tests have been performed to explore the effects of extended exposure of tuffs from the southwestern portion of the Nevada Test Site to temperatures and pressures similar to those that will be encountered in a high-level nuclear waste repository. Tuff samples ranging from highly welded, nonzeolitized to unwelded, highly zeolitized varieties were subjected to temperatures of 80, 120, and 180 0 C; confining pressures of 9.7 and 19.7 MPa; and water-pore pressures of 0.5 to 19.7 MPa for durations of 2 to 6 months. The following basic properties were measured before and after exposure and compared: tensile strength, uniaxial compressive strength, grain density, porosity, mineralogy, permeability, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. Depending on rock type and exposure conditions, significant changes in ambient tensile strength, compressive strength, grain density, and porosity were measured. Mineralogic examination, permeability, and thermal property measurements remain to be completed

  15. Use of lead aprons - further considerations of estimation of doses and conditions of acute exposures of TLD badge in diagnostic x-ray institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the recent study the authors reported that the exposure conditions of the use of the TLD badge, whether worn under or over the lead apron could be estimated from the readout of the TLD badge used in X-ray diagnostic departments. The effectiveness of lead aprons procured from different suppliers having the same value of quoted nominal lead equivalence was found to vary severely and this indicated some limitation in the applicability of the method of evaluation of exposure conditions of the badge. The transmission factors for the lead aprons varied up to a factor of 15 for the same value of quoted nominal lead equivalence procured from three different suppliers. This is of serious consequences in radiation protection and attracts attention for quality control. An error in the estimation of the exposure conditions of the TLD badge could lead to an underestimation of doses up to 4 times using the prevalent method. The estimation of the actual doses of radiation workers in the cases of over-exposures for the situations of the use of the TLD badge over the lead apron showed that the variation in the quality of lead aprons could be wrong in the range from 1.6 to 25 times even if the kVp of the machine is exactly known. Therefore, attempt should not be made to estimate the actual doses under lead apron from the readout of the TLD badge worn over the apron, as the real values of the transmission factors of the aprons and kVp of the X-ray machine may not be available. (author)

  16. Combat exposure severity as a moderator of genetic and environmental liability to post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E J; Mitchell, K S; Koenen, K C; Miller, M W

    2014-05-01

    Twin studies of veterans and adults suggest that approximately 30-46% of the variance in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is attributable to genetic factors. The remaining variance is attributable to the non-shared environment, which, by definition, includes combat exposure. This study used a gene by measured environment twin design to determine whether the effects of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of PTSD are dependent on the level of combat exposure. The sample was drawn from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (VETR) and included 620 male-male twin pairs who served in the US Military in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era. Analyses were based on data from a clinical diagnostic interview of lifetime PTSD symptoms and a self-report measure of combat exposure. Biometric modeling revealed that the effects of genetic and non-shared environment factors on PTSD varied as a function of level of combat exposure such that the association between these factors and PTSD was stronger at higher levels of combat exposure. Combat exposure may act as a catalyst that augments the impact of hereditary and environmental contributions to PTSD. Individuals with the greatest exposure to combat trauma were at increased risk for PTSD as a function of both genetic and environmental factors. Additional work is needed to determine the biological and environmental mechanisms driving these associations.

  17. Aerosol exposure to Rift Valley fever virus causes earlier and more severe neuropathology in the murine model, which has important implications for therapeutic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Reed

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that can cause severe disease including acute-onset hepatitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis and blindness, or a hemorrhagic syndrome. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exist to treat this potentially deadly disease. Detailed studies describing the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure have not been completed and candidate therapeutics have not been evaluated following an aerosol exposure. These studies are important because while mosquito transmission is the primary means for human infection, it can also be transmitted by aerosol or through mucosal contact. Therefore, we directly compared the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure to a subcutaneous (SC exposure in the murine model by analyzing survival, clinical observations, blood chemistry, hematology, immunohistochemistry, and virus titration of tissues. Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nucleoside analog ribavirin administered prophylactically to treat mice exposed by aerosol and SC. The route of exposure did not significantly affect the survival, chemistry or hematology results of the mice. Acute hepatitis occurred despite the route of exposure. However, the development of neuropathology occurred much earlier and was more severe in mice exposed by aerosol compared to SC exposed mice. Mice treated with ribavirin and exposed SC were partially protected, whereas treated mice exposed by aerosol were not protected. Early and aggressive viral invasion of brain tissues following aerosol exposure likely played an important role in ribavirin's failure to prevent mortality among these animals. Our results highlight the need for more candidate antivirals to treat RVFV infection, especially in the case of a potential aerosol exposure. Additionally, our study provides an account of the key pathogenetic differences in RVF disease following two potential

  18. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however...

  19. Determination of gamma-ray exposure rate from short-lived fission products under criticality accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Ohno, Akio; Aizawa, Eijyu

    2002-01-01

    For the assessment of γ-ray doses from short-lived fission products (FPs) under criticality accident conditions, γ-ray exposure rates varying with time were experimentally determined in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY). The data were obtained by reactivity insertion in the range of 1.50 to 2.93$. It was clarified from the experiments that the contribution of γ-ray from short-lived FPs to total exposure during the experiments was evaluated to be 15 to 17%. Hence, the contribution cannot be neglected for the assessment of γ-ray doses under criticality accident conditions. Computational analyses also indicated that γ-ray exposure rates from short-lived FPs calculated with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP4B, and photon sources based on the latest FP decay data, the JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000, well agreed with the experimental results. The exposure rates were, however, extremely underestimated when the photon sources were obtained by the ORIGEN2 code. The underestimation is due to lack of energy-dependent photon emission data for major short-lived FP nuclides in the photon database attached to the ORIGEN2 code. It was also confirmed that the underestimation arose in 1,000 or less of time lapse after an initial power burst. (author)

  20. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to preven...

  1. Early results from an experimental program to determine the behavior of containment piping penetration bellows subjected to severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Containment piping penetration bellows are an integral part of the pressure boundary in steel containments in the United States (US). Their purpose is to minimize loading on the containment shell caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment. This differential movement is typically caused by thermal gradients generated during startup and shutdown of the reactor, but can be caused by earthquake, a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or ''severe'' accidents. In the event of a severe accident, the bellows would be subjected to pressure, temperature, and deflection well beyond the design basis. Most bellows are installed such that they would be subjected to elevated internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression, and lateral deflection during a severe accident. A few bellows would be subjected to external pressure and axial elongation, as well as elevated temperature and lateral deflection. The purpose of this experimental program is to examine the potential for leakage of containment bellows during a severe accident. The test series subjects bellows to various levels and combinations of internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression or elongation, and lateral deformation. The experiments are being conducted in two parts. For Part 1, all bellows specimens are tested in ''like-new'' condition, without regard for the possible degrading effect of corrosion that has been observed in some containment piping bellows in the US Part I testing, which included 13 bellows tests, has been completed. The second part of the experimental program, in which bellows are subjected to simulated corrosive environments prior to testing, has just just begun. The Part I experiments have shown that bellows in ''like-new'' condition can withstand elevated temperatures and pressures along with large deformations before leaking. In most cases, the like-new bellows were fully compressed without developing any leakage

  2. Exposure to acute severe hypoxia leads to increased urea loss and disruptions in acid-base and ionoregulatory balance in dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of acute moderate (20% air O2 saturation; 6-h exposure) and severe (5% air O2 saturation; 4-h exposure) hypoxia on N-waste, acid-base, and ion balance in dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias suckleyi) were evaluated. We predicted that the synthesis and/or retention of urea, which are active processes, would be inhibited by hypoxia. Exposure to moderate hypoxia had negligible effects on N-waste fluxes or systemic physiology, except for a modest rise in plasma lactate. Exposure to severe hypoxia led to a significant increase in urea excretion (Jurea), while plasma, liver, and muscle urea concentrations were unchanged, suggesting a loss of urea retention. Ammonia excretion (Jamm) was elevated during normoxic recovery. Moreover, severe hypoxia led to disruptions in acid-base balance, indicated by a large increase in plasma [lactate] and substantial decreases in arterial pHa and plasma [Formula: see text], as well as loss of ionic homeostasis, indicated by increases in plasma [Mg(2+)], [Ca(2+)], and [Na(+)]. We suggest that severe hypoxia in dogfish sharks leads to a reduction in active gill homeostatic processes, such as urea retention, acid-base regulation and ionoregulation, and/or an osmoregulatory compromise due to increased functional gill surface area. Overall, the results provide a comprehensive picture of the physiological responses to a severe degree of hypoxia in an ancient fish species.

  3. Induction of enhanced acoustic startle response by noise exposure: dependence on exposure conditions and testing parameters and possible relevance to hyperacusis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony H Salloum

    Full Text Available There has been a recent surge of interest in the development of animal models of hyperacusis, a condition in which tolerance to sounds of moderate and high intensities is diminished. The reasons for this decreased tolerance are likely multifactorial, but some major factors that contribute to hyperacusis are increased loudness perception and heightened sensitivity and/or responsiveness to sound. Increased sound sensitivity is a symptom that sometimes develops in human subjects after acoustic insult and has recently been demonstrated in animals as evidenced by enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex following acoustic over-exposure. However, different laboratories have obtained conflicting results in this regard, with some studies reporting enhanced startle, others reporting weakened startle, and still others reporting little, if any, change in the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex following noise exposure. In an effort to gain insight into these discrepancies, we conducted measures of acoustic startle responses (ASR in animals exposed to different levels of sound, and repeated such measures on consecutive days using a range of different startle stimuli. Since many studies combine measures of acoustic startle with measures of gap detection, we also tested ASR in two different acoustic contexts, one in which the startle amplitudes were tested in isolation, the other in which startle amplitudes were measured in the context of the gap detection test. The results reveal that the emergence of chronic hyperacusis-like enhancements of startle following noise exposure is highly reproducible but is dependent on the post-exposure thresholds, the time when the measures are performed and the context in which the ASR measures are obtained. These findings could explain many of the discrepancies that exist across studies and suggest guidelines for inducing in animals enhancements of the startle reflex that may be related to hyperacusis.

  4. Modelling of the mammographic exposure conditions for radiological detriment study in the Valencian Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, S.; Ramos, M.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Verdu, G.; Salas, M. D.; Cuevas, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    Breast screening programmes are the best weapon to fight against breast cancer. Nevertheless, despite the benefits, this practice supposes a radiological risk that cannot be forgotten. In order to calculate breast glandular doses, different MCNP-4C2 models have been developed, simulating the exposure conditions. Radiological detriments have been transported from the population under study in the UNSCEAR 2000 to the Valencian Community, obtaining the detection-induced cancer ratio (DICR) for this population. (authors)

  5. REQUIREMENTS TO THE LIMITATION OF POPULATION EXPO-SURE FROM THE NATIRAL IONIZING IRRADIATION SOURCES IN INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents conceptually new requirements to the limitation of population exposure from the natural ionizing irradiation sources in industrial conditions, introduced into Basic Sanitary Rules of Radiation Safety (OSPORB-99/2010. It is shown that, first of all, introduction of these requirements is aimed at the resolution of variety of previously existing serious contradictions in organization of radiation safety control and supervision for the impact of natural ionizing irradiation sources in industry.

