WorldWideScience

Sample records for severe conditions environment

  1. Concrete under severe conditions. Environment and loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the CONSEC Conferences is to focus on concrete infrastructures, either subjected to severe environment or severe loading, or any combination of severe conditions. Experience from the performance of existing concrete structures, and especially under severe environmental conditions, severe accidental loading or extended lifespan, has demonstrated the need for better integration of structural and durability design, new design concepts including reliability-based durability design, performance-based material requirements, structural robustness, and an improved basis for documentation of obtained construction quality and durability properties during concrete construction. An improved basis for operation and preventive maintenance of concrete structures including repairs and retrofitting is also very important. Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel, inadequate structural design for seismic or blast loading, are examples of reduced service life of concrete structures that not only represent technical and economical problems, but also a huge waste of natural resources and hence also, an environmental and ecological problem. Experience of structures effectively submitted to severe conditions represents a unique benchmark for quantifying the actual safety and durability margin of concrete structures. In fact for several reasons, most concrete design codes, job specifications and other requirements for concrete structures have frequently shown to yield insufficient and unsatisfactory results and ability to solve the above problems, as well as issues raised by specific very long-term or very severe requirements for nuclear and industrial waste management, or civil works of strategic relevance. Recently available high to ultra-high performance concrete may find rational and valuable application in such cases. It is very important, therefore, to bring people with different professional backgrounds together to exchange experience and develop multi

  2. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  3. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  4. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  5. Study some mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete with nano silica under severe saline environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Ghalib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of Nano silica self-compacting concrete which is subjected to severe saline conditions that contain sulfates and chlorides at concentrations similar to those existing in the soils and ground water of the middle and southern parts of Iraq. For this purpose, ordinary and sulfate resistant Portland cement without and with 3% Nano silica addition by weight of cementitious materials were used. Splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity were investigated for all exposure conditions and all types of mixes of self-compacting concrete at ages of 28, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days. Test results revealed that the inclusion of Nano Silica in concrete mixes improved clearly the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete compared with reference concrete.

  6. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  7. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction of radionuclides in severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrale, Dhanesh B.; Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj Kumar; Paul, U.K.; Prasad, M.; Gaikwad, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed with inherent engineering safety systems and associated operational procedures that provide an in-depth defence against accidents. Radionuclides such as Iodine, Cesium, Tellurium, Barium, Strontium, Rubidium, Molybdenum and many others may get released during a severe accident. Among these, Iodine, one of the fission products, behaviour is significant for the analysis of severe accident consequences because iodine is a chemically more active to the potential components released to the environment. During severe accident, Iodine is released and transported in aqueous, organic and inorganic forms. Iodine release from fuel, iodine transport in primary coolant system, containment, and reaction with control rods are some of the important phases in a severe accident scenario. The behaviour of iodine is governed by aerosol physics, depletion mechanisms gravitational settling, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. The presence of gaseous organic compounds and oxidizing compounds on iodine, reactions of aerosol iodine with boron and formation of cesium iodide which results in more volatile iodine release in containment play significant roles. Water radiolysis products due to presence of dissolved impurities, chloride ions, organic impurities should be considered while calculating iodine release. Containment filtered venting system (CFVS) consists of venturi scrubber and a scrubber tank which is dosed with NaOH and NaS_2O_3 in water where iodine will react with the chemicals and convert into NaI and Na_2SO_4. This paper elaborates the issues with respect to interaction of radionuclides and its consideration in modeling of severe accident. (author)

  9. Severe Weather Environments in Atmospheric Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. T.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric reanalyses combine historical observation data using a fixed assimilation scheme to achieve a dynamically coherent representation of the atmosphere. How well these reanalyses represent severe weather environments via proxies is poorly defined. To quantify the performance of reanalyses, a database of proximity soundings near severe storms from the Rapid Update Cycle 2 (RUC-2) model will be compared to a suite of reanalyses including: North American Reanalysis (NARR), European Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), 2nd Modern-Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR), and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). A variety of severe weather parameters will be calculated from these soundings including: convective available potential energy (CAPE), storm relative helicity (SRH), supercell composite parameter (SCP), and significant tornado parameter (STP). These soundings will be generated using the SHARPpy python module, which is an open source tool used to calculate severe weather parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the NARR and JRA55 are significantly more skilled at producing accurate severe weather environments than the other reanalyses. The primary difference between these two reanalyses and the remaining reanalyses is a significant negative bias for thermodynamic parameters. To facilitate climatological studies, the scope of work will be expanded to compute these parameters for the entire domain and duration of select renalyses. Preliminary results from this effort will be presented and compared to observations at select locations. This dataset will be made pubically available to the larger scientific community, and details of this product will be provided.

  10. A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, R. C.; Middleton, C.; Lennard, C.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2017-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms pose a considerable risk to society and the economy of South Africa during the austral summer months (October-March). Yet, the frequency and distribution of such severe storms is poorly understood, which partly stems out of an inadequate observation network. Given the lack of observations, alternative methods have focused on the relationship between severe storms and their associated environments. One such approach is to use a combination of covariant discriminants, derived from gridded datasets, as a probabilistic proxy for the development of severe storms. These covariates describe some key ingredient for severe convective storm development, such as the presence of instability. Using a combination of convective available potential energy and deep-layer vertical shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, this study establishes a climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa for the period 1979-2010. Results indicate that early austral summer months are most likely associated with conditions that are conducive to the development of severe storms over the interior of South Africa. The east coast of the country is a hotspot for potential severe convective environments throughout the summer months. This is likely due to the close proximity of the Agulhas Current, which produces high latent heat fluxes and acts as a key moisture source. No obvious relationship is established between the frequency of potential severe convective environments and the main large-scale modes of variability in the Southern Hemisphere, such as ENSO. This implies that several factors, possibly more localised, may modulate the spatial and temporal frequency of severe thunderstorms across the region.

  11. Chemical phenomena under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A severe nuclear reactor accident is expected to involve a vast number of chemical processes. The chemical processes of major safety significance begin with the production of hydrogen during steam oxidation of fuel cladding. Physico-chemical changes in the fuel and the vaporization of radionuclides during reactor accidents have captured much of the attention of the safety community in recent years. Protracted chemical interactions of core debris with structural concrete mark the conclusion of dynamic events in a severe accident. An overview of the current understanding of chemical processes in severe reactor accident is provided in this paper. It is shown that most of this understanding has come from application of findings from other fields though a few areas have in the past been subject to in-depth study of a fundamental nature. Challenges in the study of severe accident chemistry are delineated

  12. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments

  13. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  14. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  15. Assessment of deep geological environment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Han, Kyung Won; Joen, Kwan Sik

    2003-05-01

    The main tasks of geoscientific study in the 2nd stage was characterized focusing mainly on a near-field condition of deep geologic environment, and aimed to generate the geologic input data for a Korean reference disposal system for high level radioactive wastes and to establish site characterization methodology, including neotectonic features, fracture systems and mechanical properties of plutonic rocks, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. The preliminary assessment of neotectonics in the Korean peninsula was performed on the basis of seismicity recorded, Quarternary faults investigated, uplift characteristics studied on limited areas, distribution of the major regional faults and their characteristics. The local fracture system was studied in detail from the data obtained from deep boreholes in granitic terrain. Through this deep drilling project, the geometrical and hydraulic properties of different fracture sets are statistically analysed on a block scale. The mechanical properties of intact rocks were evaluated from the core samples by laboratory testing and the in-situ stress conditions were estimated by a hydro fracturing test in the boreholes. The hydrogeochemical conditions in the deep boreholes were characterized based on hydrochemical composition and isotopic signatures and were attempted to assess the interrelation with a major fracture system. The residence time of deep groundwater was estimated by C-14 dating. For the travel time of groundwater between the boreholes, the methodology and equipment for tracer test were established

  16. Radiation Hardened Electronics Destined For Severe Nuclear Reactor Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbert, Keith E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Clark, Lawrence T. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Post nuclear accident conditions represent a harsh environment for electronics. The full station blackout experience at Fukushima shows the necessity for emergency sensing capabilities in a radiation-enhanced environment. This NEET (Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies) research project developed radiation hardened by design (RHBD) electronics using commercially available technology that employs commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices and present generation circuit fabrication techniques to improve the total ionizing dose (TID) hardness of electronics. Such technology not only has applicability to severe accident conditions but also to facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle in which radiation tolerance is required. For example, with TID tolerance to megarads of dose, electronics could be deployed for long-term monitoring, inspection and decontamination missions. The present work has taken a two-pronged approach, specifically, development of both board and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) level RHBD techniques. The former path has focused on TID testing of representative microcontroller ICs with embedded flash (eFlash) memory, as well as standalone flash devices that utilize the same fabrication technologies. The standalone flash devices are less complicated, allowing better understanding of the TID response of the crucial circuits. Our TID experiments utilize biased components that are in-situ tested, and in full operation during irradiation. A potential pitfall in the qualification of memory circuits is the lack of rigorous testing of the possible memory states. For this reason, we employ test patterns that include all ones, all zeros, a checkerboard of zeros and ones, an inverse checkerboard, and random data. With experimental evidence of improved radiation response for unbiased versus biased conditions, a demonstration-level board using the COTS devices was constructed. Through a combination of redundancy and power gating, the demonstration

  17. Iodine/steel reactions under severe accident conditions in LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, F.; Greger, G-U.; Hellman, S.; Bleier, A.; Morell, W.

    1994-01-01

    Due to large surface areas, the reaction of volatile, molecular iodine (I 2 ) with steel surfaces in the containment may play an important role in predicting the source term to the environment. Both wall retention of iodine and conversion of volatile into non-volatile iodine compounds at steel surfaces have to be considered. Two types of laboratory experiments were carried out at Siemens/KWU in order to investigate the reaction of I 2 at steel surfaces representative for German power plants. 1) For steel coupons submerged in an I 2 solution at T = 50 deg C, 90 deg C or 140 deg C the reaction rate of the I 2 /I - conversion was determined. No iodine loading was observed on the steel in the aqueous phase tests. I 2 reacts with the steel components (Fe, Cr or Ni) to form metal iodides on the surface which are all immediately dissolved in water under dissociation into the metal and the iodide ions. From these experiments, the I 2 /I - conversion rate constants over the temperature range 50 deg C - 140 deg C as well as the activation energy were determined. The measured data are suitable to be included in severe accident iodine codes such as IMPAIR. 2) Steel tubes were exposed to a steam/I 2 flow under dry air at T=120 deg C and steam-condensing conditions at T= 120 deg C and 160 deg C. In dry air I 2 was retained on the steel surface and a deposition rate constant was measured. Under steam-condensing conditions there is an effective conversion of volatile I 2 to non-volatile I - which is subsequently washed off from the steel surface. The I 2 /I - conversion rate constants suitable for modelling this process were determined. No temperature dependency was found in the range 120 deg C - 160 deg C. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Thermocouples for conditions of aggressive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two new kinds of thermocouples have been chosen for temperature measurements in the in-pile safety program for light water reactors performed in France. They must give fuel centerline or roc cladding temperatures and withstand steam oxidation between 1000 0 C and 1800 0 C or higher, under severe fuel damage conditions. We describe briefly both types, then we emphasize on improvements under way concerning the tungsten-rhenium legs, the hafnia insulation and the sheaths materials. Oxidation resistance is achieved mainly by silicides layers, but other possibilities are considered, such as iridium coatings. Some details of insulators manufacturing or sensor assembly are given, as well as other high temperature applications for these thermocouples

  19. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  20. 42 CFR 483.470 - Condition of participation: Physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical environment... Condition of participation: Physical environment. (a) Standard: Client living environment. (1) The facility... sanitary environment to avoid sources and transmission of infections. There must be an active program for...

  1. Galvanic corrosion of metals and coatings when coupled to uranium in severe environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkle, J.R.; Childs, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of galvanic testing were varied in each environment. The position of metals in the galvanic series was not fixed, but changed with environment. In all cases where high general and galvanic corrosion rates were observed, the conditions of potential, pH, and impurity content could be correlated with regions of oxide surface film instability outlined by Pourbaix Diagrams. The majority of the severe corrosion reactions were observed in the acidic environment, although a few were noted in the caustic environment. The presence of chlorides tended to enhance galvanic corrosion rates at the neutral environment. 10 tables

  2. Gene-Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eUher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.

  3. 42 CFR 485.62 - Condition of participation: Physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical environment... of participation: Physical environment. The facility must provide a physical environment that...) Standard: Sanitary environment. The facility must maintain a sanitary environment and establish a program...

  4. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors

  5. 42 CFR 494.60 - Condition: Physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Physical environment. 494.60 Section 494... Patient Safety § 494.60 Condition: Physical environment. The dialysis facility must be designed..., and comfortable treatment environment. (a) Standard: Building. The building in which dialysis services...

  6. 42 CFR 416.44 - Condition for coverage-Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage-Environment. 416.44 Section... for coverage—Environment. The ASC must have a safe and sanitary environment, properly constructed, equipped, and maintained to protect the health and safety of patients. (a) Standard: Physical environment...

  7. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden); Joensen, H.P. [Froskaparsetur Foeroya. Faroe Islands, Torshavn (Denmark); Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Logemann, K. [Univ. of Iceland (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir Rikisins (Iceland); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Suolanen, V. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW{sub th} reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the

  8. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.; Lahtinen, J.; Logemann, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Roos, P.; Suolanen, V.

    2013-02-01

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW th reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen

  9. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  10. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira; Fausto Kothe; Luis Felipe Dias Lopes; Érico Felden Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin) musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009), which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relev...

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  12. Most likely failure location during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Allison, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from which finite element calculation results are used in conjunction with analytical calculation results to predict failure in different LWR vessel designs during a severe accident. Detailed analyses are being performed to investigate the relative likelihood of a BWR vessel and drain line penetration to fail during a wide range of severe accident conditions. Analytically developed failure maps, which were developed in terms of dimensionless groups, are applied to consider geometries and materials occurring in other LWR vessel designs. Preliminary numerical analysis results indicate that if ceramic debris relocates within the BWR drain line to a distance below the lower head, the drain line will reach failure temperatures before the vessel fails. Application of failure maps for these debris conditions to other LWR geometries indicate that in-vessel tube melting will occur in either BWR or PWR vessel designs. Furthermore, if this melt is assumed to fill the entire penetration flow area, the melt is predicted to travel well below the lower head in any of the reference LWR penetrations. However, failure maps suggest the result that ex-vessel tube temperatures exceed the penetration's ultimate strength is specific to the BWR drain line because of its material composition and relatively large effective diameter for melt flow

  13. 42 CFR 403.742 - Condition of participation: Physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical environment... environment. A RNHCI must be designed, constructed, and maintained to ensure the safety of the patients, staff, and the public. (a) Standard: Buildings. The physical plant and the overall environment must be...

  14. 42 CFR 485.723 - Condition of participation: Physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Physical environment... participation: Physical environment. The building housing the organization is constructed, equipped, and..., sanitary, and comfortable environment. (a) Standard: Safety of patients. The organization satisfies the...

  15. Microbial ecology of artisanal Italian Cheese: environment and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioguardi, L.; Colombo, E.; Franzetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    In agro-food sector the structural features of working environments and consequently their hygienic conditions are of primary importance for a safe and quality food production and to ensure comfortable and ergonomic working conditions. In particular, as regards high-mountain dairy production, the environment is important because it can affect the development of typical microbial ecosystem. (Author)

  16. Microbial ecology of artisanal Italian Cheese: environment and working conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dioguardi, L.; Colombo, E.; Franzetti, L.

    2009-07-01

    In agro-food sector the structural features of working environments and consequently their hygienic conditions are of primary importance for a safe and quality food production and to ensure comfortable and ergonomic working conditions. In particular, as regards high-mountain dairy production, the environment is important because it can affect the development of typical microbial ecosystem. (Author)

  17. Radiological environment within an NPP after a severe nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andgren, Karin; Fritioff, Karin; Buhr, Anna Maria Blixt; Huutoniemi, Tommi

    2017-09-01

    The radiological environment following a severe nuclear accident can be visualised on building layouts. The direct radiation in an area (or room) can be visualized on the layout by a colouring scheme depending on the dose rate level (for example orange for high gamma dose rate level and purple for an intermediate gamma dose rate level). Following the Fukushima accident, a need for update of these layouts has been identified at the Swedish nuclear power plant of Forsmark. Shielding calculations for areas where access is desired for severe accident management have been performed. Many different sources of radiation together with different types of shielding material contribute to the dose that would be received by a person entering the area. External radiation from radioactivity within e.g. pipes and components is considered and also external radiation from radioactivity in the air (originating from diffuse leakage of the containment atmosphere). Results are presented as dose rates for relevant dose points together with a method for estimating the dose rate levels for each of the rooms of the reactor building.

  18. Radiological environment within an NPP after a severe nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andgren Karin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiological environment following a severe nuclear accident can be visualised on building layouts. The direct radiation in an area (or room can be visualized on the layout by a colouring scheme depending on the dose rate level (for example orange for high gamma dose rate level and purple for an intermediate gamma dose rate level. Following the Fukushima accident, a need for update of these layouts has been identified at the Swedish nuclear power plant of Forsmark. Shielding calculations for areas where access is desired for severe accident management have been performed. Many different sources of radiation together with different types of shielding material contribute to the dose that would be received by a person entering the area. External radiation from radioactivity within e.g. pipes and components is considered and also external radiation from radioactivity in the air (originating from diffuse leakage of the containment atmosphere. Results are presented as dose rates for relevant dose points together with a method for estimating the dose rate levels for each of the rooms of the reactor building.

  19. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  20. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  1. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  2. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009, which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relevance. The social environment component presented the highest score - 8.00 (1.50 points, followed by professional achievement - 7.11 (1.96 points, and physical environment - 6.89 (0.93 points. The salary and benefits provided by the orchestra presented the lowest score - 6.78 (1.56 points. In general, the musicians showed positive perceptions of the components related to work environment and working conditions. However, remuneration and social relevance are work bases that could contribute to improve the working conditions of these professionals.

  3. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.

    - or minor – radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MWth reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen release fractions in the study were: iodine 20% (of the total core inventory), caesium 10%, tellurium 10%, strontium 0...

  4. Leakage potential through mechanical penetrations in a severe accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the findings of an ongoing program, Integrity of Containment Penetrations Under Severe Accident Loads. The program is concerned with the leakage modes as well as the magnitude of leakage through mechanical penetrations in a containment building subject to a severe accident. Seal and gasket tests are used to evaluate the effect of radiation aging, thermal aging, seal geometry, and seal squeeze on seals and gaskets subjected to a hypothesized severe accident. The effects on leakage of the structural response of equipment hatches, personnel airlocks, and drywell heads subjected to severe accident pressures are studied by experiments and analyses. The data gathered during this program will be used to develop methodologies for predicting leakage

  5. Firms’ behavior in conditions of totally competitive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kantor

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article in the short form deals with the analysis of firms’ behavior in conditions of perfect competition environment with regard to the effective operation of market mechanism depending on conditions, prevailing at the market. Single market situations are represented also graphically in order to demonstrate precisely the firms’ goals participation on the perfect competition market, and to gain maximal profit. Together with article contents the intention was to point out to the fact, that model of perfect competition environments is technically highly elaborated and in the modern businesses will definitely find out its justification.

  6. Evaluation of Several Learning Environment Variables at Secondary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is an issue whose importance needs to be focused in the learning environment and learning activities in education. The level of teaching and learning is known to effect health of learners. Learning environments are teeming with many variables. Ambient temperature, noise, humidity and illumination are a few of them. If these variables are outside the specified limits for ambient levels this may need to a loss of learning and adversely affect the health of learners. This research was conducted to evaluate this aspect at institutions of secondary education in Turkey. The literature discusses the findings of various measurements that were taken with a variety of devices such as the Environment Meter-DT 8820, GMI PN 66094 and AARONIA AG SPECTRAN at randomly selected schools and classes. The temperature and carbon dioxide values in the classrooms were outside the defined limits according to research findings. In addition, many classrooms had noise levels above limits which could impair human health and some color selections in classrooms were made incorrectly. When the results of the findings are analyzed, we find the learner’s metabolism is negatively affected; attention loss and serious health problems may be experienced in the long run. It is highly recommended that laws and regulations regarding school construction and settlement be enacted and that precise limits be defined in those laws. In addition, it is thought establishing electromechanical systems to measure indoor and outdoor air quality in classrooms would bring benefits

  7. Numerical module for debris behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Kobelev, G.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vasiliev, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The late phase of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear reactor is characterized by the appearance of porous debris and liquid pools in core region and lower head of the reactor vessel. Thermal hydraulics and heat transfer in these regions are very important for adequate analysis of severe accident dynamics. The purpose of this work is to develop a universal module which is able to model above-mentioned phenomena on the basis of modern physical concepts. The original approach for debris evolution is developed from classical principles using a set of parameters including debris porosity; average particle diameter; temperatures and mass fractions of solid, liquid and gas phases; specific interface areas between different phases; effective thermal conductivity of each phase, including radiative heat conductivity; mass and energy fluxes through the interfaces. The calculation results of several tests on modeling of porous debris behavior, including the MP-1 experiment, are presented in comparison with experimental data. The results are obtained using this module implemented into the Russian best estimate code, RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST, which was developed for modeling severe accident thermal hydraulics and late phase phenomena in VVER nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Characteristics of the aerosols released to the environment after a severe PWR accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhiaubet, G.; Manesse, D.

    1988-05-01

    In the event of a postulated severe accident on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) involving fuel degradation, gases and aerosols containing radioactive products could be released, with short, medium and long term consequences for the population and the environment. Under such accident conditions, the ESCADRE code system, developed at IPSN (Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection) can be used to calculate the properties of the substances released and, especially with the AEROSOLS/B2 code, the main characteristics of the aerosols (concentration, size distribution, composition). For conditions representative of severe PWR accidents, by varying different main parameters (structural material aerosols, steam condensation in the containment, etc...), indications are given on the range of characteristics of the aerosols (containing notably Cs, Te, Sr, Ru, etc...) released to the atmosphere. Information is also given on how more accurate data (especially on the chemical forms) will be obtainable in the framework of current or planned experimental programs (HEVA, PITEAS, PHEBUS PF, etc...) [fr

  9. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modeling pedestrian injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Carlo G; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre; Rasmussen, Thomas K

    2018-01-02

    This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by focusing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. Reports for 6,539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about the built environment and exposure at the crash locations. A linearized spatial logit model estimated the probability of pedestrians sustaining a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits being related to the most severe outcomes. This study provides novel perspectives by showing positive spatial correlations of crashes with the same severity outcomes and emphasizing the role of the built environment in the proximity of the crash. This study emphasizes the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs, and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasizes the role of the built environment, because shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, whereas the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density.

  10. Heuristic environment as condition of art criticism competence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential factor of professionally significant competences development of future art direction teachers is the educational environment as which it is necessary to understand the integrity of pedagogical conditions, interactions, processes, components of pedagogical process which is specially organized for achievement of the ...

  11. Conditions for Productive Learning in Network Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponti, M.; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lindström, B.

    2004-01-01

    are designed without a deep understanding of the pedagogical, communicative and collaborative conditions embedded in networked learning. Despite the existence of good theoretical views pointing to a social understanding of learning, rather than a traditional individualistic and information processing approach......The Kaleidoscope1 Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for Productive Networked Learning Environments is developing and elaborating conceptual understandings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) emphasizing the use of cross-cultural comparative......: Pedagogical design and the dialectics of the digital artefacts, the concept of collaboration, ethics/trust, identity and the role of scaffolding of networked learning environments.   The JEIRP is motivated by the fact that many networked learning environments in various European educational settings...

  12. Modeling concrete under severe conditions as a multiphase material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Pont, S., E-mail: dalpont@lcpc.f [Division Betons et Composites Cimentaires, BCC-LCPC, 58 Bd.Lefebvre 75738 Paris cedex 15 (France); Meftah, F. [Laboratoire Mecanique et Materiaux du Genie Civil, Universite Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Schrefler, B.A. [Dipartimento di Costruzioni e Trasporti, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The description as well as the prediction of the behavior of concrete under severe high temperature-pressure loading such as those typical of a loss-of-coolant accidental scenario considered for PWR containment buildings, matter in the study of such engineering applications and are also of interest in other fields such as safety evaluations during fire. The purpose of this paper is to present a flexible staggered finite element thermo-hygral model and then to use it as a numerical tool to determine the temperature and gas pressure fields that develop in concrete when heated.

  13. Accelerated Testing with Multiple Failure Modes under Several Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyue Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A complicated device may have multiple failure modes, and some of the failure modes are sensitive to low temperatures. To assess the reliability of a product with multiple failure modes, this paper presents an accelerated testing in which both of the high temperatures and the low temperatures are applied. Firstly, an acceleration model based on the Arrhenius model but accounting for the influence of both the high temperatures and low temperatures is proposed. Accordingly, an accelerated testing plan including both the high temperatures and low temperatures is designed, and a statistical analysis method is developed. The reliability function of the product with multiple failure modes under variable working conditions is given by the proposed statistical analysis method. Finally, a numerical example is studied to illustrate the proposed accelerated testing. The results show that the proposed accelerated testing is rather efficient.

  14. Firms’ behavior in conditions of imperfect competitive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kantor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the analysis of market structure on the imperfect competitive market, measuring market power, its effect on the price of products and reasons for origin of imperfect competition at the market. Described are the market conditions issues and possibilities of their manufacturing influence on the market price with graphical expressions. Prices are higher and capacity of production is lower. It characterizes monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. With its content it expresses, that imperfect competitive environment differs from perfect competition environment disparity of demand curve and in the market economics it has a more frequent application.

  15. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  16. Radiation deterioration of several aromatic polymers under oxidative conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced oxidative irradiation effects (with γ-rays under oxygen pressure) or poly(aryl sulphones) (U-PS and PES), poly(aryl ester) (U-Polymer), poly(aryl amide) (A-Film) and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) have been studied based on changes in tensile properties. The deterioration dose estimated from the decrease in the elongation at break was as low as one-fifth to one-tenth of that in high-dose-rate electron-beam irradiation, but the order of radiation resistance of the polymers did not differ from that in electron-beam irradiation, i.e. PEEK > A-Film > U-Polymer > U-PS > PES. The radiation stability of aromatic units under oxidative conditions was estimated from a comparison of the radiation resistance of the polymers themselves and their chemical structures. The following order was obtained: diphenyl ether, diphenyl ketone > aromatic amide>> bisphenol A > diphenyl sulphone. The deterioration mechanism of PEEK under oxidative irradiation was studied by measuring dynamic viscoelastic properties. It was concluded that deterioration in mechanical properties under oxidative irradiation was brought about by chain scission only. (author)

  17. Trace methane oxidation studied in several Euryarchaeota under diverse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Moran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used 13C-labeled methane to document the extent of trace methane oxidation by Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus, Archaeoglobus profundus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina acetivorans. The results indicate trace methane oxidation during growth varied among different species and among methanogen cultures grown on different substrates. The extent of trace methane oxidation by Mb. thermoautotrophicum (0.05 ± 0.04%, ± 2 standard deviations of the methane produced during growth was less than that by M. barkeri (0.15 ± 0.04%, grown under similar conditions with H2 and CO2. Methanosarcina acetivorans oxidized more methane during growth on trimethylamine (0.36 ± 0.05% than during growth on methanol (0.07 ± 0.03%. This may indicate that, in M. acetivorans, either a methyltransferase related to growth on trimethylamine plays a role in methane oxidation, or that methanol is an intermediate of methane oxidation. Addition of possible electron acceptors (O2, NO3–, SO22–, SO32– or H2 to the headspace did not substantially enhance or diminish methane oxidation in M. acetivorans cultures. Separate growth experiments with FAD and NAD+ showed that inclusion of these electron carriers also did not enhance methane oxidation. Our results suggest trace methane oxidized during methanogenesis cannot be coupled to the reduction of these electron acceptors in pure cultures, and that the mechanism by which methane is oxidized in methanogens is independent of H2 concentration. In contrast to the methanogens, species of the sulfate-reducing genus Archaeoglobus did not significantly oxidize methane during growth (oxidizing 0.003 ± 0.01% of the methane provided to A. fulgidus, 0.002 ± 0.009% to A. lithotrophicus and 0.003 ± 0.02% to A. profundus. Lack of observable methane oxidation in the three Archaeoglobus species examined may indicate that methyl-coenzyme M reductase, which is not present in

  18. Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of Beijing winter severe haze episodes has increased substantially over the past decades, and is commonly attributed to increased pollutant emissions from China’s rapid economic development. During such episodes, levels of fine particulate matter are harmful to human health and the environment, and cause massive disruption to economic activities, as occurred in January 2013. Conducive weather conditions are an important ingredient of severe haze episodes, and include reduced surface winter northerlies, weakened northwesterlies in the midtroposphere, and enhanced thermal stability of the lower atmosphere. How such weather conditions may respond to climate change is not clear. Here we project a 50% increase in the frequency and an 80% increase in the persistence of conducive weather conditions similar to those in January 2013, in response to climate change. The frequency and persistence between the historical (1950-1999) and future (2050-2099) climate were compared in 15 models under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). The increased frequency is consistent with large-scale circulation changes, including an Arctic Oscillation upward trend, weakening East Asian winter monsoon, and faster warming in the lower troposphere. Thus, circulation changes induced by global greenhouse gas emissions can contribute to the increased Beijing severe haze frequency.

  19. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica forest in Siberia. A time-series of remote sensing images was analyzed to estimate post-fire recovery as a response variable across the burned area in 1996. Our results suggested that burn severity and water content were primary controllers of both Larch forest recruitment and green vegetation cover as defined by the forest recovery index (FRI and the fractional vegetation cover (FVC, respectively. We found a high rate of Larch forest recruitment in sites of moderate burn severity, while a more severe burn was the preferable condition for quick occupation by vegetation that included early seral communities of shrubs, grasses, conifers and broadleaf trees. Sites close to water and that received higher solar energy during the summer months showed a higher rate of both recovery types, defined by the FRI and FVC, dependent on burn severity. In addition to these factors, topographic variables and pre-fire condition were important predictors of post-fire forest patterns. These results have direct implications for the post-fire forest management in the Siberian boreal Larch region.

  20. Severe fuel damage in steam and helium environments observed in in-reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Shiozawa, S.

    1984-01-01

    The bahavior of severe fuel damages has been studied in gaseous environments simulating core uncovery accidents in the in-reactor experiments utilizing the NSRR. Two types of cladding relocation modes, azimuthal flow and melt-down, were revealed through the parametric experiments. The azimuthal flow was evident in an oxidizing environment in case of no oxide film break. The melt-down can be categorized into flow-down and move-down, according to the velocity of the melt-down. Cinematographies showed that the flow-down was very fast as water flows down while the move-down appeared to be much slower. The flow-down was possible in an unoxidizing environment, whereas the move-down of molten cladding occured through a crack induced in an oxide film in an oxidizing environment. The criterion of the relocation modes was developed as a function of peak cladding temperature and oxidation condition. It was also found that neither immediate quench nor fuel fracture occurred upon flooding when cladding temperature was about 1800 0 C at water injection. The external mechanical force is needed for fuel fracture. (orig.)

  1. Oxidative conditions prevail in severe IUGR with vascular disease and Doppler anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Emeline; Delvin, Edgard; Edgard, Annie; Morin, Lucie; Dubé, Johanne; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Fouron, Jean-Claude; Klam, Stephanie; Levy, Emile; Leduc, Line

    2015-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and prenatal exposure to oxidative stress are thought to lead to increased risks of cardiovascular disease later in life. The objective of the present study was to document whether cord blood oxidative stress biomarkers vary with the severity of IUGR and of vascular disease in the twin pregnancy model in which both fetuses share the same maternal environment. This prospective cohort study involved dichorionic twin pairs, with one co-twin with IUGR. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in venous cord blood samples from each neonate of 32 twin pairs, and compared, according to severity of IUGR (IUGR <5th percentile), Doppler anomalies of the umbilical artery and early onset IUGR (in the second trimester) of the growth restricted twin. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins (oxLDL) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased proportionally in cases of severe IUGR. OxLDL concentrations were also increased in cases of IUGR with Doppler anomaly. Our data indicate that severe IUGR, is related to a derangement in redox balance, illustrated by increased venous cord blood oxidative stress biomarkers concentrations. Severe IUGR and IUGR with abnormal Doppler can be translated into conditions with intense oxidative stress.

  2. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  3. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  4. Evolution of passive movement in advective environments: General boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    In a previous work [16], Lou et al. studied a Lotka-Volterra competition-diffusion-advection system, where two species are supposed to differ only in their advection rates and the environment is assumed to be spatially homogeneous and closed (no-flux boundary condition), and showed that weaker advective movements are more beneficial for species to win the competition. In this paper, we aim to extend this result to a more general situation, where the environmental heterogeneity is taken into account and the boundary condition at the downstream end becomes very flexible including the standard Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin type conditions as special cases. Our main approaches are to exclude the existence of co-existence (positive) steady state and to provide a clear picture on the stability of semi-trivial steady states, where we introduced new ideas and techniques to overcome the emerging difficulties. Based on these two aspects and the theory of abstract competitive systems, we achieve a complete understanding on the global dynamics.

  5. Cable condition monitoring in a pressurized water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hussaini, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Oconee Nuclear Station is the first nuclear plant designed, engineered and constructed by Duke Power Company. Even though the accelerated aging method was available to determine the life expectancy of the cable used in the reactor building, no natural aging data was available at that time. In order to be able to verify the condition of the reactor building cable over the life of the plant, an on-going cable monitoring plan was instituted. Various types of cable were selected to be monitored, and they were installed in cable life evaluation circuits in the reactor building. At five year intervals over the life of the plant, cable samples would be removed from these cable life evaluation circuits and tested to determine the effects of the reactor building environment on the integrity of the cable. A review of the cable life evaluation circuits and the results of the evaluation program to date is presented

  6. Multifunctional design of footwear for hot environment condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragcevic, Z.; Vujasinovic, E.; Hursa Sajatovic, A.

    2017-10-01

    For some time design of a new product is not connected only with aesthetic, artistic appearance but moreover with functionality and engineering (from rightful selection of materials, construction, and technological concept to prototyping). One good example of this is design of multifunctional footwear as well as hiking footwear, footwear for soldiers, police officers, first responders etc. All mentioned kinds of footwear have lot of specific requirements to fulfil starting from maintaining and enhancing mobility to maximizing protection and eliminating or minimizing the risk for the wearer. Therefore, designing appropriate footwear represents a great challenge not only for designers but for engineers as well. Having that entire in mind few years ago, Faculty of Textile Technology University of Zagreb started the research with the aim to develop 21st century multifunctional footwear for e.g. military, police, first respondents or any special human forces for different weather environment. The paper presents how it was done in the case of boots for hot environment conditions

  7. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  8. Simple preconditioning technique: empirical formula for condition number reduction at a junction of several wires

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition number for a method-of-moments’ impedance matrix resulting from a junction of several wires is frequency dependant and can be minimized at a given frequency using several approaches. An empirical formula for an optimum, condition...

  9. influence of severe conditions on the concrete employed in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, W.M.K.S.