  6. Maternal house dust mite exposure during pregnancy enhances severity of house dust mite-induced asthma in murine offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Phoebe K; Yamani, Amnah; Chougnet, Claire A; Lewkowich, Ian P

    2017-11-01

    Atopic status of the mother and maternal exposure to environmental factors are associated with increased asthma risk. Moreover, animal models demonstrate that exposure to allergens in strongly sensitized mothers influences offspring asthma development, suggesting that in utero exposures can influence offspring asthma. However, it is unclear whether maternal exposure to common human allergens such as house dust mite (HDM), in the absence of additional adjuvants, influences offspring asthma development. We sought to determine whether maternal HDM exposure influences asthma development in offspring. Pregnant female mice were exposed to PBS or HDM during pregnancy. Using offspring of PBS- or HDM-exposed mothers, the magnitude of HDM or Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) extract-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, immunoglobulin production, T H 2-associated cytokine synthesis, and pulmonary dendritic cell activity was assessed. Compared with offspring of PBS-exposed mothers, offspring of HDM-exposed mothers demonstrate increased AHR, airway inflammation, T H 2 cytokine production, and immunoglobulin levels and a modest decrease in the phagocytic capacity of pulmonary macrophage populations following HDM exposure. Increased sensitivity to AF-induced airway disease was not observed. Offspring of HDM-exposed B-cell-deficient mothers also demonstrated increased HDM-induced AHR, suggesting that transfer of maternal immunoglobulins is not required. Our data demonstrate that maternal exposure to HDM during pregnancy increases asthma sensitivity in offspring in an HDM-specific manner, suggesting that vertical transmission of maternal immune responses may be involved. These findings have important implications for regulation of asthma risk, and suggest that exposure to HDM in the developed world may have underappreciated influences on the overall prevalence of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  7. Antioxidant and oxidative stress parameters in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure condition; role of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Many fishes are exposed to air in their natural habitat or during their commercial handling. In natural habitat or during commercial handling, the cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis is exposed to air for >24h. Data on its oxidative metabolism in the above condition are not available. Oxidative stress (OS) indices (lipid and protein oxidation), toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes (complex I-IV) were investigated in brain tissue of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25°C). Decreased activities of antioxidant (except catalase) and ETC enzymes (except complex II) with increased H2O2 and OS levels were observed in the tissue under water deprivation condition. Positive correlation was observed for complex II activity and non-protein thiol groups with time period of air exposure. The critical time period to induce OS and to reduce most of the studied antioxidant level in brain was found to be 3-6h air exposure. The data can be useful to minimize the stress generated during commercial handling of the live fishes those exposed to air in general and H. fossilis in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of external exposure during building and operation of concrete bridges constructions that reuse the conditionally released steels - 59120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the project presented at ICEM'10 [1] related to the topics of reusing the conditionally released materials from decommissioning. The subject of the reuse of conditionally released materials in this case is modeling of bridge constructions which reuse the conditionally released steel in the form of reinforcement bars for the concrete bridges. A general approach for the project was presented at ICEM'10. The activities of the project continue in evaluating the individual effective doses from the external exposure based on reused conditionally released steels separately for public and for professionals (the internal exposure will be evaluated in next stages of the project). Evaluated scenarios are related to critical groups of professionals constructing the bridges (worker's scenarios). The computer code VISIPLAN 3D ALARA 4.0 planning tool was used for the calculation of the individual effective dose for professionals. Various limits of the annual individual effective dose are used for the evaluation of calculation results. The aim of the ongoing modeling is to develop a set of data of maximal radioactivity concentration for individual radionuclides in the conditionally released steel used in the bridges model constructions in order not to exceed the limits for the individual effective dose. (authors)

  9. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Lowen, Steven B.; Rohan, Michael L.; Gillis, Timothy E.; Thompson, Britta S.; Wellons, Clara B.W.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be a...

  10. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  11. Behavioural changes in response to sound exposure and no spatial avoidance of noisy conditions in captive zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Yaw (Errol eNeo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory sensitivity in fish serves various important functions, but also makes fish susceptible to noise pollution. Human-generated sounds may affect behavioural patterns of fish, both in natural conditions and in captivity. Fish are often kept for consumption in aquaculture, on display in zoos and hobby aquaria, and for medical sciences in research facilities, but little is known about the impact of ambient sounds in fish tanks. In this study, we conducted two indoor exposure experiments with zebrafish (Danio rerio. The first experiment demonstrated that exposure to moderate sound levels (112 dB re 1 μPa can affect the swimming behaviour of fish by changing group cohesion, swimming speed and swimming height. Effects were brief for both continuous and intermittent noise treatments. In the second experiment, fish could influence exposure to higher sound levels by swimming freely between an artificially noisy fish tank (120-140 dB re 1 μPa and another with ambient noise levels (89 dB re 1 μPa. Despite initial startle responses, and a brief period in which many individuals in the noisy tank dived down to the bottom, there was no spatial avoidance or noise-dependent tank preference at all. The frequent exchange rate of about 60 fish passages per hour between tanks was not affected by continuous or intermittent exposures. In conclusion, small groups of captive zebrafish were able to detect sounds already at relatively low sound levels and adjust their behaviour to it. Relatively high sound levels were at least at the on-set disturbing, but did not lead to spatial avoidance. Further research is needed to show whether zebrafish are not able to avoid noisy areas or just not bothered. Quantitatively, these data are not directly applicable to other fish species or other fish tanks, but they do indicate that sound exposure may affect fish behaviour in any captive condition.

  12. Behavioral changes in response to sound exposure and no spatial avoidance of noisy conditions in captive zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Parie, Lisa; Bakker, Frederique; Snelderwaard, Peter; Tudorache, Christian; Schaaf, Marcel; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity in fish serves various important functions, but also makes fish susceptible to noise pollution. Human-generated sounds may affect behavioral patterns of fish, both in natural conditions and in captivity. Fish are often kept for consumption in aquaculture, on display in zoos and hobby aquaria, and for medical sciences in research facilities, but little is known about the impact of ambient sounds in fish tanks. In this study, we conducted two indoor exposure experiments with zebrafish (Danio rerio). The first experiment demonstrated that exposure to moderate sound levels (112 dB re 1 μPa) can affect the swimming behavior of fish by changing group cohesion, swimming speed and swimming height. Effects were brief for both continuous and intermittent noise treatments. In the second experiment, fish could influence exposure to higher sound levels by swimming freely between an artificially noisy fish tank (120-140 dB re 1 μPa) and another with ambient noise levels (89 dB re 1 μPa). Despite initial startle responses, and a brief period in which many individuals in the noisy tank dived down to the bottom, there was no spatial avoidance or noise-dependent tank preference at all. The frequent exchange rate of about 60 fish passages per hour between tanks was not affected by continuous or intermittent exposures. In conclusion, small groups of captive zebrafish were able to detect sounds already at relatively low sound levels and adjust their behavior to it. Relatively high sound levels were at least at the on-set disturbing, but did not lead to spatial avoidance. Further research is needed to show whether zebrafish are not able to avoid noisy areas or just not bothered. Quantitatively, these data are not directly applicable to other fish species or other fish tanks, but they do indicate that sound exposure may affect fish behavior in any captive condition.

  13. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  14. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  15. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity to non-target wildlife under controlled exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Mastrota, F. Nicholas; van den Brink, Nico; Elliott, J.; Shore, R.; Rattner, B.

    2018-01-01

    Much of our understanding of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity to non-target wildlife has been derived from molecular through whole animal research and registration studies in domesticated birds and mammals, and to a lesser degree from trials with captive wildlife. Using these data, an adverse outcome pathway identifying molecular initiating and anchoring events (inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase, failure to activate clotting factors), and established and plausible linkages (coagulopathy, hemorrhage, anemia, reduced fitness) associated with toxicity, is presented. Controlled exposure studies have demonstrated that second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (e.g., brodifacoum) are more toxic than first- and intermediate-generation compounds (e.g., warfarin, diphacinone), however the difference in potency is diminished when first- and intermediate-generation compounds are administered on multiple days. Differences in species sensitivity are inconsistent among compounds. Numerous studies have compared mortality rate of predators fed prey or tissue containing anticoagulant rodenticides. In secondary exposure studies in birds, brodifacoum appears to pose the greatest risk, with bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone being less hazardous than brodifacoum, and warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumafuryl, chlorophacinone and diphacinone being even less hazardous. In contrast, substantial mortality was noted in secondary exposure studies in mammals ingesting prey or tissue diets containing either second- or intermediate-generation compounds. Sublethal responses (e.g., prolonged clotting time, reduced hematocrit and anemia) have been used to study the sequelae of anticoagulant intoxication, and to some degree in the establishment of toxicity thresholds or toxicity reference values. Surprisingly few studies have undertaken histopathological evaluations to identify cellular lesions and hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in non

  16. Standard Practice for Exposure of Solar Collector Cover Materials to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Stagnation Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the exposure of solar collector cover materials to the natural weather environment at elevated temperatures that approximate stagnation conditions in solar collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient of less than 1.5 W/(m2 · °C). 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors, photovoltaic cells, flat-plate collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient greater than 1.5 W/(m2 ·° C), or flat-plate collectors whose design incorporates means for limiting temperatures during stagnation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard t...

  17. Clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological effects of xylazine in goats after acute exposure to different environmental temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.M. Mogoa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the influence of xylazine administration on clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables after acute exposure to different environmental conditions. Xylazine hydrochloride was administered intravenously at 0.1 mg/kg body mass to 6 clinically healthy, castrated male goats. All animals were exposed for 60 min to 3 sets of climatic conditions: 14 °C, 33% relative humidity; 24 °C, 55% RH, and 34 °C, 65% RH. The variables that were measured for a period of 60 min after xylazine administration were sedation, analgesia, salivation, urination, ventilation rate, heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oesophageal temperature, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Xylazine induced sedation, analgesia, salivation and urination independently of the 3 environmental conditions. Environment had no influence on the onset, duration and recovery from sedation. In the 14 °C environment, xylazine resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and heart-rate from baseline values. Significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit and red cell count were observed in the 3 environments. Total plasma protein was significantly altered at 24 °C and 34 °C. Acute exposure of goats to different environmental conditions had no significant influence on the clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables. Physiological changes induced by xylazine were therefore independent of the environment.