    2006-01-01

    this thesis is mainly concentrating on honing the efficiency of heavy-weight high -performance (HWHP) concrete, developed from local aggregates together with additives that are waste products of other manufacturing processes, for the purpose of producing radiation shields, to attenuate gamma-rays in peaceful active-service facilitations . in other words, the thesis is in attempt to develop a special type of heavy concrete of various advantages that would enhance its performance in severe environment. such advantages may embrace concurrent improvements; such as high specific gravity, workability, high compressive strength, efficient attenuator for gamma radiation, and resistant to elevated temperature along with chemical attack.the named HWHP concrete was mainly prepared using two types of heavy aggregates, ilmenite (iron ore) and barite . in addition usual concrete (dolomite/sand) was also employed in this thesis to compare the obtained HWHP concrete. the practical facet of this thesis accounts for evaluating the influence of severe conditions, concomitantly and consecutively, on mechanical , morphological and attenuation characteristics for the three types of concrete

  10. Development of systematic models for aerosol agglomeration and spray removal under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide behavior during various severe accident conditions has been addressed as one of the important issues to discuss environmental safety in nuclear power plants. The present paper deals with the development of analytical models and their validations for the agglomeration of multiple-component aerosol and spray removal that controls source terms to the environment of both aerosols and gaseous radionuclides during recirculation mode operation in a containment system for a light water reactor. As for aerosol agglomeration, the single collision kernel model that can cover all types of two-body collision of aerosol was developed. In addition, the dynamic model that can treat aerosol and vapor transfer leading to the equilibrium condition under the containment spray operation was developed. The validations of the present models for multiple-component aerosol growth by agglomeration were performed by comparisons with Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and AB experiments at Hanford Engineering National Laboratory (HEDL). In addition, the spray removal models were applied to the analysis of containment spray experiment (CSE) at HEDL. The results calculated by the models showed good agreements with experimental results. (author)

  11. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  12. Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. P.; Pratt, L. M.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Pfiffner, S.; Bryan, R. A.; Dadachova, E.; Whyte, L.; Radtke, K.; Chan, E.; Tronick, S.; Borgonie, G.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Rothschild, L. J.; Rogoff, D. A.; Horikawa, D. D.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-02-01

    Recent orbital and landed missions have provided substantial evidence for ancient liquid water on the martian surface as well as evidence of more recent sedimentary deposits formed by water and/or ice. These observations raise serious questions regarding an independent origin and evolution of life on Mars. Future missions seek to identify signs of extinct martian biota in the form of biomarkers or morphological characteristics, but the inherent danger of spacecraft-borne terrestrial life makes the possibility of forward contamination a serious threat not only to the life detection experiments, but also to any extant martian ecosystem. A variety of cold and desiccation-tolerant organisms were exposed to 40 days of simulated martian surface conditions while embedded within several centimeters of regolith simulant in order to ascertain the plausibility of such organisms' survival as a function of environmental parameters and burial depth. Relevant amino acid biomarkers associated with terrestrial life were also analyzed in order to understand the feasibility of detecting chemical evidence for previous biological activity. Results indicate that stresses due to desiccation and oxidation were the primary deterrent to organism survival, and that the effects of UV-associated damage, diurnal temperature variations, and reactive atmospheric species were minimal. Organisms with resistance to desiccation and radiation environments showed increased levels of survival after the experiment compared to organisms characterized as psychrotolerant. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of an oxidation mechanism that migrated downward through the samples during the course of the experiment and likely represents the formation of various oxidizing species at mineral surfaces as water vapor diffused through the regolith. Current sterilization protocols may specifically select for organisms best adapted to survival at the martian surface, namely species that show tolerance to radical

  13. Analyzing Traffic Crash Severity in Work Zones under Different Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated various factors that contribute to the severity of work zone crashes. However, little has been done on the specific effects of light conditions. Using the data from the Enhanced Tennessee Roadway Information Management System (E-TRIMS, crashes that occurred in the Tennessee work zones during 2003–2015 are categorized into three light conditions: daylight, dark-lighted, and dark-not-lighted. One commonly used decision tree method—Classification and Regression Trees (CART—is adopted to investigate the factors contributing to crash severity in highway work zones under these light conditions. The outcomes from the three decision trees with differing light conditions show significant differences in the ranking and importance of the factors considered in the study, thereby indicating the necessity of examining traffic crashes according to light conditions. By separately considering the crash characteristics under different light conditions, some new findings are obtained from this study. The study shows that an increase in the number of lanes increases the crash severity level in work zones during the day while decreasing the severity at night. Similarly, drugs and alcohol are found to increase the severity level significantly under the dark-not-lighted condition, while they have a limited influence under daylight and dark-lighted conditions.

  14. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbraer, A N [St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproject, St. Petersburt (Russian Federation)

    1993-07-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  15. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  16. Fission product releases at severe LWR accident conditions: ORNL/CEA measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, B.; Ducros, G.; Leveque, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maro, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations

    1995-12-31

    Experimental programs in the United States and France have followed similar paths in supplying much of the data needed to analyze severe accidents. Both the HI/VI program, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the HEVA/VERCORS program, supported by IPSN-Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and carried out at the Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, have studied fission product release from light water reactor (LWR) fuel samples during test sequences representative of severe accidents. Recognizing that more accurate data, i.e., a better defined source term, could reduce the safety margins included in the rather conservative source terms originating from WASH-1400, the primary objective of these programs has been to improve the data base concerning fission product release and behavior at high temperatures. To facilitate the comparison, a model based on fission product diffusion mechanisms that was developed at ORNL and adapted with CEA experimental data is proposed. This CEA model is compared with the ORNL experimental data in a blind test. The two experimental programs used similar techniques in out-of-pile studies. Highly irradiated fuel samples were heated in radiofrequency induction furnaces to very high temperatures (up to 2700 K at ORNL and 2750 K at CEA) in oxidizing (H{sub 2}O), reducing (H{sub 2}) or mixed (H{sub 2}O+H{sub 2}) environments. The experimental parameters, which were chosen from calculated accident scenarios, did not duplicate specific accidents, but rather emphasized careful control of test conditions to facilitate extrapolation of the results to a wide variety of accident situations. This paper presents a broad and consistent database from ORNL and CEA release results obtained independently since the early 1980`S. A comparison of CORSOR and CORSOR Booth calculations, currently used in safety analysis, and the experimental results is presented and

  17. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  18. Risk of early or severe pre-eclampsia related to pre-existing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catov, Janet M; Ness, Roberta B; Kip, Kevin E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE), especially severe or early PE, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among mothers and infants. We estimated the population attributable fractions of severe or early PE associated with pre-existing conditions among nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS...

  19. Identification of severe wind conditions using a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Johansen, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of a Navier-Stokes solver to predict the presence of severe flow conditions in complex terrain, capturing conditions that may be critical to the siting of wind turbines in the terrain. First it is documented that the flow solver is capable of predicting...

  20. Reducing condition number by appropriate current decomposition on a multiplet of several wires

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a numerical investigation in connection with the dependency of the condition number of the impedance matrix on the decomposition of current on a junction with several attached wires (multiplet). It is shown that the condition...

  1. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  2. Assessment of Equipment Capability to Perform Reliably under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The experience from the last 40 years has shown that severe accidents can subject electrical and instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment to environmental conditions exceeding the equipment’s original design basis assumptions. Severe accident conditions can then cause rapid degradation or damage to various degrees up to complete failure of such equipment. This publication provides the technical basis to consider when assessing the capability of electrical and I&C equipment to perform reliably during a severe accident. It provides examples of calculation tools to determine the environmental parameters as well as examples and methods that Member States can apply to assess equipment reliability.

  3. Identification of severe wind conditions using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, N N; Bechmann, A; Johansen, J; Myllerup, L; Botha, P; Vinther, S; Nielsen, B S

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of a Navier-Stokes solver to predict the presence of severe flow conditions in complex terrain, capturing conditions that may be critical to the siting of wind turbines in the terrain. First it is documented that the flow solver is capable of predicting the flow in the complex terrain by comparing with measurements from two meteorology masts. Next, it is illustrated how levels of turbulent kinetic energy can be used to easily identify areas with severe flow conditions, relying on a high correlation between high turbulence intensity and severe flow conditions, in the form of high wind shear and directional shear which may seriously lower the lifetime of a wind turbine

  4. Genotype x environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Santini; Francesco Pecori; Alessia L. Pepori; Luisa Ghelardini

    2012-01-01

    The elm breeding program carried out in Italy at the Institute of Plant Protection - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricercje (CNR) during the last 40 years aimed to develop Dutch elm disease (DED)-resistant elm selections specific to the Mediterranean environment. The need for genotypes adapted to Mediterranean conditions was evident from the poor performance of the Dutch...

  5. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  6. Occupants' adaptive responses and perception of thermal environment in naturally conditioned university classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Runming [The School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom); The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu, Jing [The School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom); Li, Baizhan [The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A year-long field study of the thermal environment in university classrooms was conducted from March 2005 to May 2006 in Chongqing, China. This paper presents the occupants' thermal sensation votes and discusses the occupants' adaptive response and perception of the thermal environment in a naturally conditioned space. Comparisons between the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) have been made as well as between the Actual Percentage of Dissatisfied (APD) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD). The adaptive thermal comfort zone for the naturally conditioned space for Chongqing, which has hot summer and cold winter climatic characteristics, has been proposed based on the field study results. The Chongqing adaptive comfort range is broader than that of the ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 in general, but in the extreme cold and hot months, it is narrower. The thermal conditions in classrooms in Chongqing in summer and winter are severe. Behavioural adaptation such as changing clothing, adjusting indoor air velocity, taking hot/cold drinks, etc., as well as psychological adaptation, has played a role in adapting to the thermal environment. (author)

  7. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  8. Power plants operating in normal conditions, space management, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the local populations considerations related to the establishment of a nuclear power plant comprising 4 units of 900 MW: reception of a population in the existing environment, acceptance of the power plant by the local population, effluent releases and environmental impacts, and the power plant future [fr

  9. Display conditions that influence wayfinding in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browse, Roger A.; Gray, Derek W. S.

    2006-02-01

    As virtual environments may be used in training and evaluation for critical real navigation tasks, it is important to investigate the factors influencing navigational performance in virtual environments. We have carried out controlled experiments involving two visual factors known to induce or sustain vection, the illusory perception of self-motion. The first experiment had subjects navigate mazes with either a narrow or wide field of view. We measured the percentage of wrong turns, the total time taken for each attempt, and we examined subjects' drawings of the mazes. We found that a wide field of view can have a substantial effect on navigational abilities, even when the wide field of view does not offer any additional clues to the task, and really only provides a larger view of blank walls on the sides. The second experiment evaluated the effect of perspective accuracy in the scene by comparing the use of displays that were corrected for changing head position against those that were not corrected. The perspective corrections available through headtracking did not appear have any influence on navigational abilities. Another component of our study suggests that during navigation in a virtual environment, memory for directions may not be as effective as it could be with supplemental symbolic representations.

  10. IgE sensitization and sociodemographic conditions as determinant factors in asthma severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gaviria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Latin America there are few data about the factors that influence the control and severity of asthma. Objective: To describe the association between IgE sensitization to intra-home allergens and housing conditions in the severity of asthma. Methods: Sensitization to aero-allergens was evaluated by skin prick test and socio-demographic data by a questionnaire in a population between 6 and 14 years of age with diagnosis of asthma. Asthma control was measured according to spirometric results and to the application of the ACT (Asthma Control Test; the severity and symptom control was evaluated according to the GINA guideline. Results: A total of 150 resident patients from the Aburra Valley (Colombia were included. The median age of participants was 11 years, 95 (63.3 % male. 92 % of the patients resided in the urban area. Mite sensitization was the most prevalent in controlled and uncontrolled patients. Sensitization to cockroach and some poverty conditions were risk factors for asthma severity. Conclusion: Poverty conditions appear to favor the development of severe asthma and in turn IgE sensitization to cockroaches. This sensitization could serve as a biomarker of severity.

  11. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  12. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  13. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  14. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2001-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  15. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Air-conditioning of buildings has played a very positive role for economic development in warm climates. Still its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even...

  16. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are several benefits to a high-fat diet for animals exposed to cold, including improved tolerance to severe cold conditions and increased survival rates in cold environments. It is therefore of interest to examine whether animals exposed to cold will selectively consume lipids. We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free access to SO. Rats exposed to cold consumed more SO than those housed at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. This finding suggests that rats prefer SO in a cold environment. There was no significant difference in the ratio of calories of SO ingested to that of matter (standard laboratory chow plus SO) ingested between rats exposed to cold and those at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The high SO intake also affected cold tolerance and metabolite kinetics in the rats. Factors that affected the SO intake of rats exposed to cold are also discussed.

  17. Analysis of the behaviour of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 3 under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, V.; Saraeva, V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the analysis is to study the behaviour of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 3 under severe accident conditions. The analysis is performed using computer code MELCOR 1.8.4. This report includes a brief description of Unit 3 active core as well as description and comparison of the key events

  18. [Circadian blood pressure variation under several pathophysiological conditions including secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-08-01

    Abnormality of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation, i.e. non-dipper, riser, nocturnal hypertension etc, is brought by several pathophysiological conditions especially by secondary hypertension. These pathophysiological conditions are classified into several categories, i.e. disturbance of autonomic nervous system, metabolic disorder, endocrine disorder, disorder of Na and water excretion (e.g. sodium sensitivity), severe target organ damage and ischemia, cardiovascular complications and drug induced hypertension. Each pathophysiological condition which brings disturbance of circadian BP variation is included in several categories, e.g. diabetes mellitus is included in metabolic disorder, autonomic imbalance, sodium sensitivity and endocrine disorder. However, it seems that unified principle of the genesis of disturbance of circadian BP variation in many pathophysiological conditions is autonomic imbalance. Thus, it is concluded that disturbance of circadian BP variation is not purposive biological behavior but the result of autonomic imbalance which looks as if compensatory reaction such as exaggerated Na-water excretion during night in patient with Na-water retention who reveals disturbed circadian BP variation.

  19. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Schreur, B. G. J. Wichers; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high-resolution NWP model Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High Resolution Limited Area Model (H I RLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  20. Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Wichers Schreur, B.G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high resolution NWP model. Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to

  1. Operating features of decorative polymer-impregnated concretes under severe operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustina, I.B.; Lobasenok, V.A.; Yakimtsiv, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the possibility of a decorative polymer-impregnated concrete as a lining material in radiation-endangered rooms. Their extreme properties such as radiation resistance, decontamination ability, fire resistance and melting-freezing cycle resistance were studied. The material proposed shows substantially high resistance under severe operating conditions

  2. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  3. Working environment conditions in rural areas according to psychosocial indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study psychosocial working environment factors among farmers and other people living in rural areas. The study was carried out as a cross-section investigation. All persons visiting local occupational health service centres for a health check up have been asked to answer an inquiry which was based on the Karasek-Theorell questionnaire on job strain. Five extra items on worry about the future were added. The questionnaire was completed by over 3,800 persons. Three of four indices showed significant difference with respect to sex. Women experienced less stimulance at work, authority over work and had a greater fear of the future. Farmers had a significantly higher index for psychological demands, stimulance at work as well as authority over work than other occupational groups. The index for authority over work was very high in comparison with presented results for different occupations in other studies. With respect to worry about the future, the farmers had a significantly higher index than nearly all the other occupational groups. The low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among farmers reported in other studies can probably be related to good psychosocial working environment as measured by the indices in this study as well as other known life style factors.

  4. Managing Entrepreneurial Risks under Conditions of Instability of Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko Yurii V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of an organisation under modern conditions of establishment of new competitive relations between subjects of economic activity and transition to the model of market economy, justifies urgency of studies devoted to methods of entrepreneurial risk management. The article analyses factors that influence the risk level and offers own definition of this category. The article sets the task of improvement of the systemised classification of entrepreneurial risk management methods. In the result of the conducted analysis, the authors offered an improved systemised classification of risk management methods and justifies efficiency of its use.

  5. Guidance of reactor operators and TSC personnel with the severe accident management guidance under shutdown and low power conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haesendonck, M.F.; Prior, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance (WOG SAMG) was developed between 1991 and 1994. The primary goals for severe accident management that form the basis of the WOG SAMG are to terminate any radioactive releases to the environment; to prevent failure of any containment fission product boundary and to return the plant to a controlled stable condition. The WOG SAMG is primarily a TSC tool for mitigation of low probability core damage events. The philosophy is that control room operators should remain focused on the prevention of core damage, whereas the TSC personnel should concentrate on the mitigation of the severe accident. The symptom based package is built up as a structured process for choosing appropriate actions based on actual plant conditions. No detailed knowledge of severe accident phenomena is required. The scope of the WOG SAMG is limited to severe accidents resulting from initiating events occurring during full power operation. However, a number of studies such as the EdF EPS 1300 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the shutdown Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for Surry, the BERA shutdown PRA for Beznau, the EPRI/ Westinghouse ORAM methodology etc. have shown that the frequency of core damage (a severe accident) during shutdown and low power operation can be of the same order of magnitude as for full power operation. The at-power SAMG is viewed as the resolution of the severe accident issue. Similarly, it is expected that as shutdown PRAs mature, the final resolution of the severe accident issue will lie in SAMG for low power and shutdown operation. Therefore in resolution of this issue, Westinghouse has developed the Shutdown Severe Accident Management Guidance (SSAMG) which gives guidance for both control room and TSC personnel to mitigate a severe accident under shutdown or low power conditions. In the last few years, many LWR plants have been implementing SAMG. In the US, all plants have developed SAMG, and many

  6. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Failure Mode Estimation of Wolsong Unit 1 Containment Building with respect to Severe Accident Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil

    2009-01-01

    The containment buildings in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are final barriers against the exposure of harmful radiation materials at severe accident condition. Since the accident at Three Mile Island nuclear plant in 1979, it has become necessary to evaluate the internal pressure capacity of the containment buildings for the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants. According to this necessity, many researchers including Yonezawa et al. and Hu and Lin analyzed the ultimate capacity of prestressed concrete containments subjected to internal pressure which can be occurred at sever accident condition. Especially in Wolsong nuclear power plant, the Unit 1 containment structures were constructed in the late 1970 to early 1980, so that the end of its service life will be reached in near future. Since that the complete decommission and reconstruction of the NPP may cause a huge expenses, an extension of the service time can be a cost-effective alternative. To extend the service time of NPP, an overall safety evaluation of the containment building under severe accident condition should be performed. In this study, we assessed the pressure capacity of Wolsong Unit 1 containment building under severe accident, and estimated the responses at all of the probable critical areas. Based on those results, we found the significant failure modes of Wolsong Unit 1 containment building with respect to the severe accident condition. On the other hand, for the aged NPP, the degradation of their structural performance must also be explained in the procedure of the internal pressure capacity evaluation. Therefore, in this study, we performed a parametric study on the degradation effects and evaluated the internal pressure capacity of Wolsong Unit 1 containment building with considering aging and degradation effects

  8. Energy and environment market conditions in Mexico. Business focus series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The report provides: (1) an overview of the Mexican economy and the energy and environmental sectors; (2) specific market assessments of the oil and gas sector, the electric power sector, the industrial air pollution control sector, and the municipal and industrial water pollution control sector; and (3) an analysis of the Mexican business climate and procedures. Each of the sectors is projected to show significant growth over the next several years. The Mexican government has taken many positive steps to improve the country's business climate, including trade and foreign exchange liberalization, foreign investment incentives, and strengthened intellectual property regulation. The North American Free Trade Agreement is expected to further improve the business climate in Mexico

  9. Preparations for Severe Winter Conditions by Emergency Health Personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Cüneyt; Algan, Aysun; Koçak, Hüseyin; Biçer, Burcu Küçük; Sengelen, Meltem; Cakir, Banu

    2014-04-23

    Emergency and core ambulance personnel work under all environmental conditions, including severe weather condtions. We evaluated emergency medical personnel in Çanakkale, Turkey, for their degree of preparedness. A descriptive study was conducted in Çanakkale, Turkey, within 112 emergency service units and their 17 district stations. Surveys were developed to measure the level of preparedness for serious winter conditions that individual workers made for themselves, their homes, and their cars. Of the 167 survey participants, the mean age was 29.8 ± 7.9 years; 52.7% were women; more than half (54.75%) were emergency medical technicians; and 53.3% were married. Only 10.4% of those who heated their homes with natural gas had carbon monoxide detectors. Scores relating to household and individual preparation for severe winter conditions increased by participants' age (P tires (P winter conditions (P = .016). Many of the surveyed emergency health personel demonstrated insufficient preparations for serious winter conditions. To increase the safety and efficiency of emergency medical personnel, educational training programs should be rountinely conducted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  10. Existing condition assessment of radiation environment quality in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiaang; Li Fusheng; Chen Yingmin; Zhu Jianguo; Lu Feng; Song Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiactivity levels of Jinan dwellings and the indoor environment quality. Methods: Using the self made Measurement Cups of Indoor Environmental Radioactivity Evaluation (MCIERE) (ZL 200620082698.7) to measure the gamma ray dose rate, 222 Rn activity concentration, 220 Rn activity concentration and EECTn. Results: The geometric mean of 222 Rn activity concentrations that showed a clear lognoxmal distribution tendency in 411 rooms of Jinan was 45 Bq ·m -3 , the range which was from 18 to 203 Bq·m -3 . The geometric mean of 220 Rn activity concentration that was also nearly lognormal distribution in 203 rooms of Jinan was 16 Bq·m -3 and the range of the activity coneentratons was from 1 to 167 Bq· m -3 . The geometric mean of EECT, that was nearly lognormal distribution in 204 rooms of Jinan was 1.082 Bq ·m -3 , the range was from 0.015 to 10.230 Bq·m -3 . The arithmetic mean of the gamma ray dose rate that was nearly Gaussian distribution in 412 rooms of Jinan was 0.106 μSv·h -1 , the concentration range from 0.041 to 0.167 μSv·h -1 . Conclusion: The internal irradiation annual effective dose caused by 222 Rn and its progeny, 220 Rn and its progeny and of Jinan inhabitant was 1.189 mSv, the external irradiation annual effective close caused by the gamma ray from the ground and buildings was 0.743 mSv. The mean total annual effective dose was 2.187 mSv and the highest annual effective dose level was above 5 mSv. (authors)

  11. Reclamation of contaminated urban and rural environments following a severe nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Skuterud, L.

    1997-10-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear accident releasing radioactive materials to the atmosphere, there is a potential for widespread contamination of both the urban and rural environments. In some instances of environmental contamination, natural processes may eventually reduce or eliminate the problem without man's intervention. The situation with respect to radioactive contamination is no different except that radioactive contamination will also disappear through normal physical radioactive decay. In other cases, man is often able to mitigate potential harmful effects by cleaning, washing, abrading or by the application of chemicals. The actions taken by man to mitigate the potential harmful effects of contamination are described as countermeasures. In the case of radioactive contamination, the objective of countermeasures is to minimise radiation doses to man. This document is intended as a guide to those groups who may, at very short notice, be called upon to manage and reclaim radioactively contaminated urban and rural environments in the Nordic countries. However, much of the information and recommendations are also equally applicable in other countries. The document is divided into eight distinct parts, namely: 1. The Urban Environment; 2. The Cultivated Agricultural Environment; 3. Animals; 4. Forests; 5. Freshwater and Fish; 6. Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste from Clean-up Operations; 7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Clean-up Operators; 8. Resources Available in Society. (EG)

  12. Reclamation of contaminated urban and rural environments following a severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P; Skuterud, L [eds.; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Melin, J [ed.; Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear accident releasing radioactive materials to the atmosphere, there is a potential for widespread contamination of both the urban and rural environments. In some instances of environmental contamination, natural processes may eventually reduce or eliminate the problem without man`s intervention. The situation with respect to radioactive contamination is no different except that radioactive contamination will also disappear through normal physical radioactive decay. In other cases, man is often able to mitigate potential harmful effects by cleaning, washing, abrading or by the application of chemicals. The actions taken by man to mitigate the potential harmful effects of contamination are described as countermeasures. In the case of radioactive contamination, the objective of countermeasures is to minimise radiation doses to man. This document is intended as a guide to those groups who may, at very short notice, be called upon to manage and reclaim radioactively contaminated urban and rural environments in the Nordic countries. However, much of the information and recommendations are also equally applicable in other countries. The document is divided into eight distinct parts, namely: 1. The Urban Environment; 2. The Cultivated Agricultural Environment; 3. Animals; 4. Forests; 5. Freshwater and Fish; 6. Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste from Clean-up Operations; 7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Clean-up Operators; 8. Resources Available in Society. (EG).

  13. Natural regeneration in several environments of the Capetinga gallery forest at Agua Limpa Farm (DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Maria Felfili

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Capetinga gallery forest is located at Agua Limpa Farm, in the Federal District, Brazil. The floristic compositionand structure of the natural regeneration at the edges and in the interior of the gallery forest at the watershed of the Capetinga stream was studied to detect floristic and structural patterns related to the forest environments. Thirty (5x5m plots were placed in each environment to sample saplings, individuals from 1,0m high with diameter at the steam base under 5,0cm. Within these plots, (2x2m sub-plots were allocated to sample seedlings, individuals lower than 1,0m height. The sampled plots were distant to the stream bank to minimize the humidity effect. Shannon & Wiener diversity index varied from 2,86 (seedlings at the edges to 3,51 (saplings at the interior and it was higher in the interior for both categories. Sørensen s similarity index varied from 0.474 for seedlings (comparingedges with interior to 0.735 (seedlings and saplings at the edges. Czekanowski indices were low and reflected the high differentiationin structure from plot to plot in the same gallery forest. TWINSPAN classification suggested two distinct communities for saplings forboth conditions, formed by species accordingly to their requirements for light and water. No differentiation was detected for seedlingsbetween the environments indicating a low response of plants at an early stage to the environmental conditions within the forest. TheCapetinga gallery forest suffered disturbances by fire and the small variations in species composition and vegetation structurebetween environments suggests that most of the natural regeneration is tolerant to light.

  14. Hydrogen generation, distribution and combustion under severe LWR accident conditions: a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report include hydrogen generation, distribution in containment, and combustion characteristics. A companion report addresses hydrogen control. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  15. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented

  16. Seed vigour tests for predicting field emergence of maize under severe conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García de Yzaguirre, Álvaro; Lasa Dolhagaray, José Manuel

    1989-01-01

    [EN] With 40 to 50 different seed vigour tests available, appropiate procedures for choosing the best single test or combination the best predictors of seedling emergence of maize (Zea Mays L.) under severe conditions. Thirteen vigour tests and various field emergence trials were performed on six inbred lines and two commercial hybrids. The best single predictors of field emergence were identified by calculating simple correlation coefficients. The calculation of the geometric mean of the res...

  17. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  18. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  19. Thermalydraulic processes in the reactor coolant system of a BWR under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) incorporate many unique structural features that make their expected response under severe accident conditions very different from that predicted in the case of pressurized water reactor accident sequences. Automatic main steam isolation valve (MIV) closure as the vessel water level approaches the top of the core would cause reactor vessel isolation while automatic recirculation pump trip would limit the in-vessel flows to those characteristic of natural circulation (as disturbed by vessel relief valve actuation). This paper provides a discussion of the BWR control blade, channel box, core plate, control rod guide tube, and reactor vessel safety relief valve (SRV) configuration and the effects of these structural components upon thermal hydraulic processes within the reactor vessel under severe accident conditions. The dominant BWR severe accident sequences as determined by probabilistic risk assessment are described and the expected timing of events for the unmitigated short-term station blackout severe accident sequence at the Peach Bottom atomic power station is presented

  20. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  1. Conditions for oxygen-deficient combustion during accidents with severe core concrete thermal attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.; Elicson, G.T.; Berger, W.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the interactions between MCCI (molten core-concrete interactions)-induced offgas releases, mostly the combustible gases, natural circulation between the cavity and the lower containment based on recent research developments in the area of mixed convection flow (Epstein, et al., 1989; Epstein, 1988; Epstein, 1992) between compartments, and their effects on combustion in PWR containments during prolonged severe accidents. Specifically, large dry PWR containments undergoing severe core-concrete attack during station blackouts where the containment atmosphere is expected to be inerted are objects of this analysis. The purpose of this paper, given the conditions that oxygen can be brought to the cavity, is to demonstrate that consumption of most oxygen present in the containment can be achieved in a reasonable time scale assuming that combustion is not subject to flammability limits due to the high cavity temperatures. The conditions for cavity combustion depend on several factors including good gas flowpaths between the cavity and other containment regions, and combustion processes within the cavity with the hot debris acting as the ignition source

  2. Thermal stress analysis of reactor containment building considering severe weather condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun; Kim, Yun-Yong; Hyun, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Do-Gyeum

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine that through-wall crack risk in cold weather is high. • It is predicted that cracking in concrete wall will not happen in hot region. • Cracking due to hydration heat can be controlled by appropriate curing condition. • Temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small in hot weather. - Abstract: Prediction of concrete cracking due to hydration heat in mass concrete such as reactor containment building (RCB) in nuclear power plant is a crucial issue in construction site. In this study, the numerical analysis for heat transfer and stress development is performed for the containment wall in RCB by considering the severe weather conditions. Finally, concrete cracking risk in hot and cold weather is discussed based on analysis results. In analyses considering severe weather conditions, it is found that the through-wall cracking risk in cold weather is high due to the abrupt temperature difference between inside concrete and the ambient air in cold region. In hot weather, temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small, and accordingly the relevant cracking risk is relatively low in contrast with cold weather

  3. Evaluation of the leakage behavior of inflatable seals subject to severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently developing test validated methods to predict the pressure capacity of light water reactor containment buildings when subjected to postulated severe accident conditions. These conditions are well beyond the design basis. Scale model tests of steel and reinforced concrete containments have been conducted as well as tests of typical containment penetrations. As a part of this effort, a series of tests was recently conducted to determine the leakage behavior of inflatable seals. These seals are used to prevent leakage around personnel and escape lock doors of some containments. The results of the inflatable seals tests are the subject of this report. Inflatable seals were tested at both room temperature and at elevated temperatures representative of postulated severe accident conditions. Both aged (radiation and thermal) and unaged seals were included in the test program. The internal seal pressure at the beginning of each test was varied to cover the range of seal pressures actually used in containments. For each seal pressure level, the external (containment) pressure was increased until significant leakage past the seals was observed. Parameters that were monitored and recorded during the tests were the internal seal pressure, chamber pressure, leakage past the seals, and temperature of the test chamber and fixture to which the seals were attached. 8 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Alchris Woo; Sutanto, Sylviana; NguyenThi, Bich Thuyen; Cabatingan, Luis K.; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  5. Durability study and lifetime prediction of baseline proton exchange membrane fuel cell under severe operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrony, M.; Quenet, S.; Aslanides, A. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether Strasse 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R.; Ginocchio, S.; Montelatici, L. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy)

    2008-08-01

    Comparative studies of mechanical and electrochemical properties of Nafion{sup registered} - and sulfonated polyetheretherketone polymer-type membranes are carried out under severe fuel cell conditions required by industrials, within stationary and cycling electric load profiles. These membranes are proposed to be used in PEM between 70 and 90 C as fluorinated or non-fluorinated baseline membranes, respectively. Thus, though the performance of both membranes remains suitable, Nafion{sup registered} backbone brought better mechanical properties and higher electrochemical stabilities than sulfonated polyetheretherketone backbone. The performance stability and the mechanical strength of the membrane-electrode assembly were shown to be influenced by several intrinsic properties of the membrane (e.g., thermal pre-treatment, thickness) and external conditions (fuel cell operating temperature, relative humidity). Finally, a lifetime prediction for membranes under stationary conditions is proposed depending on the operation temperature. At equivalent thicknesses (i.e. 50 {mu}m), Nafion{sup registered} membranes were estimated able to operate into the 80-90 C range while sulfonated polyetheretherketone would be limited into the 70-80 C range. This approach brings baseline information about the capability of these types of polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell critical operations. Finally, it is revealed as a potential tool for the selection of the most promising advanced polymers for the ensuing research phase. (author)

  6. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  8. Laboratory modeling of air-sea interaction under severe wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vasiliy, Kazakov; Nicolay, Bogatov; Olga, Ermakova; Mikhail, Salin; Daniil, Sergeev; Maxim, Vdovin

    2010-05-01

    Wind-wave interaction at extreme wind speed is of special interest now in connection with the problem of explanation of the sea surface drag saturation at the wind speed exceeding 30 m/s. The idea on saturation (and even reduction) of the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the sea surface at hurricane wind speed was first suggested by Emanuel (1995) on the basis of theoretical analysis of sensitivity of maximum wind speed in a hurricane to the ratio of the enthalpy and momentum exchange coefficients. Both field (Powell, Vickery, Reinhold, 2003, French et al, 2007, Black, et al, 2007) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments confirmed that at hurricane wind speed the sea surface drag coefficient is significantly reduced in comparison with the parameterization obtained at moderate to strong wind conditions. Two groups of possible theoretical mechanisms for explanation of the effect of the sea surface drag reduction can be specified. In the first group of models developed by Kudryavtsev & Makin (2007) and Kukulka,Hara Belcher (2007), the sea surface drag reduction is explained by peculiarities of the air flow over breaking waves. Another approach more appropriate for the conditions of developed sea exploits the effect of sea drops and sprays on the wind-wave momentum exchange (Andreas, 2004; Makin, 2005; Kudryavtsev, 2006). The main objective of this work is investigation of factors determining momentum exchange under high wind speeds basing on the laboratory experiment in a well controlled environment. The experiments were carried out in the Thermo-Stratified WInd-WAve Tank (TSWIWAT) of the Institute of Applied Physics. The parameters of the facility are as follows: airflow 0 - 25 m/s (equivalent 10-m neutral wind speed U10 up to 60 m/s), dimensions 10m x 0.4m x 0.7 m, temperature stratification of the water layer. Simultaneous measurements of the airflow velocity profiles and wind waves were carried out in the wide range of wind velocities. Airflow

  9. Wireless microwave acoustic sensor system for condition monitoring in power plant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio [Univ. of Maine, Orno, ME (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This project successfully demonstrated novel wireless microwave acoustic temperature and pressure sensors that can be embedded into equipment and structures located in fossil fuel power plant environments to monitor the condition of components such as steam headers, re-heat lines, water walls, burner tubes, and power turbines. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology researched and developed through a collaborative partnership between the University of Maine and Environetix Technologies Corporation can provide a revolutionary impact in the power industry since it is anticipated that the wireless sensors will deliver reliable real-time sensing information in harsh power plant conditions that involve temperatures up to 1100oC and pressures up to 750 psi. The work involved the research and development of novel high temperature harsh environment thin film electrodes, piezoelectric smart microwave acoustic sensing elements, sensor encapsulation materials that were engineered to function over long times up to 1100oC, and a radio-frequency (RF) wireless interrogation electronics unit that are located both inside and outside the high temperature harsh environment. The UMaine / Environetix team have interacted with diverse power plant facilities, and identified as a testbed a local power generation facility, which burns municipal solid waste (MSW), the Penobscot Energy Recovery Company (PERC), Orrington, Maine. In this facility Environetix / UMaine successfully implemented and tested multiple wireless temperature sensor systems within the harsh-environment of the economizer chamber and at the boiler tubes, transferring the developed technology to the power plant environment to perform real-time sensor monitoring experiments under typical operating conditions, as initially targeted in the project. The wireless microwave acoustic sensor technology developed under this project for power plant applications offers several significant advantages including wireless

  10. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OFWORKING ENVIRONMENT FOR REPAIRERS OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK IN PLANT CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeikina, N A; Kurenkova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive hygienic assessment of working environment for main occupational groups Railway Car Repair Plant in factory conditions shows that workers are exposed to the impact of factors of chemical nature in concentrations exceeding maximum allowable (lead, manganese, alkali caustic, sulphuric and nitric acids, chromium trioxide, silicon-containing dust, white corundum, diiron trioxide, silicate-organic dust, wood and carbon dusts), the high level of noise, the local vibration, insufficient levels of artificial lighting. The manual work is used, that determines the high severity of the labor process in the most of workers. There was identified the inconsistency of quality and quantitative estimation of the work conditions on chemical factor at implementation of various types of control: certification of workplaces on work conditions, productions and state control. There was given an a priori evaluation of the occupational risk in the three main workshops, there were detected 13 occupations with mild (moderate) risk, 9 occupations with average (significant) risk, 6 professions with high (intolerable) risk category and 1 occupation--with very high (intolerable) risk category. Low indices of occupational diseases according to official statistics were establishedfail to be consistent with a high probability of their occurrence in the production.

  11. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents

  12. Experiments to evaluate behavior of containment piping bellows under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall. In a severe accident they may be subjected to high pressure and temperature, and a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, are being subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen tests have been conducted. The tests showed that withstanding relatively large bellows are capable of deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  13. Capability of LOFT vital batteries to supply emergency power demands during severe cold weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of the vital batteries (PPS) to provide electrical power via the vital DC-AC motor generator sets to the LOFT PPS loads during severe cold weather conditions. It is concluded that these batteries while at a temperature of 5 0 F will supply the necessary PPS electrical loads for a time in excess of the one hour permitted to start the diesel generators and are, therefore, adequate at this temperature. This Revision B of the LTR includes revised, more recent, and complete technical data relating to MG set efficiency, battery operating procedures and cold temperature derating. Revision B supersedes and replaces all previous issues

  14. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Jeppson, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  15. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFWC) design and operation takes into account several variables which affect performance its performance. These aspects had been evaluated and documented among others in countries like USA, Denmark, Austria. In contrast, VFCW had not been studied in tropical...... countries and, specifically in Colombia, design and operation parameters are not defined yet. The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of filter medium, the feeding frequency and Heliconia psittacorum presence, a typical local plant, on the domestic wastewater treatment in tropical conditions....

  16. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Final report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometries and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. There are indications that for such non-uniform distributions size effects may be stronger than for uniform distributions. Thus size effects on the failure strains and failure processes are determined under realistic conditions. Several tests with nominal identical parameters are performed for small size specimens. In this way some information is obtained about the scatter. A reduced number of tests is carried out for medium size specimens and only a few tests are carried out for large size specimens to reduce the costs to an acceptable level. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C consisting of the material 22NiMoCr37. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are quite small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was the definition of failure and the determination of the local strains at failure for very different specimens under varying load conditions. Here appropriate methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method' and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields

  17. In search of novel, high performance and intelligent materials for applications in severe and unconditioned environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyeabour Ayensu, A. I.; Normeshie, C. M. K.

    2007-01-01

    For extreme operating conditions in aerospace, nuclear power plants and medical applications, novel materials have become more competitive over traditional materials because of the unique characteristics. Extensive research programmes are being undertaken to develop high performance and knowledge-intensive new materials, since existing materials cannot meet the stringent technological requirements of advanced materials for emerging industries. The technologies of intermetallic compounds, nanostructural materials, advanced composites, and photonics materials are presented. In addition, medical biomaterial implants of high functional performance based on biocompatibility, resistance against corrosion and degradation, and for applications in hostile environment of human body are discussed. The opportunities for African researchers to collaborate in international research programmes to develop local raw materials into high performance materials are also highlighted. (au)

  18. A New Proposal for Management of Severe Frostbite in the Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchy, Emmanuel; Davis, Christopher B; Pasquier, Mathieu; Meyer, Eric F; Hackett, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in outdoor clothing and medical management of frostbite, individuals still experience catastrophic amputations. This is a particular risk for those in austere environments, due to resource limitations and delayed definitive treatment. The emerging best therapies for severe frostbite are thrombolytics and iloprost. However, they must be started within 24 hours after rewarming for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and within 48 hours for iloprost. Evacuation of individuals experiencing frostbite from remote environments within 24 to 48 hours is often impossible. To date, use of these agents has been confined to hospitals, thus depriving most individuals in the austere environment of the best treatment. We propose that thrombolytics and iloprost be considered for field treatment to maximize chances for recovery and reduce amputations. Given the small but potentially serious risk of complications, rt-PA should only be used for grade 4 frostbite where amputation is inevitable, and within 24 hours of rewarming. Prostacyclin has less risk and can be used for grades 2 to 4 frostbite within 48 hours of rewarming. Until more field experience is reported with these agents, their use should probably be restricted to experienced physicians. Other modalities, such as local nerve blocks and improving oxygenation at high altitude may also be considered. We submit that it remains possible to improve frostbite outcomes despite delayed evacuation using resource-limited treatment strategies. We present 2 cases of frostbite treated with rt-PA at K2 basecamp to illustrate feasibility and important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the severity of autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behaviour and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviours in children with ASC. 36 children took part: 18 (13 male, 5 female with ASC (ages 7-16: mean age 9.93 years and 18 (7 male, 11 female typically developing (TD children (ages 6-12; mean age 9.16 years. Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised.. Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination and sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity.

  20. TYPHOID FEVER WITH FATAL OUTCOME IN PEOPLE WITH SEVERE TROPHOLOGICAL FAILURE IN EXTREME CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Lyashenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For purpose of clinical and morphological characterization of typhoid fever with fatal outcome was perform analysis of medical documentation as well as postmortem studies of internal tissues in 36men aged 21 to 34 years with severe body weight loss and in the conditions of combat stress in period from 1983 to 1985. The results of the study find a number of clinical and pathomorphological features of typhoid fever in patients with body weight deficiency that were in extreme conditions. Focal changes of the central nervous system were detected. The defeat of the respiratory system was characterized from the first days of the disease by bronchitis, and in the subsequent development of pneumonia, plevritis and empyema of the pleura. Majority of patients had symptoms of cardiovascular and renal failure. In died in the first week of the disease and in 2/3 parts – in a later period were combined with the symptoms of infectious-toxic encephalopathy and severe acute respiratory failure. All died had postmortem dystrophic changes of cardiomyocytes, and in patients had fatal outcome in 2–5 weeks – also focal or diffuse myocarditis. In a third of the patients who died, the disease was complicated by intestinal perforations. In a number of cases, peritonitis was a consequence of necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes. In all patients with a fatal outcome, hemorrhagic (thrombohemorrhagic syndrome was diagnosed. A significant proportion of patients posthumously detected signs of sepsis and other complications, many of which could be the cause of death.

  1. Early results from an experimental program to determine the behavior of containment piping penetration bellows subjected to severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Containment piping penetration bellows are an integral part of the pressure boundary in steel containments in the United States (US). Their purpose is to minimize loading on the containment shell caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment. This differential movement is typically caused by thermal gradients generated during startup and shutdown of the reactor, but can be caused by earthquake, a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or ''severe'' accidents. In the event of a severe accident, the bellows would be subjected to pressure, temperature, and deflection well beyond the design basis. Most bellows are installed such that they would be subjected to elevated internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression, and lateral deflection during a severe accident. A few bellows would be subjected to external pressure and axial elongation, as well as elevated temperature and lateral deflection. The purpose of this experimental program is to examine the potential for leakage of containment bellows during a severe accident. The test series subjects bellows to various levels and combinations of internal pressure, elevated temperature, axial compression or elongation, and lateral deformation. The experiments are being conducted in two parts. For Part 1, all bellows specimens are tested in ''like-new'' condition, without regard for the possible degrading effect of corrosion that has been observed in some containment piping bellows in the US Part I testing, which included 13 bellows tests, has been completed. The second part of the experimental program, in which bellows are subjected to simulated corrosive environments prior to testing, has just just begun. The Part I experiments have shown that bellows in ''like-new'' condition can withstand elevated temperatures and pressures along with large deformations before leaking. In most cases, the like-new bellows were fully compressed without developing any leakage

  2. Characterizing fluvial heavy metal pollutions under different rainfall conditions: Implication for aquatic environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixun; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Gang; Guan, Yuntao

    2018-09-01

    Globally, fluvial heavy metal (HM) pollution has recently become an increasingly severe problem. However, few studies have investigated the variational characteristics of fluvial HMs after rain over long periods (≥1 year). The Dakan River in Xili Reservoir watershed (China) was selected as a case study to investigate pollution levels, influencing factors, and sources of HMs under different rainfall conditions during 2015 and 2016. Fluvial HMs showed evident spatiotemporal variations attributable to the coupled effects of pollution generation and rainfall diffusion. Fluvial HM concentrations were significantly associated with rainfall characteristics (e.g., rainfall intensity, rainfall amount, and antecedent dry period) and river flow, which influenced the generation and the transmission of fluvial HMs in various ways. Moreover, this interrelationship depended considerably on the HM type and particle size distribution. Mn, Pb, Cr, and Ni were major contributors to high values of the comprehensive pollution index; therefore, they should be afforded special attention. Additionally, quantitative source apportionment of fluvial HMs was conducted by combining principal component analysis with multiple linear regression and chemical mass balance models to obtain comprehensive source profiles. Finally, an environment-friendly control strategy coupling "source elimination" and "transport barriers" was proposed for aquatic environment protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodbury-Smith Marc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed

  4. Failure strains and proposed limit strains for an reactor pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    2005-01-01

    The local failure strains of essential design elements of a reactor vessel are investigated. The size influence of the structure is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial load. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for the reactor vessel. A key problem is to determine the local failure strain. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method', and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post-test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element models. The results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Local failure strains could be determined. The values are rather high and size dependent. Statistical evaluation allow the proposal of limit strains which are also size dependent. If these limit strains are not exceeded, the structures will not fracture

  5. Theoretical framework on selected core issues on conditions for productive learning in networked learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ponti, Marisa

    The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments.......The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments....

  6. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AS INDICATORS OF INADEQUATE WORK CONDITIONS AND WORK ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Babović

    2009-01-01

    Occupational accidents due to inadequate working conditions and work environment present a major problem in highly industrialised countries, as well as in developing ones. Occupational accidents are a regular and accompanying phenomenon in all human activities and one of the main health related and economic problems in modern societies.The aim of this study is the analysis of the connections of unfavourable working conditions and working environment on occupational accidents. Occurrence of oc...

  7. About some indicators of environment condition at the Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunity to select methods and indicators of the environment contamination. Using a water object - Chironomini - as an example, methods for assessment of ionizing radiation cytogenetic effects are considered. Indices of chromosomal aberrations generated in living organism cells serve as criteria of the environment ecological condition. (author)

  8. Study On Safety Analysis Of PWR Reactor Core In Transient And Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dai Dien; Hoang Minh Giang; Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy; Nguyen Thi Tu Oanh; Le Thi Thu; Pham Tuan Nam; Tran Van Trung; Le Van Hong; Vo Thi Huong

    2014-01-01

    The cooperation research project on the Study on Safety Analysis of PWR Reactor Core in Transient and Severe Accident Conditions between Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), VINATOM and Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Korea has been setup to strengthen the capability of researches in nuclear safety not only in mastering the methods and computer codes, but also in qualifying of young researchers in the field of nuclear safety analysis. Through the studies on the using of thermal hydraulics computer codes like RELAP5, COBRA, FLUENT and CFX the thermal hydraulics research group has made progress in the research including problems for safety analysis of APR1400 nuclear reactor, PIRT methodologies and sub-channel analysis. The study of severe accidents has been started by using MELCOR in collaboration with KAERI experts and the training on the fundamental phenomena occurred in postulated severe accident. For Vietnam side, VVER-1000 nuclear reactor is also intensively studied. The design of core catcher, reactor containment and severe accident management are the main tasks concerning VVER technology. The research results are presented in the 9 th National Conference on Mechanics, Ha Noi, December 8-9, 2012, the 10 th National Conference on Nuclear Science and Technology, Vung Tau, August 14-15, 2013, as well as published in the journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vietnam Nuclear Society and other journals. The skills and experience from using computer codes like RELAP5, MELCOR, ANSYS and COBRA in nuclear safety analysis are improved with the nuclear reactors APR1400, Westinghouse 4 loop PWR and especially the VVER-1000 chosen for the specific studies. During cooperation research project, man power and capability of Nuclear Safety center of INST have been strengthen. Three masters were graduated, 2 researchers are engaging in Ph.D course at Hanoi University of Science and Technology and University of Science and Technology, Korea

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation based conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) based conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients who experienced an engraftment failure from prior HSCT or were heavily transfused. Between 1995 and 2006, 20 SAA patients received TLI for conditioning of HSCT. All patients were multi-transfused or had long duration of disease. Fifteen (75%) patients had graft failure from prior HSCT. In 18 (90%) patients, the donors were human leukocyte antigen identical siblings. The stem cell source was the peripheral blood stem cell in 15 (75%) patients. The conditioning regimen was composed of antithymocyte globulin plus TLI with a median dose of 750 cGy in 1 fraction. The graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used cyclosporine with methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, graft failures developed in 6 patients. Among them, 3 patients received their third HSCT to be engrafted finally. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 85.0% and 83.1% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The incidence of acute and chronic GVHD was 20% and 20%, respectively. None of the patients have developed a malignancy after HSCT. In our study, TLI based conditioning in allogeneic HSCT was feasible with acceptable rates of GVHD in SAA patients who experienced graft failure from prior HSCT or was at a high risk of graft rejection. We achieved relatively better results of engraftment and survival with a long term follow-up.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  12. CORPORATE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AS A SET OF ECONOMIC CONDITIONS FOR BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Gusar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual resources are widely used in the formation of corporate business environment. This environment is a new phenomenon in the system of socio-economic relations. The corporate business environment is a set of economic conditions for the development of entrepreneurship, business life. In this environment, exercise more incentives to work, increasing the level of economic freedom, including the freedom of movement of the resource, including intellectual, production components. It is therefore important and necessary to give its definition from the perspective of both economic and organizational-administrative relations, which is a key objective of this research. In addition, the article carried out a comprehensive assessment of how the corporate environment for the development of regional business and knowledge of the mechanisms of the effect of factors internal and external environment for the development of corporate business environment.

  13. The Effect of Colour Psychodynamic Environment on the Psychophysiological and Behavioural Reactions of Severely Handicapped Children. Effects of Colour/Light Changes on Severely Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, H.; Sam, C.

    The effects of varied lighting and coloring in the classroom environment were examined on the behavior of seven severely handicapped 8 to 11 year olds with behavior problems. Analysis of changes in systolic blood pressure indicated that Ss were more comfortable and relaxed in the experimental room (in which the fluorescent lights were replaced by…

  14. Analysis of effects of calandria tube uncovery under severe accident conditions in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Currie, T.C.; Atkinson, J.C.; Dick, R.

    1983-01-01

    A study is being undertaken for the Atomic Energy Control Board to assess the thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores under accident conditions more severe than those normally considered in the licensing process. In this paper, we consider the effects on a coolant channel of the uncovery of a calandria tube by moderator boil-off following a LOCA in a Bruce reactor unit in which emergency cooling is ineffective and the moderator heat sink is impaired by the failure of the moderator cooling system. Calandria tube uncovery and its immediate consequences, as described here, constitute only one part of the entire accident sequence. Other aspects of this sequence as well as results of the analysis of the other accident sequences studied will be described in the final report on the project and in later papers

  15. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Y., E-mail: yano.yasuhide@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, S.; Oono, N. [Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hayashi, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Torimaru, T. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1313 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900–1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  16. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Y.; Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T.; Ukai, S.; Oono, N.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.; Torimaru, T.

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900-1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  17. Vaporization of low-volatile fission products under severe CANDU reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Corse, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; Kaye, M.H.; Iglesias, F.C.; Elder, P.; Dickson, R.; Liu, Z.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to describe the release behaviour of low-volatile fission products from uranium dioxide fuel under severe reactor accident conditions. The effect of the oxygen potential on the chemical form and volatility of fission products is determined by Gibbs-energy minimization. The release kinetics are calculated according to the rate-controlling step of diffusional transport in the fuel matrix or fission product vaporization from the fuel surface. The effect of fuel volatilization (i.e., matrix stripping) on the release behaviour is also considered. The model has been compared to data from an out-of-pile annealing experiment performed in steam at the Chalk River Laboratories. (author)

  18. Modelling of Zircaloy-steam-oxidation under severe fuel damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Neitzel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Small break loss-of-coolant accidents and special transients in an LWR, in combination with loss of required safety systems, may lead to an uncovered core for an extended period of time. As a consequence, the cladding temperature could rise up to the melting point due to the decay heat, resulting in severely damaged fuel rods. During heat-up the claddings oxidize due to oxygen uptake from the steam atmosphere in the core. The modeling and assessment of the Zircaloy-steam oxidation under such conditions is important, mainly for two reasons: The oxidation of the cladding influences the temperature transients due to the exothermic heat of reaction; the amount of liquified fuel depends on the oxide layer thickness and the oxygen content of the remaining Zircaloy metal when the melting point is reached. (author)

  19. Extensive severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus contamination in surrounding environment in patient rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, B-H; Kim, J Y; Kim, T; Kim, M-C; Kim, M J; Chong, Y-P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Kim, S-H

    2018-01-31

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease in Korea and China. Although there is previous evidence of person-to-person transmission via direct contact with body fluids, the role of environmental contamination by SFTS virus (SFTSV) in healthcare settings has not been established. We therefore investigated the contamination of the healthcare environment by SFTSV. We investigated the possible contamination of hospital air and surfaces with SFTSV transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surface samples in two hospitals treating six SFTS patients between March and September 2017. The samples were tested using real-time RT-PCR for SFTS M and S segments. Of the six SFTS patients, four received mechanical ventilation and three died. Five rooms were occupied by those using mechanical ventilation or total plasma exchange therapy in isolation rooms without negative pressure and one room was occupied by a patient bedridden due to SFTS. SFTSV was detected in 14 (21%) of 67 swab samples. Five of 24 swab samples were obtained from fomites including stethoscopes, and 9 of 43 were obtained from fixed structures including doorknobs and bed guardrails. Some samples from fixed structures such as television monitors and sink tables were obtained in areas remote from the patients. SFTSV RNA was not detected in five air samples from three patients' rooms. Our data suggest that SFTSV contamination was extensive in surrounding environments in SFTS patients' rooms. Therefore, more strict isolation methods and disinfecting procedures should be considered when managing SFTS patients. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [THE HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF SYLVINITE CHAMBERS OF VARIOUS MODIFICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barannikov, V G; Kirichenko, L V; Rusanova, E A; Dement'ev, S V; Vaĭsman, Ia I

    2015-01-01

    The performed comparative physiological-hygienic assessment of the conditions of the internal environment of salt sylvinite structures allowed to establish the complex of physical factors that have a favorable influence on the functional condition of the basic systems of the organism of patients.

  1. Conditions of Educational Environment for the Development of Teenagers' Moral Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Shafikova, Gulnaz R.; Kapranova, Vera A.

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the fact that social relations require from a school graduator not only the subject specific competences, but also the ability to build interpersonal interaction based on moral norms. Therefore, this article is aimed to reveal the conditions of the school educational environment organization promoting…

  2. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la, E-mail: juan-carlos.de-la-rosa-blul@ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre (Netherlands); Fornós, Joan, E-mail: jfornosh@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H{sub 2} and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  3. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.C. de la; Fornós, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H_2 and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  4. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  5. The Influence of Safety, Efficacy, and Medical Condition Severity on Natural versus Synthetic Drug Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Lappas, Courtney M

    2016-11-01

    Research indicates that there is a preference for natural v. synthetic products, but the influence of this preference on drug choice in the medical domain is largely unknown. We present 5 studies in which participants were asked to consider a hypothetical situation in which they had a medical issue requiring pharmacological therapy. Participants ( N = 1223) were asked to select a natural, plant-derived, or synthetic drug. In studies 1a and 1b, approximately 79% of participants selected the natural v. synthetic drug, even though the safety and efficacy of the drugs were identical. Furthermore, participants rated the natural drug as safer than the synthetic drug, and as that difference increased, the odds of choosing the natural over synthetic drug increased. In studies 2 and 3, approximately 20% of participants selected the natural drug even when they were informed that it was less safe (study 2) or less effective (study 3) than the synthetic drug. Finally, in study 4, approximately 65% of participants chose a natural over synthetic drug regardless of the severity of a specific medical condition (mild v. severe hypertension), and this choice was predicted by perceived safety and efficacy differences. Overall, these data indicate that there is a bias for natural over synthetic drugs. This bias could have implications for drug choice and usage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  7. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350 0 F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage

  8. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  9. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  10. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  11. Inclusion of models to describe severe accident conditions in the fuel simulation code DIONISIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Martín; Soba, Alejandro [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Daverio, Hernando [Gerencia Reactores y Centrales Nucleares, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Denis, Alicia [Sección Códigos y Modelos, Gerencia Ciclo del Combustible Nuclear, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-15

    The simulation of fuel rod behavior is a complex task that demands not only accurate models to describe the numerous phenomena occurring in the pellet, cladding and internal rod atmosphere but also an adequate interconnection between them. In the last years several models have been incorporated to the DIONISIO code with the purpose of increasing its precision and reliability. After the regrettable events at Fukushima, the need for codes capable of simulating nuclear fuels under accident conditions has come forth. Heat removal occurs in a quite different way than during normal operation and this fact determines a completely new set of conditions for the fuel materials. A detailed description of the different regimes the coolant may exhibit in such a wide variety of scenarios requires a thermal-hydraulic formulation not suitable to be included in a fuel performance code. Moreover, there exist a number of reliable and famous codes that perform this task. Nevertheless, and keeping in mind the purpose of building a code focused on the fuel behavior, a subroutine was developed for the DIONISIO code that performs a simplified analysis of the coolant in a PWR, restricted to the more representative situations and provides to the fuel simulation the boundary conditions necessary to reproduce accidental situations. In the present work this subroutine is described and the results of different comparisons with experimental data and with thermal-hydraulic codes are offered. It is verified that, in spite of its comparative simplicity, the predictions of this module of DIONISIO do not differ significantly from those of the specific, complex codes.

  12. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

  13. Limit strains for severe accident conditions. Synthesis report of the EU-project LISSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Seidenfuss, M.

    2003-10-01

    The local failure strains of essential reactor vessel components are investigated. The size influence of the components is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial static and dynamic loads. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, the temperature is the same; but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for reactor components. To manufacture all specimens sufficient material was available from the unused reactor pressure vessel Biblis C. Thus variations of the mechanical material properties, which could impair the interpretation of the test results, are rather small. This has been confirmed by an adequate number of additional quality assurance tests. A key problem was to determine the local strain at failure. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called ''vanishing gap method'' and the ''forging die method''. They are based on post test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element calculations, for instance. To deepen the understanding of structural degradation and fracture and to allow extrapolations, advanced computational methods including damage models have been developed and validated. Several approaches were tried in parallel including so-called non-local concepts and descriptions of stochastic properties at grain size level. The experimental results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Also the maximum stress is approximately size independent, if failure occurs after the maximum stress is reached

  14. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  15. Annual Research Review: The role of the environment in the developmental psychopathology of autism spectrum condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Lai, Meng-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Although autism spectrum condition (ASC) is strongly genetic in origin, accumulating evidence points to the critical roles of various environmental influences on its emergence and subsequent developmental course. A developmental psychopathology framework was used to synthesise literature on environmental factors associated with the onset and course of ASC (based on a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases). Particular emphasis was placed on gene-environment interplay, including gene-environment interaction (G × E) and gene-environment correlation (rGE). Before conception, advanced paternal and maternal ages may independently enhance offspring risk for ASC. Exogenous prenatal risks are evident (e.g. valproate and toxic chemicals) or possible (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and processes endogenous to the materno-foeto-placental unit (e.g. maternal diabetes, enhanced steroidogenic activities and maternal immune activation) likely heighten offspring vulnerability to ASC. Folate intake is a prenatal protective factor, with a particular window of action around 4 weeks preconception and during the first trimester. These prenatal risks and protective mechanisms appear to involve G × E and potentially rGE. A variety of perinatal risks are related to offspring ASC risk, possibly reflecting rGE. Postnatal social factors (e.g. caregiver-infant interaction, severe early deprivation) during the first years of life may operate through rGE to influence the likelihood of manifesting a full ASC phenotype from a 'prodromal' phase (a proposal distinct to the discredited and harmful 'refrigerator mother hypothesis'); and later postnatal risks, after the full manifestation of ASC, shape life span development through transactions mediated by rGE. There is no evidence that vaccination is a postnatal risk for ASC. Future investigations should consider the specificity of risks for ASC versus other atypical

  16. Comparative Analysis of Culture Conditions for the Optimization of Carotenoid Production in Several Strains of the Picoeukaryote Ostreococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Guyon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are promising sources for the sustainable production of compounds of interest for biotechnologies. Compared to higher plants, microalgae have a faster growth rate and can be grown in industrial photobioreactors. The microalgae biomass contains specific metabolites of high added value for biotechnology such as lipids, polysaccharides or carotenoid pigments. Studying carotenogenesis is important for deciphering the mechanisms of adaptation to stress tolerance as well as for biotechnological production. In recent years, the picoeukaryote Ostreococcus tauri has emerged as a model organism thanks to the development of powerful genetic tools. Several strains of Ostreococcus isolated from different environments have been characterized with respect to light response or iron requirement. We have compared the carotenoid contents and growth rates of strains of Ostreococcus (OTTH595, RCC802 and RCC809 under a wide range of light, salinity and temperature conditions. Carotenoid profiles and productivities varied in a strain-specific and stress-dependent manner. Our results also illustrate that phylogenetically related microalgal strains originating from different ecological niches present specific interests for the production of specific molecules under controlled culture conditions.

  17. Basic study on PWR plant behavior under the condition of severe accident (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Ida, Shohma; Nakamura, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results using the PWR plant simulator about the plant behavior under the condition of the severe accident that LOCA occurs but ECCS fails the water irrigation into the reactor core. As for the results about the relationship between the LOCA area and the time from LOCA occurs until fuel temperature rise start, the time became shorter as the area was the larger. But, in LOCA area of 1000 cm 2 or more large, the time was almost constant regardless of the area. For small LOCA of 25 cm 2 area, from the results of the comparative experiments for RCS natural circulation cooling effect in the case of SG open or not, in SG open condition compared with SG not open, the effect was observed more, but the reactor water level was greatly reduced and the time until the fuel temperature rise start was shortened, so the fuel temperature at the time of water irrigation into the reactor core has become higher. On the other hand, for the large LOCA of 1000 cm 2 , the effect was not observed regardless of SG open or not. In addition, the reactor core damage was not spared in the irrigation into the reactor core after 30 minutes from LOCA, however, the hydrogen concentration in the containment building is less than the lower limit of hydrogen detonation, and also the pressure in the containment building is less than the designed value. That is, although suffered the core damage, the integrity of the containment building has been shown to be secured. (author)

  18. A Necessary Condition for Coexistence of Autocatalytic Replicators in a Prebiotic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Andres F.; Grover, Martha A.

    2013-01-01

    A necessary, but not sufficient, mathematical condition for the coexistence of short replicating species is presented here. The mathematical condition is obtained for a prebiotic environment, simulated as a fed-batch reactor, which combines monomer recycling, variable reaction order and a fixed monomer inlet flow with two replicator types and two monomer types. An extensive exploration of the parameter space in the model validates the robustness and efficiency of the mathematical condition, with nearly 1.7% of parameter sets meeting the condition and half of those exhibiting sustained coexistence. The results show that it is possible to generate a condition of coexistence, where two replicators sustain a linear growth simultaneously for a wide variety of chemistries, under an appropriate environment. The presence of multiple monomer types is critical to sustaining the coexistence of multiple replicator types. PMID:25369813

  19. [Aspergillus species in hospital environments with pediatric patients in critical condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana; Cattana, María; Rojas, Florencia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Clarisa; Vergara, Marta; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus is a group of opportunistic fungi that cause infections, with high morbimortality in immunosuppressed patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent species in these infections, although the incidence of other species has increased in the last few years. To evaluate the air fungal load and the diversity of Aspergillus species in hospitals with pediatric patients in critical condition. The Intensive Care Unit and Burns Unit of a pediatric hospital were sampled every 15 days during the autumn and spring seasons. The air samples were collected with SAS Super 100(®) and the surface samples were collected by swab method. The UFC/m(3) counts found exceeded the acceptable levels. The UFC/m(3) and the diversity of Aspergillus species found in the Intensive Care Unit were higher than those found in the Burns Unit. The fungal load and the diversity of species within the units were higher than those in control environments. The use of both methods -SAS and swab- allowed the detection of a higher diversity of species, with 96 strains of Aspergillus being isolated and 12 species identified. The outstanding findings were Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus parasiticus, due to their high frequency. Aspergillus fumigatus, considered unacceptable in indoor environments, was isolated in both units. Aspergillus was present with high frequency in these units. Several species are of interest in public health for being potential pathogenic agents. Air control and monitoring are essential in the prevention of these infections. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. [Collagenolytic activity in several species of deuteromycetes under various storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M B; Khoang, T L; Nikitina, Z K

    2006-01-01

    The ability of deuteromycetes of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Botrytis to retain collagenolytic activity was studied after both 2 and 10 years of storage on a Czapek medium under a layer of mineral oil at 4 degrees C, as well as in silica gel granules at 20 and -60 degrees C. The enzymatic activity of several species, including Botrytis terrestris, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, was retained under both conditions of storage. Aspergillus repens retained enzymatic activity only if stored under a layer of mineral oil. The viability of conidia and the collagenolytic activity of Botrytis terrestris, P. janthinellum, P. chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, maintained on silica gel for 10 years, depended on the storage temperature. The viability of the test strains improved after storage on a silica gel at -60 degrees C. A strain of Aspergillus repens lost its ability to dissolve collagen at various storage temperatures on the silica gel. The index of lysis for three strains of Penicillium deuteromycetes (Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum) increased after a 10-year storage on silica gel at -60 degrees C.

  1. Fission product release in conditions of a spent fuel pool severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Depending on the residence time, fuel burnup, and fuel rack configuration, there may be sufficient decay heat for the fuel clad to heat up, swell, and burst in case of a loss of pool water. Initiating event categories can be: loss of offsite power from events initiated by severe weather, internal fire, loss of pool cooling, loss of coolant inventory, seismic event, aircraft impact, tornado, missile attack. The breach in the clad releases the radioactive gases present in the gap between the fuel and clad, what is called 'gap release'. If the fuel continues to heat up, the zirconium clad will reach the point of rapid oxidation in air. This reaction of zirconium and air, or zirconium and steam is exothermic. The energy released from the reaction, combined with the fuel's decay energy, can cause the reaction to become self-sustaining and ignite the zirconium. The increase in heat from the oxidation reaction can also raise the temperature in adjacent fuel assemblies and propagate the oxidation reaction. Simultaneously, the sintered UO 2 pellets resulting from pins destroying are oxidized. Due to the self-disintegration of pellets by oxidation, fission gases and low volatile fission products are released. The release rate, the chemical nature and the amount of fission products depend on powder granulation distribution and environmental conditions. The zirconium burning and pellets self-disintegration will result in a significant release of spent fuel fission products that will be dispersed from the reactor site. (author)

  2. Structural performance of circular columns confined by recycled GFRP stirrups and exposed to severe conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Sayed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, Egyptian government investment has been directed to the infrastructure projects. Water supply and water drainage networks are among those projects which are very costly; therefore they are designed with a life span of about one hundred years. There is a new trend toward the use of durable and maintenance free systems. The “GFRP” pipes are one of the economic solutions if the project life span is taken into consideration. A number of investors currently produce the “GFRP” pipes in the Egyptian market and although they follow the latest technologies in their production lines, they still suffer 2–5% deficiency of their produced pipes which consequently regarded as rejected pipes. This percentage has a negative impact on the environmental and economical issues. This research is a trial to investigate the behavior of circular columns confined by GFRP stirrups and exposed to severe conditions. A number of waste pipes were randomly selected and sliced to be used as circular column transverse reinforcement. An experimental program consisting of ten short circular columns was designed to study the effect of corrosion, high degrees of temperature, and sulfate attack on the structural behavior of the axially loaded short circular columns. The experimental results showed that columns laterally reinforced by GFRP slices have a comparable behavior to conventionally reinforced concrete columns especially for those columns exposed to corrosion and sulfate attack.

  3. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  4. Aerosol resuspension in the reactor cooling system of LWR's under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Bolado, R.; Hontanon, E.

    1991-07-01

    Aerosol resuspension from the pipes of the RCS under severe accident conditions happens when the carrier gas flow is turbulent. The origin of such phenomenon seems to be the existence of turbulent bursts in the neighbourhood of the pipe wall. These bursts are of random nature, in space and time. Three theoretical models have been found in available literature; those are: Cleaver and Yates', RESUS and Reeks' models. The first two of them are force balance models, in which particle detachment is supposed whenever aerodynamic lift or drag forces, respectively exceed adhesive forces, and the third one is an energy balance model in which resuspension happens when particle vibrational energy exceeds adhesive potential. From experimental evidence it seems that the studied phenomenon is a force balance problem and RESUS seems to be the most appropriate to it, among the available ones. Small-scale experiments have shown, as main parameters affecting resuspension, the Reynolds number of the flow, aerosol composition and initial loading per unit of area. Moreover, the resuspension rate decreases with time in all experiments where temporal measurements were taken

  5. Perspectives on Severe Accident Management by Depressurization and External Water Injection under Extended SBO Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Wookcheol; Park, Jongwoon

    2014-01-01

    Three major issues of severe accident management guideline (SAMG) after this sort of extended SBO would be depressurization of the primary system, external water injection and hydrogen management inside a containment. Under this situation, typical SAM actions would be depressurization and external water delivery into the core. However, limited amount of external water would necessitate optimization between core cooling, containment integrity and fission product removal. In this paper, effects of SAM actions such as depressurization and external water injection on the reactor and containment conditions after extended SBO are analyzed using MAAP4 code. Positive and negative aspects are discussed with respect to core cooling and fission product retention inside a primary system. Conclusions are made as following: Firstly, early depressurization action itself has two-faces: positive with respect to delay of the reactor vessel failure but negative with respect to the containment failure and fission product retention inside the primary system. Secondly, in order to prevent containment overpressure failure after external water injection, re-closing of PORV later should be considered in SAM, which has never been considered in the previous SAMG. Finally, in case of external water injection, the flow rate should be optimized considering not only the cooling effect but also the long term fission product retention inside the primary system

  6. Multi-phase model development to assess RCIC system capabilities under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Karen Vierow [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beeny, Bradley [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Luthman, Nicholas [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States); Strater, Zachary [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-12-23

    The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) System is a safety-related system that provides makeup water for core cooling of some Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with a Mark I containment. The RCIC System consists of a steam-driven Terry turbine that powers a centrifugal, multi-stage pump for providing water to the reactor pressure vessel. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents demonstrated that the RCIC System can play an important role under accident conditions in removing core decay heat. The unexpectedly sustained, good performance of the RCIC System in the Fukushima reactor demonstrates, firstly, that its capabilities are not well understood, and secondly, that the system has high potential for extended core cooling in accident scenarios. Better understanding and analysis tools would allow for more options to cope with a severe accident situation and to reduce the consequences. The objectives of this project were to develop physics-based models of the RCIC System, incorporate them into a multi-phase code and validate the models. This Final Technical Report details the progress throughout the project duration and the accomplishments.

  7. R and D advances in high temperature thermocouples for nuclear utilization in severe environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Blanc, J.Y.

    1984-09-01

    Safety experiments for water reactors in Cadarache have made necessary a research program for developing special thermocouples for use in severe fuel damage conditions (superheated steam). Standard cladding thermocouples (type K, alumina insulated, zircaloy sheathed, O.D. 0.7 mm) must be replaced by others with W3Re versus W25Re legs, Ta sheath protected by a zircaloy outer sheath, and hafnia or thoria insulation. The zircaloy sheath will be sufficient to protect correctly tantalum. Fuel centerline thermocouples have W5Re versus W26Re or W3Re versus W25Re legs, hard-fired thoria insulation and rhenium CVD sheath (O.D. 1.1 mm). A protective ReSi 2 coating is applied. This protection withstands at least 1600 0 C, 45 minutes in steam. Tests are done-concerning: a) materials compatibilities in helium between 1400 0 C and 2000 0 C, b) prototypes qualification (in Saclay or Grenoble), c) determination of errors due to degradation of insulation resistance of thermocouples cables (with magnesia, hafnia, alumina), d) Ir or Re protective coatings by CVD process, other coatings by ionic bombardment, etc... A completely new type of hot junction has been patented. Future works will include: completion of these tests, Mo-Nb alloys thermocouples legs realization withstanding heavy neutronic fluence, and use of ceramics glues

  8. R and D advances in high temperature thermocouples for nuclear utilization in severe environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Blanc, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Safety experiments for water reactors in Cadarache have made necessary a research program for developing special thermocopules for use in severe fuel damage conditions (superheated steam). Standard cladding thermocouples (type K, alumina insulated, zircaloy sheathed, O.D. 0.7 mm) must be replaced by others with W3Re versus W25Re legs, Ta sheath protected by a zircaloy outer sheath, and hafnia or thoria insulation. The zircaloy sheath will be sufficient to protect correctly tantalum. Fuel centerline thermocouples have W5Re versus W26Re or W3Re versus W25Re legs, hard-fired thoria insulation and rhenium CVD sheath (O.D. 1.1 mm). A protective ReSi/sub 2/ coating is applied. This protection withstands at least 1600 0 C, 45 minutes in steam. Tests are done concerning: (a) materials compatibilities in helium between 1400 0 C and 2000 0 C, (b) prototypes qualification (In Saclay or Grenoble), (c) determination of errors due to degradation of insulation resistance of thermocouples cables (with magnesia, hafnia, alumina), (d) Ir or Re protective coatings by CVD process, other coatings by ionic bombardment, etc...A completely new type of hot junction has been patented

  9. Characteristics and influencing factors of crop coefficient for drip-irrigated cotton under plastic mulch conditions in arid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Zhipin; Yang, Yonghui; Wang, Qinxue

    2017-01-01

    agronomy practice such as plastic mulching and drip irrigation in arid environments. This study calculated and analyzed Kc of a drip-irrigated and plastic-mulched cotton field in Aksu Oasis of the arid Tarim River Basin, China, and its relationships with several crop-, soil- and management variables......-mulched condition already published, the Kc of mulched cotton for the entire growth season decreased by 16 to 39%. The largest reductions in Kc due to plastic mulch were found in the initial and developmental growth stage. Kc could be calculated by a third-degree polynomial model in relation to RGD, which...... significantly increased Kc, i.e., 29% on average, partly due to arid advection. This study provided up-to-date and detailed information on cotton crop coefficient under plastic mulching and drip irrigation conditions in arid environment, and it is useful for improved management of agricultural water resources....