  18. Evaluating the working conditions and exposure to abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel: characteristics and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2009-02-01

    Filipino home care workers provide the majority of around-the-clock personal care to frail individuals in Israel. To date, the working conditions as well as exposure to work-related abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel have not been evaluated. A survey of 245 Filipino home care workers was conducted to evaluate their working conditions and exposure to abuse as well as their clinical correlates (e.g. burnout as measures by the Maslach Burnout Inventory). This was integrated with findings from interviews with Filipino home care workers, social workers, and family members of care recipients cared by Filipino home care workers. A majority of the workers (88%) reported paying large amounts of money in order to work in the country. Overall, 43% reported being asked to do more than was specified in their job description, 41% reported being verbally abused, and 40% reported not receiving adequate food. Almost half reported work-related injuries. The most consistent predictor of burnout (as measured by the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scales) was exposure to work-related abuse. Interview data identified system and societal barriers that prevent workers from using the legal system for their protection. The present study calls for further supervision of this caregiving arrangement. Psychoeducational programs directed towards all stakeholders (e.g. social workers, home care workers, care recipients, and family members of care recipients) are needed.

  19. Effect of self-ion irradiation on the microstructural changes of alloy EK-181 in annealed and severely deformed conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydogan, E. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, T.; Gigax, J.G.; Chen, D.; Wang, X. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Dzhumaev, P.S.; Emelyanova, O.V.; Ganchenkova, M.G.; Kalin, B.A.; Leontiva-Smirnova, M. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Valiev, R.Z. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials and Nanocenter, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Enikeev, N.A.; Abramova, M.M. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials and Nanocenter, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Wu, Y.; Lo, W.Y.; Yang, Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Short, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Maloy, S.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Garner, F.A. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Shao, L., E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    EK-181 is a low-activation ferritic/martensitic steel that is an attractive candidate for in-core component materials for both fast reactors and fusion reactors. To assess the effect of microstructural engineering on radiation response, two variants of EK-181 were studied: one in an annealed condition and the other subject to severe plastic deformation. These specimens were irradiated with 3.5 MeV Fe self-ions up to 400 peak displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 500 °C. The deformation did not suppress swelling over the whole irradiated region. Instead, deformed samples showed higher swelling in the near-surface region. Void swelling was found to be correlated with grain boundary instability. Significant grain growth occurred when steady-state void growth started.

  20. Analysis of several hazardous conditions for large transfer and back-dilution sequences in Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CW Stewart; LA Mahoney; WB Barton

    2000-01-01

    The first transfer of 89 kgal of waste and back-dilution of 61 kgal of water in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished December 18--20, 1999. Limits were placed on the transfer and back-dilution volumes because of concerns about potential gas release, crust sinking, and degradation of mixer pump performance. Additional transfers and back-dilutions are being planned that will bring the total to 500 kgal, which should dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank and dilute it well beyond the point where significant gas retention can occur. This report provides the technical bases for removing the limits on transfer and back-dilution volume by evaluating the potential consequences of several postulated hazardous conditions in view of the results of the first campaign and results of additional analyses of waste behavior

  1. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Navarrete Berges, Andrés; Omarshah, Tariq; Benton, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity. The satisfaction of the basic needs is more important for participants who are exposed to severe rather than mild levels of deprivation. Our findings illustrate ecological effects on the mechanism underlying goal-directed behavior. They provide evidence in favor of self-determination theory's depiction of humans as active, growth-oriented organisms and for the potential of psychological interventions to reduce poverty.

  2. Analysis of several hazardous conditions for large transfer and back-dilution sequences in Tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Stewart; LA Mahoney; WB Barton

    2000-01-28

    The first transfer of 89 kgal of waste and back-dilution of 61 kgal of water in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished December 18--20, 1999. Limits were placed on the transfer and back-dilution volumes because of concerns about potential gas release, crust sinking, and degradation of mixer pump performance. Additional transfers and back-dilutions are being planned that will bring the total to 500 kgal, which should dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank and dilute it well beyond the point where significant gas retention can occur. This report provides the technical bases for removing the limits on transfer and back-dilution volume by evaluating the potential consequences of several postulated hazardous conditions in view of the results of the first campaign and results of additional analyses of waste behavior.

  3. Fetal and infant exposure to severe Chinese famine increases the risk of adult dyslipidemia: Results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Changwei; Yang, Zhongping; Ma, Jun; Zou, Zhiyong

    2017-06-14

    To explore the associations between the Chinese famine exposure in early life and the dyslipidemia in adulthood. We selected 2752 participants from the baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011-2012 to evaluate the associations of early life the Chinese famine exposure with risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC (Total Cholesterol): HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) ratio ≥ 5.0 or use cholesterol lowering drugs. Famine exposure cohorts were categorized by birthdates of participants. Binary logistics regression model was used to examine the associations of early-life famine exposure with the risk of dyslipidemia. The dyslipidemia prevalence of the non-exposed cohort, fetal stage-, infant stage-, and preschool stage-exposed cohorts in adulthood was 15.7%, 23.1%, 22.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. Early-life exposure to the Chinese famine significantly increased LDL cholesterol concentrations in adulthood after adjusted for age. The risks of dyslipidemia in fetal (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.23-2.03; P dyslipidemia in female adults. However, the similar association was not observed for male adults. Early-life exposure to severe Chinese famine could link with the higher dyslipidemia risk in female adulthood, but not in male adulthood. This gender-specific effect might be associated with the hypothesis that parents in China prefer boys to girls traditionally or survivors' bias.

  4. Effects of dietary exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 on thyroid condition, gonadal development and growth of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Orazio, Carl E.; Peterman, Paul H.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of brominated flame retardants in teleosts and some of the information currently available is inconsistent. This study examined effects of dietary exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on thyroid condition, body mass and size, and gonadal development of zebrafish. Pubertal, 49-day-old (posthatch) fish were fed diets without BDE-47 (control) or with 1, 5 or 25 μg/g BDE-47/diet. Treatments were conducted in triplicate 30-L tanks each containing 50 zebrafish, and 15 fish per treatment (5 per tank) were sampled at days 40, 80 and 120 of exposure. Measurements were taken of body mass, standard length, head depth and head length. Sex (at 40–120 days of exposure), germ cell stage (at 40 days) and thyroid condition (at 120 days; follicular cell height, colloid depletion, angiogenesis) were histologically determined. Whole-body BDE-47 levels at study completion were within the high end of levels reported in environmentally exposed (wild) fishes. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences among treatments at each sampling time. No effects were observed on thyroid condition or germ cell stage in either sex. Reduced head length was observed in females exposed to BDE-47 at 80 days but not at 40 or 120 days. In males, no apparent effects of BDE-47 were observed at 40 and 80 days, but fish exposed to 25 μg/g had lower body mass at 120 days compared to control fish. These observations suggest that BDE-47 at environmentally relevant whole-body concentrations does not affect thyroid condition or pubertal development of zebrafish but does affect growth during the juvenile-to-adult transition, especially in males.

  5. Learning deficits expressed as delayed extinction of a conditioned running response following perinatal exposure to vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Susan M; Markowski, Vincent P

    2006-01-01

    Vinclozolin (Vz) is one member of a group of fungicides whose metabolites are androgen receptor antagonists. These fungicides have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. The current study sought to determine if Vz also affects learning following exposure to low doses during the perinatal period. To test this, an androgen-dependent behavior was examined, the extinction of a previously reinforced running response. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered a daily oral dose of 0, 1.5, 3, 6 or 12 mg/kg Vz from the 14th day of gestation through postnatal day 3. After reaching adulthood, male and female offspring were trained to run through a short alleyway for food reinforcement. Acquisition of the response was not affected by Vz exposure. However, males required more trials than females for response extinction once food was no longer available in the apparatus. Males exposed to 6 or 12 mg/kg Vz failed to show any extinction by the end of the procedure, while the lowest dose of Vz appeared to facilitate extinction in both male and female offspring. These results demonstrate that endocrine disrupting antiandrogens can alter nervous system development in addition to the reproductive system.

  6. Prevalence of oral health-related conditions that could trigger accidents for patients with moderate-to-severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Soga, Yoshihiko; Maekawa, Kyoko; Kanda, Yuko; Kobayashi, Eiko; Inoue, Hisako; Kanao, Ayana; Himuro, Yumiko; Fujiwara, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents in hospitalised patients with moderate-severe dementia. Dementia patients may not recognise risks in the mouth, such as tooth mobility or ill-fitting dental prostheses and/or dentures. In addition to the risk of choking, injury by sharp edges of collapsed teeth or prosthodontics could pose risks. However, many previous publications were limited to case reports or series. Ninety-two consecutive hospitalised dementia patients (M: 52, F: 40, median age: 82.5 years, range: 62-99 years, from 2011 to 2014), referred for dentistry for dysphagia rehabilitation, were enrolled in this study. Participants referred for dental treatment with dental problems detected by ward staff were excluded. All participants had a Global Clinical Dementia Rating Score >2. Their dental records were evaluated retrospectively for issues that may cause incidents and/or accidents. Problems in the mouth, for example tooth stumps, dental caries, and ill-fitting dentures, were detected in 51.1% of participants (47/92). Furthermore, 23.9% (22/92) showed risk factors that could lead to incidents and/or accidents, for example falling out of teeth and/or prosthodontics or injury by sharp edges of teeth and/or prosthodontics. Hospitalised moderate-severe dementia patients had a high prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu)), lithium chloride (F(LiCl)), or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl)). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to...

  8. Development of simplified 1D and 2D models for studying a PWR lower head failure under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koundy, V.; Dupas, J.; Bonneville, H.; Cormeau, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the study of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactors, the scenarios that describe the relocation of significant quantities of liquid corium at the bottom of the lower head are investigated from the mechanical point of view. In these scenarios, the risk of a breach and the possibility of a large quantity of corium being released from the lower head exist. This may lead to direct heating of the containment or outer vessel steam explosion. These issues are important due to their early containment failure potential. Since the TMI-2 accident, many theoretical and experimental investigations, relating to lower head mechanical behaviour under severe thermo-mechanical loading in the event of a core meltdown accident have been performed. IRSN participated actively in the one-fifth scale USNRC/SNL LHF and OECD LHF (OLHF) programs. Within the framework of these programs, two simplified models were developed by IRSN: the first is a simplified 1D approach based on the theory of pressurized spherical shells and the second is a simplified 2D model based on the theory of shells of revolution under symmetric loading. The mathematical formulation of both models and the creep constitutive equations used are presented in detail in this paper. The corresponding models were used to interpret some of the OLHF program experiments and the calculation results were quite consistent with the experimental data. The two simplified models have been used to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor lower head under severe accident conditions leading to failure. The average transient heat flux produced by the corium relocated at the bottom of the lower head has been determined using the IRSN HARAR code. Two different methods, both taking into account the ablation of the internal surface, are used to determine the temperature profiles across the lower head wall and their effect on the time to failure is discussed. Using these simplified models

  9. Predictability of iodine chemistry in the containment of a nuclear power plant under hypothetical severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Vela-Garcia, M.; Fontanet, J. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    One of the areas of top interest in the arena of severe accidents to get an accurate prediction of Source Term is Iodine Chemistry. In this paper an assessment of the current capability of MELCOR and ASTEC to predict iodine chemistry within containment in case of a postulated severe accident has been carried out. The experiments FPT1 and FPT2 of the PHEBUS-FP project have been used for comparisons, since they were carried out under rather different containment conditions during the chemistry phase (subcooled vs. saturated sump or acid vs. alkaline pH), which makes them very suitable to assess the current modeling capability of in-containment iodine chemistry models. The results obtained indicate that, even though, both integral codes have specific areas related to iodine chemistry that should be further developed and that their approach to the matter is drastically different, at present ASTEC-IODE allows for a more comprehensive simulation of the containment iodine chemistry. More importantly, lack of maturity of these codes would potentially maximize the so-called user-effect, so that it would be highly recommendable to perform sensitivity studies around iodine chemistry aspects when calculating Source Term scenarios. Key aspects needed of further research are: gaseous iodine chemistry (absent in MELCOR), organic iodine chemistry and adsorption/desorption on/from containment surfaces. (authors)

  10. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000 degree F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion (''bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled

  11. Comparative Analysis of Culture Conditions for the Optimization of Carotenoid Production in Several Strains of the Picoeukaryote Ostreococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Guyon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are promising sources for the sustainable production of compounds of interest for biotechnologies. Compared to higher plants, microalgae have a faster growth rate and can be grown in industrial photobioreactors. The microalgae biomass contains specific metabolites of high added value for biotechnology such as lipids, polysaccharides or carotenoid pigments. Studying carotenogenesis is important for deciphering the mechanisms of adaptation to stress tolerance as well as for biotechnological production. In recent years, the picoeukaryote Ostreococcus tauri has emerged as a model organism thanks to the development of powerful genetic tools. Several strains of Ostreococcus isolated from different environments have been characterized with respect to light response or iron requirement. We have compared the carotenoid contents and growth rates of strains of Ostreococcus (OTTH595, RCC802 and RCC809 under a wide range of light, salinity and temperature conditions. Carotenoid profiles and productivities varied in a strain-specific and stress-dependent manner. Our results also illustrate that phylogenetically related microalgal strains originating from different ecological niches present specific interests for the production of specific molecules under controlled culture conditions.

  12. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  13. Reduced intensity conditioning, combined transplantation of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells in patients with severe aplastic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    Full Text Available We examined if transplantation of combined haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC affected graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA. Patients with SAA-I (N = 17 received haploidentical HSCT plus MSC infusion. Stem cell grafts used a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF-primed bone marrow and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells of haploidentical donors and the culture-expanded third-party donor-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs, respectively. Reduced intensity conditioning consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m2·d+cyclosphamide (500 mg/m2·d+anti-human thymocyte IgG. Transplant recipients also received cyclosporin A, mycophenolatemofetil, and CD25 monoclonal antibody. A total of 16 patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution. The median mononuclear cell and CD34 count was 9.3×10(8/kg and 4.5×10(6/kg. Median time to ANC was >0.5×10(9/L and PLT count >20×10(9/L were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Grade III-IV acute GVHD was seen in 23.5% of the cases, while moderate and severe chronic GVHD were seen in 14.2% of the cases. The 3-month and 6-month survival rates for all patients were 88.2% and 76.5%, respectively; mean survival time was 56.5 months. Combined transplantation of haploidentical HSCs and MSCs on SAA without an HLA-identical sibling donor was safe, effectively reduced the incidence of severe GVHD, and improved patient survival.

  14. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1992-08-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  15. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwat, H

    1992-08-15

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  16. Meteorological conditions during a severe, prolonged regional heavy air pollution episode in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui

    2018-03-01

    A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced

  17. Activity of lead deposited in the tissues in conditions of occupational lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The author measured urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrins and lead, before and after administration of chelating agents (CaEDTA and D-penicillamine) to subjects presenting clinical symptoms of lead poisoning and workers occupationally exposed to lead. He found a great increase in lead following its mobilization in subjects with lead poisoning who had previously shown a high level of haemoglobin precursors and a low urinary lead level. In these subjects ALA excretion was proportional to the duration of exposure. A correlation was found between urinary ALA and coproporphyrins, on the one hand, and lead excretion after provocation, on the other. This suggests that the lead deposited in the tissues, as well as that in circulation, retains all its activity.

  18. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shuhua; Wu, Gangwei; Jiang, Zhixian

    2018-01-01

    Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor) or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist) can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1 is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Methods: Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. Results: We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli.

  20. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative assessment of image artifacts from root filling materials on CBCT scans made using several exposure parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Katharina Alves; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; De Oliveira Pinto, Martina Gerlane; De Melo, Daniela Pita [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, State University of Paraiba, Campina Grande (Brazil); Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa [Dept. of Oral Pathology, Radiology and Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; De Andrade Freitas Oliveira, Luciana Soares [Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    To quantify artifacts from different root filling materials in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired using different exposure parameters. Fifteen single-rooted teeth were scanned using 8 different exposure protocols with 3 different filling materials and once without filling material as a control group. Artifact quantification was performed by a trained observer who made measurements in the central axial slice of all acquired images in a fixed region of interest using ImageJ. Hyperdense artifacts, hypodense artifacts, and the remaining tooth area were identified, and the percentages of hyperdense and hypodense artifacts, remaining tooth area, and tooth area affected by the artifacts were calculated. Artifacts were analyzed qualitatively by 2 observers using the following scores: absence (0), moderate presence (1), and high presence (2) for hypodense halos, hypodense lines, and hyperdense lines. Two-way ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test were used for quantitative and qualitative artifact analysis. The Dunnet test was also used for qualitative analysis. The significance level was set at P<.05. There were no significant interactions among the exposure parameters in the quantitative or qualitative analysis. Significant differences were observed among the studied filling materials in all quantitative analyses. In the qualitative analyses, all materials differed from the control group in terms of hypodense and hyperdense lines (P<.05). Fiberglass posts did not differ statistically from the control group in terms of hypodense halos (P>.05). Different exposure parameters did not affect the objective or subjective observations of artifacts in CBCT images; however, the filling materials used in endodontic restorations did affect both types of assessments.

  2. Quantitative assessment of image artifacts from root filling materials on CBCT scans made using several exposure parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Katharina Alves; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; De Oliveira Pinto, Martina Gerlane; De Melo, Daniela Pita; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; De Andrade Freitas Oliveira, Luciana Soares

    2017-01-01

    To quantify artifacts from different root filling materials in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired using different exposure parameters. Fifteen single-rooted teeth were scanned using 8 different exposure protocols with 3 different filling materials and once without filling material as a control group. Artifact quantification was performed by a trained observer who made measurements in the central axial slice of all acquired images in a fixed region of interest using ImageJ. Hyperdense artifacts, hypodense artifacts, and the remaining tooth area were identified, and the percentages of hyperdense and hypodense artifacts, remaining tooth area, and tooth area affected by the artifacts were calculated. Artifacts were analyzed qualitatively by 2 observers using the following scores: absence (0), moderate presence (1), and high presence (2) for hypodense halos, hypodense lines, and hyperdense lines. Two-way ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test were used for quantitative and qualitative artifact analysis. The Dunnet test was also used for qualitative analysis. The significance level was set at P .05). Different exposure parameters did not affect the objective or subjective observations of artifacts in CBCT images; however, the filling materials used in endodontic restorations did affect both types of assessments

  3. Heavy metals content in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of chronic chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Davydova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research by example of bank vole the heavy metals concentrations (cadmium, copper and zinc) in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of environmental pollution with wastes from copper-smelting industry have been considered. The levels of radionuclides accumulation in testes, seminal vesicle and ovaries of voles with radionuclide concentration in others organs and tissues of animals have been compared.

  4. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, J.L.; Rees, E.C.; Cromie, R.L.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Pain, D.J.; Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.; Hilton, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL"−"1) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. - Highlights: • Elevated blood lead levels of >20 μg dL"−"1 were found in 41.7% of whooper swans. • Blood lead levels of ≥44 μg dL"−"1 were negatively associated with body condition. • Clinical effects were at lower levels than previously described for Anseriformes. • Reduction of lead shot in the environment would reduce the risk of lead exposure. - Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with the body condition of free-living whooper swans in winter when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10% of birds were above this threshold).

  5. Development of Assessment Methodology of Chemical Behavior of Volatile Iodide under Severe Accident Conditions Using EPICUR Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Jong Il; Kim, Do Sam; Han Chul

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is one of the most important fission products produced in nuclear power plants. Under severe accident condition, iodine exists as a variety of species in the containment such as aqueous iodide, gaseous iodide, iodide aerosol, etc. Following release of iodine from the reactor, mostly in the form of CsI aerosol, volatile iodine can be generated from the containment sump and release to the environment. Especially, volatile organic iodide can be produced from interaction between nonvolatile iodine and organic substances present in the containment. Volatile iodide could significantly influence the alienated residents surrounding the nuclear power plant. In particular, thyroid is vulnerable to radioiodine due to its high accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to develop an evaluation model which can simulate iodine behavior in the containment following a severe accident. KINS also needs to make up its methodology for radiological consequence analysis, based on MELCOR-MACCS2 calculation, by coupling a simple iodine model which can conveniently deal with organic iodides. In the long term, such a model can contribute to develop an accident source term, which is one of urgent domestic needs. Our strategy for developing the model is as follows: 1. Review the existing methodologies, 2. Develop a simple stand-alone model, 3. Validate the model using ISTP-EPICUR (Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) experimental data. In this paper we present the context of development and validation of our model named RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model)

  6. Development of Assessment Methodology of Chemical Behavior of Volatile Iodide under Severe Accident Conditions Using EPICUR Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Jong Il [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Han Chul [Korea Institue of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Iodine is one of the most important fission products produced in nuclear power plants. Under severe accident condition, iodine exists as a variety of species in the containment such as aqueous iodide, gaseous iodide, iodide aerosol, etc. Following release of iodine from the reactor, mostly in the form of CsI aerosol, volatile iodine can be generated from the containment sump and release to the environment. Especially, volatile organic iodide can be produced from interaction between nonvolatile iodine and organic substances present in the containment. Volatile iodide could significantly influence the alienated residents surrounding the nuclear power plant. In particular, thyroid is vulnerable to radioiodine due to its high accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to develop an evaluation model which can simulate iodine behavior in the containment following a severe accident. KINS also needs to make up its methodology for radiological consequence analysis, based on MELCOR-MACCS2 calculation, by coupling a simple iodine model which can conveniently deal with organic iodides. In the long term, such a model can contribute to develop an accident source term, which is one of urgent domestic needs. Our strategy for developing the model is as follows: 1. Review the existing methodologies, 2. Develop a simple stand-alone model, 3. Validate the model using ISTP-EPICUR (Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) experimental data. In this paper we present the context of development and validation of our model named RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model)