  10. Research activities at JAERI on core material behaviour under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetsuka, H.; Katanashi, S.; Ishijima, K.

    1996-01-01

    At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), experimental studies on physical phenomena under the condition of a severe accident have been conducted. This paper presents the progress of the experimental studies on fuel and core materials behaviour such as the thermal shock fracture of fuel cladding due to quenching, the chemical interaction of core materials at high temperatures and the examination of TMI-2 debris. The mechanical behaviour of fuel rod with heavily embrittled cladding tube due to the thermal shock during delayed reflooding have been investigated at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSSR) of JAERI. A test fuel rod was heated in steam atmosphere by both electric and nuclear heating using the NSSR, then the rod was quenched by reflooding at the test section. Melting of core component materials having relatively low melting points and their eutectic reaction with other materials significantly influence on the degradation and melt down of fuel bundles during severe accidents. Therefore basic information on the reaction of core materials is necessary to understand and analyze the progress of core melting and relocation. Chemical interactions have been widely investigated at high temperatures for various binary systems of core component materials including absorber materials such as Zircaloy/Inconel, Zircaloy/stainless steel, Zircaloy/(Ag-In-Cd), stainless steel B 4 C and Zircaloy/B 4 C. It was found that the reaction generally obeyed a parabolic rate law and the reaction rate was determined for each reaction system. Many debris samples obtained from the degraded core of TMI-2 were transported to JAERI for numerous examinations and analyses. The microstructural examination revealed that the most part of debris was ceramic and it was not homogeneous in a microscopic sense. The thermal diffusivity data was also obtained for the temperature range up to about 1800K. The data from the large scale integral experiments were also obtained through the

  11. Modelling of RPV lower head under core melt severe accident condition using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madokoro, Hiroshi; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    Although six years have been passed since the tragic severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi, still large uncertainties exist in modeling of core degradation and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure. It is extremely important to obtain a better understanding of complex phenomena in the lower head in order to improve accident management measures. The possible failure mode of reactor pressure vessel and its failure time are especially a matter of importance. Thermal behavior of the molten pool can be simulated by the Phase-change Effective Convectivity Model (PECM), which is a distributed-parameter model developed in the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. The model calculates convective currents not using a pure CFD approach but based on so called “characteristic velocities” that are determined by empirical correlations depending on the geometry and physical properties of the molten pool. At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the PECM has been implemented in the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM in order to receive detailed predictions of a core melt behavior in the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions. An advantage of using OpenFOAM is that it is very flexible to add and modify models and physical properties. In the current work, the solver is extended to couple PECM with a structure analysis model of the vessel wall. The model considers thermal expansion, plasticity, creep and damage. The model and physical properties are based on those implemented in ANSYS. Although the previous implementation had restriction that the amount of and geometry of the melt cannot be changed, our coupled model allows flexibility of the melt amount and geometry. The extended solver was used to simulate the LIVE-L1 and -L7V experiments and has demonstrated good prediction of the temperature distribution in the molten pool and heat flux distribution through the vessel wall. Regarding the vessel failure the model was applied to one of the FOREVER tests

  12. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (74-90 mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments. Under severe accident loading conditions, the steel containment vessel in a typical Mark-I or Mark-II plant may deform under internal pressurization such that it contacts the inner surface of a shield building wall. (Thermal expansion from increasing accident temperatures would also close the gap between the SCV and the shield building, but temperature effects are not considered in these analyses.) The amount and location of contact and the pressure at which it occurs all affect how the combined structure behaves. A preliminary finite element model has been developed to analyze a model of a typical steel containment vessel con-ling into contact with an outer structure. Both the steel containment vessel and the outer contact structure were modelled with axisymmetric shell finite elements. Of particular interest are the influence that the contact structure has on deformation and potential failure modes of the containment vessel. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction between the two structures was varied to study its effects on the behavior of the containment vessel and on the uplift loads transmitted to the contact structure. These analyses show that the material properties of an outer contact structure and the amount

  13. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Determines the Severity of the Dry Eye Conditions in Visual Display Terminal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nuo; Yang, Fan; Lin, Zhirong; Shang, Xumin; Li, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. Methodology Prospective, case-control study carried out in China.106 eyes of 53 patients (VDT work time >4 hour per day) were recruited as the Long time VDT group; 80 eyes of 40 control subjects (VDT work time ≤4 hour per day) served as the Short time VDT group. A questionnaire of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and multiple tests were performed. Three dry eye tests: tear film breakup time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test; and three MGD parameters: lid margin abnormality score, meibum expression assessment (meibum score), and meibomian gland dropout degree (meiboscore) using Keratograph 5 M. Principal Findings OSDI and corneal fluorescein score were significantly higher while BUT was dramatically shorter in the long time VDT group than the short time VDT group. However, the average of Schirmer tear volumes was in normal ranges in both groups. Interestingly, the three MGD parameters were significantly higher in the long time VDT group than the short time one (Peyes with Schirmer eyes with Schirmer ≥10 mm were separated from the long time VDT workers, no significant differences were found between the two subgroups in OSDI, fluorescein staining and BUT, as well as the three MGD parameters. All three MGD parameters were positively correlated with VDT working time (Pdry eye patients in long term VDT workers with higher OSDI scores whereas some of those patients presenting a normal tear volume. PMID:25144638

  14. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Johnson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC health-related quality of life (HRQoL indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions.Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods.Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs.Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed

  15. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this

  16. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  17. Several aspects of the effect of nuclear power engineering and thermal power engineering on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenchenko, A F

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of the comparative effect of nuclear power engineering and thermal power engineering on environment and man. The most significant approaches to solution of radio-ecological problems of APS are found.

  18. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  19. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Carbon monoxide can be produced in severe accidents from interaction of ex-vessel molten core with concrete. Depending on the particular core-melt scenario, the type of concrete and geometric factors affecting the interaction, the quantities of carbon monoxide produced can vary widely, up to several volume percent in the containment. Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas. The carbon monoxide thus produced is in addition to the hydrogen produced by metal-water reactions and by radiolysis, and represents a possibly significant contribution to the combustible gas inventory in the containment. Assessment of possible accident loads to containment thus requires knowledge of the combustion properties of both CO and H 2 in the containment atmosphere. Extensive studies have been carried out and are still continuing in the nuclear industry to assess the threat of hydrogen in a severe reactor accident. However the contribution of carbon monoxide to the combustion threat has received less attention. Assessment of scenarios involving ex-vessel interactions require additional attention to the potential contribution of carbon monoxide to combustion loads in containment, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed for hydrogen to effectively deal with particular aspects of carbon monoxide. The topic of core-concrete interactions has been extensively studied; for more complete background on the issue and on the physical/thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved, the reader is referred to Proceedings of CSNI Specialists Meetings (Ritzman, 1987; Alsmeyer, 1992) and a State-of-Art Report (European Commission, 1995). The exact amount of carbon monoxide present in a reactor pit or in various compartments (or rooms) in a containment building is specific to the type of concrete and the accident scenario considered. Generally, concrete containing limestone and sand have a high percentage of CaCO 3 . Appendix A provides an example of results of estimates of CO and CO 2

  20. Basic study on BWR plant behavior under the condition of severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Jyohko, Shingo; Dohgo, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results using the BWR plant simulator about the plant behavior under the condition of the severe accident that LOCA occurs but ECCS fails the water irrigation into the reactor core. The simulation experiments were carried out for the cases that LOCA has occurred in the main steam piping or in the recirculation piping, respectively. As for the results about the relationship between the LOCA area and the time from LOCA occurs until the fuel temperature rise start, the effect that RCIC operated was extremely big for LOCA area of up to 100 cm"2 for both type LOCA. In the case of main steam system LOCA, the core water level suddenly decreased for large LOCA of 2000 cm"2 area, however, if the irrigation into the reactor core was carried out 30 min after LOCA occurrence, the core had little damage. In addition, the H_2 concentration in the containment vessel did not exceed both limits of H_2 explosion nor detonation. The pressure of the containment vessel was around 3 kg/cm"2 of design value, so the soundness of the containment vessel was confirmed. On the other hand, for the recirculation system LOCA of 2000 cm"2 area, a drop of the core water level was extremely in comparison with main steam system LOCA, and the fuel assemblies were completely exposed during up to 30 min, to the irrigation from approximately 100 sec, after LOCA occurrence. Therefore, the fuel temperature during the irrigation had reached approximately 1900degC. Thus, the fuel cladding were damaged approximately less than 10%, and H_2 concentration in the containment vessel was approximately 9% which did not exceed H_2 detonation limit of 13% but exceeded H_2 explosion limit of 4%. However, the containment vessel internal pressure was settled around design pressure value of containment vessel. As the results, some core damage could not be avoided, but soundness of the containment vessel, which should take the role of 'confine', was found to be secured. (author)

  1. Basic study on BWR plant behavior under the condition of severe accident (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Sasaki, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the results using the BWR plant simulator about the plant behavior under the condition of the two types of severe accidents that LOCA occurs but ECCS fails the water irrigation into the reactor core and SBO occurs and at the same time the reclosed failure of SRV occurs. The simulation experiments were carried out for the cases that LOCA has occurred in the main feed-water piping. As for the results about the relationship between the LOCA area and the time from LOCA occurs until the fuel temperature rise start, the effect that RCIC operated was extremely big for small and middle LOCA area. In the case of main feed-water system LOCA, the core water level suddenly decreased for large LOCA of 2000 cm"2 area, however, if the irrigation into the reactor core was carried out 30 min after LOCA occurrence, the core had little damage. In addition, the H_2 concentration in the containment vessel did not exceed both limits of H_2 explosion nor detonation. The pressure of the containment vessel was around 3 kg/cm"2 of design value, so the soundness of the containment vessel was confirmed. On the other hand, for the accident of SBO with reclosed failure of SRV, it has been shown that the accidents continue to progress rapidly as compared with the case of normally operating of SRV. Because SRV has the function that keep the inside pressure of reactor core by repeating opened and closed in response of the inside pressure and prevent the decrease of water level inside reactor core. However, if the irrigation into the reactor core was carried out 30 min after SBO occurrence, the core had little damage and also the H_2 concentration in the containment vessel did not exceed limits of H_2 explosion. Further, as for the accident of reclosed failure of SRV, it has been shown that there are very good correspondence with the simulation results of main steam piping LOCA of area 180 cm"2 corresponding to the inlet cross-sectional area SRV installed on the piping

  2. Out-of-pile UO2/Zircaloy-4 experiments under severe fuel damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical interactions between UO 2 fuel and Zircaloy-4 cladding up to the melting point of zircaloy (Zry) are described. Out-of-pile UO 2 /zircaloy reaction experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical interaction behavior under possible severe fuel damage conditions (very high temperatures and external overpressure). The tests have been conducted in inert gas (1 to 80 bar) with 10-cm-long zircaloy cladding specimens filled with UO 2 pellets. The annealing temperature varied between 1000 and 1700 deg. C and the annealing period between 1 and 150 min. The extent of the chemical reaction depends decisively on whether or not good contact between UO 2 and zircaloy has been established. If solid contact exists, zircaloy reduces the UO 2 to form oxygen-stabilized α-Zr(O) and uranium metal. The uranium reacts with zircaloy to form a (U,Zr) alloy rich in uranium. The (U,Zr) alloy, which is liquid above approx. 1150 deg. C, lies between two α-Zr(O) layers. The UO 2 /zircaloy reaction obeys a parabolic rate law. The degree of chemical interaction is determined by the extent of oxygen diffusion into the cladding, and hence by the time and temperature. The affinity of zirconium for oxygen, which results in an oxygen gradient across the cladding, is the driving force for the reaction. The growth of the reaction layers can be represented in an Arrhenius diagram. The UO 2 /Zry-4 reaction occurs as rapidly as the steam/Zry-4 reaction above about 1100 deg. C. The extent of the interaction is independent of external pressure above about 10 bar at 1400 deg. C and 5 bar at 1700 deg. C. The maximum measured oxygen content of the cladding is approx. 6wt.%. Up to approx. 9 volume % of the UO 2 can be chemically dissolved by the zircaloy. In an actual fuel rod, complete release of the fission products in this region of the fuel must therefore be assumed. (author)

  3. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer

  4. Development of Assessment Methodology of Chemical Behavior of Volatile Iodide under Severe Accident Conditions Using EPICUR Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Jong Il; Kim, Do Sam; Han Chul

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is one of the most important fission products produced in nuclear power plants. Under severe accident condition, iodine exists as a variety of species in the containment such as aqueous iodide, gaseous iodide, iodide aerosol, etc. Following release of iodine from the reactor, mostly in the form of CsI aerosol, volatile iodine can be generated from the containment sump and release to the environment. Especially, volatile organic iodide can be produced from interaction between nonvolatile iodine and organic substances present in the containment. Volatile iodide could significantly influence the alienated residents surrounding the nuclear power plant. In particular, thyroid is vulnerable to radioiodine due to its high accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to develop an evaluation model which can simulate iodine behavior in the containment following a severe accident. KINS also needs to make up its methodology for radiological consequence analysis, based on MELCOR-MACCS2 calculation, by coupling a simple iodine model which can conveniently deal with organic iodides. In the long term, such a model can contribute to develop an accident source term, which is one of urgent domestic needs. Our strategy for developing the model is as follows: 1. Review the existing methodologies, 2. Develop a simple stand-alone model, 3. Validate the model using ISTP-EPICUR (Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) experimental data. In this paper we present the context of development and validation of our model named RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model)

  5. Development of Assessment Methodology of Chemical Behavior of Volatile Iodide under Severe Accident Conditions Using EPICUR Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Jong Il [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Han Chul [Korea Institue of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Iodine is one of the most important fission products produced in nuclear power plants. Under severe accident condition, iodine exists as a variety of species in the containment such as aqueous iodide, gaseous iodide, iodide aerosol, etc. Following release of iodine from the reactor, mostly in the form of CsI aerosol, volatile iodine can be generated from the containment sump and release to the environment. Especially, volatile organic iodide can be produced from interaction between nonvolatile iodine and organic substances present in the containment. Volatile iodide could significantly influence the alienated residents surrounding the nuclear power plant. In particular, thyroid is vulnerable to radioiodine due to its high accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to develop an evaluation model which can simulate iodine behavior in the containment following a severe accident. KINS also needs to make up its methodology for radiological consequence analysis, based on MELCOR-MACCS2 calculation, by coupling a simple iodine model which can conveniently deal with organic iodides. In the long term, such a model can contribute to develop an accident source term, which is one of urgent domestic needs. Our strategy for developing the model is as follows: 1. Review the existing methodologies, 2. Develop a simple stand-alone model, 3. Validate the model using ISTP-EPICUR (Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) experimental data. In this paper we present the context of development and validation of our model named RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model)

  6. Organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.

  7. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined

  8. The effect of environment on the creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.

    1980-01-01

    The creep crack growth behaviors of alloy 718, Inconel X-750, Udimet 700 and cold-worked type 304 and annealed and cold-worked type 316 austenitic stainless steels were determined in vacuum at elevated temperatures and the results were compared with those previously obtained in air. Alloy 718 and Inconel X-750 were found to be significantly sensitive to air with crack growth rates one to two orders of magnitude greater than those in vacuum. Udimet 700 is less sensitive to the environment and it is more sensitive to small changes in microstructure than to the environment per se. The austenitic stainless steels are least sensitive of all. Since the environmental sensitivity varies significantly for different materials, the service environment should be considered in the selection of materials for high temperature components. (Auth.)

  9. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  10. Robustness of Multiple High Speed TCP CUBIC Connections Under Severe Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2015-01-01

    We study the adaptation capabilities and robustness of the high-speed TCP CUBIC algorithm. For this purpose we consider a network environment with variable and high random packet loss and a large Bandwidth-Delay product, shared by multiple heterogeneous TCP connections. The analysis is based on a...

  11. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  12. Study of containment air cooler capacity in steam air environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.; Mohan, N.; Bhawal, R.N.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The air coolers are provided for controlling the temperature in the reactor building during normal operation. These air coolers also serve as the main heat sink for the removal of energy from high enthalpy air-steam mixture expected in reactor building under accident conditions. A subroutine COOLER has been developed to estimate the heat removal rate of the air coolers at high temperature and steam conditions. The subroutine COOLER has been attached with the code PACSR (post accident containment system response) used for containment pressure temperature calculation. The subroutine was validated using design parameters at normal operating condition. A study was done to estimate the heat removal rate for some postulated accident conditions. The study reveals that, under accident conditions, the heat removal rate of air coolers increases several times compared with normal operating conditions

  13. Analysis of the injury severity of crashes by considering different lighting conditions on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Anarkooli, A; Hadji Hosseinlou, M

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have examined different factors contributing to the injury severity of crashes; however, relatively few studies have focused on the crashes by considering the specific effects of lighting conditions. This research investigates lighting condition differences in the injury severity of crashes using 3-year (2009-2011) crash data of two-lane rural roads of the state of Washington. Separate ordered-probit models were developed to predict the effects of a set of factors expected to influence injury severity in three lighting conditions; daylight, dark, and dark with street lights. A series of likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine if these lighting condition models were justified. The modeling results suggest that injury severity in specific lighting conditions are associated with contributing factors in different ways, and that such differences cannot be uncovered by focusing merely on one aggregate model. Key differences include crash location, speed limit, shoulder width, driver action, and three collision types (head-on, rear-end, and right-side impact collisions). This paper highlights the importance of deploying street lights at and near intersections (or access points) on two-lane rural roads because injury severity highly increases when crashes occur at these points in dark conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing fire severity in semi-arid environments: application in Donceles 2012 wildfire (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gómez-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire management should be based on a proper evaluation of fire damage (burn severity, mainly for Large Fires (>500 ha. Several methodologies have been developed based on remote sensing information validated with fieldwork. The most widespread techniques was the assessment of fire severity indices obtained from remote sensing. It allow a quick assessment of large areas at affordable costs, although the analysis of soil burn severity and the degree of agreement with the ground truth is not fully reliable. Our study case was the Donceles fire (summer 2012, Hellín, Albacete. The post-fire restoration planning, emergency actions, was based on cartographic information of burn severity. To optimize results in a short time and low budget, we applied methodologies in a similar way other similar fires in the Mediterranean peninsular area. We assessed burn severity by using spectral indices (NDVI, dNBR, RdNBR and RBR and images from Landsat-7 (including banded and Deimos-1. For each index, we developed both supervised and unsupervised classifications, using field data as training areas. The highest overall reliability values were found for dNBR (79% and NBR (71%, obtaining low values with RdNBR. In all cases, the reliability was higher using the supervised classification, so using real-ground data to identify the categories of severity to be discriminated. We conclude the need to extend fire studies in our area to improve the reliability of the fire severity assessment obtained from spectral indexes, thus establishing a protocol of data collection and standard methodology of calculation adapted to the characteristics of the region.

  15. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Thuan Chu; Xulin Guo; Kazuo Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica) forest in Siberia. A time-series o...

  16. [On the extinction of populations with several types in a random environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaër, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    This study focuses on the extinction rate of a population that follows a continuous-time multi-type branching process in a random environment. Numerical computations in a particular example inspired by an epidemic model suggest an explicit formula for this extinction rate, but only for certain parameter values. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. CFD model of thermal and velocity conditions in a particular indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Guillen Guillamon, Ignacio [Applied Physics Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for maintaining high indoor environmental quality (IEQ) with the minimum energy consumption is rapidly increasing. In the recent years, several studies have been completed to investigate the impact of indoor environment factors on human comfort, health and energy efficiency. Therefore, the design of the thermal environment in any sort of room, specially offices, has huge economic consequences. In this paper, a particular analysis on the air temperature in a multi-task room environment is modeled, in order to represent the velocities and temperatures inside the room by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. This model will help to designers to analyze the thermal comfort regions inside the studied air volume and to visualize the whole temperatures inside the room, determining the effect of the fresh external incoming air in the internal air temperature.

  18. Forest Fire Severity Assessment Using ALS Data in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luis Montealegre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean pine forests in Spain experience wildland fire events with different frequencies, intensities, and severities which result in diverse socio-ecological consequences. In order to predict fire severity, spectral indices derived from remotely sensed images have been used extensively. Such spectral indices are usually used in combination with ground sampling to relate detected radiometric changes to actual fire effects. However, the potential of the tridimensional information captured by Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS to severity mapping has been less explored. With the objective of addressing this question, in this paper, explanatory variables extracted from ALS point clouds are related to field estimations of the Composite Burn Index collected in four fires located in Aragón (Spain. Logistic regression models were developed and statistically tested and validated to map fire severity with up to 85.5% accuracy. The canopy relief ratio and the percentage of all returns above one meter height were the most significant variables and were therefore used to create a continuous map of severity levels.

  19. Analysis of overload conditions in distance relay under severe system contingencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim Abu Bakar, Ab. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Malaya (Malaysia); Yatim, Fazilah Mat; Othman, Mohd Ridzal [Transmission Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Yusof, Sallehuddin [Advanced Powor Solutions (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Distance relay protection is widely used worldwide for protection scheme on high voltage transmission lines. This protection tends to be prone to load encroachment condition causing possible undesired tripping condition. Investigations of two system disturbances that occurred in TNB's (Tenaga Nasional Berhad) Grid in the year 2003 and 2005 have clearly revealed the occurrence of load encroachment condition following line overloads after large number of line tripping. Examination of the impedance locus trajectory during the overload events have enabled a distinction be made between power swing and load encroachment phenomena. This paper presents the analysis and findings of the investigation of the load encroachment phenomena of the two events, including other related transmission line contingencies. (author)

  20. Morphological and ecological preadaptations as the basis of bird synanthropization under transformed environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, I. I.; Ibragimova, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Bird synanthropization is connected with a thorough and serious reconstruction of their biology and is a demonstration of changes currently occurring in the biosphere due to human influence. Nutritional and nesting conditions as well as protection due to urban characteristics are advantage factors that affect their populations. Under these conditions, the adaptive potential of species can be realized. Adaptations to a new and in-distinctive environment appear due to preadaptations. The synanthropization process of species happens without speciation by expression of existing genetic variation of morphological and ecological characteristics.

  1. Activation analysis of several species of marine invertebrates as indicators of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are well known to accumulate trace metals from seawater, plankton, sea plants, and sediments. To test the usefulness of such organisms as a bio-indicator of environmental conditions, we have determined levels of trace elements in tissue of twelve species of marine invertebrates by photon and neutron activation analysis. Relatively higher concentration of elements were observed for Ni and Sn in mid-gut gland, for Cu and Zn in oyster tissues, for Se in swimming crabs, for Cu, Fe, and Se in gills of swimming crabs. Our results indicate that mid-gut gland of ear-shell will be useful as the indicator of environmental conditions. (author)

  2. Monitoring of the land and geological environment condition in the Eupatorijska arroyo in Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogachenko L.D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the condition of the land and the geological environment in the Eupatorijska arroyo, engineering-geological estimation of the territory of the arroyo is carried out, negative engineering-geological processes and phenomena are defined. It was found that due to the negative technogenic impact in conjunction with natural and climatic factors, the slopes under study can be considered as those under the risk of landslides and therefore are in need of engineering protection.

  3. Qualitative characterization by x-ray diffraction from soils: mineralogy conditions to benefit the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Bruna Sayuri; Tavares, Mauricio de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Four samples were collected from four soil profiles located in the Rural Federal University of Amazonia. These, were analyzed parameters such as color, texture, consistency, granulometry, porosity and water absorption. We identified the following soil types: Distrofic Yellow Latosoil; Lateritic Concretionary; distrofic Low Humic Gley. The work was to continue the qualitative analysis by X-rays diffraction, identifying the mineralogical composition of each sample. Explaining the mineralogical conditions that affect or benefit the environment. (author)

  4. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-05-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  5. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  6. Evaluation of High-Pressure RCS Natural Circulations Under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Bang, Young Suk; Suh, Nam Duk

    2006-01-01

    Since TMI-2 accident, the occurrence of severe accident natural circulations inside RCS during entire in-vessel core melt progressions before the reactor vessel breach had been emphasized and tried to clarify its thermal-hydraulic characteristics. As one of consolidated outcomes of these efforts, sophisticated models have been presented to explain the effects of a variety of engineering and phenomenological factors involved during severe accident mitigation on the integrity of RCS pressure boundaries, i.e. reactor pressure vessel(RPV), RCS coolant pipe and steam generator tubes. In general, natural circulation occurs due to density differences, which for single phase flow, is typically generated by temperature differences. Three natural circulation flows can be formed during severe accidents: in-vessel, hot leg countercurrent flow and flow through the coolant loops. Each of these flows may be present during high-pressure transients such as station blackout (SBO) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). As a part of research works in order to contribute on the completeness of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) in domestic plants by quantitatively assessing the RCS natural circulations on its integrity, this study presents basic approach for this work and some preliminary results of these efforts with development of appropriately detailed RCS model using MELCOR computer code

  7. Modern Conditions and the Impacts of the Creation of Architectural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, Vadym

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research is an attempt to identify and analyse the modern conditions and impacts of the creation of architectural environment and on this basis to determine the main directions and tasks of the development of architecture at the appropriate hierarchical levels. A comprehensive review and structural analysis of all impact factors and different current conditions that lead to the sustainable architecture design are conducted in the proposal. The main groups of factors and conditions such as social-economical, natural-geographic, urban, ergonomics, ecological, typological, technical, cultural, and aesthetics are determined in accordance with their contemporary specifics. This analysis provides an opportunity to define the appropriative hierarchical levels of the modern trends and prospects of creation an effective, attractive and friendly architectural environment. Some examples of author’s projects and implementations is presented in the article. Such methodological approach will help to create a holistic view of the creation architectural environment, will allow to systematize existing knowledges and concepts, practices and prospects of the means and methods of its formation and development.

  8. Changing the obesogenic environment of severe mentally ill residential patients : ELIPS, a cluster randomised study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans, Anne; Jorg, Frederike; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bruggeman, Richard; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe mentally ill (SMI) patients have a reduced life expectancy of 13-30 years compared to the general population, largely due to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in SMI patients contribute to this increased risk. The obesogenic living

  9. Inconsistencies in net radiation estimates from use of several models of instruments in a desert environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, W.P.; Prueger, J.H.; Hipps, L.E.; Hatfield, J.L.; Meek, D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of surface energy and water balance generally require an accurate estimate of net radiation and its spatial distribution. A project quantifying both short term and seasonal water use of shrub and grass vegetation in the Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico prompted a study to compare net radiation observations using two types of net radiometers currently being used in research. A set of 12 REBS net radiometers were compared with each other and one Swissteco, over wet and dry surfaces in an arid landscape under clear skies. The set of REBS exhibited significant differences in output over both surfaces. However, they could be cross calibrated to yield values within 10 W m −2 , on average. There was also a significant bias between the REBS and Swissteco over a dry surface, but not over a wet one. The two makes of instrument could be made to agree under the dry conditions by using regression or autoregression techniques. However, the resulting equations would induce bias for the wet surface condition. Thus, it is not possible to cross calibrate these two makes of radiometer over the range of environmental conditions observed. This result indicates that determination of spatial distribution of net radiation over a variable surface should be made with identical instruments which have been cross calibrated. The need still exists for development of a radiometer and calibration procedures which will produce accurate and consistent measurements over a range of surface conditions. (author)

  10. Organization of Teacher’s Professional Activity in Conditions of Innovative Educational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Kartashova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of organization of teacher’s professional activity in innovative educational environment is revealed in the article. The fundamental definitions of the concept of "innovative educational environment" in different aspects are determined. The analysis of researches of primary school teacher’s training in Ukraine and highly developed countries of the world is witnessed a number of contradictions that outlined necessity to generate the innovative (information educational environment. Effective organizational and methodical decision in formation of competitive teacher is the introduction subject "Methods of organization of teacher’s professional activity in conditions of innovative educational environment" to educational process of primary school teacher’s training. Its aim, objectives, information scope, requirements to level of mastering of content component, methods and forms of monitoring and evaluation of students’ competency have been revealed. The course is based on designed innovative IT-based (cloudy-oriented environment of pedagogical training of primary school teachers, and cloudy-oriented products are integrated in it, that will make the learning process interactive: OneNote, Skype, GoogleDisk, SkyDrive, teacher’s personal website, OneNote. The managing of students’ mastering process of pedagogical subjects is performed at lessons and using teacher’s electronic classroom

  11. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heams, T.J.; Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Mason, A.; Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J.; Wheatley, C.J.; Dickson, L.W.; Osborn-Lee, I.; Domagala, P.; Zawadzki, S.; Rest, J.; Alexander, C.A.; Lee, R.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided

  12. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  13. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  14. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  15. Radiolysis of cesium iodide solutions in conditions prevailing in a pressurized water reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements were made of I/sub 2/ formed when aqueous cesium iodide (CsI) solutions were exposed to two temperatures, 43 and 95 0 C, with irradiation. Iodine partition coefficients were obtained from the experiments. The parameters varied were dose, CsI concentration, and Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ concentration, in the presence of air-carbon dioxide and air-carbon dioxide-hydrogen mixtures, to provide information to calculate the form in which iodine released from fuel as CsI in a reactor accident might reach the environment. In a series of experiments, a two-compartment cell was used to trap the gaseous iodine produced. In this case, it was found that the quantity of gaseous iodine produced increased approximately linearly with the dose (at the dose rate used)

  16. The physical and chemical degradation of PWR fuel rods in severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.D.; Mowat, J.A.S.; Dewhurst, D.W.F.; Hughes, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study of the interaction between Zircaloy-4 cladding and UO 2 in PWR fuel rods heated to high temperatures with a negligible differential pressure across the cladding wall is described. The fuel rods were of dimensions appropriate to the 17x17 PWR fuel sub-assembly and were heated in a non-oxidising environment (vacuum) up to approx. 1850 deg. C either isothermally or through heating ramps. Observations were made concerning the extent and nature of the reaction zone between Zircaloy-4 and UO 2 over the temperature range 1500-1850 deg. C for times ranging from 1 min to 125 min. The location, morphology and the chemical composition of the phases formed are described along with the kinetics of their formation. (author)

  17. Simulation of experiment on aerosol behaviour at severe accident conditions in the LACE experimental facility with the ASTEC CPA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment LACE LA4 on thermal-hydraulics and aerosol behavior in a nuclear power plant containment, which was performed in the LACE experimental facility, was simulated with the ASTEC CPA module of the severe accident computer code ASTEC V1.2. The specific purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the module (code) to simulate thermal-hydraulic conditions and aerosol behavior in the containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. The test was simulated with boundary conditions, described in the experiment report. Results of thermal-hydraulic conditions in the test vessel, as well as dry aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere, are compared to experimental results and analyzed. (author)

  18. Ruthenium release modelling in air and steam atmospheres under severe accident conditions using the MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzet, Emilie; Lamy, Jean-Sylvestre; Perron, Hadrien; Simoni, Eric; Ducros, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new modelling of fuel oxidation and ruthenium release in the EDF version of the MAAP4 code. ► We validated this model against some VERCORS experiments. ► Ruthenium release prediction quantitatively and qualitatively well reproduced under air and steam atmospheres. - Abstract: In a nuclear power plant (NPP), a severe accident is a low probability sequence that can lead to core fusion and fission product (FP) release to the environment (source term). For instance during a loss-of-coolant accident, water vaporization and core uncovery can occur due to decay heat. These phenomena enhance core degradation and, subsequently, molten materials can relocate to the lower head of the vessel. Heat exchange between the debris and the vessel may cause its rupture and air ingress. After lower head failure, steam and air entering in the vessel can lead to degradation and oxidation of materials that are still intact in the core. Indeed, Zircaloy-4 cladding oxidation is very exothermic and fuel interaction with the cladding material can decrease its melting temperature by several hundred of Kelvin. FP release can thus be increased, noticeably that of ruthenium under oxidizing conditions. Ruthenium is of particular interest because of its high radio-toxicity due to 103 Ru and 106 Ru isotopes and its ability to form highly volatile compounds, even at room temperature, such as gaseous ruthenium tetra-oxide (RuO 4 ). It is consequently of great need to understand phenomena governing steam and air oxidation of the fuel and ruthenium release as prerequisites for the source term issues. A review of existing data on these phenomena shows relatively good understanding. In terms of oxygen affinity, the fuel is oxidized before ruthenium, from UO 2 to UO 2+x . Its oxidation is a rate-controlling surface exchange reaction with the atmosphere, so that the stoichiometric deviation and oxygen partial pressure increase. High temperatures combined with the presence

  19. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Development of high-performance monitoring system under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Masahiro; Komanome, H.; Miura, K.

    2017-01-01

    A research and development of a monitoring system for NPPs situations even during severe accidents have been performed. The R and D consists of the three objectives. The major findings are briefly summarized in the followings: 1) Radiation-resistant monitoring camera. The image sensor with the photogate and three transistors was found to be advantageous in terms of dark current and sensitivity. In addition, radiation-resistant optical parts and signal circuits were successfully fabricated. The results suggested that the monitoring camera system with 10 6 Gy in radiation resistance was possible. 2) Radiation-resistant in-water wireless transmission system. A two-dimensional LED matrix with 10 6 Gy in radiation resistance and a camera were used as the transmission devices. The results of the in-water transmission tests suggested that stable wireless transmission between 5 m distance was possible even with bubble, turbidity, or obstacles. 3) Heat-resistant signal cable. In order to develop a cable that can transmit the data inside reactor pressure vessels, heat-proof tests were performed for candidate metallic sheath materials of mineral insulation (MI) cables. The results indicated MI cables which can be used at 1000degC in air were possible. These results indicate the feasibility of the monitoring system even during severe accidents. (author)

  1. Preliminary safety analysis of the PWR with accident-tolerant fuels during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Liu, Tong; Deng, Yongjun; Huang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of severe accident scenarios for a PWR fueled with ATF system is performed. • A large-break LOCA without ECCS is analyzed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • Extended SBO cases are discussed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • The accident-tolerance of ATF system for application in PWR is illustrated. - Abstract: Experience gained in decades of nuclear safety research and previous nuclear accidents direct to the investigation of passive safety system design and accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) system which is now becoming a hot research point in the nuclear energy field. The ATF system is aimed at upgrading safety characteristics of the nuclear fuel and cladding in a reactor core where active cooling has been lost, and is preferable or comparable to the current UO 2 –Zr system when the reactor is in normal operation. By virtue of advanced materials with improved properties, the ATF system will obviously slow down the progression of accidents, allowing wider margin of time for the mitigation measures to work. Specifically, the simulation and analysis of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) without ECCS and extended station blackout (SBO) severe accident are performed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) loaded with ATF candidates, to reflect the accident-tolerance of ATF

  2. CN molecule vibrational spectra excitation in several LTE plasma sources conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iova, I.; Iova, Floriana; Ionita, I.; Bazavan, M.; Ilie, Gh.; Stanescu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Our interest in CN plasma study steams of the facilities to obtain the CN radicals in a free atmosphere electric discharge where the C of the coal electrodes can to combine in the enough high temperature plasma with the atmospheric nitrogen. Also of much interest is the very important phenomena in which the CN vibrational spectra can be implied and used as a diagnostic tool (plasma chemistry, astrophysics and so on). A peculiar importance presents the CN vibrational spectra in the transient plasmas. It is the reason why we have investigated here some internal processes of a continued and interrupted arc of various pulse lengths. To these purposes we present with enough accuracy the behaviour of the relative band head intensities of the sequences Δ v = +1 and Δ v = 0 belonging to the CN electronic transition (B 2 Σ - X 2 Σ), as a function of the pulse length (50 - 200 ms) as well as a function of the cathode to anode separation. These behaviours give us indications on the vibrational levels of the electronic state populations in several regions of the arc plasma as well on the efficiency of these levels excitation for several plasma pulse lengths. (authors)

  3. Working Condition And The Convenience Of Organization Environment Related With Performance Of Pharmacist Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kiswanto kiswanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organization support is one of the determining factors in improving the performance of the employees. Organization support consisting of organizational factor, convenience environment, the provision of the infrastructure the selection of technology and working proviso condition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between organization support and performance of pharmacist assistant at the pharmacies division of the district general hospital Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru of Riau province. This was an analytic quantitative study with the cross sectional design to 53 pharmacist assistants as population.  The study was used total sampling. The data were collected by using questionnaire and analyzed with univariate and bivariate. The results showed 49% pharmacist assistants having poor performance. There was a significant relationship between working condition (p-value = 0,04, the convenience of organization environment (p-value = 0,019 with the performance of pharmacist assistant. Its Expected the hospital management to improve the convenience of organization environment at the pharmacies division and also improve the health program and salvation for pharmacist assistant.