  7. Multi objective large power system planning under sever loading condition using learning DE-APSO-PS strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdad, Belkacem; Srairi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient planning strategy using DE and APSO in coordination with PS algorithm is proposed. • An interactive process is proposed to balance the exploitation and exploration capability of (DE-APSO) and PS. • Fuel cost, power loss, and voltage deviation considering loading condition are optimized. • The proposed strategy (DE-APSO-PS) is validated on three large practical test systems. - Abstract: This paper introduces an efficient planning strategy using new hybrid interactive differential evolution (DE), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), and pattern search (PS) for solving the security optimal power flow (SOPF) considering multi distributed static VAR compensator (SVC). Three objective functions such as fuel cost, power loss and voltage deviation are considered and optimized considering sever loading conditions. The main idea of the proposed strategy is that variable controls are optimized based on superposition mechanism, the best solutions evaluated by DE and APSO at specified stages are communicated to PS to exploit new regions around this solution, alternatively the new solution achieved by PS is also communicated to DE and APSO, this interactive mechanism search between global and local search is to balance the exploitation and exploration capability which allows individuals from different methods to react more by learning and changing experiences. The robustness of the proposed strategy is tested and validated on large practical power system test (IEEE 118-Bus, IEEE 300-Bus, and 40 units). Comparison results with the standard global optimization methods such as DE, APSO PS and to other recent techniques showed the superiority and perspective of the proposed hybrid technique for solving practical power system problems

  8. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors during Pavlovian conditioning enhances subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploense, Kyle L; Kerstetter, Kerry A; Wade, Matthew A; Woodward, Nicholas C; Maliniak, Dan; Reyes, Michael; Uchizono, Russell S; Bredy, Timothy W; Kippin, Tod E

    2013-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) strengthen memory following fear conditioning and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Here, we examined the effects of two nonspecific HDACIs, valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), on appetitive learning measured by conditioned stimulus (CS)-induced reinstatement of operant responding. Rats were trained to lever press for food reinforcement and then injected with VPA (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.), NaB (250-1000 mg/kg, i.p.), or saline vehicle (1.0 ml/kg), 2 h before receiving pairings of noncontingent presentation of food pellets preceded by a tone+light cue CS. Rats next underwent extinction of operant responding followed by response-contingent re-exposure to the CS. Rats receiving VPA (100 mg/kg) or NaB (1000 mg/kg) before conditioning displayed significantly higher cue-induced reinstatement than did saline controls. Rats that received either vehicle or VPA (100 mg/kg) before a conditioning session with a randomized relation between presentation of food pellets and the CS failed to show subsequent cue-induced reinstatement with no difference between the two groups. These findings indicate that, under certain contexts, HDACIs strengthen memory formation by specifically increasing the associative strength of the CS, not through an increasing motivation to seek reinforcement. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  9. Effect of nontronite smectite clay on the chemical evolution of several organic molecules under simulated Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Olivier; Dequaire, Tristan; Stalport, Fabien; Jaber, Maguy; Lambert, Jean-François; Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The search for organic carbon-containing molecules at the surface of Mars, as clues of past habitability or remnants of life, is a major scientific goal for Mars exploration. Several lines of evidence, including the detection of phyllosilicates, suggest that early Mars offered favorable conditions for long-term sustaining of water. As a consequence, we can assume that in those days, endogenous chemical processes, or even primitive life, may have produced organic matter on Mars. Moreover, exogenous delivery from small bodies or dust particles is likely to have brought fresh organic molecules to the surface of Mars up today. Organic matter is therefore expected to be present at the surface/subsurface of the planet. But the current environmental conditions at the surface - UV radiation, oxidants and energetic particles - generate physico-chemical processes that may affect organic molecules. On the other hand, on Earth, phyllosilicates are known to accumulate and preserve organic matter. But are phyllosilicates efficient at preserving organic molecules under the current environmental conditions at the surface of Mars? We have monitored the qualitative and quantitative evolutions of glycine, urea and adenine interacting with the Fe3+-smectite clay nontronite, one of the most abundant phyllosilicates present at the surface of Mars, under simulated Martian surface ultraviolet light (190-400 nm), mean temperature (218 ± 2 K) and pressure (6 ± 1 mbar) in a laboratory simulation setup. We have tested organic-rich samples which may be representative of the evaporation of a warm little pond of liquid water having concentrated organics on Mars. For each molecule, we have observed how the nontronite influences the quantum efficiency of its photodecomposition and the nature of its solid evolution products. The results reveal a pronounced photoprotective effect of nontronite on the evolution of glycine and adenine: their efficiencies of photodecomposition are reduced by a factor

  10. Personal monitoring of 218Po and 214Po radionuclide deposition onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Worley, A.; Moss, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Personal dosemeters have been utilized to monitor the deposition of the radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions. Each detector consists of TASTRAK alpha-sensitive plastic incorporated into an ordinary working wristwatch. Subsequent analysis provides energy discrimination of the detected alpha-particle decays, and allows events from the individual radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po, attached to the detector surface, to be uniquely identified. Assuming similar deposition onto skin and detector surfaces, the activity per unit area of deposited radionuclides can be determined for exposed skin. Forty-one personal dosemeters were issued to volunteers selected through the hospital medical physics departments at Reading, Northampton, Exeter and Plymouth. Each volunteer was also issued with a personal radon dosemeter to determine their individual radon exposure. The volunteers wore the two dosemeters simultaneously and continuously for a period of around one month. Correlations were observed between the radon exposure of the individual and the activity per unit area of 218 Po and 214 Po on the detector surface. From these correlations it can be estimated that at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq m -3 , the number of decays/cm 2 /year on continuously exposed skin surface is between 3500 and 28 000 for 218 Po, and between 7000 and 21 000 for 214 Po. These results can be combined with theoretical modelling of the dose distribution in the skin to yield the alpha-particle radiation dose to any identified target cells. (author)

  11. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2016-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  12. Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Friel, Brenda; Snelgrove, Vicki

    2012-11-01

    To measure levels of fine particulate matter in the rear passenger area of cars where smoking does and does not take place during typical real-life car journeys. Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was used as a marker of secondhand smoke and was measured and logged every minute of each car journey undertaken by smoking and non-smoking study participants. The monitoring instrument was located at breathing zone height in the rear seating area of each car. Participants were asked to carry out their normal driving and smoking behaviours over a 3-day period. 17 subjects (14 smokers) completed a total of 104 journeys (63 smoking journeys). Journeys averaged 27 min (range 5-70 min). PM(2.5) levels averaged 85 and 7.4 μg/m(3) during smoking and non-smoking car journeys, respectively. During smoking journeys, peak PM(2.5) concentrations averaged 385 μg/m(3), with one journey measuring over 880 μg/m(3). PM(2.5) concentrations were strongly linked to rate of smoking (cigarettes per minute). Use of forced ventilation and opening of car windows were very common during smoking journeys, but PM(2.5) concentrations were still found to exceed WHO indoor air quality guidance (25 μg/m(3)) at some point in the measurement period during all smoking journeys. PM(2.5) concentrations in cars where smoking takes place are high and greatly exceed international indoor air quality guidance values. Children exposed to these levels of fine particulate are likely to suffer ill-health effects. There are increasing numbers of countries legislating against smoking in cars and such measures may be appropriate to prevent the exposure of children to these high levels of secondhand smoke.

  13. Cumulative effects of heat exposure and storage conditions of Oxytocin-in-Uniject in rural Ghana: implications for scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Luke C; Newton, Sam; Afari-Asiedu, Samuel; Adiibokah, Edward; Agyemang, Charlotte T; Cofie, Patience; Brooke, Steve; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Stanton, Cynthia K

    2014-08-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage can be reduced substantially in home deliveries attended by community-based workers by using Oxytocin-in-Uniject (OIU) devices affixed with temperature-time indicators. We characterized the distribution of time to discard of these devices when stored under normal field conditions in Ghana. Two drug storage simulation studies were conducted in rural Ghana in 2011 and 2012. Devices were transported under refrigeration from manufacture (Argentina) to storage at the study site. Twenty-three field workers each stored at home (unrefrigerated) 25 OIU devices and monitored them daily to record: (1) time to transition from usable to unusable, and (2) continuous digital ambient temperature to determine heat exposure over the simulation period. Time to discard was estimated and compared with mean kinetic temperature exposure of the devices during the shipment and storage phases and with characteristics of the storage locations using Weibull regression models. We used the time to discard distributions in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate wastage rates in a hypothetical program setting. Time for shipment and transfer to long-term refrigerated storage and mean kinetic temperature during the shipment phase was 8.6 days/10.3°C and 13.4 days/12.1°C, for the first and second simulation studies, respectively. Median (range) time to discard when stored under field conditions (unrefrigerated) was 43 (6 to 59) days and 33 (14 to 50) days, respectively. Mean time to discard was 10.0 days shorter in the second simulation, during which mean kinetic temperature exposure was 3.9°C higher. Simulating a monthly distribution system and assuming typical usage, predicted wastage of product was less than 10%. The time to discard of devices was highly sensitive to small changes in temperature exposure. Under field conditions typical in rural Ghana, OIU packages will have a half-life of approximately 30 to 40 days based on the temperature monitor used during the study

  14. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Psychometric properties of the Sleep Condition Indicator and Insomnia Severity Index in the evaluation of insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Espie, Colin A; Luik, Annemarie I; Kyle, Simon D; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying

    2017-05-01

    The Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) are commonly used instruments to assess insomnia. We evaluated their psychometric properties, particularly their discriminant validity against structured clinical interview (according to DSM-5 and ICSD-3), and their concurrent validity with measures of sleep and daytime functioning. A total of 158 young adults, 16% of whom were diagnosed with DSM-5 insomnia disorder and 13% with ICSD-3 Chronic Insomnia by structured interview, completed the ISI and SCI twice in 7-14 days, in addition to measures of sleep and daytime function. The Chinese version of the SCI was validated with good psychometric properties (ICC = 0.882). A cutoff of ≥8 on the ISI, ≤5 on the SCI short form, and ≤21 on the SCI achieved high discriminant validity (AUC > 0.85) in identifying individuals with insomnia based on both DSM-5 and ICSD-3 criteria. The SCI and ISI had comparable associations with subjective (0.18 sleep (0.31 disorder. Moreover, they showed good concordance with measures of daytime dysfunction, as well as subjective and objective sleep. The SCI and ISI are recommended for use in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling the release of volatile fission product cesium from CANDU fuel under severe accident conditions using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.S.; Lewis, B.J.; Cox, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed to predict the release of volatile fission products from CANDU fuel under severe accident conditions. The model was based on data for the release Of 134 Cs measured during three annealing experiments (Hot Cell Experiments 1 and 2, or HCE- 1, HCE-2 and Metallurgical Cell Experiment 1, or MCE- 1) at Chalk River Laboratories. These experiments were comprised of a total of 30 separate tests. The ANN established a correlation among 14 separate input variables and predicted the cumulative fractional release for a set of 386 data points drawn from 29 tests to a normalized error, E n , of 0.104 and an average absolute error, E abs , of 0.064. Predictions for a blind validation set (test HCE2-CM6) had an E n of 0.064 and an E abs of 0.054. A methodology is presented for deploying the ANN model by providing the connection weights. Finally, the performance of an ANN model was compared to a fuel oxidation model developed by Lewis et al. and to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's CORSOR-M. (author)