  4. Subjective versus objective measures of tic severity in Tourette syndrome - The influence of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Meirav; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Gilboa-Sechtman, Eva; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Fennig, Silvana; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of environmental challenges on tic expression by subjective and objective measures. The study group consisted of 41 children aged 6-18 years (M=10.15, SD=2.73) with a primary diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. Subjective measures included the Functional Assessment Interview developed for this study and three standard validated instruments. The objective measure was a video-recording of the patients in five daily-life situations: watching television, doing homework, being alone, receiving attention when ticcing, and talking to a stranger. In addition, the effect of premonitory urges on assessment of tic expression was evaluated. The associations between the subjective and objective measures of tic expression were moderate to low. A significantly higher number of tics were observed in the television situation, and a significantly lower number in the alone situation, compared to the other situations. Higher levels of premonitory urge were associated with greater awareness of objectively measured tic expression. In conclusion, tic expression is significantly influenced by the environment. Subjective measures of tic expression may be misleading. These results have implications for refining the clinical assessment of tics, improving research methodology, and developing new therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU cores under severe accident conditions - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    This volume of appendices presents listings and sample runs of the computer codes used in the study of the thermalhydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores during severe loss of coolant accidents. The codes, written in standard FORTRAN, are MODBOIL, to calculate moderator temperatures, pressures and water levels; DEBRIS, to calculate the transient temperature distribution in the debris of calandria and pressure tubes and fuel pellets; MOLTENPOOL, to calculate the temperature history in a pool of molten debris; CONFILM, to calculate the behaviour of a condensing film of vaporized core debris on the calandria wall, and BLDG, to calculate the pressurization of the containment during the expulsion of moderator through pressure relief ducts. In addition there are discussions of the average condensation heat transfer coefficient for vaporized core material on the calandria wall, and of vapor explosions

  6. Bioactivity of Several Herbicides on the Nanogram Level Under Different Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S C; Kuk, Y I; Senseman, S A; Ahn, H G; Seong, C N; Lee, D J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a double-tube centrifuge method was employed to determine the effects of soil moisture on the bioactivity of cafenstrole, pretilachlor, benfuresate, oxyfluorfen and simetryn. In general, the available herbicide concentration in soil solution (ACSS) showed little change as soil moisture increased for herbicides. The total available herbicide in soil solution (TASS) typically increased as soil moisture increased for all herbicides. The relationship between TASS and % growth rate based on dry weight showed strong linear relationships for both cafenstrole and pretilachlor, with r2 values of 0.95 and 0.84, respectively. Increasing TASS values were consistent with increasing herbicide water solubility, with the exception of the ionizable herbicide simetryn. Plant absorption and % growth rate exhibited a strong linear relationship with TASS. According to the results suggested that TASS was a better predictor of herbicidal bioactivity than ACSS for all herbicides under unsaturated soil moisture conditions.

  7. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus...

  8. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianfeng, E-mail: jianfeng-mao@163.com [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Li, Xiangqing [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Bao, Shiyi [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Luo, Lijia [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  9. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jianfeng; Li, Xiangqing; Bao, Shiyi; Luo, Lijia; Gao, Zengliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  10. Conditional Mediation of Absorptive Capacity and Environment in International Entrepreneurial Orientation of Family Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Xu, Wenkai

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of conditional mediation of environment-absorptive capacity in international entrepreneurial orientation of family businesses. Results involve data from 218 Spanish family businesses, analyzed with SmartPLS 3.2.7 software. This paper presents a relevant contribution both to the academic field and the performance of family firms, helping to understand the process of transforming international entrepreneurial orientation into a better international performance through absorptive capacity while family businesses invest their efforts in aligning international entrepreneurial orientation and absorptive capacity with international results, bearing in mind the positive moderator effect of environment. The most relevant contribution of this work is to integrate in the same model the mediating effect of the absorption capacity and the moderating effect of the environment: the effect of the international entrepreneurial orientation on the international performance of family businesses improves with the mediation of the absorptive capacity (the variability of international performance goes from 32.5 to 40.6%) and the moderation of the environment (to variability of international performance goes from 40.6 to 45.3%).

  11. Condition-dependence, genotype-by-environment interactions and the lek paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Heubel, Katja

    2008-09-01

    The lek paradox states that maintaining genetic variation necessary for 'indirect benefit' models of female choice is difficult, and two interrelated solutions have been proposed. 'Genic capture' assumes condition-dependence of sexual traits, while genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) offer an additional way to maintain diversity. However, condition-dependence, particularly with GEIs, implies that environmental variation can blur the relationship between male displays and offspring fitness. These issues have been treated separately in the past. Here we combine them in a population genetic model, and show that predictions change not only in magnitude but also in direction when the timing of dispersal between environments relative to the life cycle is changed. GEIs can dramatically improve the evolution of costly female preferences, but also hamper it if much dispersal occurs between the life history stage where condition is determined and mating. This situation also arises if selection or mutation rates are too high. In general, our results highlight that when evaluating any mechanism promoted as a potential resolution of the lek paradox, it is not sufficient to focus on its effects on genetic variation. It also has to be assessed to what extent the proposed mechanism blurs the association between male attractiveness and offspring fitness; the net balance of these two effects can be positive or negative, and often strongly context-dependent.

  12. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  13. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis. A Gate to an Effective Treatment of Severe Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2014-07-01

        Table 1. Different clinical use of conventional and selective apheresis techniques in relation to the pathology to be treated in emergency or on long (chronic-term.  Throughout the acute phase of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis (HLP, PEX (Lipid-apheresis could be of considerable assistance not only in lowering TG levels but also in the prevention of recurrent HLP (3. Furthermore, patients with homo-, double- compound-, and heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia and HyperLp(a lipoproteinemia would benefit lipoprotein-apheresis (LA as an extracorporeal procedure providing selective removal of lipids and lipoproteins including Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL and other apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins (4, 5. Having numerous metabolic and clinical superiorities, LA characterizes an upgraded selective form of conventional extracorporeal therapies, e.g. plasma-exchange (PEX- Lipid-apheresis, which were broadly-used for managing severe hypercholesterolemia in the seventies. However, LA is primarily used in the treatment of previously-mentioned severe forms of dyslipidemia. FH patients are particularly prone to coronary ischemic events necessitating a tailored, intensive, efficient, continuous, and unceasing form of treatment. Obviously, a therapeutic approach exclusively relying on existing accessible medications would not lead to preferred clinical outcomes. The above reported clinical examples clearly suggest what differences exist between the non-selective and selective apheresis techniques as far as different pathologies exhibiting affinity are concerned. In particular, the clinical presentation, emergency or not, greatly affects the use of a given extracorporeal technique. However, depending upon the indication, a selective technique not usually utilized in emergency, such as selective dextran sulfate cellulose LA was recently suggested to treat acutely preeclampsia, where targeted therapies to stabilize the clinical manifestations and prolong

  14. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated With Commercial Aviation Accidents: A Real-Time Turbulence Model (RTTM) Designed for the Operational Prediction of Hazardous Aviation Turbulence Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Huffman, Allan W.; Riordan, Allen J.; Slusser, Sarah W.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Charney, Joseph J.; Waight, Kenneth T.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time prediction of environments predisposed to producing moderate-severe aviation turbulence is studied. We describe the numerical model and its postprocessing system designed for said prediction of environments predisposed to severe aviation turbulence as well as presenting numerous examples of its utility. The numerical model is MASS version 5.13, which is integrated over three different grid matrices in real time on a university work station in support of NASA Langley Research Center s B-757 turbulence research flight missions. The postprocessing system includes several turbulence-related products, including four turbulence forecasting indices, winds, streamlines, turbulence kinetic energy, and Richardson numbers. Additionally, there are convective products including precipitation, cloud height, cloud mass fluxes, lifted index, and K-index. Furthermore, soundings, sounding parameters, and Froude number plots are also provided. The horizontal cross-section plot products are provided from 16 000 to 46 000 ft in 2000-ft intervals. Products are available every 3 hours at the 60- and 30-km grid interval and every 1.5 hours at the 15-km grid interval. The model is initialized from the NWS ETA analyses and integrated two times a day.

  15. Raim – A model for iodine behavior in containment under severe accident condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chul Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risks for the public. Because the amount of iodine released largely depends on its volatility, iodine's behavior in containment has been extensively studied in international programs such as International Source Term Programme-Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation (EPICUR, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD-Behaviour of Iodine Project, and OECD-Source Term Evaluation and Mitigation. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS has joined these programs and is developing a simplified, stand-alone iodine chemistry model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model, based on the IMOD methodology and other previous studies. This model deals with chemical reactions associated with the formation and destruction of iodine species and surface reactions in the containment atmosphere and the sump in a simple manner. RAIM was applied to a simulation of four EPICUR tests and one Radioiodine Test Facility test, which were carried out in aqueous or gaseous phases. After analysis, the results show a trend of underestimation of organic and molecular iodine for the gas-phase experiments, the opposite of that for the aqueous-phase ones, whereas the total amount of volatile iodine species agrees well between the experiment and the analysis result.

  16. Tourette syndrome and comorbid conditions: a spectrum of different severities and complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Pellico, Alessandra; Calì, Paola Valeria; Curatolo, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate clinical correlates of Tourette syndrome and to identify the impact of comorbidities, we retrospectively recruited 92 young people affected by Tourette syndrome compared with 102 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessment included: Youth Quality of Life-Research, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, and Conner's and Child Behavior Checklist; moreover, Tourette syndrome patients completed the Yale Global Tic Severity Rating Scale and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Four clinical subgroups were identified: pure Tourette syndrome (49.8%), Tourette syndrome plus attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (22.2%), Tourette syndrome plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (21.5%), and Tourette syndrome plus ADHD plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (6.5%). Our findings suggested that emotional lability appeared in all Tourette syndrome subgroups, independently from comorbidities, representing a clinical feature of Tourette syndrome itself. Moreover, our data suggested that all 4 clinical subgroups had higher statistically significant behavioral problems compared with the healthy controls (P = .000), whereas affective and anxiety symptoms were overrepresented in Tourette syndrome plus comorbidities subgroups. Finally, Tourette syndrome patients had a lower quality of life compared with the healthy controls. These differences were statistically significant between the pure Tourette syndrome subgroups and Tourette syndrome plus comorbidities subgroups, as well as Tourette syndrome plus comorbidities subgroups and healthy controls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. RAIM-A model for iodine behavior in containment under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Chul; Cho, Yeong Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Following a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, iodine is a major contributor to the potential health risks for the public. Because the amount of iodine released largely depends on its volatility, iodine's behavior in containment has been extensively studied in international programs such as International Source Term Programme-Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation (EPICUR), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-Behaviour of Iodine Project, and OECD-Source Term Evaluation and Mitigation. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has joined these programs and is developing a simplified, stand-alone iodine chemistry model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model), based on the IMOD methodology and other previous studies. This model deals with chemical reactions associated with the formation and destruction of iodine species and surface reactions in the containment atmosphere and the sump in a simple manner. RAIM was applied to a simulation of four EPICUR tests and one Radioiodine Test Facility test, which were carried out in aqueous or gaseous phases. After analysis, the results show a trend of underestimation of organic and molecular iodine for the gas-phase experiments, the opposite of that for the aqueous-phase ones, whereas the total amount of volatile iodine species agrees well between the experiment and the analysis result.

  18. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behavior under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1985-10-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behavior considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a zircaloy-uranium eutectic melt. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally irradiated fuel are highlighted

  19. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  20. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behaviour considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a Zircaloy-Uranium eutectic melt. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during the tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. Whereas fuel liquefaction leads to an enhanced release of fission products in trace-irradiated fuel, the occurrence of fuel liquefaction in normally-irradiated fuel can degrade fission product release. This phenomenon is due in part to reduced gas-bubble mobilities in a viscous medium as compared to vapor transport, and in part to a degradation of grain growth rates and the subsequent decrease in grain-boundary sweeping of intragranular fission products into the liquified lamina. The analysis shows that total UO 2 dissolution due to eutectic melting leads to increased release for both trace-irradiated and normally-irradiated fuel. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally

  1. Thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU cores under severe accident conditions - final report. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the thermo-hydraulic aspects of severe accident sequences in CANDU reactors. The accident sequences considered are the loss of the moderator cooling system and the loss of the moderator heat sink, each following a large loss-of-coolant accident accompanied by loss of emergency coolant injection. Factors considered include expulsion and boil-off of the moderator, uncovery, overheating and disintegration of the fuel channels, quenching of channel debris, re-heating of channel debris following complete moderator expulsion, formation and possible boiling of a molten pool of core debris and the effectiveness of the cooling of the calandria wall by the shield tank water during the accident sequences. The effects of these accident sequences on the reactor containment are also considered. Results show that there would be no gross melting of fuel during moderator expulsion from the calandria, and for a considerable time thereafter, as quenched core debris re-heats. Core melting would not begin until about 135 minutes after accident initiation in a loss of the moderator cooling system and until about 30 minutes in a loss of the moderator heat sink. Eventually, a pool of molten material would form in the bottom of the calandria, which may or may not boil, depending on property values. In all cases, the molten core would be contained within the calandria, as long as the shield tank water cooling system remains operational. Finally, in the period from 8 to 50 hours after the initiation of the accident, the molten core would re-solidify within the calandria. There would be no consequent damage to containment resulting from these accident sequences, nor would there be a significant increase in fission product releases from containment above those that would otherwise occur in a dual failure LOCA plus LOECI

  2. The ability of silicide coating to delay the catastrophic oxidation of vanadium under severe conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaia, N., E-mail: nabil.chaia@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Mathieu, S., E-mail: stephane.mathieu@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Rouillard, F., E-mail: fabien.rouillard@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vilasi, M., E-mail: michel.vilasi@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Oxidation protection is due to the formation of a pure silica layer. • V–4Cr–4Ti with V{sub x}Si{sub y} silicide coating withstands 400 1-h cycles (1100 °C-T{sub amb}) in air. • Three-point flexure testing at 950 °C and 75 MPa does not induce coating breakdown. • No delamination between coating and substrate is observed in any test. - Abstract: V–4Cr–4Ti vanadium alloy is a potential cladding material for sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors (SFRs). However, its affinity for oxygen and the subsequent embrittlement that oxygen induces causes a need for an oxygen diffusion barrier, which can be obtained by manufacturing a multi-layered silicide coating. The present work aims to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling (using a cyclic oxidation device) and tensile and compressive stresses (using the three-point flexure test) on the coated alloy system. Tests were performed in air up to 1100 °C, which is 200 °C higher than the accidental temperature for SFR applications. The results showed that the VSi{sub 2} coating was able to protect the vanadium substrate from oxidation for more than 400 1-h cycles between 1100 °C and room temperature. The severe bending applied to the coated alloy at 950 °C using a load of 75 MPa did not lead to specimen breakage. It can be suggested that the VSi{sub 2} coating has mechanical properties compatible with the V–4Cr–4Ti alloy for SFR applications.

  3. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  4. Application of spaceborne SAR data to uranium metallogenetic environment, condition and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Huang Shutao; Dong Wenming; Pan Wei; Fang Maolong; Xuan Yanxiu

    2001-01-01

    JERS-1 SAR data processing and data fusion with TM, airborne radioactive and magnetic survey data have been elaborated and image effects have been described in the paper. By means of the analysis of the processed images, the stratigraphy, structures (including faults and folds) and ore-controlling factors in the study area have successfully been interpreted; the underground water mobile characteristics have been discussed; and the metallogenetic environment and condition have been summarized. Based on above research results, the prospecting criteria have been provided and favorable sections have been suggested. The practice has indicated that the application of spaceborne SAR data to uranium reconnaissance and exploration has potential prospects

  5. Patterns of nocturnal rehydration in root tissues of Vaccinium corymbosum L. under severe drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Richards, James H; Diaz, Andres; Eissensat, David M

    2009-01-01

    Although roots in dry soil layers are commonly rehydrated by internal hydraulic redistribution during the nocturnal period, patterns of tissue rehydration are poorly understood. Rates of nocturnal rehydration were examined in roots of different orders in Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Bluecrop' (Northern highbush blueberry) grown in a split-pot system with one set of roots in relatively moist soil and the other set of roots in dry soil. Vaccinium is noted for a highly branched and extremely fine root system. It is hypothesized that nocturnal root tissue rehydration would be slow, especially in the distal root orders because of their greater hydraulic constraints (smaller vessel diameters and fewer number of vessels). Vaccinium root hydraulic properties delayed internal water movement. Even when water was readily available to roots in the wet soil and transpiration was minimal, it took a whole night-time period of 12 h for the distal finest roots (1st to 4th order) under dry soil conditions to reach the same water potentials as fine roots in moist soil (1st to 4th order). Even though roots under dry soil equilibrated with roots in moist soil, the equilibrium point reached before sunrise was about -1.2 MPa, indicating that tissues were not fully rehydrated. Using a single-branch root model, it was estimated that individual roots exhibiting the lowest water potentials in dry soil were 1st order roots (distal finest roots of the root system). However, considered at the branch level, root orders with the highest hydraulic resistances corresponded to the lowest orders of the permanent root system (3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots), thus indicating possible locations of hydraulic safety control in the root system of this species.

  6. The effect of self-leveling on debris bed coolability under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, S.; Konovalenko, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Yakush, S.E. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ave. Vernadskogo 101 Bldg 1, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation); Kudinov, P. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A model for coolability of a self-leveling, variable-shape debris bed is proposed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to screen out the less influential input parameters. • A small fraction of scenarios has initially a non-coolable debris bed configuration. • The fraction of non-coolable scenarios decreases with time due to self-leveling. - Abstract: Nordic-type boiling water reactors employ melt fragmentation, quenching, and long term cooling of the debris bed in a deep pool of water under the reactor vessel as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy. The height and shape of the bed are among the most important factors that determine if decay heat can be removed from the porous debris bed by natural circulation of water. The debris bed geometry depends on its formation process (melt release, fragmentation, sedimentation and settlement on the containment basemat), but it also changes with time afterwards, due to particle redistribution promoted by coolant flow (self-leveling). The ultimate goal of this work is to develop an approach to the assessment of the probability that debris in such a variable-shape bed can reach re-melting (which means failure of SA mitigation strategy), i.e. the time necessary for the slumping debris bed to reach a coolable configuration is larger than the time necessary for the debris to reach the re-melting temperature. For this purpose, previously developed models for particulate debris spreading by self-leveling and debris bed dryout are combined to assess the time necessary to reach a coolable state and evaluate its uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis was performed to screen out less important input parameters, after which Monte Carlo simulation was carried out in order to collect statistical characteristics of the coolability time. The obtained results suggest that, given the parameters ranges typical of Nordic BWRs, only a small fraction of debris beds configurations exhibits the occurrence of dryout. Of the

  7. Biofilm generation by Piscirickettsia salmonis under growth stress conditions: a putative in vivo survival/persistence strategy in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Gómez, Fernando A; Ramírez, Ramón; Nilo, Luis; Henríquez, Vitalia

    2012-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a bacterial fish pathogen seriously threatening the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry. The biology and life cycle of this bacterium is not completely understood and there are no reports explaining how it survives or persists in marine environments. This work provides descriptive data of P. salmonis behavior when it is exposed to stress conditions, producing large cell aggregates closely resembling typical biofilm structures. In order to track this putative biofilm, we used indirect fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Complex masses were observed over time; the bacteria appear to be embedded within a matrix which disappears when it is exposed to cellulase, suggesting a polysaccharide nature typical of biofilm formation. Two lectins (ConA and WGA) were used to characterize the matrix. Both lectins showed a strong reaction with the structure, validating the exopolysaccharide nature of the matrix. Recently, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between toxin/anti-toxin system expression at initial stages of biofilm formation. In this report, QRT-PCR analysis was used with the P. salmonis toxin/anti-toxin mazEF operon, showing induction of these genes at early stages of biofilm formation, suggesting that said formation may be an adaptive strategy for survival and persistence under stress conditions in marine environments. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe obesity and comorbid condition impact on the weight-related quality of life of the adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Inge, Thomas H; Modi, Avani C; Jenkins, Todd M; Michalsky, Marc P; Helmrath, Michael; Courcoulas, Anita; Harmon, Carroll M; Rofey, Dana; Baughcum, Amy; Austin, Heather; Price, Karin; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Brandt, Mary L; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    To assess links between comorbid health status, severe excess weight, and weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) in adolescents with severe obesity and undergoing weight-loss surgery (WLS) to inform clinical care. Baseline (preoperative) data from Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery, a prospective multicenter observational study of 242 adolescents with severe obesity (MedianBMI = 50.5 kg/m(2); Meanage = 17.1; 75.6% female; 71.9% white) undergoing WLS, were used to examine the impact of demographics, body mass index (BMI), presence/absence of 16 comorbid conditions, and a cumulative comorbidity load (CLoad) index on WRQOL scores (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids). WRQOL was significantly lower than reference samples of healthy weight, overweight, and obese samples. Of 16 comorbid conditions, the most prevalent were dyslipidemia (74.4%), chronic pain (58.3%), and obstructive sleep apnea (56.6%). Male subjects had a greater CLoad (P = .01) and BMI (P = .01), yet less impairment in total WRQOL (P conditions (eg, stress urinary incontinence) also emerged as contributors to lower WRQOL. WRQOL impairment is substantial for adolescents with severe obesity undergoing WLS, with predictors varying by sex. These patient-data highlight targets for education, support, and adjunctive care referrals before WLS. Furthermore, they provide a comprehensive empirical base for understanding heterogeneity in adolescent WRQOL outcomes after WLS, as weight and comorbidity profiles change over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treating symptoms or assisting human development: Can different environmental conditions affect personal development for patients with severe mental illness? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauveng, Arnhild; Tveiten, Sidsel; Ekeland, Tor-Johan; Torleif, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that a basic anomaly in self-experience may be a core factor in patients with severe mental illnesses. Given the importance of sense of self, the traditional treatment of symptoms might not be the most effective for these groups of patients. This qualitative study examines how differences in social environmental conditions, organized as education or treatment, might affect personal development in patients with severe mental illness. A qualitative hermeneutical design was used. Data were collected through qualitative interviews. Informants included 14 patients in psychiatric treatment and 15 students at schools for adults with mental illness. Most informants were interviewed on two occasions, 6-8 months apart, totaling 47 interviews. All participants had been diagnosed with severe mental illness with pronounced impact on daily functioning (most often psychoses or personality disorders) for a minimum of 2 years. Findings and interpretations showed that the students experienced a supportive environment focused mostly on education. They described personal and enduring development in areas such as capacity for relationships, regulation of symptoms, subjective well-being, and integration in society. The patients experienced an environment focused more on treatment of their illness and less on personal development and interests. They described little development, much loneliness, a poor quality of life, an objectifying attitude of themselves and others, and hopelessness. Even if more research is needed, findings indicate that for this group of patients, problems may be closely related to identity development. Therefore, instead of solemnly focusing on specific symptoms, it might be more effective to support patients' personal and social development by offering intensive and lasting social environmental conditions. This includes stable and mutual relationships, intrinsically motivated activities, and an environment that supports personal choices

  10. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.; Dhiman, M.; Kulkarni, P. P.; Vijayan, P. K.; Vaze, K. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  11. ROLE OF PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF SEVERE PLANT CONDITIONS IN INDIAN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS JAIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor ‘AHWR’ is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  12. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Bergman

    Full Text Available The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF, assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3, and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus. All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  13. The Extent and Implications of the Microclimatic Conditions in the Urban Environment: A Vienna Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Vuckovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent challenges in the realm of urban studies concern better understanding of microclimatic conditions. Changes in urban climate affect cities at local and global scales, with consequences for human health, thermal comfort, building energy use, and anthropogenic emissions. The extent of these impacts may vary due to different morphologies and materials of the built environment. The present contribution summarizes the results of a multi-year effort concerned with the extent and implications of urban heat in Vienna, Austria. For this purpose, high-resolution weather data across six locations are obtained and analyzed. This allowed for an objective assessment of urban-level climatic circumstances across distinct low-density and high-density typologies. Subsequently, a systematic framework was developed for identification of essential properties of the built environment (geometric and material-related that are hypothesized to influence microclimate variation. Results point to a number of related (positive and negative correlations with microclimatic tendencies. Additionally, the impact of this location-specific weather data on building performance simulation results is evaluated. The results suggest that buildings' thermal performance is significantly influenced by location-specific microclimatic conditions with variation of mean annual heating load across locations of up to 16.1 kWhm−2·a−1. The use of location-independent weather data sources (e.g., standardized weather files for building performance estimations can, thus, result in considerable errors.

  14. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  15. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, S.; Mba, D.

    2009-01-01

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  16. Simulation of worst-case operating conditions for integrated circuits operating in a total dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuva, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Degradations in the circuit performance created by the radiation exposure of integrated circuits are so unique and abnormal that thorough simulation and testing of VLSI circuits is almost impossible, and new ways to estimate the operating performance in a radiation environment must be developed. The principal goal of this work was the development of simulation techniques for radiation effects on semiconductor devices. The mixed-mode simulation approach proved to be the most promising. The switch-level approach is used to identify the failure mechanisms and critical subcircuits responsible for operational failure along with worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation. For precise simulations of critical subcircuits, SPICE is used. The identification of failure mechanisms enables the circuit designer to improve the circuit's performance and failure-exposure level. Identification of worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation reduces the complexity of testing VLSI circuits for radiation environments. The results of test circuits for failure simulations using a conventional simulator and the new simulator showed significant time savings using the new simulator. The savings in simulation time proved to be circuit topology-dependent. However, for large circuits, the simulation time proved to be orders of magnitude smaller than simulation time for conventional simulators

  17. Studies on the role of molybdenum on iodine transport in the RCS in nuclear severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grégoire, A.-C.; Kalilainen, J.; Cousin, F.; Mutelle, H.; Cantrel, L.; Auvinen, A.; Haste, T.; Sobanska, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In oxidising conditions, Mo reacts with Cs and thus promotes gaseous iodine release. • In reducing conditions, CsI remains the dominant form for released iodine. • The nature of released iodine is well reproduced by the ASTEC code. - Abstract: The effect of molybdenum on iodine transport in the reactor coolant system (RCS) under PWR severe accident conditions was investigated in the framework of the EU SARNET project. Experiments were conducted at the VTT-Institute and at IRSN and simulations of the experimental results were performed with the ASTEC severe accident simulation code. As molybdenum affects caesium chemistry by formation of molybdates, it may have a significant impact on iodine transport in the RCS. Experimentally it has been shown that the formation of gaseous iodine is promoted in oxidising conditions, as caesium can be completely consumed to form caesium polymolybdates and is thus not available for reacting with gaseous iodine and leading to CsI aerosols. In reducing conditions, CsI remains the dominant form of iodine, as the amount of oxygen is not sufficient to allow formation of quantitative caesium polymolybdates. An I–Mo–Cs model has been developed and it reproduces well the experimental trends on iodine transport

  18. Effect of load carriage and natural terrain conditions on cognitive performance in desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; Pal, Madhusudan; Chatterjee, Tirthankar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2017-10-01

    Correct decision making is a critical component of cognitive performance of a soldier, which may be influenced by the load carriage and terrain conditions during their deployment in desert environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of loads and terrain conditions on the cognitive performance in a group of twelve healthy heat acclimatized infantry soldiers under natural desert environment. The soldiers participated in a 10min walking trial during carrying no load and also carrying 10.7, 21.4 and 30kg at two terrain conditions viz., sandy and hard. We studied attention, memory and executive function, which are having immense functional importance in military operations. Standardized cognitive test battery was applied to the participants after carrying each magnitude of load at each terrain. Baseline cognitive performance was recorded on a separate day and was compared with the performances recorded after the load carriage trials. An attempt was made to reveal the relationship between physiological workload (relative workload) and cognitive performance at the point of completion of load carriage trials. Load, terrains and load×terrain interaction did not produce any significant effect (p>0.05) on the cognitive performance. Attention and relative workload were found significantly correlated at hard terrain under no load, 21.4kg and 30kg. Significant correlation was found between executive function and relative workload at hard terrain under no load. Carrying upto 30kg load for 10min at 3.5-4kmph walking speed resulted in improvement in attention at sandy terrain, decrement in memory at both sandy and hard terrains and improvement in executive function at sandy terrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in 'like-new' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the 'like-new' condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  20. Demonstration of TEG-powered wireless autonomous transducer solution for condition monitoring in industrial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziyang; Patrascu, Mihai; Su, Jiale; Vullers, Ruud J.M. [imec the Netherlands, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Imec/Holst Centre focuses on the development of wireless autonomous transducer solution, which is poised to bring about huge impact in the sectors of health care, machinery, transportation and energy, etc. In this paper, we first showcase a TEG-powered demonstration for condition monitoring in industrial environment. Composing of sensor-actuator, front-end interface, digital signal processing unit and radio, the developed wireless sensor node can monitor the changing operating condition, i.e. the loading on a rolling-element bearing, on a rotating shaft. The use of a specially designed TEG, working in tandem with an energy storage device, can significantly improve the energy autonomy of the condition monitoring system as a whole. The different components in the demonstration are presented. Subsequently, the experimental results of vibration signature analysis are exhibited. On one hand, the presented demonstration sheds light on the huge potential of thermoelectric energy harvesting to achieve energy autonomy. On the other hand, it also points to the aspects that are in need of further development, namely miniaturization and cost reduction of energy harvesters. Aimed at the delivery of cost-effective miniaturized thermoelectric harvesting devices, imec/Holst Centre has been tackling with the relevant challenges by resorting to, but not limited to, its expertise in micromachining. An update on the latest research results is subsequently given with regard to various micromachined thermoelectric devices, fully fledged wearable TEGs with custom designed package and thermoelectric material property optimization. (orig.)

  1. Monitoring of corrosion rates of Fe-Cu alloys under wet/dry condition in weakly alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Kyoung; Nishikata, Atsushi; Tsuru, Tooru

    2002-01-01

    When the steel, containing scrap elements like copper, is used as reinforcing steel bars for concrete, the steel is exposed to alkaline environments. in this study, AC impedance technique has been applied to the monitoring of corrosion rates of iron and several Fe-Cu (0.4, 10wt%) alloys in a wet-dry cycle condition. The wet-dry cycle was conducted by exposure to alternate conditions of 1 hour-immersion in a simulated pH10 concrete solution (Ca(OH) 2 ) containing 0.01M NaCl and 3 hour-drying at 298K and 50%RH. The corrosion rate of the iron is greatly accelerated by the wet-dry cycles. Because the active FeOOH species, which are produced by the oxidation of Fe(II, III)oxide in air during drying, act as very strong oxidants to the corrosion in the wet condition. As the drying progresses, iron shows a large increase in the corrosion rate and a small shift of the corrosion potential to the positive values. This can be explained by acceleration of oxygen transport through the thin electrolyte layer In contrast to iron, the Fe-Cu alloys show low corrosion rates and the high corrosion potentials in whole cycles

  2. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated With Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 1; 44 Case Study Synoptic Observational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allan J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A 44 case study analysis of the large-scale atmospheric structure associated with development of accident-producing aircraft turbulence is described. Categorization is a function of the accident location, altitude, time of year, time of day, and the turbulence category, which classifies disturbances. National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalyses data sets and satellite imagery are employed to diagnose synoptic scale predictor fields associated with the large-scale environment preceding severe turbulence. These analyses indicate a predominance of severe accident-producing turbulence within the entrance region of a jet stream at the synoptic scale. Typically, a flow curvature region is just upstream within the jet entrance region, convection is within 100 km of the accident, vertical motion is upward, absolute vorticity is low, vertical wind shear is increasing, and horizontal cold advection is substantial. The most consistent predictor is upstream flow curvature and nearby convection is the second most frequent predictor.

  3. Investigation of Focusing Effect according to the Cooling Condition and Height of the Metallic layer in a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident has led to renewed research interests in severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of core melt is one of key severe accident management strategies adopted in nuclear power plant design. The metallic layer is heated from below by the radioactive decay heat generated at the oxide pool, and is cooled from above and side walls. During the IVR process, reactor vessel may be cooled externally (ERVC) and the heat fluxes to the side wall increase with larger temperature difference than above. This {sup F}ocusing effect{sup i}s varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. A sulfuric acid–copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system. Numerical analysis using the commercial CFD program FLUENT 6.3 were carried out with the same material properties and cooling conditions to examine the variation of the cell. The experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate the focusing effect according to cooling condition of upper boundary and the height in metallic layer. The height of the side wall was varied for three different cooling conditions: top only, side only, and both top and side. Mass transfer experiments, based on the analogy concept, were carried out in order to achieve high Rayleigh number. The experimental results agreed well with the Rayleigh-Benard convection correlations of Dropkin and Somerscales and Globe and Dropkin. The heat transfer on side wall cooling condition without top cooling is highest and was enhanced by decreasing the aspect ratio. The numerical results agreed well with the experimental results. Each cell pattern (cell size, cell direction, central location of cell) differed in the cooling condition. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the internal flow due to complexity of cell formation behavior.

  4. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  5. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  6. Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez (Lauraceae seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA. Pires

    Full Text Available The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 ºC, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 ºC and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 ºC. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor.

  7. Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, L A; Cardoso, V J M; Joly, C A; Rodrigues, R R

    2009-08-01

    The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 degrees C, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 degrees C and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 degrees C. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor.

  8. Optimum Condition for Plutonium Electrodeposition Process in Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory, Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii, Mei-Wo; Abdullah Siddiqi Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Determination of alpha emitting plutonium radionuclides such as Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations inside a sample require lots of radiochemistry purification process to separate them from other interfering alpha emitters. These pure isotopes are then been electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc and quantified using alpha spectrometry counter. In Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory (RAS), Nuclear Malaysia, the quantification is done by comparing these isotopes with the recovery of known amount plutonium tracer, Pu-242, that been added into the sample prior analysis. This study been conducted to find the optimum conditions for the electrolysis process used at RAS. Four variable parameters that may interfere the percentage recovery of tracer hence the current, cathode to anode distance, pH and electrolysis duration had been identify and studied. Study was carry out using Pu-242 standard solution and the deposition disc was counted using Zinc Sulphite (silver) counter. Studies outcome suggested that the optimum conditions to reduce plutonium ion happens at 1-1.1 ampere of current, 3-5 mm of electrodes distance, pH 2.2-2.5 and a minimal electrolysis duration of 2 hours. (author)

  9. Mathematical Modelling of Thermal Process to Aquatic Environment with Different Hydrometeorological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibek Issakhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model of the thermal process from thermal power plant to aquatic environment of the reservoir-cooler, which is located in the Pavlodar region, 17 Km to the north-east of Ekibastuz town. The thermal process in reservoir-cooler with different hydrometeorological conditions is considered, which is solved by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and temperature equation for an incompressible flow in a stratified medium. A numerical method based on the projection method, divides the problem into three stages. At the first stage, it is assumed that the transfer of momentum occurs only by convection and diffusion. Intermediate velocity field is solved by fractional steps method. At the second stage, three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved by the Fourier method in combination with tridiagonal matrix method (Thomas algorithm. Finally, at the third stage, it is expected that the transfer is only due to the pressure gradient. Numerical method determines the basic laws of the hydrothermal processes that qualitatively and quantitatively are approximated depending on different hydrometeorological conditions.