  17. Relationship between medical exposure and acquisition conditions during X-ray diagnosis of small children to reduce exposure doses in Aomori Prefecture. An analysis questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, Masanori; Fukushi, Shouji; Oota, Fumio; Kawamura, Kouji; Shinohe, Tetsuo; Suwa, Kouki; Fujii, Kiyosuke; Yamagami, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire survey to determine the exposure dose of each site imaged was performed by the Aomori Association of Radiological Technologists in September 1998. Based on the results, the relation between the entrance surface dose and loading factor and film/screen system during chest and hip joint imaging of children was analyzed, and reduction of the exposure dose was assessed. The entrance surface dose was calculated by a non-dosimeter dosimetry (NDD) method. A slight correlation was observed between tube voltage and the product of tube current x imaging time for chest imaging, but not for hip joint imaging. No correlation was observed between the entrance surface dose and tube current x imaging time for chest imaging, but a positive correlation was observed for hip joint imaging. The rates at which an inverter device, a three-phase device, and a single-phase device were used as the high-voltage generator for chest imaging were 57.5%, 30.0%, 12.5%, respectively, and 57.0%, 26.0%, and 17.0%, respectively, for hip joint imaging. The tube voltage ranged from 45 to 130 kV (mean: 70-80 kV) for chest imaging, and from 45 to 74 kV (mean: 60 kV) for hip joint imaging. The tube current ranged from 100 to 800 mA (mean: 300 mA) for chest imaging, and from 50 to 650 mA (mean: 200 mA) for hip joint imaging. The mean entrance surface dose for chest imaging was smaller (1/3-1/5) than for hip joint imaging. The maximal difference in entrance surface dose between facilities was 39.0 times, the minimal difference was 18.4 times, and the difference was less than half of the difference in adults. The rates at which photosensitive materials were used was 8% blue luminescence 8%, green luminescence 76%. Many facilities used photosensitive materials whose the relative sensitivity was approximately 250. It was concluded that reduction of the exposure doses during imaging of children had been thoroughly considered at each facility. Dose reduction was concluded to be possible by using

  18. Creation of device for monitoring of inhalation exposure doses in 'Ukryttia' object conditions considering submicron aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melenevskij, A.Eh.; Kravchuk, T.A.; Ushakov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the conditions of air enriched with Short-Lived Aerosols (SLA), the examinations of created device ASMA sampler were conducted in order to define its ability of educing rougher fractions from aspirated aerosol compositions. It is shown that in airflow velocity intervals from 100 to 140 m/s aerodynamic diameter of an effluent fraction varies from 0.9 to 0.7 microns. The algorithm of measurement result processing of aspirated filter strata activity is described.Using the numerical modeling, the efficiency of offered procedure of relative measurements is demonstrated

  19. Ruthenium release modelling in air and steam atmospheres under severe accident conditions using the MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzet, Emilie; Lamy, Jean-Sylvestre; Perron, Hadrien; Simoni, Eric; Ducros, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new modelling of fuel oxidation and ruthenium release in the EDF version of the MAAP4 code. ► We validated this model against some VERCORS experiments. ► Ruthenium release prediction quantitatively and qualitatively well reproduced under air and steam atmospheres. - Abstract: In a nuclear power plant (NPP), a severe accident is a low probability sequence that can lead to core fusion and fission product (FP) release to the environment (source term). For instance during a loss-of-coolant accident, water vaporization and core uncovery can occur due to decay heat. These phenomena enhance core degradation and, subsequently, molten materials can relocate to the lower head of the vessel. Heat exchange between the debris and the vessel may cause its rupture and air ingress. After lower head failure, steam and air entering in the vessel can lead to degradation and oxidation of materials that are still intact in the core. Indeed, Zircaloy-4 cladding oxidation is very exothermic and fuel interaction with the cladding material can decrease its melting temperature by several hundred of Kelvin. FP release can thus be increased, noticeably that of ruthenium under oxidizing conditions. Ruthenium is of particular interest because of its high radio-toxicity due to 103 Ru and 106 Ru isotopes and its ability to form highly volatile compounds, even at room temperature, such as gaseous ruthenium tetra-oxide (RuO 4 ). It is consequently of great need to understand phenomena governing steam and air oxidation of the fuel and ruthenium release as prerequisites for the source term issues. A review of existing data on these phenomena shows relatively good understanding. In terms of oxygen affinity, the fuel is oxidized before ruthenium, from UO 2 to UO 2+x . Its oxidation is a rate-controlling surface exchange reaction with the atmosphere, so that the stoichiometric deviation and oxygen partial pressure increase. High temperatures combined with the presence

  20. Breakthrough or one-hit wonder? Three attempts to replicate single-exposure musical conditioning effects on choice behavior (Gorn, 1982).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, I.E.; Batenburg, A.E.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Smits, T.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies replicated a classroom experiment on single-exposure musical conditioning of consumer choice (Gorn, 1982), testing whether simultaneous exposure to liked (vs. disliked) music and a pen image induced preferences for the shown (vs. a different) pen. Experiments 1 and 2 employed the

  1. Inter-Labeler and Intra-Labeler Variability of Condition Severity Classification Models Using Active and Passive Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers’ learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. Methods We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by

  2. Inter-labeler and intra-labeler variability of condition severity classification models using active and passive learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers' learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by using the labels provided by seven

  3. Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Lister, Lindsay J.; Hankard, Peter K.; Kille, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC- 50 in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals. - Comparative analysis of life-cycle, physiological and molecular responses to Cu and Cd indicate similar responses under static and fluctuating climate regimes

  4. A retrospective comparison of cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulin with cyclophosphamide plus busulfan as the conditioning regimen for severe aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.M. Ommati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT is the treatment of choice for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA. The association of antithymocyte globulin (ATG and cyclophosphamide (CY is the most frequently used conditioning regimen for this disease. We performed this retrospective study in order to compare the outcomes of HLA-matched sibling donor AHSCT in 41 patients with SAA receiving cyclophosphamide plus ATG (ATG-CY, N = 17 or cyclophosphamide plus busulfan (BU-CY, N = 24. The substitution of BU for ATG was motivated by the high cost of ATG. There were no differences in the clinical features between the two groups, including age, gender, cytomegalovirus status, ABO match, interval between diagnosis and transplant, and number of total nucleated cells infused. No differences were observed in the time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, or in the risk of veno-occlusive disease and hemorrhage. However, there was a higher risk of mucositis in the BU-CY group (71 vs 24%, P = 0.004. There were no differences in the incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related mortality. There was a higher incidence of late rejection in the ATG-CY group (41 vs 4%, P = 0.009. Although the ATG-CY group had a longer follow-up (101 months than the BU-CY group (67 months, P = 0.04, overall survival was similar between the groups (69 vs 58%, respectively, P = 0.32. We conclude that the association BU-CY is a feasible option to the conventional ATG-CY regimen in this population.

  5. Beyond Extinction: Prolonged Conditioning and Repeated Threat Exposure Abolish Contextual Renewal of Fear-Potentiated Startle Discrimination but Leave Expectancy Ratings Intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Haesen, Kim; Vervliet, Bram

    2018-01-01

    Extinction treatments decrease fear via repeated exposures to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and are associated with a return of fear. Alternatively, fear can be reduced via reductions in the perceived intensity of the unconditioned stimulus (US), e.g., through repeated exposures to the US. Promisingly, the few available studies show that repeated US exposures outperform standard extinction. US exposure treatments can decrease fear via two routes: (1) by weakening the CS-US association (extinction-like mechanism), and/or (2) by weakening the subjective US aversiveness (habituation-like mechanism). The current study further investigated the conditions under which US exposure treatment may reduce renewal, by adding a group in which CS-US pairings continued following fear acquisition. During acquisition, participants learned that one of two visual stimuli (CS+/CS-) predicted the occurrence of an aversive electrocutaneous stimulus (US). Next, the background context changed and participants received one of three interventions: repeated CS exposures, (2) repeated US exposures, or (3) continued CS-US pairings. Following repeated CS exposures, test presentations of the CSs in the original conditioning context revealed intact CS+/CS- differentiation in the fear-potentiated startle reflex, while the differentiation was abolished in the other two groups. Differential US expectancy ratings, on the other hand, were intact in all groups. Skin conductance data were inconclusive because standard context renewal following CS exposures did not occur. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence for a habituation-like process having taken place during US exposures or continued CS-US pairings. The results provide further evidence that US exposures outperform the standard extinction treatment and show that effects are similar when US exposures are part of CS-US pairings.

  6. Fetal and infant exposure to severe Chinese famine increases the risk of adult dyslipidemia: Results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghe Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the associations between the Chinese famine exposure in early life and the dyslipidemia in adulthood. Methods We selected 2752 participants from the baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS 2011–2012 to evaluate the associations of early life the Chinese famine exposure with risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC (Total Cholesterol: HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol ratio ≥ 5.0 or use cholesterol lowering drugs. Famine exposure cohorts were categorized by birthdates of participants. Binary logistics regression model was used to examine the associations of early-life famine exposure with the risk of dyslipidemia. Results The dyslipidemia prevalence of the non-exposed cohort, fetal stage-, infant stage-, and preschool stage-exposed cohorts in adulthood was 15.7%, 23.1%, 22.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. Early-life exposure to the Chinese famine significantly increased LDL cholesterol concentrations in adulthood after adjusted for age. The risks of dyslipidemia in fetal (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.23–2.03; P < 0.001 and infant (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.15–2.00; P = 0.003 stage-exposed cohorts were significantly higher than the non-exposed cohort after adjusted for gender and current family economic status. Following gender stratification, we found that fetal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.26–2.57; P = 0.001, infant (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.17–2.62; P = 0.006, and preschool (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.10–2.42; P = 0.015 -stage exposure to severe famine aggravated the risk of dyslipidemia in female adults. However, the similar association was not observed for male adults. Conclusions Early-life exposure to severe Chinese famine could link with the higher dyslipidemia risk in female adulthood, but not in male adulthood. This gender-specific effect might be associated with the hypothesis that parents in China prefer boys to girls traditionally or

  7. Asymptomatic loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers with preserved thermal detection thresholds after repeated exposure to severe cold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Thomas; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Svendsen, Toke K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cold-induced peripheral neuropathy has been described in individuals exposed to severe cold resulting in pain, hypersensitivity to cold, hyperhidrosis, numbness, and skin changes. Nerve conduction studies and thermal detection thresholds are abnormal in symptomatic patients......-induced peripheral neuropathy may be prevalent in subjects living in or near polar regions which could have implications for the recruitment of healthy subjects....

  8. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of nestlings of the great tit (Parus major), a small songbird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2003-11-01

    Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites.