  10. Effects of strain rate, stress condition and environment on iodine embrittlement of Ziracloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy became higher with decreasing strain rate. Critical strain rate, below which high SCC severity was observed, substantially depended on Zircaloy stress condition. This strain rate (7 x 10 -3 min -1 ) under plane strain condition was about 3.5 times as fast as that (2 x 10 -3 min -1 ) under uniaxial condition. The maximum iodine embrittlement in Zircaloy was found in stress ratio α (axial/tangential stress) range of 0.5 to 0.7. No embrittlement occurred at α = infinity because of its texture effect. The SCC fracture stresses were about 39 kg/mm 2 for unirradiated and stress-relieved material, and about 34 kg/mm 2 for recrystallized material, whose ratios to yield strength of each material were 0.8 and 1.2. Impurity gases of oxygen and moisture in the iodine had the effects of reducing Zircaloy SCC susceptibility. Stress-relieved material was more sensitive to environmental impurities than recrystallized material

  11. To the micro-climatic condition influence upon the environment pollution during exploitation of being oxidized mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, T.K.; Al'mukhambetova, Sh.K.; Bajramov, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    Conducted researches showed dependence of environment pollution rate under exploration of being oxidized mineral deposits from number of meteorological futures of season changes. Zones of gases spreading in atmosphere from sources of pollution in dependence from micro-climatic conditions are estimated. Results can be used during preventive measures projecting for environment in deposits districts. (author)

  12. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however...

  13. In Vitro Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Using Conditions That Mimic the Environment at Specific Infection Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer-Hamood, J A; Dzvova, N; Kruczek, C; Hamood, A N

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and acute systemic infections in severely burned patients and immunocompromised patients including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and HIV infected individuals. In response to the environmental conditions at specific infection sites, P. aeruginosa expresses certain sets of cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors that produce tissue damage. Analyzing the mechanisms that govern the production of these virulence factors in vitro requires media that closely mimic the environmental conditions within the infection sites. In this chapter, we review studies based on media that closely resemble three in vivo conditions, the thick mucus accumulated within the lung alveoli of CF patients, the serum-rich wound bed and the bloodstream. Media resembling the CF alveolar mucus include standard laboratory media supplemented with sputum obtained from CF patients as well as prepared synthetic mucus media formulated to contain the individual components of CF sputum. Media supplemented with serum or individual serum components have served as surrogates for the soluble host components of wound infections, while whole blood has been used to investigate the adaptation of pathogens to the bloodstream. Studies using these media have provided valuable information regarding P. aeruginosa gene expression in different host environments as varying sets of genes were differentially regulated during growth in each medium. The unique effects observed indicate the essential role of these in vitro media that closely mimic the in vivo conditions in providing accurate information regarding the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transformation of the Terminological Apparatus of Economic Development of Innovation Activity under Conditions of Dynamic Changes in the External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharko Margarita V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the content interpretation of categorical concepts of economic development of production functioning under conditions of dynamic changes in the exploitation of the external environment. The article presents the author’s interpretation of the concepts of economic development and economic growth under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment. The urgency of unification and systematization of the main interpretations of economic growth as a means of choosing and using certain management solutions under specific production conditions is substantiated. Based on the construction of the Ishikawa diagram, the reasons and difficulties of the economic growth of enterprises are graded. The conditions and factors of the conceptual apparatus of innovation activity under uncertainty are structured. It is shown that the complex application of iterative methods and methods of factor analysis provides a holistic perception of the dominant tendencies of economic development under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment.

  15. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  16. Constraining the thermal conditions of impact environments through integrated low-temperature thermochronometry and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N. M.; Marchi, S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Flowers, R. M.; Metcalf, J. R.; Bottke, W. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts have a significant physical and chemical influence on the surface conditions of a planet. The cratering record is used to understand a wide array of impact processes, such as the evolution of the impact flux through time. However, the relationship between impactor size and a resulting impact crater remains controversial (e.g., Bottke et al., 2016). Likewise, small variations in the impact velocity are known to significantly affect the thermal-mechanical disturbances in the aftermath of a collision. Development of more robust numerical models for impact cratering has implications for how we evaluate the disruptive capabilities of impact events, including the extent and duration of thermal anomalies, the volume of ejected material, and the resulting landscape of impacted environments. To address uncertainties in crater scaling relationships, we present an approach and methodology that integrates numerical modeling of the thermal evolution of terrestrial impact craters with low-temperature, (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The approach uses time-temperature (t-T) paths of crust within an impact crater, generated from numerical simulations of an impact. These t-T paths are then used in forward models to predict the resetting behavior of (U-Th)/He ages in the mineral chronometers apatite and zircon. Differences between the predicted and measured (U-Th)/He ages from a modeled terrestrial impact crater can then be used to evaluate parameters in the original numerical simulations, and refine the crater scaling relationships. We expect our methodology to additionally inform our interpretation of impact products, such as lunar impact breccias and meteorites, providing robust constraints on their thermal histories. In addition, the method is ideal for sample return mission planning - robust "prediction" of ages we expect from a given impact environment enhances our ability to target sampling sites on the Moon, Mars or other solar system bodies where impacts have strongly

  17. THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE UBSUNUR HOLLOW AND ITS ANTHROPOGENIC CONDITIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Prudnikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of the early historical epochs anthropogenic activity impact on the environment proves its influence on ecosystems dynamics and its substantial role in changing natural and climatic conditions. Methods and results. With the help of remote sensing (deciphering space images (Google resources, free access and landscape observations on the area of Ubsunur Hollow, one of the largest arid hollows of Central Asia, in the neighbourhood of the Agar-Dag range numerous tracks of irrigation agriculture have been found. The absence of fresh water continuous supply in the area of ancient irrigation presupposes milder climatic conditions and the presence of forest flora maintaining the level of ground waters in the past. The presence of forest steppe landscapes on arid areas of Ubsunur Hollow in the recent past has been proved by the results of paleobotanic research on ancient agroirrigation landscapes to the south-west of Lake Shara Nur in the Upper Naryin Gol River. Conclusion. A big number of land allotments found in north-eastern part of Ubsunur Hollow near the Agar-Dag range (Lake Shara Nur allows us to speak about significant water reserves (and forestry area of this territory as well as about a big number of people living there in early epochs and who needed fuel, wood as a source of construction materials, etc., consequently forests were destroyed. They were also being destroyed during numerous wars: Central Asia is the region of constant battles between western and eastern civilizations. The conducted research proves the presence of forest flora (spruce-larch-grass-sedge communities, steppificated pine forests in the Late Quaternary period in the central part of Ubsunur Hollow on the area which is now deserted. The most probable reason of desertisation of the area is destruction of the forest. Forest devastation is the major reason of landscape degradation not only of Ubsunur Hollow but also of the whole steppe Asian belt.

  18. Identification and Optimal Growth Conditions of Actinomycetes Isolated From Mangrove Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameerah Abdul Hamid; Suhaidi Ariffin; Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are classified as saprophytes that play a significant role in the breakdown of organic matters into more readily assimilable nutrients. They are also known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, which are useful for human, veterinary medicine and agriculture applications. The optimum growth conditions of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove environment at different temperature, pH and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration were studied. The identification of the isolates by both biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis was also done. All isolates were grown in ISP1 medium at different temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degree Celsius); pH (3.5, 5, 7 and 9); and salt concentration (0, 3, 5 and 7 % w/v). The optimum temperature for KMS1 and KMH2 isolates was at 25 degree Celsius. However, the optimum temperature for PCS1 and PMH1A was at 30 and 37 degree Celsius respectively. The optimum pH was pH 7 and the most preferred NaCl concentration of all isolates was at 3 % (w/v). All isolates showed negative result for carbohydrate fermentation except for KMS1 which showed utilisation of D-Fructose sugar with acid production. Only KMS1 and PCS1 exhibited amylolytic and proteolytic activity. The isolates were successfully identified as Streptomyces variables (KMS1), Streptomyces rubrolavendulae (KMH2), Streptomyces spp. CPE333 (PCS1) and Actinomycetales bacterium (PMH1A). (author)

  19. Effect of steel surface conditions on reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete exposed to marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzola, E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methods and experimental tests were deployed in the present study to evaluate corrosion in reinforced concrete exposed to marine environments. Reinforcing steel exhibiting two different surface conditions prior to embedment in concrete were studied, one the one hand to assess the electrochemical behaviour of the bars during exposure of the concrete specimens to a simulated marine environment, and on the other to determine the strength of the steel/concrete bond. The reinforced concrete specimens prepared were adapted as required for electrochemical potential and corrosion rate testing. A total of 56 7x15-cm cylindrical specimens containing 3/8" steel rods anchored at a depth of 11.5 cm were made to evaluate the steel / concrete bond and exposed to a natural marine environment for 28 or 190 days prior to testing. All the specimens were made with ready-mixed concrete. It may be concluded from the results of the corrosion tests on reinforcing steel with different surface conditions that the oxide initially covering the bars was dissolved and the steel passivated by the alkalinity in the concrete. The chief finding of the bonding study was that the layer of oxide formed in pre-embedment steel deterioration contributed to establishing a better bond.

    En el contexto de esta investigación, se tomaron en consideración métodos y ensayos experimentales de laboratorio, que permiten hacer una evaluación de la corrosión del hormigón armado expuesto en ambientes marinos. Por una parte se evaluó el comportamiento electroquímico de dos condiciones de estados superficiales del acero embebido en el hormigón, exponiéndolo en un ambiente marino simulado y, por otra parte, se estudió la adherencia entre el acero y el hormigón, con los mismos estados superficiales usados para la evaluación electroquímica. Las probetas se fabricaron de hormigón con acero de refuerzo en su interior, adecuándolas para realizar los ensayos de potenciales

  20. The effects of harassment severity and organizational behavior on damage awards in a hostile work environment sexual harassment case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Stacie A; Levett, Lora M; Kovera, Margaret Bull

    2010-01-01

    Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 128) read a sexual harassment trial summary in which harassment severity and the organization's sexual harassment policy and response were manipulated. Jurors who read the severe harassment scenario were more likely to agree that the plaintiff had suffered and should be compensated for her suffering and that the organization should be punished than were jurors who read the mild harassment scenario. When the organization had and enforced a sexual harassment policy, jurors believed that the plaintiff had suffered little and the organization should not be punished compared with conditions in which the organization did not have an enforced sexual harassment policy. Harassment severity influenced jurors' compensatory awards, and organizational behavior influenced jurors' punitive awards. These results have implications for plaintiffs, who must decide whether to claim specific or garden-variety damages; organizations, which could create or modify sexual harassment policy to limit damages; and trial lawyers, who could tailor arguments to maximize or minimize awards. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nano-scale topography of bearing surface in advanced alumina/zirconia hip joint before and after severe exposure in water vapor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Saito, Takuma; Padeletti, Giuseppina; Cossari, Pierluigi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a surface morphology assessment with nanometer scale resolution on femoral heads made of an advanced zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite. Femoral heads were characterized to a degree of statistical accuracy in the as-received state and after exposures up to 100 h in severe vapor-moist environment. Surface screening was made using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scanning was systematically repeated on portions of surface as large as several tens of micrometers, randomly selected on the head surface, to achieve sufficient statistical reliability without lowering the nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the roughness measurement. No significant difference was found in the recorded values of surface roughness after environmental exposure (at 134 degrees C, under 2 bar), which was always comparable to that of the as-received head. Surface roughness safely lay <10 nm after environmental exposures up to 100 h, which corresponded to an exposure time in vivo of several human lifetimes (i.e., according to an experimentally derived thermal activation energy). In addition, the roughness results were significantly (about one order of magnitude) lower as compared to those recorded on femoral heads made of monolithic zirconia tested under the same conditions. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of self-ion irradiation on the microstructural changes of alloy EK-181 in annealed and severely deformed conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydogan, E. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, T.; Gigax, J.G.; Chen, D.; Wang, X. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Dzhumaev, P.S.; Emelyanova, O.V.; Ganchenkova, M.G.; Kalin, B.A.; Leontiva-Smirnova, M. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Valiev, R.Z. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials and Nanocenter, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Enikeev, N.A.; Abramova, M.M. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials and Nanocenter, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Wu, Y.; Lo, W.Y.; Yang, Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Short, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Maloy, S.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Garner, F.A. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Shao, L., E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    EK-181 is a low-activation ferritic/martensitic steel that is an attractive candidate for in-core component materials for both fast reactors and fusion reactors. To assess the effect of microstructural engineering on radiation response, two variants of EK-181 were studied: one in an annealed condition and the other subject to severe plastic deformation. These specimens were irradiated with 3.5 MeV Fe self-ions up to 400 peak displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 500 °C. The deformation did not suppress swelling over the whole irradiated region. Instead, deformed samples showed higher swelling in the near-surface region. Void swelling was found to be correlated with grain boundary instability. Significant grain growth occurred when steady-state void growth started.

  3. Analysis of several hazardous conditions for large transfer and back-dilution sequences in Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CW Stewart; LA Mahoney; WB Barton

    2000-01-01

    The first transfer of 89 kgal of waste and back-dilution of 61 kgal of water in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished December 18--20, 1999. Limits were placed on the transfer and back-dilution volumes because of concerns about potential gas release, crust sinking, and degradation of mixer pump performance. Additional transfers and back-dilutions are being planned that will bring the total to 500 kgal, which should dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank and dilute it well beyond the point where significant gas retention can occur. This report provides the technical bases for removing the limits on transfer and back-dilution volume by evaluating the potential consequences of several postulated hazardous conditions in view of the results of the first campaign and results of additional analyses of waste behavior

  4. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Navarrete Berges, Andrés; Omarshah, Tariq; Benton, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity. The satisfaction of the basic needs is more important for participants who are exposed to severe rather than mild levels of deprivation. Our findings illustrate ecological effects on the mechanism underlying goal-directed behavior. They provide evidence in favor of self-determination theory's depiction of humans as active, growth-oriented organisms and for the potential of psychological interventions to reduce poverty.

  5. Analysis of several hazardous conditions for large transfer and back-dilution sequences in Tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Stewart; LA Mahoney; WB Barton

    2000-01-28

    The first transfer of 89 kgal of waste and back-dilution of 61 kgal of water in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 was accomplished December 18--20, 1999. Limits were placed on the transfer and back-dilution volumes because of concerns about potential gas release, crust sinking, and degradation of mixer pump performance. Additional transfers and back-dilutions are being planned that will bring the total to 500 kgal, which should dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank and dilute it well beyond the point where significant gas retention can occur. This report provides the technical bases for removing the limits on transfer and back-dilution volume by evaluating the potential consequences of several postulated hazardous conditions in view of the results of the first campaign and results of additional analyses of waste behavior.

  6. Prevalence of oral health-related conditions that could trigger accidents for patients with moderate-to-severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Soga, Yoshihiko; Maekawa, Kyoko; Kanda, Yuko; Kobayashi, Eiko; Inoue, Hisako; Kanao, Ayana; Himuro, Yumiko; Fujiwara, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents in hospitalised patients with moderate-severe dementia. Dementia patients may not recognise risks in the mouth, such as tooth mobility or ill-fitting dental prostheses and/or dentures. In addition to the risk of choking, injury by sharp edges of collapsed teeth or prosthodontics could pose risks. However, many previous publications were limited to case reports or series. Ninety-two consecutive hospitalised dementia patients (M: 52, F: 40, median age: 82.5 years, range: 62-99 years, from 2011 to 2014), referred for dentistry for dysphagia rehabilitation, were enrolled in this study. Participants referred for dental treatment with dental problems detected by ward staff were excluded. All participants had a Global Clinical Dementia Rating Score >2. Their dental records were evaluated retrospectively for issues that may cause incidents and/or accidents. Problems in the mouth, for example tooth stumps, dental caries, and ill-fitting dentures, were detected in 51.1% of participants (47/92). Furthermore, 23.9% (22/92) showed risk factors that could lead to incidents and/or accidents, for example falling out of teeth and/or prosthodontics or injury by sharp edges of teeth and/or prosthodontics. Hospitalised moderate-severe dementia patients had a high prevalence of oral health conditions unnoticed by doctors and ward staff that may increase risk of incidents and/or accidents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of environment and health condition of the population of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of work on the dual hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of the environment and the health condition of the population of Moscow. It is shown that in the territory of the metropolis the impact of conditions of negative factors on human health is retained. These trends are confirmed by the excess of the hygienic standards of pollutants in ambient air (up to 6.6 TLVc.e., by the substantial increase (up to 65.8 % of share of the centralized sources of water supply, water quality does not meet the hygienic standards due to the high level of non-standard samples of soil (more than 50 % on a number of sanitary-chemical and microbiological parameters in the territories of certain administrative districts. At the same time there is a tendency to a decrease in non-standard drinking water samples taken from the distribution network of centralized drinking water supply (from 4.36 % to 2.45 %. It was established that the primary morbidity have a number of positive trends to decrease, but exceeds the average indicators for individual classes and nosology, including the classes of "Respiratory diseases", "Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue", "Neoplasms" and etc. by 4.1–68.3 %. Analysis of causality (about 50 significant biologically-based mathematical models were received on the system of "quality of habitat (a risk factor – health status (morbidity, mortality " showed that the impact of negative environmental factors probably shape up to 29.2 ‰ of additional cases and up to 0.056 ‰ of the additional deaths per year. The largest contribution to the formation of the probability of additional cases is made by the excess of morbidity by hygienic standards of air quality and soil, mortality and air quality. Risk factors are phenol, benzo a pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, and sulfur dioxide, etc., coming from the atmospheric air, and cadmium

  8. Infant difficult behaviors in the context of perinatal biomedical conditions and early child environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvinskiene Giedre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems experienced within the first year of an infant's life can be precursors of later mental health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and continuity of difficult behaviors in infants at 3 and 6 months of age and the associations of these difficulties with biomedical and psychosocial factors. Methods This study was a part of an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study. Study participants were 189 uniparous mothers and their full-term newborns. The index of infant difficult behavior was constructed. This index was then associated with the following factors: delivery mode, newborn function after birth, maternal emotional well-being, risk behavior, subjective evaluation of the quality of the relationship of the couple, and attitudes toward infant-rearing. Results Common difficult behaviors, including crying, sleeping and eating problems, were characteristic for 30.2% of 3 month old and for 22.2% of 6 month old full-term infants. The expression of infant difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months increased the likelihood of the expression of these difficulties at 6 months by more than 5 times. Factors including younger maternal age, poor prenatal and postnatal emotional well-being, prenatal alcohol consumption, low satisfaction with the couple's relationship before pregnancy, and deficiency of infant-centered maternal attitudes towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of difficult behaviors in infants at the age of 3 months. Low maternal satisfaction with the relationship of the couple before pregnancy, negative emotional reactions of both parents toward pregnancy (as reported by the mother and the deficiency of an infant-centered maternal attitude towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of infant difficult behaviors continuing between the ages of 3 to 6 months. Perinatal biomedical conditions were not related to the difficult behaviors in infants. Conclusions Our study suggests

  9. Development of simplified 1D and 2D models for studying a PWR lower head failure under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koundy, V.; Dupas, J.; Bonneville, H.; Cormeau, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the study of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactors, the scenarios that describe the relocation of significant quantities of liquid corium at the bottom of the lower head are investigated from the mechanical point of view. In these scenarios, the risk of a breach and the possibility of a large quantity of corium being released from the lower head exist. This may lead to direct heating of the containment or outer vessel steam explosion. These issues are important due to their early containment failure potential. Since the TMI-2 accident, many theoretical and experimental investigations, relating to lower head mechanical behaviour under severe thermo-mechanical loading in the event of a core meltdown accident have been performed. IRSN participated actively in the one-fifth scale USNRC/SNL LHF and OECD LHF (OLHF) programs. Within the framework of these programs, two simplified models were developed by IRSN: the first is a simplified 1D approach based on the theory of pressurized spherical shells and the second is a simplified 2D model based on the theory of shells of revolution under symmetric loading. The mathematical formulation of both models and the creep constitutive equations used are presented in detail in this paper. The corresponding models were used to interpret some of the OLHF program experiments and the calculation results were quite consistent with the experimental data. The two simplified models have been used to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor lower head under severe accident conditions leading to failure. The average transient heat flux produced by the corium relocated at the bottom of the lower head has been determined using the IRSN HARAR code. Two different methods, both taking into account the ablation of the internal surface, are used to determine the temperature profiles across the lower head wall and their effect on the time to failure is discussed. Using these simplified models

  10. Predictability of iodine chemistry in the containment of a nuclear power plant under hypothetical severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Vela-Garcia, M.; Fontanet, J. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    One of the areas of top interest in the arena of severe accidents to get an accurate prediction of Source Term is Iodine Chemistry. In this paper an assessment of the current capability of MELCOR and ASTEC to predict iodine chemistry within containment in case of a postulated severe accident has been carried out. The experiments FPT1 and FPT2 of the PHEBUS-FP project have been used for comparisons, since they were carried out under rather different containment conditions during the chemistry phase (subcooled vs. saturated sump or acid vs. alkaline pH), which makes them very suitable to assess the current modeling capability of in-containment iodine chemistry models. The results obtained indicate that, even though, both integral codes have specific areas related to iodine chemistry that should be further developed and that their approach to the matter is drastically different, at present ASTEC-IODE allows for a more comprehensive simulation of the containment iodine chemistry. More importantly, lack of maturity of these codes would potentially maximize the so-called user-effect, so that it would be highly recommendable to perform sensitivity studies around iodine chemistry aspects when calculating Source Term scenarios. Key aspects needed of further research are: gaseous iodine chemistry (absent in MELCOR), organic iodine chemistry and adsorption/desorption on/from containment surfaces. (authors)

  11. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000 degree F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion (''bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled

  12. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  13. Reduced intensity conditioning, combined transplantation of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells in patients with severe aplastic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    Full Text Available We examined if transplantation of combined haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC affected graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA. Patients with SAA-I (N = 17 received haploidentical HSCT plus MSC infusion. Stem cell grafts used a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF-primed bone marrow and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells of haploidentical donors and the culture-expanded third-party donor-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs, respectively. Reduced intensity conditioning consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m2·d+cyclosphamide (500 mg/m2·d+anti-human thymocyte IgG. Transplant recipients also received cyclosporin A, mycophenolatemofetil, and CD25 monoclonal antibody. A total of 16 patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution. The median mononuclear cell and CD34 count was 9.3×10(8/kg and 4.5×10(6/kg. Median time to ANC was >0.5×10(9/L and PLT count >20×10(9/L were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Grade III-IV acute GVHD was seen in 23.5% of the cases, while moderate and severe chronic GVHD were seen in 14.2% of the cases. The 3-month and 6-month survival rates for all patients were 88.2% and 76.5%, respectively; mean survival time was 56.5 months. Combined transplantation of haploidentical HSCs and MSCs on SAA without an HLA-identical sibling donor was safe, effectively reduced the incidence of severe GVHD, and improved patient survival.

  14. Study of labor accidents in the rural environment: analysis of processes and conditions of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Alves Brito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of agriculture, that broadenned the mechanization of farming and the agrotoxic use, potentially increased some risks of accidents. The agriculture workers and cattle raising are constantly exposed to several physical, chemical and biological agents, like machine, implements, handly tools, agrotoxics, ectoparaziticides, domestic animals and poisonous animals, which can to bring accidents. The aiming the importance of this working class to economic developing of country, this study was done to identify the working process and accidents that strike the rural population. This article is composed by a specialized literature review between September and December of 2007, which was made consultations to periodical and scientific articles selected through searches in the database of Scielo and Bireme. It was founded few studies related to rural workers, as well as the main articles had as setting of investigation the Southern and Southeastern, mainly in state of São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. In relation to work conditions was noticed a high degree of insalubrities which the workers are exposed, such as handly tools, poisonous animals, insecure attitudes because of lack of training and the no use of equipments of individual protection. There are a prevalence of accidents among men, occurring predominantly the typical accidents, the occupational disease and commute accidents. The relationships of work have been modified along the years, being the outsourcing outstanding point, however this work relationship causes legal losses to workers, which in most of the time get without social welfare right

  15. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1992-08-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  16. Distribution of hydrogen within the HDR-containment under severe accident conditions. OECD standard problem. Final comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwat, H

    1992-08-15

    The present report summarizes the results of the International Standard Problem Exercise ISP-29, based on the HDR Hydrogen Distribution Experiment E11.2. Post-test analyses are compared to experimentally measured parameters, well-known to the analysis. This report has been prepared by the Institute for Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety of the Technical University Munich under contract with the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which received funding for this activity from the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under the research contract RS 792. The HDR experiment E11.2 has been performed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the project 'Projekt HDR-Sicherheitsprogramm' sponsored by the BMFT. Ten institutions from eight countries participated in the post-test analysis exercise which was focussing on the long-lasting gas distribution processes expected inside a PWR containment under severe accident conditions. The gas release experiment was coupled to a long-lasting steam release into the containment typical for an unmitigated small break loss-of-coolant accident. In lieu of pure hydrogen a gas mixture consisting of 15% hydrogen and 85% helium has been applied in order to avoid reaching flammability during the experiment. Of central importance are common overlay plots comparing calculated transients with measurements of the global pressure, the local temperature-, steam- and gas concentration distributions throughout the entire HDR containment. The comparisons indicate relatively large margins between most calculations and the experiment. Having in mind that this exercise was specified as an 'open post-test' analysis of well-known measured data the reasons for discrepancies between measurements and simulations were extensively discussed during a final workshop. It was concluded that analytical shortcomings as well as some uncertainties of experimental boundary conditions may be responsible for deviations

  17. Meteorological conditions during a severe, prolonged regional heavy air pollution episode in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui

    2018-03-01

    A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced

  18. Eco-Environment Status Evaluation and Change Analysis of Qinghai Based on National Geographic Conditions Census Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Zhu, M.; Wang, Y.; Xu, C.; Yang, H.

    2018-04-01

    As the headstream of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Lantsang River, located in the hinterland of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Qinghai province is hugely significant for ecosystem as well as for ecological security and sustainable development in China. With the accomplishment of the first national geographic condition census, the frequent monitoring has begun. The classification indicators of the census and monitoring data are highly correlated with Technical Criterion for Ecosystem Status Evaluation released by Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2015. Based on three years' geographic conditions data (2014-2016), Landsat-8 images and thematic data (water resource, pollution emissions, meteorological data, soil erosion, etc.), a multi-years and high-precision eco-environment status evaluation and spatiotemporal change analysis of Qinghai province has been researched on the basis of Technical Criterion for Ecosystem Status Evaluation in this paper. Unlike the evaluation implemented by environmental protection department, the evaluation unit in this paper is town rather than county. The evaluation result shows that the eco-environment status in Qinghai is generally in a fine condition, and has significant regional differences. The eco-environment status evaluation based on national geographic conditions census and monitoring data can improve both the time and space precision. The eco-environment status with high space precise and multi-indices is a key basis for environment protection decision-making.

  19. Quality of the Home Learning Environment during Preschool Age--Domains and Contextual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Katharina; Lehrl, Simone; Kuger, Susanne; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the home learning environment has been proven to be of major importance for child development, but little is known about the role of domain specificity in promoting early childhood learning at home and its dependence on family background. This article presents a framework of the home learning environment in early childhood that…

  20. Multi objective large power system planning under sever loading condition using learning DE-APSO-PS strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdad, Belkacem; Srairi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient planning strategy using DE and APSO in coordination with PS algorithm is proposed. • An interactive process is proposed to balance the exploitation and exploration capability of (DE-APSO) and PS. • Fuel cost, power loss, and voltage deviation considering loading condition are optimized. • The proposed strategy (DE-APSO-PS) is validated on three large practical test systems. - Abstract: This paper introduces an efficient planning strategy using new hybrid interactive differential evolution (DE), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), and pattern search (PS) for solving the security optimal power flow (SOPF) considering multi distributed static VAR compensator (SVC). Three objective functions such as fuel cost, power loss and voltage deviation are considered and optimized considering sever loading conditions. The main idea of the proposed strategy is that variable controls are optimized based on superposition mechanism, the best solutions evaluated by DE and APSO at specified stages are communicated to PS to exploit new regions around this solution, alternatively the new solution achieved by PS is also communicated to DE and APSO, this interactive mechanism search between global and local search is to balance the exploitation and exploration capability which allows individuals from different methods to react more by learning and changing experiences. The robustness of the proposed strategy is tested and validated on large practical power system test (IEEE 118-Bus, IEEE 300-Bus, and 40 units). Comparison results with the standard global optimization methods such as DE, APSO PS and to other recent techniques showed the superiority and perspective of the proposed hybrid technique for solving practical power system problems

  1. Effect of nontronite smectite clay on the chemical evolution of several organic molecules under simulated Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Olivier; Dequaire, Tristan; Stalport, Fabien; Jaber, Maguy; Lambert, Jean-François; Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The search for organic carbon-containing molecules at the surface of Mars, as clues of past habitability or remnants of life, is a major scientific goal for Mars exploration. Several lines of evidence, including the detection of phyllosilicates, suggest that early Mars offered favorable conditions for long-term sustaining of water. As a consequence, we can assume that in those days, endogenous chemical processes, or even primitive life, may have produced organic matter on Mars. Moreover, exogenous delivery from small bodies or dust particles is likely to have brought fresh organic molecules to the surface of Mars up today. Organic matter is therefore expected to be present at the surface/subsurface of the planet. But the current environmental conditions at the surface - UV radiation, oxidants and energetic particles - generate physico-chemical processes that may affect organic molecules. On the other hand, on Earth, phyllosilicates are known to accumulate and preserve organic matter. But are phyllosilicates efficient at preserving organic molecules under the current environmental conditions at the surface of Mars? We have monitored the qualitative and quantitative evolutions of glycine, urea and adenine interacting with the Fe3+-smectite clay nontronite, one of the most abundant phyllosilicates present at the surface of Mars, under simulated Martian surface ultraviolet light (190-400 nm), mean temperature (218 ± 2 K) and pressure (6 ± 1 mbar) in a laboratory simulation setup. We have tested organic-rich samples which may be representative of the evaporation of a warm little pond of liquid water having concentrated organics on Mars. For each molecule, we have observed how the nontronite influences the quantum efficiency of its photodecomposition and the nature of its solid evolution products. The results reveal a pronounced photoprotective effect of nontronite on the evolution of glycine and adenine: their efficiencies of photodecomposition are reduced by a factor

  2. Effect of nontronite smectite clay on the chemical evolution of several organic molecules under simulated martian surface ultraviolet radiation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Olivier; Jaber, Maguy; Stalport, Fabien; Nowak, Sophie; Georgelin, Thomas; Lambert, Jean-François; Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Most of the phyllosilicates detected at the surface of Mars today are probably remnants of ancient environments that sustained long-term bodies of liquid water at the surface or subsurface and were possibly favorable for the emergence of life. Consequently, phyllosilicates have become the main mineral target in the search for organics on Mars. But are phyllosilicates efficient at preserving organic molecules under current environmental conditions at the surface of Mars? We monitored the qualitative and quantitative evolutions of glycine, urea, and adenine in interaction with the Fe(3+)-smectite clay nontronite, one of the most abundant phyllosilicates present at the surface of Mars, under simulated martian surface ultraviolet light (190-400 nm), mean temperature (218 ± 2 K), and pressure (6 ± 1 mbar) in a laboratory simulation setup. We tested organic-rich samples that were representative of the evaporation of a small, warm pond of liquid water containing a high concentration of organics. For each molecule, we observed how the nontronite influences its quantum efficiency of photodecomposition and the nature of its solid evolution products. The results reveal a pronounced photoprotective effect of nontronite on the evolution of glycine and adenine; their efficiencies of photodecomposition were reduced by a factor of 5 when mixed at a concentration of 2.6 × 10(-2) mol of molecules per gram of nontronite. Moreover, when the amount of nontronite in the sample of glycine was increased by a factor of 2, the gain of photoprotection was multiplied by a factor of 5. This indicates that the photoprotection provided by the nontronite is not a purely mechanical shielding effect but is also due to stabilizing interactions. No new evolution product was firmly identified, but the results obtained with urea suggest a particular reactivity in the presence of nontronite, leading to an increase of its dissociation rate.

  3. Visual Localisation of Mobile Devices in an Indoor Environment under Network Delay Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Alberto Alonso; Fres, Omar Álvarez; Alonso, Ignacio González; Hu, Huosheng

    2011-01-01

    Current progresses in home automation and service robotic environment have highlighted the need to develop interoperability mechanisms that allow a standard communication between the two systems. During the development of the DHCompliant protocol, the problem of locating mobile devices in an indoor environment has been investigated. The communication of the device with the location service has been carried out to study the time delay that web services offer in front of the sockets. The import...

  4. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Psychometric properties of the Sleep Condition Indicator and Insomnia Severity Index in the evaluation of insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Espie, Colin A; Luik, Annemarie I; Kyle, Simon D; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying

    2017-05-01

    The Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) are commonly used instruments to assess insomnia. We evaluated their psychometric properties, particularly their discriminant validity against structured clinical interview (according to DSM-5 and ICSD-3), and their concurrent validity with measures of sleep and daytime functioning. A total of 158 young adults, 16% of whom were diagnosed with DSM-5 insomnia disorder and 13% with ICSD-3 Chronic Insomnia by structured interview, completed the ISI and SCI twice in 7-14 days, in addition to measures of sleep and daytime function. The Chinese version of the SCI was validated with good psychometric properties (ICC = 0.882). A cutoff of ≥8 on the ISI, ≤5 on the SCI short form, and ≤21 on the SCI achieved high discriminant validity (AUC > 0.85) in identifying individuals with insomnia based on both DSM-5 and ICSD-3 criteria. The SCI and ISI had comparable associations with subjective (0.18 sleep (0.31 disorder. Moreover, they showed good concordance with measures of daytime dysfunction, as well as subjective and objective sleep. The SCI and ISI are recommended for use in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling the release of volatile fission product cesium from CANDU fuel under severe accident conditions using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.S.; Lewis, B.J.; Cox, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed to predict the release of volatile fission products from CANDU fuel under severe accident conditions. The model was based on data for the release Of 134 Cs measured during three annealing experiments (Hot Cell Experiments 1 and 2, or HCE- 1, HCE-2 and Metallurgical Cell Experiment 1, or MCE- 1) at Chalk River Laboratories. These experiments were comprised of a total of 30 separate tests. The ANN established a correlation among 14 separate input variables and predicted the cumulative fractional release for a set of 386 data points drawn from 29 tests to a normalized error, E n , of 0.104 and an average absolute error, E abs , of 0.064. Predictions for a blind validation set (test HCE2-CM6) had an E n of 0.064 and an E abs of 0.054. A methodology is presented for deploying the ANN model by providing the connection weights. Finally, the performance of an ANN model was compared to a fuel oxidation model developed by Lewis et al. and to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's CORSOR-M. (author)

  7. Social maturity of the identity of seniors as condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov A.K.

    2017-01-01

    this article describes social maturity of the identity of seniors as a condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment, marks out some criteria of definition of socially mature personality, gives definition to the concept «social competence of the personality».

  8. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to baseline signatures. Results indicate that in practice, civil structures should be monitored for at least one full cycle of in-service environmental changes before establishing baselines for condition monitoring or calibrating finite-element models. Boundary conditions deserve special attention.