  9. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of nestlings of the great tit (Parus major), a small songbird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2003-01-01

    Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites

  10. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies. PMID:25604449

  11. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent THC exposure does not sensitize conditioned place preferences to subthreshold d-amphetamine in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Robin J; Bye, Cameron; Trow, Jan; McDonald, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and  adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on. To test this, we chronically administered ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to male and female Long-Evans (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats directly after puberty onset. Rats matured to postnatal day 90 before being exposed to a conditioned place preference task (CPP). A subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine, found not to induce place preference in drug naïve rats, was used as the unconditioned stimulus. The effect of d-amphetamine on neural activity was inferred by quantifying cfos expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal hippocampus following CPP training. Chronic exposure to THC post-puberty had no potentiating effect on a subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine to induce CPP. No differences in cfos expression were observed. These results show that chronic exposure to THC during puberty did not increase sensitivity to d-amphetamine in adult LER and WR rats. This supports the concept that THC may not sensitize the response to all drugs of abuse.

  13. Investigation of the effect of UV-LED exposure conditions on the production of vitamin D in pig skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    study the exposure conditions with ultraviolet (UV) LEDs were systematically investigated in the wavelength range 280-340 nm for achieving optimal vitamin D bio-fortification in pig skin. A wavelength of 296 nm was found to be optimal for vitamin D3 production. The maximum dose of 20 kJ/m2 produced 3.......5-4 µg vitamin D3/cm2 pig skin. Vitamin D3 produced was independent on the combination of time and intensity of the LED source. The increased UV exposure by UV-LEDs may be readily implemented in existing food production facilities, without major modifications to the process or processing equipment......The dietary intake of vitamin D is currently below the recommended intake of 10-20 µg vitamin D/day. Foods with increased content of vitamin D or new products with enhanced vitamin D are warranted. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential new resource in food production lines. In the present...

  14. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-08-15

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides. Rapid mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. - Highlights: • The impact of field exposure on persistence of macrolide antibiotics was evaluated. • Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory with macrolides. • Field exposure resulted in more rapid dissipation of all macrolides. • Radiolabelled erythromycin and clarithromycin were rapidly mineralized

  15. Exposure to severe stressors causes long-lasting dysregulation of resting and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Rotllant, David; Fuentes, Silvia; Delgado, Raúl; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to some predominantly emotional (electric shock) and systemic (interleukin-1beta) stressors has been found to induce long-term sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to further superimposed stressors. Since exposure to immobilization on wooden boards (IMO) is a severe stressor and may have interest regarding putative animal models of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), we have characterized long-lasting effects of a single exposure to IMO and other stressors on the HPA response to the same (homotypic) and to novel (heterotypic) stressors and the putative mechanisms involved. A single exposure to IMO caused a long-lasting reduction of peripheral and central responses of the HPA axis, likely to be mediated by some brain areas, such as the lateral septum and the medial amygdala. This desensitization is not explained by changes in negative glucocorticoid feedback, and, surprisingly, it is positively related to the intensity of the stressors. In contrast, the HPA response to heterotypic stressors (novel environments) was enhanced, with maximal sensitization on the day after IMO. Sensitization progressively vanished over the course of 1-2 weeks and was not modulated by IMO-induced corticosterone release. Moreover, it could not be explained by changes in the sensitivity of the HPA axis to fast or intermediate/delayed negative feedback, as evaluated 1 week after exposure to IMO, using shock as the heterotypic stressor. Long-lasting stress-induced behavioral changes reminiscent of enhanced anxiety and HPA sensitization are likely to be parallel but partially independent phenomena, the former being apparently not related to the intensity of stressors.

  16. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, Edward; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1 mg kg"−"1 soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10 mg kg"−"1 macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1 mg kg"−"1 macrolides. Rapid mineralization of "1"4C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. - Highlights: • The impact of field exposure on persistence of macrolide antibiotics was evaluated. • Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory with macrolides. • Field exposure resulted in more rapid dissipation of all macrolides. • Radiolabelled erythromycin and clarithromycin were rapidly mineralized. • Macrolides

  17. Effects of cadmium on life-cycle parameters in a multi-generation study with Chironomus riparius following a pre-exposure of populations to two different tributyltin concentrations for several generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Christian; Hess, Maren; Nowak, Carsten; Diogo, João Barateiro; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oetken, Matthias

    2010-10-01

    So far only a few studies have been performed to assess the effects of dynamic pollutant exposure on life-history parameters of invertebrates. In a previous multi-generation approach with the midge Chironomus riparius we tested if a chronic tributyltin pre-exposure alters the ability of a population to cope with subsequent cadmium stress. In the experiment two separate chironomid populations were exposed via sediments to different TBT-concentrations (4.46 and 8.93 μg Sn/kg dw) for several generations, followed by subsequent cadmium exposure (1.2 mg Cd/kg dw) for three generations. While the TBT-exposure to 4.46 μg Sn/kg dw had only small effects on the development and reproduction of C. riparius the higher TBT-concentration of 8.93 μg Sn/kg dw led to negative effects on life-history traits. Therefore, a higher adverse effect of the higher TBT-concentration and thus a higher susceptibility to other stressors could be assumed. Within, this paper only the results of the second stressor experiment were presented; clear effects of Cd on development and reproduction of C. riparius were determined independent of the pre-exposure scenario. While no differences in Cd-sensitivity were found between the population without pre-exposure to TBT and the population pre-exposed to the low TBT-concentration (4.46 μg Sn/kg dw), the pre-exposure of midges to the higher TBT-concentration (8.93 μg Sn/kg dw) resulted in a significantly higher susceptibility to subsequent Cd-stress. These results document that the exposure history may influence the reaction to altered chemical stress. Our findings are relevant to understand and predict the evolutionary fate of populations in rapidly changing, human-impacted environments. However, the fact that chemical-induced reduced genetic diversity, which is not necessarily linked to genetic adaptation, leads to a reduced fitness under altered stress conditions, is to our knowledge a novel finding.

  18. Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11 completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day. For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL -1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, protein C-reactive (CRP and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05. Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h and CRP (Post 24 h levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.

  19. Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

  20. Relations of Change in Condition Severity and School Self-Concept To Change in Achievement-Related Behavior in Children with Asthma or Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.; Austin, Joan K.; Huster, Gertrude A.; Dunn, David W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores relation of gender, change in condition of severity, and change in school self-concept, to change in teachers' ratings of academic-related behaviors in children with asthma or epilepsy. Tests showed that these children were near population mean in academic-related behaviors, except students with high-severity epilepsy. (Author/JDM)

  1. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States. A generalized ordered logit model is estimated in order to account for the ordered nature of severity, while allowing the violation of the proportional odds assumption across severity categories. Data...... for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers......Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The...

  2. Dose reduction according to the exposure condition in intervention procedure: Focus on the change of dose area and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jun Ho; Jung, Ku Min; Lee, Kyung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to suggest a method to reduce the dose by Analyzing the dose area product (DAP) and image quality according to the change of tube current using NEMA Phantom. The spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were used as evaluation criteria in addition to signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR), which are important image quality parameters of intervention. Tube voltage was fixed at 80 kVp and the amount of tube current was changed to 20, 30, 40, and 50 mAs, and the dose area product and image quality were compared and analyzed. As a result, the dose area product increased from 1066 mGycm2 to 6160 mGycm2 to 6 times as the condition increased, while the spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were higher than 20 mAs and 30 mAs, Spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were observed below the evaluation criteria. In addition, the SNR and CNR increased up to 30 mAs, slightly increased at 40 mAs, but not significantly different from the previous one, and decreased at 50 mAs. As a result, the exposure dose significantly increased due to overexposure of the test conditions and the image quality deteriorated in all areas of spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, SNR and CNR.

  3. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal exposure to maternal very severe obesity is associated with impaired neurodevelopment and executive functioning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Theresia H; Lahti, Marius; Drake, Amanda J; Denison, Fiona C; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundPrenatal maternal obesity has been associated with an increased risk of neurocognitive problems in childhood, but there are fewer studies on executive functioning.MethodsTests and questionnaires to assess neurodevelopment, executive functioning, and the ability to delay gratification were conducted in 113 children (mean (SD)=4.24 (0.63) years of age) born to mothers with very severe obesity (SO, body mass index (BMI)⩾40 kg/m 2 , n=51) or to lean mothers (BMI⩽25 kg/m 2 , n=62).ResultsPrenatal maternal SO predicted poorer neurodevelopment (unstandardized regression coefficient (B)=-0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.82; -0.02)), worse problem-solving (odd ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% CI (1.13; 0.07)), and fine motor skills (OR=4.91, 95% CI (1.27; 19.04)), poorer executive functioning in areas of attention, inhibitory control, and working memory (standardized B=3.75, 95% CI (1.01; 13.93)) but not in self-gratification delay. The effects were independent of maternal concurrent psychological well-being and child's BMI, but not independent of maternal education.ConclusionFuture studies should investigate whether perinatal management of maternal obesity could prevent adverse outcomes in child neurodevelopment.

  5. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult Offspring Performance in Trace Fear Conditioning after Prenatal and Postnatal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...

  6. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  7. Investigation of conditions inside the reactor building annulus of a PWR plant of KONVOI type in case of severe accidents with increased containment leakages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Ivan [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Sonnenkalb, Martin [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Improvements of the implemented severe accident management (SAM) concepts have been done in all operating German NPPs after the Fukushima Daiichi accidents following recommendations of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and as a result of the stress test being performed. The efficiency of newly developed severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for a PWR KONVOI reference plant related to the mitigation of challenging conditions inside the reactor building (RB) annulus due to increased containment leakages during severe accidents have been assessed. Based on two representative severe accident scenarios the releases of both hydrogen and radionuclides into the RB annulus have been predicted with different boundary conditions. The accident scenarios have been analysed without and with the impact of several SAM measures (already planned or proposed in addition), which turned out to be efficient to mitigate the consequences. The work was done within the frame of a research project financially supported by the Federal Ministry BMUB.

  8. Investigation of conditions inside the reactor building annulus of a PWR plant of KONVOI type in case of severe accidents with increased containment leakages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalov, Ivan; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Improvements of the implemented severe accident management (SAM) concepts have been done in all operating German NPPs after the Fukushima Daiichi accidents following recommendations of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and as a result of the stress test being performed. The efficiency of newly developed severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for a PWR KONVOI reference plant related to the mitigation of challenging conditions inside the reactor building (RB) annulus due to increased containment leakages during severe accidents have been assessed. Based on two representative severe accident scenarios the releases of both hydrogen and radionuclides into the RB annulus have been predicted with different boundary conditions. The accident scenarios have been analysed without and with the impact of several SAM measures (already planned or proposed in addition), which turned out to be efficient to mitigate the consequences. The work was done within the frame of a research project financially supported by the Federal Ministry BMUB.