  9. The effects of nicotine exposure during Pavlovian conditioning in rats on several measures of incentive motivation for a conditioned stimulus paired with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Elizabeth Glenn; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine enhances approach toward and operant responding for conditioned stimuli (CSs), but the effect of exposure during different phases of Pavlovian incentive learning on these measures remains to be determined. These studies examined the effects of administering nicotine early, late or throughout Pavlovian conditioning trials on discriminated approach behavior, nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement, extinction, and the reinstatement of responding for conditioned reinforcement. We also tested the effect of nicotine on approach to a lever-CS in a Pavlovian autoshaping procedure and for this CS to serve as a conditioned reinforcer. Thirsty rats were exposed to 13 conditioning sessions where a light/tone CS was paired with the delivery of water. Nicotine was administered either prior to the first or last seven sessions, or throughout the entire conditioning procedure. Responding for conditioned reinforcement, extinction, and the reinstatement of responding by the stimulus and nicotine were compared across exposure groups. Separately, the effects of nicotine on conditioned approach toward a lever-CS during autoshaping, and responding for that CS as a conditioned reinforcer, were examined. Nicotine exposure was necessary for nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement and the ability for nicotine and the stimulus to additively reinstate responding on the reinforced lever. Nicotine increased contacts with a lever-CS during autoshaping, and removal of nicotine abolished this effect. Prior nicotine exposure was necessary for nicotine-enhanced responding reinforced by the lever. Enhancements in the motivating properties of CSs by nicotine occur independently from duration and timing effects of nicotine exposure during conditioning.

  10. A high molybdenum stainless steel and its resistance to chloride environments in the welded condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppolecchia, V.D.; Jasner, M.; Rockel, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Highly alloyed stainless steels, such as 1925 hMo UNS N08925 with 6 percent molybdenum, are finding widespread use in high chloride cooling water and process environments. This alloy has good general corrosion resistance to a variety of chloride environments but it's main attraction is excellent resistance to all forms of localized corrosion. In aggressive chloride environments weldments are generally the area of concern with regard to localized corrosion. Temperature-time-sensitization diagrams are presented that demonstrate the resistance of 1925 hMo weldments to intergranular attack. Immersion tests in 10% ferric chloride substantiate that autogenous tube welds, also have excellent pitting resistance. Various filler metals are compared both electrochemically and in immersion tests. These comparisons reveal that an overalloyed filler metal is required to achieve pitting and crevice corrosion resistance equal or better than that of the base metal. Alloy 625 (UNS NO6625) has been selected. Constant extension rate tests in boiling 62% calcium chloride reveal that 1925 hMo weldments are immune to stress corrosion cracking in this environment which virtually guarantees absence of SCC in seawater regardless of temperature as well as in most commercial chemical environments

  11. Inter-Labeler and Intra-Labeler Variability of Condition Severity Classification Models Using Active and Passive Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers’ learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. Methods We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by

  12. Inter-labeler and intra-labeler variability of condition severity classification models using active and passive learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers' learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by using the labels provided by seven

  13. Rust formed on cannons of XVIII century under two environment conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cindra Fonseca, M.P.; Bastos, I.N.; Caytuero, A.; Baggio Saitovitch, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion products of two ancient cannons exposed to atmospheric corrosion were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After almost three centuries exposed in marine environment one of them was moved to a rural region and was maintained in this environment for approximately 30 years. The inland region has an altitude of 1000 m above sea level and consequently low aggressiveness. The studied rusts were obtained from external and internal surfaces of the cannon barrels. This investigation, using three different techniques, was done to check if the relatively short time (ca. 30 years) in rural area was sufficient to change the characteristics of the thick rust formed during long time exposure (ca. 300 years) in marine atmosphere. The time-environment effects change the physical nature of rust, mainly observed by Moessbauer spectroscopy results

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL- PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF PROVIDING OF THE AVAILABLE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ivanovich Shutenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes psychological and pedagogical bases for carrying out successful integration of children with disabilities in general education system. Relying on the principle of a complementarity, authors develop the model of such integration in the form of the adaptive educational environment, represent the leading components of the organization of such environment (valeological, personal- focused, axiological, hermeneutical, interindividual, and also a number of the important pedagogical and psychological principles of its functioning in logic of fruitful socialization of children with disabilities in educational process.

  15. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi

    2017-04-01

    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  16. A retrospective comparison of cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulin with cyclophosphamide plus busulfan as the conditioning regimen for severe aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.M. Ommati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT is the treatment of choice for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA. The association of antithymocyte globulin (ATG and cyclophosphamide (CY is the most frequently used conditioning regimen for this disease. We performed this retrospective study in order to compare the outcomes of HLA-matched sibling donor AHSCT in 41 patients with SAA receiving cyclophosphamide plus ATG (ATG-CY, N = 17 or cyclophosphamide plus busulfan (BU-CY, N = 24. The substitution of BU for ATG was motivated by the high cost of ATG. There were no differences in the clinical features between the two groups, including age, gender, cytomegalovirus status, ABO match, interval between diagnosis and transplant, and number of total nucleated cells infused. No differences were observed in the time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, or in the risk of veno-occlusive disease and hemorrhage. However, there was a higher risk of mucositis in the BU-CY group (71 vs 24%, P = 0.004. There were no differences in the incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related mortality. There was a higher incidence of late rejection in the ATG-CY group (41 vs 4%, P = 0.009. Although the ATG-CY group had a longer follow-up (101 months than the BU-CY group (67 months, P = 0.04, overall survival was similar between the groups (69 vs 58%, respectively, P = 0.32. We conclude that the association BU-CY is a feasible option to the conventional ATG-CY regimen in this population.

  17. Condition Based Maintenance Technology Impacts Study for the Military Land Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    approach for quantifying retrospective energy savings, clean energy advances, and market effects. US Department of Energy, July 2007, 12 pages. 16...documentation costs, research costs (TRAs, BOPs, market surveys, etc.) Reduced administrative costs associated with delays in implementation Suppliers, ADF... armoured vehicles became combat ineffective after arriving in combat theatre, due to the rough terrain and the environment (temperature related). Many

  18. The Features of Transformation of Multinational Enterprises in Conditions of Influence of External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Viktoriia S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of transforming the environment of multinational enterprises are considered from the standpoint of the general system theory. Tendencies of growth of pressure of the international competition on the Ukrainian branch markets have been identified. Special attention is paid to the nature of interaction between global and local forces that determine the type of operating environment. On the basis of the allocated nine main directions of transformational processes at the enterprise, the matrix of decision-making on ways of integration of the enterprise in business space has been proposed. Attention is focused on the problem of the local and the global, which is manifested in the decisions on standardization and adaptation of strategies. The dependence of degree of adaptation and standardization of strategic decisions from the correlation of local and global factors of environment, from the type of environment, in which a multinational enterprise works, has been characterized. The national and international aspects of both the internal networks and the external cooperation agreements, advantages of the joint innovative efforts in the form of cooperation are researched. The international importance of multinational enterprises is very topical, as the interaction between own capital and external sources increases the innovation potential of enterprises.

  19. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    velocity and turbulent intensity were measured and draft rate levels calculated in the room. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants’ thermal comfort. The results......The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...

  20. Influence of the conditional release of the materials with very low level of radioactivity on the environment - 59132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvakova, Slavka; Mrskova, Adela; Pritrsky, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Significant amount of solid materials (metals, non-metals, building structures) that could be contaminated or activated is produced during operation and especially decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Considerable fraction of these materials has level of radioactivity close to the radiological limits allowing its safe release into the environment thereby could be potentially recycled within the special constructions, as for example tunnels, roads or bridges. If the requirements of legislation on the radiological limits for handling such material and long-term safety of the constructions are met, contaminated material can be incorporated in the form of recycled concrete, remelted steel, etc. The paper presents implementation of the IAEA and EC recommendations into the form of detailed analytical approaches with the aim to develop integrated scenarios and to analyse long-term influence of the conditional release of the material with very low level of radioactivity on the environment. Further, an estimation of the key input parameters characteristic for the specific conditions of Slovak case in order to fulfil the radiological limits according to the Slovak legislation is included. Analysed integrated scenarios represent surface or underground civil construction with radionuclides released directly into the geosphere and transported by a groundwater flow to the biosphere. The migration of radionuclides is modelled in the near-surface conditions with the advection as a dominant transport mechanism. Computer code GoldSim is used to evaluate the long-term safety assessment of the conditionally released material on the environment. (authors)

  1. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Alampalli, Sreenivas

    1999-01-01

    Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to bas...

  2. Physical robustness of canopy temperature models for crop heat stress simulation across environments and production conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webber, Heidi; White, Jeffrey W; Kimball, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    to simulate Tc. Model performance in predicting Tc was evaluated for two experiments in continental North America with various water, nitrogen and CO2 treatments. An empirical model fit to one dataset had the best performance, followed by the EBSC models. Stability conditions explained much of the differences...... between modeling approaches. More accurate simulation of heat stress will likely require use of energy balance approaches that consider atmospheric stability conditions....

  3. Numerical simulation of diurnally varying thermal environment in a street canyon under haze-fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-10-01

    The impact of haze-fog on surface temperature, flow pattern, pollutant dispersion and pedestrian thermal comfort are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on a three-dimensional street canyon model under different haze-fog conditions. In this study, light extinction coefficient (Kex) is adopted to represent haze-fog pollution level. Numerical simulations are performed for different Kex values at four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST). The numerical results suggest that the surface temperature is strongly affected by the haze-fog condition. Surface heating induced by the solar radiation is enhanced by haze-fog, as higher surface temperature is observed under thicker haze-fog condition. Moreover, the temperature difference between sunlit and shadow surfaces is reduced, while that for the two shadow surfaces is slightly increased. Therefore, the surface temperature among street canyon facets becomes more evenly distributed under heavy haze-fog conditions. In addition, flow patterns are considerably altered by different haze-fog conditions, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST) case, in which thermal-driven flow has opposite direction as that of the wind-driven flow direction. Consequently, pollutants such as vehicular emissions will accumulate at pedestrian level, and pedestrian thermal comfort may lower under thicker haze-fog condition.

  4. Behavior of a VVER fuel element tested under severe accident conditions in the CORA facility. Test results of experiment CORA-W1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Schanz, G.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1994-01-01

    Test bundle CORA-W1 was without absorber material. As in the earlier CORA tests the test bundles were subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. The transient phases of the test were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. With these conditions a so-called small-break LOCA was simulated. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zirconium/niobium-steam reaction started at about 1200 C, leading the bundle to a maximum temperature of approximately 1900 C. With the movement of the melt also heat is transported to the lower region. Below 300 mm elevation the test bundle remained intact due to the axial temeprature distribution. W2 ist characterized by a strong oxidation above 300 mm elevation. Besides the severe oxidation the test bundle resulted in considerable fuel dissolution by ZrNb1/UO 2 interaction in the upper part, complete spacer destruction at 600 mm due to chemical interactions between steel and the ZSrNb1 cladding. Despite some specific features the material behavior of the VVER-1000 bundle is comparable to that observed in the PWR and BWR test using fuel elements typical for Western countries. (orig./HP) [de

  5. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y.; Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N.; Jackson, J. M.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 10 5 K cm –3 ) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 10 7 K cm –3 ) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe

  6. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 (Australia); Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Jackson, J. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kruijssen, J. M. D. [Max-Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Alves, J. F. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bally, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 8030 (United States); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101 New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Garay, G. [Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Walsh, A. J., E-mail: Jill.Rathborne@csiro.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

    2014-11-10

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 10{sup 5} K cm{sup –3}) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 10{sup 7} K cm{sup –3}) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe.

  7. Impact of the business environment on the conditions for starting business in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Serafimova, Mimoza

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes how easy or difficult is for local entrepreneur to open and run business with small and medium-sized enterprises when it meets the relevant legislation. From the changes in the regulations that influence the life cycle of the business, we will set the perspective for starting a business. This paper will consider the business environment in terms of starting a business. The paper presents data on the indicators for quantitative indicators for business regulations and the pr...

  8. Effectiveness of hand hygiene depends on the patient's health condition and care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Junko; Yamamizu, Yukiko; Fukai, Kiyoko

    2016-10-01

    The present authors examined how patient hand contamination was associated with underlying disease and treatment environment in order to determine effective hand hygiene methods. Samples were collected from inpatients (45 with hematological malignancies, 48 postoperative), outpatients (48 undergoing hemodialysis, 55 on chemotherapy), and 44 individuals living in nursing homes. All participants provided informed consent for study participation. All subjects performed hand hygiene. Before and after hand hygiene, samples of bacteria were collected from the palm of the hand onto agar media. Bacteria were counted and bacterial strains were identified. The authors then collected smear samples from the contralateral palm and measured adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Patient hand contamination was the highest in hemodialysis patients, followed by residents of nursing homes, postoperative patients, patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, and patients of hematological malignancies. Regardless of the underlying disease and treatment environment, patients were able to reduce the number of bacterial colonies and ATP by proper hand hygiene. Compared with wet wipes, hand washing seemed to remove bacteria more effectively. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in 30 subjects, none of whom were patients of hematological malignancies. Of these, 19 tested negative for MRSA after performing proper hand hygiene. Patient hand contamination is affected by underlying disease and care environment, but can be reduced by encouraging proper hand washing. Proper patient hand hygiene can reduce MRSA on patients' hands, and thus may serve as an effective tool for prevention of healthcare-associated infections. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Environment monitoring and residents health condition monitoring of nuclear power plant Bohunice region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letkovicova, M.; Rehak, R.; Stehlikova, B.; Celko, M.; Hraska, S.; Klocok, L.; Kostial, J.; Prikazsky, V.; Vidovic, J.; Zirko, M.; Beno, T.; Mitosinka, J.

    1998-01-01

    The report contents final environment evaluation and selected characteristic of residents health physics of nuclear power plant Bohunice region. Evaluated data were elaborated during analytical period 1993-1997.Task solving which results are documented in this final report was going on between 1996- 1998. The report deals in individual stages with the following: Information obtaining and completing which characterize demographic situation of the area for the 1993-1997 period; Datum obtaining and completing which contain selected health physics characteristics of the area residents; Database structures for individual data archiving from monitoring and collection; Brief description of geographic information system for graphic presentation of evaluation results based on topographic base; Digital mapping structure description; Results and evaluation of radionuclide monitoring in environment performed by Environmental radiation measurements laboratory by the nuclear power plant Bohunice for the 1993-1997 period. Demographic situation evaluation and selected health physics characteristics of the area of nuclear power plant residents for the 1993-1997 period are summarized in the final part of the document. Monitoring results and their evaluation is processed in graph, table, text description and map output forms. Map outputs are processed in the geographic information system Arc View GIS 3.0a environment

  10. Analysis of radionuclide behavior in a BWR Mark-II containment under severe accident management condition in low pressure sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Tanaka, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    In the Level 2 PSA program at INS/NUPEC, MELCOR1.8.3 is extensively applied to analyze radionuclide behavior of dominant sequences. In addition, the revised source terms provided in the NUREG-1465 report have been also discussed to examine the potential of the radionuclides release to the environment in the conventional siting criteria. In the present study, characteristics of source terms to the environment were examined comparing with results by the Hypothetical Accident (LOCA), NUREG-1465 and MELCOR1.8.3. calculation for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment in order to assure conservatives of the Hypothetical Accident in Japan. Release fractions of iodine to the environment for the Hypothetical Accident and NUREG-1465, which used engineering models for predicting radionuclide behaviors, were about 10 -4 and 10 -6 of core inventory, respectively, while the best estimate MELCOR1.8.3 code predicted 10 -9 of iodine to the environment. The present study showed that the engineering models in the Hypothetical Accident or NUREG-1465 have large conservatives to estimate source term of iodine to the environment. (author)

  11. Air quality and passenger comfort in an air-conditioned bus micro-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxuan; Lei, Li; Wang, Xingshen; Zhang, Yinghui

    2018-04-12

    In this study, passenger comfort and the air pollution status of the micro-environmental conditions in an air-conditioned bus were investigated through questionnaires, field measurements, and a numerical simulation. As a subjective analysis, passengers' perceptions of indoor environmental quality and comfort levels were determined from questionnaires. As an objective analysis, a numerical simulation was conducted using a discrete phase model to determine the diffusion and distribution of pollutants, including particulate matter with a diameter air quality and dissatisfactory thermal comfort conditions in Jinan's air-conditioned bus system. To solve these problems, three scenarios (schemes A, B, C) were designed to alter the ventilation parameters. According to the results of an improved simulation of these scenarios, reducing or adding air outputs would shorten the time taken to reach steady-state conditions and weaken the airflow or lower the temperature in the cabin. The airflow pathway was closely related to the layout of the air conditioning. Scheme B lowered the temperature by 0.4 K and reduced the airflow by 0.01 m/s, while scheme C reduced the volume concentration of PM 10 to 150 μg/m 3 . Changing the air supply angle could further improve the airflow and reduce the concentration of PM 10 . With regard to the perception of airflow and thermal comfort, the scheme with an airflow provided by a 60° nozzle was considered better, and the concentration of PM 10 was reduced to 130 μg/m 3 .

  12. Spatial and historical distribution of organic phosphorus driven by environment conditions in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Wang, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The chemistry of sedimentary organic phosphorus (OP) and its fraction distribution in sediments are greatly influenced by environmental conditions such as terrestrial inputs and runoffs. The linkage of OP with environmental conditions was analyzed on the basis of OP spatial and historical distributions in lake sediments. The redundancy analysis and OP spatial distribution results suggested that both NaOH-OP (OP extracted by NaOH) and Re-OP (residual OP) in surface sediments from the selected 13 lakes reflected the gradient effects of environmental conditions and the autochthonous and/or allochthonous inputs driven by latitude zonality in China. The lake level and salinity of Lake Hulun and the runoff and precipitation of its drainage basin were reconstructed on the basis of the geochemistry index. This work showed that a gradient in weather conditions presented by the latitude zonality in China impacts the OP accumulation through multiple drivers and in many ways. The drivers are mainly precipitation and temperature, governing organic matter (OM) production, degradation rate and transportation in the watershed. Over a long temporal dimension (4000years), the vertical distributions of Re-OP and NaOH-OP based on a dated sediment profile from HLH were largely regulated by the autochthonous and/or allochthonous inputs, which depended on the environmental and climate conditions and anthropogenic activities in the drainage basin. This work provides useful environmental geochemistry information to understand the inherent linkage of OP fractionation with environmental conditions and lake evolution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seralathan Sivamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s. Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Lenz type, Performance, Two-stage, Open environment measurement

  14. The Influence of Working Environment Conditions, Compensation and Career Development on Employees’ Working Motivation at an Indonesian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRANOWO

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand and analyse the influence of working environment conditions and career development towards the improvement of employees’ working motivation. This research is conducted at the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Ltd. Tulungagung Jawa Timur Office Branch. The sample amount counted by census technique and acquired 91 responses. The sampling method used was census technique. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire which is analysed by path analysis. Findings...

  15. THE STRATEGY OF THE SMALL BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SERVICE SPHERE IN THE CONDITIONS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dolinskay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of strategic approach to the option of the most perspective directions of small business development in the service sphere has been stipulated in the article. The organizational infrastructure of small business in the conditions of international entrepreneurial environment enhancement in the service sphere on the basis of analytical generalization of the existing forms of small business support in the service sphere has been developed.

  16. Relations of Change in Condition Severity and School Self-Concept To Change in Achievement-Related Behavior in Children with Asthma or Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.; Austin, Joan K.; Huster, Gertrude A.; Dunn, David W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores relation of gender, change in condition of severity, and change in school self-concept, to change in teachers' ratings of academic-related behaviors in children with asthma or epilepsy. Tests showed that these children were near population mean in academic-related behaviors, except students with high-severity epilepsy. (Author/JDM)

  17. Evaluation of disinfectants in the domestic environment under 'in use' conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E.; Bloomfield, S. F.; Barlow, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    An 'in use' test was developed to investigate effectiveness of disinfectant application and of detergent of hot water cleaning at kitchen, bathroom and toilet sites in the domestic environment. Detergent and hot water cleaning produced no observable reduction in microbial contamination. Single and daily application tests demonstrated that hypochlorite and phenolic disinfectants can be used to produce substantial reductions in bacterial contamination in the home. Results indicate that maximum protection afforded by disinfection is relatively brief; 3-6 h after disinfection, contamination levels were only marginally less than those observed at pretreatment. Some suggestions are made for improvements in home hygiene. PMID:6323576

  18. Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Morongová, Klára; Čapek, Miroslav; Jelínek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2011), s. 539-546 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * nest light conditions * egg recognition * Great reed warbler * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  19. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments: a search for excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even though existing...

  20. Joint management of working conditions, environment and quality : in search of synergy and organizational learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.

    1994-01-01

    Working conditions, environmental protection and quality control are increasingly important for organizations. Most companies are being confronted with sharply increasing requirements in all three areas. It is up to the managers and the respective experts to determine the most desirable strategies

  1. Satisfying light conditions: a field study on perception of consensus light in Dutch open office environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chraibi, S.; Lashina, T.A.; Shrubsole, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; van Loenen, E.J.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation has been changing the European office landscape into mostly open spaces, where enhanced interaction between people is combined by efficient use of space. However, challenges are found in offering individual preferred conditions in these multi-user spaces, especially when dealing

  2. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Baitun; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Hamadani, Jena D; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Persson, Lars-Ake

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS) on the quality of the home environment and mothers’ child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Method Severely underweight children (n = 507), 6–24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS); PS + FS; c...

  3. Conditional release of materials from decommissioning process into the environment in the form of steel railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatransky, Peter; Necas, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    This work points to the possibilities of conditional release of materials from the process of decommissioning the nuclear unit from the operation. According to the valid legislation, materials which do not meet the condition of direct-unconditional release into the environment, should be modified and processed into the matrix designed for the final disposal in the storing place. However there exists a group of materials which activity is on the borderline of the limit of releasing into the environment and it is possible to release them conditionally. The matter of conditional release is that notable amount of materials, mainly metals, is usually contaminated only by radionuclids with relatively short time of half decay. These materials are suitable to use for a specific industrial purpose where the longtime fixation of shortly living radionuclids is expected in one place. This work deals with the conditional release of metals into the form of steel railway tracks. It describes the (working) groups of workers working with the steel railway tracks and defines in the numbers the critical group and its critical individual. For critical individual it dimensions the amounts of materials, which are possible to be released conditionally from one double-unit of the plant of the type VVER 440 V-230 which operation was ended on the regular basis. According to the calculations in the software VISIPLAN and OMEGA there is defined a number of released steel in such way that the internationally recommended rate of maximal effective dose for critical individual-10 μSv/year [IAEA, 2008. Managing low radioactivity material from the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Technical reports series no. 462] is not extended. In the final part there are compared the estimates of the costs of the decommissioning process with the application of conditional release and without it, which is directly reflected in the amount of saved costs and number of containers for surface disposal.

  4. Diatom production in the marine environment : implications for larval fish growth and condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St. John, Michael; Clemmesen, C.; Lund, T.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effects of diatom production on larval fish growth and condition. laboratory experiments were performed with larval North Sea cod reared on different algal food chains. These food chains were based on cultures of (a) the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira weissflogii: (b....../omega6 fatty acids in the algal source had no significant effect. The highest and lowest growth rates were observed in food chains based on H. triquetra and T. weissflogii. respectively (means for days 14-16 of 4.0 and - 4.7). The mixed diatom/dinoflagellate diet resulted in inter- mediate growth rates...... and condition. Regressions of growth rates against EPA and DHA content indicated no inhibitory effect of diatom production on growth in larval cod...

  5. Study of labor accidents in the rural environment: analysis of processes and conditions of work

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís Alves Brito; Cleber Souza de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    The modernization of agriculture, that broadenned the mechanization of farming and the agrotoxic use, potentially increased some risks of accidents. The agriculture workers and cattle raising are constantly exposed to several physical, chemical and biological agents, like machine, implements, handly tools, agrotoxics, ectoparaziticides, domestic animals and poisonous animals, which can to bring accidents. The aiming the importance of this working class to economic developing of country, this ...

  6. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States. A generalized ordered logit model is estimated in order to account for the ordered nature of severity, while allowing the violation of the proportional odds assumption across severity categories. Data...... for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers......Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The...

  7. Oceanic conditions and their variations affecting behavior of radionuclides in marine environment off Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    In order to elucidate the behavior of radioactive nuclides liberated from the Rokkasho reprocessing plant into the ocean, the characteristics of oceanic region around this plant were clarified by the measurements of oceanic circulation, flow rate and its seasonal variation. Further the computer simulation model for the reconstruction and prediction of oceanic conditions off Rokkasho was prepared. The whole image on this oceanic region was therefore reconstructed using this model. (M.H.)

  8. The influence of chronic conditions and the environment on pubertal development. An example from medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M E; Shapland, F; Watts, R

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in human development encompassing sexual maturation (puberty) and the physical and psychological transition into adulthood. It is a crucial time for healthy development and any adverse environmental conditions, poor nutrition, or chronic infection can alter the timing of these physical changes; delaying menarche in girls or the age of peak height velocity in boys. This study explores the impact of chronic illness on the tempo of puberty in 607 adolescent skeletons from medieval England (AD 900-1550). A total of 135 (22.2%) adolescents showed some delay in their pubertal development, and this lag increased with age. Of those with a chronic condition, 40.0% (n=24/60) showed delay compared to only 20.3% (n=111/547) of the non-pathology group. This difference was statistically significant. A binary logistic regression model demonstrated a significant association between increasing delay in pubertal stage attainment with age in the pathology group. This is the first time that chronic conditions have been directly associated with a delay in maturation in the osteological record, using a new method to assess stages of puberty in skeletal remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Powder Dusting and Cyanoacrylate Fuming Techniques in Retrieving Latent Fingerprint Exposed to Environment Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayalvanan, Y.; Sri Pawita Albakri Amir Hamzah; Chuan, L.L.; Muhamad Hilmi Baba; Amidon Anan

    2014-01-01

    Latent fingerprints are one of the best evidence to prove the presence of an individuals presence at the crime scene. There are many techniques available for a successful fingerprint lifting. Two of the most common ones are fingerprint powder dusting and cyanoacrylate fuming. This research aims to compare both techniques and determine which has a higher success rate in retrieving fingerprints exposed to local environmental conditions for three days. Fingerprint samples were collected from 18 subjects on glass, perspex and aluminium slides. These samples were then exposed to local environmental conditions for three days. The fingerprints were then developed using the aforementioned techniques. Based on the results, it can be safely said that, fuming results in clearer fingerprints and more minutiae can be found from the retrieved fingerprints even with exposure to less than optimum local conditions. This proves that fuming is a better fingerprint lifting method to resolve latent fingerprint compared to powder dusting. Surface on which the fingerprint is retrieved from influences the quality of clarity of a latent fingerprint. (author)

  10. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dried Colony in Cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 — Several high Space Environment Tolerances for ``Tanpopo'' Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Kimura, S.; Kimura, Y.; Igarashi, Y.; Ajioka, R.; Sato, S.; Katoh, H.; Baba, K.

    2013-11-01

    A cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01, has high several space environmental tolerance. Nostoc sp HK-01 would have high contribution for the “Tanpopo” mission in Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station.

  12. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  13. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  14. A questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residences in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z. [Institute of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Gas Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Deng, S. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. The survey aimed at investigating the current situation of sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning, in order to gather relevant background information to develop strategies for bedroom air conditioning in the subtropics. It focused on the use patterns and types of bedroom air conditioning systems used, human factors such as the use of bedding and sleep wear during sleep, preference for indoor air temperature settings in bedrooms, ventilation control at nighttime with room air conditioner (RAC) turned on, etc. The results of the survey showed that most of the respondents would prefer a relatively low indoor air temperature at below 24 {sup o}C. Most of the respondents might however not be satisfied with the indoor air quality (IAQ) in bedrooms in Hong Kong. On the other hand, 68% of the respondents did not use any ventilation control intentionally during their sleep with their RACs turned on. A lack of knowledge of the ventilation control devices provided on window type room air conditioners (WRACs) indicated an urgent need for user education. (author)

  15. The evaluation of the state of the Sopot Municipality environment as a condition for sustainable development of the municipality area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sopot Municipality can be conditionally characterized as 'an ecological municipality' considering it is known for its preserved and quality environment, which is the result of the absence of greater sources of degradation and environmental pollution. The structure and usage of the Sopot municipality space was influenced by its specific position and historic development, the resources, the fact it is in the vicinity of Belgrade, as well as the processes taking places in the last few decades. Besides natural, anthropogenic factors substantially influenced the way of spatial development, often violating natural conditions and possibilities. In that sense, the current environmental condition analysis represents the important integral planning base for further spatial development of the Municipality. In this paper the environmental condition is shown according to single elements (air, water, soil, the attention is drawn to the problem of waste on the Sopot Municipality area, and in the end the valorization of the environment was performed from the aspect of pollution level.

  16. Social and physical environment alter cocaine conditioned place preference and dopaminergic markers in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, E; Miller, J; Unterwald, E; Wade, D; Izenwasser, S

    2009-10-20

    This study was done to determine whether social and environmental factors alter cocaine reward and proteins implicated in mediating drug reward in rats during early adolescence. On postnatal day (PND) 23, rats were housed under conditions where both social (number of rats per cage) and environmental (availability of toys) factors were manipulated. Socially isolated rats were housed alone impoverished with no toys (II) or enriched with toys (IE). Social rats were housed two rats/cage with no toys (SI2) or with toys (SE2), or three/cage with (SE3) or without (SI3) toys. On PND 43, cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) sessions began with the post-test done on PND 47. Cocaine CPP was established in response to 5 or 10 mg/kg cocaine in II rats, and CPP was decreased with the addition of cage mates or toys. No CPP was seen to any dose in SI3 or SE3 rats. Enriched housing (SE3) increased dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens compared to II. There also were differential effects of cocaine on tyrosine hydroxylase and DAT depending on housing, with both increased by cocaine in II but not SE3 rats. DARPP-32 was unchanged by housing or cocaine, while phospho-Thr(34)-DARPP-32 was increased by cocaine treatment across conditions. Thus, both social and environmental enrichment decrease cocaine CPP during adolescence and different housing alters proteins that regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission in a manner that may account for the observed differences in cocaine-induced reward.

  17. Investigation of conditions inside the reactor building annulus of a PWR plant of KONVOI type in case of severe accidents with increased containment leakages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Ivan [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Sonnenkalb, Martin [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Improvements of the implemented severe accident management (SAM) concepts have been done in all operating German NPPs after the Fukushima Daiichi accidents following recommendations of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and as a result of the stress test being performed. The efficiency of newly developed severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for a PWR KONVOI reference plant related to the mitigation of challenging conditions inside the reactor building (RB) annulus due to increased containment leakages during severe accidents have been assessed. Based on two representative severe accident scenarios the releases of both hydrogen and radionuclides into the RB annulus have been predicted with different boundary conditions. The accident scenarios have been analysed without and with the impact of several SAM measures (already planned or proposed in addition), which turned out to be efficient to mitigate the consequences. The work was done within the frame of a research project financially supported by the Federal Ministry BMUB.

  18. Investigation of conditions inside the reactor building annulus of a PWR plant of KONVOI type in case of severe accidents with increased containment leakages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalov, Ivan; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Improvements of the implemented severe accident management (SAM) concepts have been done in all operating German NPPs after the Fukushima Daiichi accidents following recommendations of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) and as a result of the stress test being performed. The efficiency of newly developed severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for a PWR KONVOI reference plant related to the mitigation of challenging conditions inside the reactor building (RB) annulus due to increased containment leakages during severe accidents have been assessed. Based on two representative severe accident scenarios the releases of both hydrogen and radionuclides into the RB annulus have been predicted with different boundary conditions. The accident scenarios have been analysed without and with the impact of several SAM measures (already planned or proposed in addition), which turned out to be efficient to mitigate the consequences. The work was done within the frame of a research project financially supported by the Federal Ministry BMUB.

  19. Safety conditions of using structural steels under high temperature and pressures in hydrogen containing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asviyan, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The method for establishing full-strength conditions was suggested on the base of results of creep-rupture test of tube samples under hydrogen pressure and according to permissible stresses in neutral medium. Applicability of the method was considered taking St3 and 12KhM steels as examples. It was shown that the use of suggested dependences and special efficiency factors enables to forecast endurance limit for the given steel grade and assigned partial hydrogen pressure without labour-intensive test conducting

  20. Performance analysis of spring wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions in warm humid environment of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raj Puri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 25% of total wheat area in Terai of Nepal falls under rain-fed and partially irrigated condition. A Coordinated varietal trial (CVT was conducted during two consecutive crop cycles (2011-12 and 2012-13 under timely sown rain-fed conditions of Terai. The trial was conducted in Alpha Lattice design with two replications at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa and Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj. Observations were recorded for yield and yield traits and analyzed using statistical software Cropstat 7.2.The combined analysis of coordinated varietal trial showed that BL 3978 possessed the highest yield (2469.2 Kg ha-1 followed by NL 1097 (2373.2 Kg ha-1 and NL 1094 (2334.06 Kg ha-1. Genotype x Environment interaction for grain yield was significant (p<0.05 over locations and years. BL 3978 with early maturity (111 days escaped the heat stress environment. Among the top three genotypes, BL 3978 was consistently higher in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. Earliness was one of the major traits for heat tolerant genotypes. The three identified genotypes will be further evaluated in participatory varietal selection or coordinated farmers field trial followed by small plot seed multiplication (seed increase and release in the future for timely sown rain-fed conditions. These lines also appear suitable for inclusion in crossing program targeted for water stress tolerance variety development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12649 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 289-295

  1. Chemical environment for strainers at loss of coolant conditions in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Erixon, S.

    1997-02-01

    The present report describes the chemical environment in the neighbourhood of the strainer as a function of time after a large to medium-sized LOCA has started in a PWR. It also outlines some of the possible consequences for strainer filtration throughout the LOCA process. The most important factor for strainer behaviour is the presence of material that could be filtered onto the strainer. Examples of materials which could cause problems at strainer filtration are insulation fibers, concrete, corrosion products, paints, organic materials etc. A felt of fibrous material will probably form rapidly due to mechanical filtration on the strainers after start of recirculation. The chemistry of the strainer environment is characterized by relatively high concentrations of boric acid, lithium hydroxide and phosphate in the short time frame. Dissolved concrete and pyrolytic, acidic products could be important after 24 h. pH will be high from the very beginning of the LOCA and thereafter increase due to dissolution of Na 3 PO 4 12H 2 O placed in baskets in the containment. Mechanically induced filtration would probably be the main cause of differential pressure build-up over the strainer felt as long as pH is high enough in the sump water. pH would remain high as long as large amounts of pyrolytic products are not formed. A high pH is essential to prevent fines and small particles to coagulate and deposit which will subsequently cause differential pressure build-up over the strainers. During the first time period of strainer filtration differential pressure build-up due to mechanically induced felt growth will occur. There could also be some contribution from positively charged or almost neutral fines and particles of mineral wool, Caposil, Minileit, and organic material if present. However, this is not foreseen as a major problem as positively charged particles should be in minority. If pyrolytic production of large amounts of acidic material starts, pH could drop

  2. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flat friction tests applied to austenic stainless steels with several surface finish. Analysis of adhesion conditions in friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatatyd, A.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the tribological behaviour of austenic stainless steels AISI 304 with bright surface finishing (B). The assays have been carried out in flat faced dies system with mineral oil of 200 cts viscosity, S 2 Mo grease and in dry conditions. The relationship between friction coefficient and pressure and velocity has been established for the mineral oil as lubricant. In these conditions, a strong adhesive tendency has been found in boundary lubrication regime. The results obtained here, show us that S 2 Mo grease leads to lowest values for the friction coefficient. A minor adhesive behaviour tendency for AISI 316 steel, harder than 304 grades, has been found. A relevant plowing phenomena has been observed for the more critical friction conditions tried out. A surface hardener is produced as a consequence of that. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  5. Eighty Kilograms Weight Reduction in a Case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Several Comorbidities: Did the Conditions Improve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Foroughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA together with metabolic disorders is common in severely obese patients. Weight reduction is considered as a treatment modality in these cases while few of them can succeed in considerable weight loss. Here, we present a severely obese man with body mass index of 54 suffered from OSA, type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypertension. He intentionally lost 80 kilograms weight during the 2-year follow-up. Diabetes and hypertension completely resolved with considerable improvement in OSA syndrome after this huge weight reduction.