  9. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation

  10. Deep coupling of star tracker and MEMS-gyro data under highly dynamic and long exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers and gyroscopes are the two most widely used attitude measurement devices in spacecrafts. The star tracker is supposed to have the highest accuracy in stable conditions among different types of attitude measurement devices. In general, to detect faint stars and reduce the size of the star tracker, a method with long exposure time method is usually used. Thus, under dynamic conditions, smearing of the star image may appear and result in decreased accuracy or even failed extraction of the star spot. This may cause inaccuracies in attitude measurement. Gyros have relatively good dynamic performance and are usually used in combination with star trackers. However, current combination methods focus mainly on the data fusion of the output attitude data levels, which are inadequate for utilizing and processing internal blurred star image information. A method for tracking deep coupling stars and MEMS-gyro data is proposed in this work. The method achieves deep fusion at the star image level. First, dynamic star image processing is performed based on the angular velocity information of the MEMS-gyro. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the star spot could be improved, and extraction is achieved more effectively. Then, a prediction model for optimal estimation of the star spot position is obtained through the MEMS-gyro, and an extended Kalman filter is introduced. Meanwhile, the MEMS-gyro drift can be estimated and compensated though the proposed method. These enable the star tracker to achieve high star centroid determination accuracy under dynamic conditions. The MEMS-gyro drift can be corrected even when attitude data of the star tracker are unable to be solved and only one navigation star is captured in the field of view. Laboratory experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the whole system. (paper)

  11. Deep coupling of star tracker and MEMS-gyro data under highly dynamic and long exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-08-01

    Star trackers and gyroscopes are the two most widely used attitude measurement devices in spacecrafts. The star tracker is supposed to have the highest accuracy in stable conditions among different types of attitude measurement devices. In general, to detect faint stars and reduce the size of the star tracker, a method with long exposure time method is usually used. Thus, under dynamic conditions, smearing of the star image may appear and result in decreased accuracy or even failed extraction of the star spot. This may cause inaccuracies in attitude measurement. Gyros have relatively good dynamic performance and are usually used in combination with star trackers. However, current combination methods focus mainly on the data fusion of the output attitude data levels, which are inadequate for utilizing and processing internal blurred star image information. A method for tracking deep coupling stars and MEMS-gyro data is proposed in this work. The method achieves deep fusion at the star image level. First, dynamic star image processing is performed based on the angular velocity information of the MEMS-gyro. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the star spot could be improved, and extraction is achieved more effectively. Then, a prediction model for optimal estimation of the star spot position is obtained through the MEMS-gyro, and an extended Kalman filter is introduced. Meanwhile, the MEMS-gyro drift can be estimated and compensated though the proposed method. These enable the star tracker to achieve high star centroid determination accuracy under dynamic conditions. The MEMS-gyro drift can be corrected even when attitude data of the star tracker are unable to be solved and only one navigation star is captured in the field of view. Laboratory experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the whole system.

  12. Occupational Radiation Exposure to the Extremities of Medical Staff during Hysterosalpingography and Radionuclide Bone Scan Procedures in Several Nigerian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Norbert Jibiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The practice of regular dose measurement helps to ascertain the level of occupational dose delivered to the staff involved in diagnostic procedures. This study was carried out to evaluate the dose exposed to the hands of radiologists and a radiologic technologist carrying out HSG and radionuclide bone scan examinations in several hospitals in Nigeria. Methods: Radiation doses exposed to the hands of radiologists and a technician carrying out hysterosalpingography (HSG and bone scan procedures were measured using calibrated thermo-luminescent dosimeters. Five radiologists and a radiologic technologist were included in the study for dose measurement. Results: The study indicates that each radiologist carried out approximately 2 examinations per week with the mean dose ranging between 0.49-0.62 mSv per week, resulting in an annual dose of 191 mSv. Similarly, the occupational dose delivered to both the left and right hands of a radiologic technologist administering 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP without cannula and with cannula were 10.68 (720.2 and 13.82 (556.4 mSv per week (and per annum, respectively. It was determined that the left hand of the personnel received higher doses than their right hand. Conclusion: The estimated annual dose during HSG is far below the annual dose limit for deterministic effects, however, it is greater than 10% of the applicable annual dose limit. Hence, routine monitoring is required to ensure adequate protection of the personnel. The total annual dose received during the bone scan exceeds the annual dose limit for both hands, and the dose to either left or right hand is greater than the dose limit of 500 mSv/yr. The radiologists monitored are not expected to incur any deterministic effects during HSG examinations, however, accumulated doses arising from the scattered radiation to the eyes, legs, and neck could be substantial and might lead to certain effects. More staff are required to administer 99m

  13. Flat friction tests applied to austenic stainless steels with several surface finish. Analysis of adhesion conditions in friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatatyd, A.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the tribological behaviour of austenic stainless steels AISI 304 with bright surface finishing (B). The assays have been carried out in flat faced dies system with mineral oil of 200 cts viscosity, S 2 Mo grease and in dry conditions. The relationship between friction coefficient and pressure and velocity has been established for the mineral oil as lubricant. In these conditions, a strong adhesive tendency has been found in boundary lubrication regime. The results obtained here, show us that S 2 Mo grease leads to lowest values for the friction coefficient. A minor adhesive behaviour tendency for AISI 316 steel, harder than 304 grades, has been found. A relevant plowing phenomena has been observed for the more critical friction conditions tried out. A surface hardener is produced as a consequence of that. (Author) 19 refs

  14. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  15. Eighty Kilograms Weight Reduction in a Case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Several Comorbidities: Did the Conditions Improve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Foroughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA together with metabolic disorders is common in severely obese patients. Weight reduction is considered as a treatment modality in these cases while few of them can succeed in considerable weight loss. Here, we present a severely obese man with body mass index of 54 suffered from OSA, type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypertension. He intentionally lost 80 kilograms weight during the 2-year follow-up. Diabetes and hypertension completely resolved with considerable improvement in OSA syndrome after this huge weight reduction.

  16. Does attenuated skin blood flow lower sweat rate and the critical environmental limit for heat balance during severe heat exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does attenuated skin blood flow diminish sweating and reduce the critical environmental limit for heat balance, which indicates maximal heat loss potential, during severe heat stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Isosmotic hypovolaemia attenuated skin blood flow by ∼20% but did not result in different sweating rates, mean skin temperatures or critical environmental limits for heat balance compared with control and volume-infusion treatments, suggesting that the lower levels of skin blood flow commonly observed in aged and diseased populations may not diminish maximal whole-body heat dissipation. Attenuated skin blood flow (SkBF) is often assumed to impair core temperature (T c ) regulation. Profound pharmacologically induced reductions in SkBF (∼85%) lead to impaired sweating, but whether the smaller attenuations in SkBF (∼20%) more often associated with ageing and certain diseases lead to decrements in sweating and maximal heat loss potential is unknown. Seven healthy men (28 ± 4 years old) completed a 30 min equilibration period at 41°C and a vapour pressure (P a ) of 2.57 kPa followed by incremental steps in P a of 0.17 kPa every 6 min to 5.95 kPa. Differences in heat loss potential were assessed by identifying the critical vapour pressure (P crit ) at which an upward inflection in T c occurred. The following three separate treatments elicited changes in plasma volume to achieve three distinct levels of SkBF: control (CON); diuretic-induced isosmotic dehydration to lower SkBF (DEH); and continuous saline infusion to maintain SkBF (SAL). The T c , mean skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, mean laser-Doppler flux (forearm and thigh; LDF mean ), mean local sweat rate (forearm and thigh; LSR mean ) and metabolic rate were measured. In DEH, a 14.2 ± 5.7% lower plasma volume resulted in a ∼20% lower LDF mean in perfusion units (PU) (DEH, 139 ± 23 PU; CON, 176 ± 22 PU; and SAL

  17. Characteristics and severity of asthma in children with and without atopic conditions : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J H; van Erp, Francine C; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland van der Zee, Anke H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood allergic diseases have a major impact on a child's quality of life, as well as that of their parents. We studied the coexistence of reported allergies in children who use asthma medication. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that asthma severity is greater among children

  18. Characteristics and severity of asthma in children with and without atopic conditions: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; van Erp, Francine C.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland van der Zee, Anke H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood allergic diseases have a major impact on a child's quality of life, as well as that of their parents. We studied the coexistence of reported allergies in children who use asthma medication. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that asthma severity is greater among children

  19. Severity of a mountain pine beetle outbreak across a range of stand conditions in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony G. Vorster; Paul H. Evangelista; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Sunil Kumar; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Antony S. Cheng; Kelly Elder

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks had unprecedented effects on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) in western North America. We used data from 165 forest inventory plots to analyze stand conditions that regulate lodgepole pine mortality across a wide range of stand structure and species composition at the Fraser...

  20. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha

    2017-06-01

    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  1. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  2. Recent advances in modeling and simulation of the exposure and response of tungsten to fusion energy conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marian, Jaime; Becquart, Charlotte S.; Domain, Christophe; Dudarev, Sergei L.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Mason, Daniel R.; Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Snead, Lance L.; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Wirth, Brian D.

    2017-06-09

    Under the anticipated operating conditions for demonstration magnetic fusion reactors beyond ITER, structural materials will be exposed to unprecedented conditions of irradiation, heat flux, and temperature. While such extreme environments remain inaccessible experimentally, computational modeling and simulation can provide qualitative and quantitative insights into materials response and complement the available experimental measurements with carefully validated predictions. For plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor, tungsten (W) has been selected as the best candidate material due to its superior high-temperature and irradiation properties. In this paper we provide a review of recent efforts in computational modeling of W both as a plasma-facing material exposed to He deposition as well as a bulk structural material subjected to fast neutron irradiation. We use a multiscale modeling approach –commonly used as the materials modeling paradigm– to define the outline of the paper and highlight recent advances using several classes of techniques and their interconnection. We highlight several of the most salient findings obtained via computational modeling and point out a number of remaining challenges and future research directions

  3. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation for patients with severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, N.K.; Kim, T.H.; McGlave, P.; Goldman, A.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Krivit, W.; Woods, W.G.; Kersey, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A preparative regimen, consisting of total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide, was utilized in 40 patients with severe aplastic anemia undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation. This regimen was successful in decreasing rejection in these previously transfused patients, as only one patient rejected the marrow graft. Twenty-nine of the 40 transplanted patients are surviving from 1.5 to 59 mo, with a median follow-up of 24 mo. The actuarial survival rate for these heavily transfused patients with aplastic anemia is 72% at 2 yr. This preparative regimen is extremely effective in decreasing rejection following transplantation for severe aplastic anemia. Future efforts in this area must be aimed at the elimination of graft-versus-host disease and control of fatal infections

  5. Comparison of theoretical estimates and experimental measurements of fatigue crack growth under severe thermal shock conditions (part one - experimental observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.; Green, D.; Parker, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in which a severe thermal cycle comprising of alternate upshocks and downshocks has been applied to an axisymmetric feature with an internal, partial penetration weld and crevice. The direction of cracking and crack growth rate were observed experimentally and detailed records made of the thermal cycle. A second part to the paper, reported separately, compares a linear elastic fracture mechanics assessment of the cracking to the experimental observations

  6. The impact of changing climate conditions on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments in Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirini Vozinaki, Anthi; Tapoglou, Evdokia; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, although is already happening, consists of a big threat capable of causing lots of inconveniences in future societies and their economies. In this work, the climate change impact on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-ca