  6. ENTERPRISE OPERATION PLANNING IN THE CONDITIONS OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY IN THE EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the enterprise activity planning taking into account the risk and uncertainty of the external and internal environment is a complex scientific and methodological problem. Its solution is important for the planning practice. Therefore, the relevance of this research topic is beyond doubt. Planning is based on the use of a multilevel system of models. At the top level, the achievement of key strategic indicators is ensured by the development and implementation of innovations, mainly related to the planning of the release of new high-tech products. However, it is at this level that the risks and uncertainties have the greatest impact on the planning processes for the development, production and marketing of new products. In the scientific literature it is proposed to use the stochastic graphs with returns for this purpose. This idea is also supported in this work. However, the implementation of such an idea requires additional methodological developments and quantitative calculations. The coordination of strategic decisions with tactical plans is based on the idea of eliminating the economic and other risks associated with the economic activity of the enterprise in tactical planning, by creating the stochastic reserves based on the implementation of additional innovations that ensure the receipt of above-target sales volumes, profits and other indicators of the strategic plan. The organization of operational management of production is represented by an iterative, sliding process (reducing risks in production, which is realized taking into account the limitations of tactical control.

  7. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos F. Brosschot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always “on” but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  8. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, Jos F; Verkuil, Bart; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-07

    Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always "on" but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  9. Comparative study of modified polypropylene nanocomposites under environment and accelerated ageing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of degradation mechanism action on the polymer nanocomposites in face of weathering (UV light, heat, acid rain, among others), is the key for development of new additives and new applications. In this work the nanocomposite synthesis was carried in molten state, using twin-screw extruder. The polymer matrix was the HMS-PP (high melt polypropylene) synthesized by gamma irradiation and the nanometric inorganic component was the montmorillonite clay. For better compatibilization between the matrix and clay, it were used maleic anhydride as coupling agent. For environment and in oven accelerated aging assays, the dumbbell samples were prepared under hot pressing. The characterization of clay addition effects and aging effects on the nanocomposites, required the use of techniques of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TGA), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Xray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and mechanical properties. Samples with 0.1; 1; 3; 5; 10 % of clay were tested. The sample with 5% of clay showed better stability on the environmental assay and accelerated aging in oven assay. On the other hand, the sample with higher percent of clay (10%), was more degraded under on environmental aging than under accelerated aging in stove. In this case, became more resistant until 56 days of assay. On the studied concentrations (less than ≤ 3%) of clay, it can be seen an equilibrium between barrier effect and metallic ions action accelerating the degradative process. (author)

  10. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  11. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  12. Characteristics and severity of asthma in children with and without atopic conditions : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J H; van Erp, Francine C; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland van der Zee, Anke H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood allergic diseases have a major impact on a child's quality of life, as well as that of their parents. We studied the coexistence of reported allergies in children who use asthma medication. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that asthma severity is greater among children

  13. Characteristics and severity of asthma in children with and without atopic conditions: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; van Erp, Francine C.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland van der Zee, Anke H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood allergic diseases have a major impact on a child's quality of life, as well as that of their parents. We studied the coexistence of reported allergies in children who use asthma medication. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that asthma severity is greater among children

  14. Fission product chemistry and aerosol behaviour in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.

    1985-09-01

    Three key accident sequences are considered covering a representative range of different environments of pressure, flow, temperature history and degree of zircaloy oxidation, and their principle thermal hydraulic and physical characteristics affecting chemistry behaviour are identified. Inventories, chemical forms and timing of fission product release are summarized together with the major sources of structural materials and their release characteristics. Chemistry of each main fission product species is reviewed from available experimental and/or theoretical data. Studies modelling primary circuit fission product behaviour are reviewed. Requirements for further study are assessed. (UK)

  15. Severity of a mountain pine beetle outbreak across a range of stand conditions in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony G. Vorster; Paul H. Evangelista; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Sunil Kumar; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Antony S. Cheng; Kelly Elder

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks had unprecedented effects on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) in western North America. We used data from 165 forest inventory plots to analyze stand conditions that regulate lodgepole pine mortality across a wide range of stand structure and species composition at the Fraser...

  16. Surveillance of working conditions and the work environment: development of a national hazard surveillance tool in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Firth, Hilda; Cunningham, Chris; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Changes to work and the impact of these changes on worker health and safety have been significant. A core surveillance data set is needed to understand the impact of working conditions and work environments. Yet, there is little harmony amongst international surveys and a critical lack of guidance identifying the best directions for surveillance efforts. This paper describes the establishment of an instrument suitable for use as a hazard surveillance tool for New Zealand workers. An iterative process of critical review was undertaken to create a dimensional framework and select specific measures from existing instruments. Pilot testing to ascertain participant acceptability of the questions was undertaken. The final questionnaire includes measures of socio-demographic characteristics, occupational history, work organisation, physicochemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. Outcome measures were also included. A robust New Zealand hazard surveillance questionnaire comprehensively covering the key measures of work organisation and work environments that impact upon worker health and safety outcomes was developed. Recommended measures of work organisation, work environment and health outcomes that should be captured in work environment surveillance are made.

  17. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo[a]pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs

  18. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Impact on radioecological conditions in the environment of a BWR power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Hegde, A.G.; Kamath, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Survey Laboratory at Tarapur has monitored environment of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) right from the preoperational period in 1965 and then during the operational phase. Impact of release of radioactive effluents - liquid wastes to the sea and gaseous wastes through stack - of the TAPS on environmental radioactivity levels is described. 60 Co is absent from the TAPS colony air particulate sample, but is found to the extent of 5x10 -3 pCi/M 3 in samples at site since 1972. 131 I is found in the range of 1 to 5 pCi/g in the goat thyroids in the downwind area from 1971. Cumulative radiation dose in population centres as measured by thermoluminescent dosemeters has not shown any detectable increase, except the two villages in direction of prevailing wind 2 km away from TAPS. The cumulative dose in these two villages showed an increase of 5 to 10 mr/year from 1971. No detectable increase in radioactivity is found in vegetation close to the TAPS. Offshore seawaters beyond 5 km have not shown any signjficant concentrations of radionuclides, but the near shore waters along the coast showed increased activity of radioiodine and radiocesium. The silt has shown an increased 60 Co activity. The near shore sea food o organisms have shown the pick-up and build-up of sup(131)I, sup(134,137)Cs and sup(60)Co. Internal dose to the populations in the vicinity is above the natural preoperational background but within the recommended limits. The waste treatment processes at TAPS were augmented in 1973-74 by addition of storage tanks for: (1) the decay of short-lived nuclides and (2) removal of radiocobalt and radiocesium by flocculation vermiculite column absorption process. With this augmentation, levels of radioactivity ir sea water, silt and seafood have shown a declining trend. (M.G.B.)

  20. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha

    2017-06-01

    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  1. Effect of environment on Pekin duck behaviour and its correlation with body condition on commercial farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T A; Dawkins, M S

    2010-06-01

    1. Forty-six flocks of commercially-reared Pekin ducks were studied to determine the effects of housing system and environment on the behaviour of farmed ducks and its correlation with physical condition. Houses differed predominantly in their ventilation, drinking, feeding and brooding systems, and were indicative of systems currently in use in the UK. 2. At 41 d of age ducks spent 15% of the time feeding, 67% drinking, 42% rooting and 155% dry preening. They spent large amounts of time relatively inactive, 435%, or performing comfort behaviours, 17%. On average 46% of their time was spent walking and only 18% wet preening. 3. A greater proportion of the maximum number of ducks able to use the drinker at any one time used the trough; nipple use was least and Plasson use intermediate. The proportion of ducks wet preening was not affected by drinker type but increased with increasing drinker space (mm/bird). 4. Duck behaviour was little affected by commercial production system and was influenced more by environment, age and physical condition. Activity at an older age incorporated more of the behaviours associated with thermal comfort (panting) and maintenance of plumage condition (dry and wet preening). These behaviours increased with increasing temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric ammonia. Poor walking ability was correlated to increased frequency of panting, reduced activity at the drinker, and longer resting bouts.

  2. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  3. Response of Microbial Community Function to Fluctuating Geochemical Conditions within a Legacy Radioactive Waste Trench Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Campos, Xabier; Kinsela, Andrew S; Bligh, Mark W; Harrison, Jennifer J; Payne, Timothy E; Waite, T David

    2017-09-01

    During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were codisposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in 3-meter-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess the impact of changing water levels upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry. Two contaminants of concern, plutonium and americium, were shown to transition from solid-iron-associated species immediately after the initial rainwater pulse to progressively more soluble moieties as reducing conditions were enhanced. Functional metagenomics revealed the potentially important role that the taxonomically diverse microbial community played in this transition. In particular, aerobes dominated in the first day, followed by an increase of facultative anaerobes/denitrifiers at day 4. Toward the mid-end of the sampling period, the functional and taxonomic profiles depicted an anaerobic community distinguished by a higher representation of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis pathways. Our results have important implications to similar near-surface environmental systems in which redox cycling occurs. IMPORTANCE The role of chemical and microbiological factors in mediating the biogeochemistry of groundwaters from trenches used to dispose of radioactive materials during the 1960s is examined in this study. Specifically, chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels influence microbial ecology and

  4. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation for patients with severe aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, N.K.; Kim, T.H.; McGlave, P.; Goldman, A.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Krivit, W.; Woods, W.G.; Kersey, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A preparative regimen, consisting of total lymphoid irradiation and cyclophosphamide, was utilized in 40 patients with severe aplastic anemia undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation. This regimen was successful in decreasing rejection in these previously transfused patients, as only one patient rejected the marrow graft. Twenty-nine of the 40 transplanted patients are surviving from 1.5 to 59 mo, with a median follow-up of 24 mo. The actuarial survival rate for these heavily transfused patients with aplastic anemia is 72% at 2 yr. This preparative regimen is extremely effective in decreasing rejection following transplantation for severe aplastic anemia. Future efforts in this area must be aimed at the elimination of graft-versus-host disease and control of fatal infections

  6. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system.

  7. Influences of source condition and dissolution on bubble plume in a stratified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shigan; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    A cross-sectionally averaged model is used to study a bubble plume rising in a stratified quiescent liquid. Scaling analyses for the peel height, at which the plume momentum vanishes, and the neutral height, at which its average density equals the ambient density, are presented. Contrary to a widespread practice in the literature, it is argued that the neutral height cannot be identified with the experimentally reported intrusion height. Recognizing this difference provides an explanation of the reason why the intrusion height is found so frequently to lie so much above predictions, and brings the theoretical results in line with observations. The mathematical model depends on three dimensionless parameters, some of which are related to the inlet conditions at the plume source. Their influence on the peel and neutral heights is illustrated by means of numerical results. Aside from the source parameters, we incorporate dissolution of bubbles and the corresponding density change of plume into the model. Contrary to what's documented in literature, density change of plume due to dissolution plays an important role in keeping the total buoyancy of plume, thus alleviating the rapid decrease of peel height because of dissolution.

  8. Comparison of theoretical estimates and experimental measurements of fatigue crack growth under severe thermal shock conditions (part one - experimental observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.; Green, D.; Parker, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in which a severe thermal cycle comprising of alternate upshocks and downshocks has been applied to an axisymmetric feature with an internal, partial penetration weld and crevice. The direction of cracking and crack growth rate were observed experimentally and detailed records made of the thermal cycle. A second part to the paper, reported separately, compares a linear elastic fracture mechanics assessment of the cracking to the experimental observations

  9. The impact of changing climate conditions on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments in Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirini Vozinaki, Anthi; Tapoglou, Evdokia; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, although is already happening, consists of a big threat capable of causing lots of inconveniences in future societies and their economies. In this work, the climate change impact on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments, in Crete, is presented. The sensitivity of these hydrological systems to several climate change scenarios is also provided. The HBV hydrological model has been used, calibrated and validated for the study sub-catchments against measured weather and streamflow data and inputs. The impact of climate change on several hydro-meteorological parameters (i.e. precipitation, streamflow etc.) and hydrological signatures (i.e. spring flood peak, length and volume, base flow, flow duration curves, seasonality etc.) have been statistically elaborated and analyzed, defining areas of increased probability risk associated additionally to flooding or drought. The potential impacts of climate change on current and future water resources have been quantified by driving HBV model with current and future scenarios, respectively, for specific climate periods. This work aims to present an integrated methodology for the definition of future climate and hydrological risks and the prediction of future water resources behavior. Future water resources management could be rationally effectuated, in Mediterranean sub-catchments prone to drought or flooding, using the proposed methodology. The research reported in this paper was fully supported by the Project "Innovative solutions to climate change adaptation and governance in the water management of the Region of Crete - AQUAMAN" funded within the framework of the EEA Financial Mechanism 2009-2014.

  10. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat Sourav, Pradip, Sufi, Shatabdi and Bijoy were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28C to 30C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in Sourav, 58.41% in Pradip, 73.01% in Sufi, 55.46% in Shatabdi and 53.42% in Bijoy.

  11. Treatment of severe non-infectious uveitis in high-risk conditions (Part I): pregnancy and malignancies, management and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Salazar-Méndez, Raquel; Yilmaz, Taygan

    2015-07-01

    Management of patients with severe immune-mediated uveitis requires the use of immunosuppressive drugs in selected cases. This may be especially challenging in certain patients with concomitant conditions, which could increase the risk of side effects or modify guidelines for the use of such drugs. Therapeutic decision-making and management may be of particular difficulty in pregnancy as well as in patients with associated malignancies unrelated to a specific ophthalmic inflammatory condition. The main aim of this review is to provide an updated comprehensive practical guide for practitioners regarding the therapeutic decision-making and management of patients with severe immune-mediated uveitis in the context of pregnancy and malignancies. Management of patients with immune-mediated uveitis requiring immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory drugs might be particularly complicated by other conditions affecting their health and immune status. Clinicians should take into account such conditions, which might influence treatment response and the clinical outcome of these patients.

  12. Agro-productive evaluation of varieties of sugarcane, resistant to adverse conditions for water deficit and their stability in several ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenaldo Delgado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main breeding programs in the world have heeded sugarcane classification of test environments, so that the evaluation of genotypes across different environments is one of the most common practices for the recommendation of new cultivars to producers and as its stability. This study aimed to evaluate agroproductivamente varieties of sugar cane plantation plots cold, resistant to adverse conditions of water deficit and its stability in various environments. Under these new assumptions developed in this study Territorial Research Station of Sugarcane Villa Clara in the cold cycle, in a randomized complete block, the variables were percentage of pol in cane, tons of cane per hectare pol tons per hectare. The result was that the genotype C86-156 high agricultural yields and stable in all environments and high sugar content, so their harvest should be in the initial stage of harvest (December-January, and C89-147 which is the highest performance, but not stable environments. Identifies five test environments with specific genotypes, where November is characterized by C90-530 and C89-147, December by C86-56 January for C89-148, C86-156 by February and March by C85-102.

  13. Telemedical systems for home monitoring of patients with chronic conditions in rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Maciejewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the requirements and possible implementations of a telemedical system. The idea of remote patient monitoring is a point of interest for researchers in Poland, and is also in high demand in fields such as diabetology, cardiology, and geriatrics, among others. Aging society, medical care costs and many other factors make remote patient care a promising idea for the future. For each and every condition, a specialized type of sensor must be used to allow specific measurements to be performed. Moreover, a local data storage and communication device must be provided for the sensor to be able to relay data to the station. A smart phone can be used perform such tasks. By implementing such remote diagnostic systems it is possible to collect, process, store and present vital medical data that can be used immediately to perform diagnosis, or later as reference for expert systems. The ‘Borboleta’ and ‘SaguiSaúde’ systems already implemented can serve as a base for system analysis. The systems provide necessary functions and can be used as reference. Many factors contribute to the success of the telemedical system, such as ease of access, scalability, safety, platform independence, and many others. For easier implementation and clarity, the system should be divided into independent layers, which will also make it easier to modify and integrate into other medical systems. Making the system easy to use for patients, medical staff, administrators and data managers makes the task of system design especially challenging. One must decide which information is necessary for each type of user and provide them clearly and in an orderly fashion.

  14. Kohonen mapping of the crack growth under fatigue loading conditions of stainless steels in BWR environments and of nickel alloys in PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    2008-01-01

    In this study, crack growth rate data under fatigue loading conditions generated by Argonne National Laboratories and published in 2006 were analyzed [O.K. Chopra, B. Alexandreanu, E.E. Gruber, R.S. Daum, W.J. Shack, Argonne National Laboratory, NUREG CR 6891-series ANL 04/20, Crack Growth Rates of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Heat Affected Zone in BWR Environments, January, 2006; B. Alexandreanu, O.K. Chopra, H.M. Chung, E.E. Gruber, W.K. Soppet, R.W. Strain, W.J. Shack, Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors, vol. 34 in the NUREG/CR-4667 series annual report of Argonne National Laboratory program studies for Calendar (Annual Report 2003). Manuscript Completed: May 2005, Date Published: May 2006], and reported by DoE [B. Alexandreanu, O.K. Chopra, W.J. Shack, S. Crane, H.J. Gonzalez, NRC, Crack Growth Rates and Metallographic Examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from Field Components and Laboratory Materials Tested in PWR Environments, NUREG/CR-6964, May 2008]. The data collected were measured on austenitic stainless steels in BWR (boiling water reactor) environments and on nickel alloys in PWR (pressurized water reactor) environments. The data collected contained information on material composition, temperature, conductivity of the environment, oxygen concentration, irradiated sample information, weld information, electrochemical potential, load ratio, rise time, hydrogen concentration, hold time, down time, maximum stress intensity factor (K max ), stress intensity range (ΔK max ), crack length, and crack growth rates (CGR). Each position on that Kohonen map is called a cell. A Kohonen map clusters vectors of information by 'similarities.' Vectors of information were formed using the metal composition, followed by the environmental conditions used in each experiments, and finally followed by the crack growth rate (CGR) measured when a sample of pre-cracked metal is set in an environment and the sample is cyclically loaded

  15. Molecular transitions as probes of the physical conditions of extragalactic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, Serena

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We present a method to interpret molecular observations and molecular line ratios in nearby extragalactic regions. Methods: Ab initio grids of time dependent chemical models, varying in gas density, temperature, cosmic ray ionization rate, and radiation field, are used as inputs into RADEX calculations. Tables of abundances, column densities, theoretical line intensities, and line ratios for some of the most used dense gas tracers are provided. The degree of correlation as well as degeneracy inherent in molecular ratios is discussed. Comparisons of the theoretical intensities with example observations are also provided. Results: We find that, within the parameters space explored, chemical abundances can be constrained by a well-defined set of gas density, gas temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rates for the species we investigate here. However, line intensities, and more importantly line ratios, from different chemical models can be very similar, thereby leading to a clear degeneracy. We also find that the gas subjected to a galactic cosmic ray ionization rate will not necessarily have reached steady state in 1 million years. The species most affected by time dependency effects are HCN and CS, which are both high density tracers. We use our ab initio method to fit an example set of data from two galaxies, I.e. M 82 and NGC 253. We find that (I) molecular line ratios can be easily matched even with erroneous individual line intensities; (II) no set of species can be matched by a one-component interstellar medium (ISM); and (III) a species may be a good tracer of an energetic process but only under specific density and temperature conditions. Conclusions: We provide tables of chemical abundances and line intensities ratios for some of the most commonly observed extragalactic tracers of dense gas for a grid of models. We show that by taking the chemistry behind each species and the individual line intensities into consideration, many degeneracies that arise

  16. Plant habitability assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station during a severe accident resulting from station blackout conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) developed a methodology for assessing nuclear power plant habitability under Joint Project 4426 and to determine if any improvement actions are necessary to provide a high degree of assurance that a severe accident can be managed from a human and organizational performance perspective. NB Power has applied the methodology considering a station black-out scenario (representative case), and assessed the effects of non-radiological hazards and radiological hazards in the context of operator dose relative to emergency dose limits. The paper will discuss the overall methodology, findings and recommendations. (author)

  17. Plant habitability assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station during a severe accident resulting from station blackout conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D., E-mail: dmullin@nbpower.com [New Brunswick Power Corporation, Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, NB (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) developed a methodology for assessing nuclear power plant habitability under Joint Project 4426 and to determine if any improvement actions are necessary to provide a high degree of assurance that a severe accident can be managed from a human and organizational performance perspective. NB Power has applied the methodology considering a station black-out scenario (representative case), and assessed the effects of non-radiological hazards and radiological hazards in the context of operator dose relative to emergency dose limits. The paper will discuss the overall methodology, findings and recommendations. (author)

  18. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Seralathan; T, Micha Premkumar; Sohail, Mohammed; T, Mohan; V, Hariram

    2017-12-01

    Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E) are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s.

  19. Effects of irradiation conditions and environment on the reflectivity of different steel mirrors for ITER diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Teresa; Martin, Piedad; Fernandez, Pilar; Hodgson, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work possible degradation of the reflectivity for mirrors made from various steels subjected to ionizing radiation, at moderate temperature and in different environments (vacuum, air, or nitrogen) up to a total dose of 9 MGy, has been examined. Mirrors were prepared from conventional austenitic stainless steel (316L) and also reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels (Eurofer, ODS-Eurofer, F82H), and the reflectivity studied from ultraviolet to near infrared, before and after different treatments. Under all conditions the austenitic steel mirrors only degrade slightly (<10%), however for the reduced activation steels important reflectivity degradation for wavelengths below 1000 nm are observed for the different conditions. Surface morphology and microstructure has been also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The production of near surface nitrides is considered to be the possible cause of the optical degradation.

  20. Effects of the conditions imposed by the environment and by utilities on the design of process engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernecker, G

    1976-09-01

    Conditions of environment and utilities have a great influence on the investment and operation costs of process engineering plants. If these conditions are taken into consideration in preliminary process engineering, the considerable amount of time spent in planning subsequent modifications could be saved. This publication from the seminar held with the topic 'planning and construction of process engineering systems' by the VDI-Bildungswerk shows how to facilitate problems of waste products already 'in statu nascendi'. The second part which will be published in the next edition will summarize the possibilities and the determining restrictions in the use of the available media for heating and cooling. Both essays are extended presentations of a chapter from a book in preparation by the VDI with the same title as the seminar.

  1. Retnla down-regulation and IL-13-rich environment correlate with inflammation severity in experimental actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrián G; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2013-04-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis (Nb) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause actinomycetoma when immune response is unable to control the pathogenic invasion. We used comparative real-time PCR to evaluate the expression level of molecules indicative of either classical or alternative activation of macrophages, as well as of cytokines involved in macrophage polarization, during the experimental infection in BALB/c mice. We found induction or increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers csf2/GM-CSF, interferon-gamma, and nos2/iNOS. The expression of Ym1 and IL-13, which are usually related with alternative activation of macrophage, was also increased. However, retnla/FIZZ1 expression decreased sharply during the infection. We concluded that Nb infection induces both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory environment, in which there is a strong inverse correlation between IL-13 and retnla expression. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fission products and nuclear fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions part 2: Fuel behaviour in the VERDON-1 sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, E.; Le Gall, C.; Gallais-During, A.; Pontillon, Y.; Lamontagne, J.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G.

    2017-11-01

    Within the framework of the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the VERDON programme aims at quantifying the source term of radioactive materials in case of a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Tests were performed in a new experimental laboratory (VERDON) built in the LECA-STAR facility (CEA Cadarache). The VERDON-1 test was devoted to the study of a high burn-up UO2 fuel and FP releases at very high temperature (≈2873 K) in a reducing atmosphere. Post-test qualitative and quantitative characterisations of the VERDON-1 sample led to the proposal of a scenario explaining the phenomena occurring during the experimental sequence. Hence, the fuel and the cladding may have interacted which led to the melting of UO2-ZrO2 alloy. Although no relocation was observed during the test, it may have been imminent.

  3. Fission products and nuclear fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions part 1: Main lessons learnt from the first VERDON test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontillon, Y.; Geiger, E.; Le Gall, C.; Bernard, S.; Gallais-During, A.; Malgouyres, P. P.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the first VERDON test performed at the end of September 2011 with special emphasis on the behaviour of fission products (FP) and actinides during the accidental sequence itself. Two other papers discuss in detail the post-test examination results (SEM, EPMA and SIMS) of the VERDON-1 sample. The first VERDON test was devoted to studying UO2 fuel behaviour and fission product releases under reducing conditions at very high temperature (∼2883 K), which was able to confirm the very good performance of the VERDON loop. The fuel sample did not lose its integrity during this test. According to the FP behaviour measured by the online gamma station (fuel sight), the general classification of the FP in relation to their released fraction is very accurate, and the burn-up effect on the release rate is clearly highlighted.

  4. A scoping evaluation of severe accidents at Surry and Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Plants resulting from earthquakes during shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report explores the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions at two nuclear power plants, Surry Unit I and Grand Gulf Unit 1. The effort is scoping in character, and has been performed primarily to establish if a potential problem exists sufficient to justify a more rigorous and more quantitative evaluation. A summary is presented of the important conclusions that have been reached. The most important conclusion is that the core-damage frequencies for earthquake-initiated accidents during shutdown at both Surry Unit I and Grand Gulf Unit I are found to be low in absolute terms. The reasons for this are that in their ability to respond to earthquakes during shutdowns, the plants both have large seismic capacities, well above their design-basis levels; and also that both sites enjoy among the lowest seismic hazards of any LWR sites in the US

  5. Strategies for operation of containment related ESFs in managing activity release to the environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhawal, R.N.; Bajaj, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    In Indian PHWR design, a double containment concept with passive vapour suppression pool (to limit peak pressure) system has been adopted. In addition to it, various Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) have been incorporated to limit the release of radioactivity to the environment. They are: Reactor building emergency coolers for cooling which results in fast reduction of overpressure; Primary Containment Filtration and Pump Back System (PCFPBS) for reduction in iodine concentration inside RB atmosphere during post LOCA period; and, Primary Containment Controlled Discharge System (PCCDS) for the rapid reduction of over-pressure tail. Due to operation of secondary containment purge system, which maintain negative pressure in the annulus, the ground level release is negligibly small. However, if non- availability of negative pressure in secondary containment space is assumed, then operation of PCFPBS and PCCDS system reduces the ground level release significantly. In this situation, depending upon time of operation of the PCFPBS, it can effectively reduce the iodine release, both in stack level and ground level by trapping it in charcoal filters. It is seen that delay time of PCFPBS operation in conjunction with prevailing weather condition can be manipulated to reduce the effect of stack level release of iodine. In this paper the containment related ESFs used in Indian PHWR is discussed in brief and the effectiveness of operator actions and management strategies in actuation of the ESFs in reducing the activity release to environment (during postulated accident conditions) will be brought out. (author)

  6. The human growth and the healthy environment as a condition of balanced development for the course of human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koukoumpliakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising standard of living has evoked an important burden in the natural environment leading to an immense deterioration of nature. The pollution of the atmosphere and seas, the industrial waste, the climatic changes, the chaotic built-up extension threaten the health of all of us. The responsibility for the pollution of the environment is allocated in everybody. The State is accountable not only for the political planning and the policy that practises, but also for the frame it shapes for the citizens to follow. The improvement of the quality of environment must be combined with the economic progress and growth. The intensity of environmental problems worries the International Community, while the saving and growth of new green forms of energy appear as imperative need. We find already ourselves in a progressive but continuous growth, which has the conditions to develop in the future with spectacular rhythm.The methodology of present work is recommended for: a bibliographic research, mainly Greek, b comparison of the facts that are exported from research, connecting them with the given facts. This comparison leads to the necessary coexistence of a healthy environment and a viable growth.In the results of the research the essential conditions of coexistence are presented between these two. Thus we realise that: a the configuration of an evener environmental conscience is required via the education which would guarantee the balanced and sustainable growth, b the change of perception of people as lords of nature is considered necessary and its replacement by the awareness that the nature does not constitute an inexhaustible resource.With that in mind we conclude that: a the research is required to lead to alternative sources of energy such as the creation of Aeolian parks. It is estimated that more investments in other types of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal and hydroelectric can constitute also advisable solutions. The use of

  7. Timing of favorable conditions, competition and fertility interact to govern recruitment of invasive Chinese tallow tree in stressful environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Gabler

    Full Text Available The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration, competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our 'outgrow the stress' hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also

  8. Modeling of hot tensile and short-term creep strength for LWR piping materials under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Y.; Maruyama, Y.; Chino, E.; Shibazaki, H.; Kudo, T.; Hidaka, A.; Hashimoto, K.; Sugimoto, J.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical study on severe accident shows the possibility of the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping failure before reactor pressure vessel failure under the high primary pressure sequence at pressurized water reactors. The establishment of the high-temperature strength model of the realistic RCS piping materials is important in order to predict precisely the accident progression and to evaluate the piping behavior with small uncertainties. Based on material testing, the 0.2% proof stress and the ultimate tensile strength above 800degC were given by the equations of second degree as a function of the reciprocal absolute temperature considering the strength increase due to fine precipitates for the piping materials. The piping materials include type 316 stainless steel, type 316 stainless steel of nuclear grade, CF8M cast duplex stainless steel and STS410 carbon steel. Also the short-term creep rupture time and the minimum creep rate at high-temperature were given by the modified Norton's Law as a function of stress and temperature considering the effect of the precipitation formation and resolution on the creep strength. The present modified Norton's Law gives better results than the conventional Larson-Miller method. Correlating the creep data (the applied stress versus the minimum creep rate) with the tensile data (the 0.2% proof stress or the ultimate tensile strength versus the strain rate), it was found that the dynamic recrystallization significantly occurred at high-temperature. (author)

  9. Fission product release under severe accidental conditions: general presentation of the program and synthesis of VERCORS 1-6 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, G.; Malgouyres, P.P.; Kissane, M.; Boulaud, D.; Durin, M.

    2001-01-01

    The French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute (IPSN) launched the HEVA-VERCORS program in 1983, in collaboration with Electricite de France (EDF). This program is devoted to the source term of fission products (FP) released from PWR fuel samples during a sequence representative of a severe accident. The analytical experiments are conducted in a shielded hot cell of the LAMA facility of the Grenoble center of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique); as simplified tests addressing a limited number of phenomena, they give results complementary to those of the more global in-pile PHEBUS experiments. Six VERCORS tests have been conducted from 1989-1994 with higher fuel temperatures (up to 2600 K) compared with the earlier HEVA tests in order, in particular, to quantify better the release of lower volatile FPs. This paper gives an overview of the experimental facility, a synthesis of FP release from these tests and exhibits, as an example, some specific results of the VERCORS 6 test, performed with high burn-up fuel (60 GWd tU -1 ). The on-going VERCORS HT-RT program, designed to reach fuel liquefaction temperatures, is described before conclusions are drawn

  10. The effect of particle addition and fibrous reinforcement on epoxy-matrix composites for severe sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ricco Ølholm; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Thorning, Bent

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports production and tribological testing of epoxy-matrix composites for dry-sliding conditions. The examined composites are produced using the following components: epoxy resin (EP), glass fiber weave (G), carbon/aramid hybrid weave (CA), PTFE particles and nano-scale CuO particles...... are seen when the fibers are parallel and anti-parallel (P-AP) to the sliding direction compared to normal and parallel (N-P). Experiments with incorporating micro-scale PTFE particles and nano-scale CuO particles, respectively, into the epoxy resin along with the carbon/aramid weave shows no difference...... in friction but minor improvements in wear. When micro-scale PTFE particles are incorporated into the neat epoxy resin, i.e. without fibers, an increase in and a decrease in A are measured. When the same is done with nano-CuO a deterioration of both friction and wear properties are seen. At the three roughest...

  11. Neurobehavioral conditions and effects of gender, weight and severity in preterm infants according to the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Álvarez-García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of preterm babies in recent years has raised interest in studying the consequences of prematurity as a risk factor. In the present paper, 30 preterm babies (at 40 weeks of gestational age were assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the results were compared with those of a control group of 28 full term babies. Moreover, the influence of weight, sex and gestational age was analyzed considering the Brazelton results in the preterm group. The preterm group showed significantly lower scores than the control group for 9 of the 28 behavioral items in the Scale and for 2 of the 5 clusters. However, preterm babies performed better in habituation to disturbing stimuli (light and noise during sleep. In relation to the influence of sex, premature girls performed better in the Social-Interactive cluster. The preterm group has lower neurobehavioral conditions than the full term group, probably due to the abrupt interruption of their intrauterine maturation. In contrast, they showed a better ability of habituation, maybe as a consequence of a learning effect due to earlier additional extrauterine exposition.

  12. Dynamic behavior structural response and capacity evaluation of the standardized WWER-1000 nuclear power plants subjected to severe loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriashvili, Y.K.; Krutzik, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to verify the structural capacity of standardized WWER-1000 MW nuclear power plants, comprehensive static and dynamic analyses were performed in cooperation between Siemens and Atomenergoprojekt. The main goal of these investigations was to perform of a number of seismic analyses of standardized WWER-1000 reactor buildings on the basis of 13 given seismological inputs, taking into account the local soil conditions at 17 different sites defined by in-situ investigations. The analyses were based on appropriate mathematical models (equivalent beam models as well as detailed spatial surface element models) of the coupled vibrating structures (base structure, outer structure, containment, inner structure) and of the layered soil. The analyses were mainly performed using the indirect method (substructure method). Based on the results of the seismic analysis as well as the results of static analysis (pressure and temperature due to LOCA, dead weight, prestressing) an assessment was made of the seismic safety of the containment and the reactor building. Using a complex 3-dimensional model of the structure and the soil, the influence of the flexibility of the basement structure on the structural response was also studied. The structural analyses of the WWER-1000 reactor building led to the conclusion that its design accounts well for the main factors governing the dynamic behavior of the building. The assessment of the forces acting in the structures shows that the bearing capacity of the analyzed building structure corresponds to an earthquake intensity of about 0.2 g to 0.25 g

  13. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei Ching Siow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W or isotonic beverage (IB on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3% as compared to W (p < 0.05 after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg, while W led to body mass loss (−0.04 ± 0.05 kg (p = 0.01. A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (−1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min compared to W (−2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min (p < 0.05. IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min. In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water.

  14. An Accelerated Test Method of Simultaneous Carbonation and Chloride Ion Ingress: Durability of Silica Fume Concrete in Severe Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack on mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete containing silica fume have been investigated through an accelerated test method. Specimens containing different amounts of silica fume were maintained in an apparatus in which carbon dioxide pressure and concentration and relative humidity were kept constant, and wetting and drying cycles in saline water were applied. Surface resistivity, sorptivity, CO2 consumption, and carbonation and chloride ion ingress depths measurements were taken. Phase change due to carbonation and chloride ion attack was monitored by XRD analysis, and microstructures and interfacial transition zones were studied by implementing SEM as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry. It was expected to have a synergistic effect in the tidal zone where simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack happen. However, the observed reduced surface resistivity, compared to specimens maintained in CO2 gas, could be due to the moisture that is available near the surface, hindering CO2 from penetrating into the pores of the specimens. Moreover, the porosity analysis of the specimens showed that the sample containing silica fume cured in the tidal zone had 50.1% less total porosity than the plain cement paste cured in the same condition.

  15. In vivo efficiency evaluation of a phage cocktail in controlling severe colibacillosis in confined conditions and experimental poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sereno, Rui; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-12-15

    Infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause important economic losses to poultry industry. The studies presented herein, aimed at investigating the in vivo performance of a cocktail of three phages in treating severe respiratory E. coli infections in experimentally contaminated birds and naturally infected flocks. Three lytic coliphages, phi F78E (Myoviridae), phi F258E (Siphoviridae) and phi F61E (Myoviridae) were combined in a 5.0 × 10(7)PFU/ml cocktail to be used in naturally APEC infected flocks (refractive to antibiotherapy). Experimentally infected birds were treated with phi F78E at two different titres (10(7)PFU/ml and 10(9)PFU/ml). Phage administration was performed orally and by spray, in a single application. The morbidity, mortality and pathology scores were compared with control birds not receiving phage therapy. The results revealed that the success of phage therapy in experimental rooms was dosage dependent, being 10(7)PFU/ml not enough to treat the infected chickens whereas a concentration of 10(9)PFU/ml of phi F78E allowed a decrease of 25% and 43% in chickens' mortality and morbidity, respectively. In the large scale experiments, the results obtained showed a remarkable efficacy of the low titre phage cocktail (10(7)PFU/ml) in decreasing the flocks' mortality to levels below 0.5% in no more than 3 weeks, with no recidivism. Based on the results we can conclude that phage treatment is a valuable alternative to control APEC infections in poultry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Grain boundary sweeping and liquefaction-induced fission product behavior in nuclear fuel under severe-core damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1984-05-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from: (1) irradiated high-burnup LWR fuel in a flowing steam atmosphere during high-temperature, in-cell heating tests performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and (2) trace-irradiated and high-burnup LWR fuel during severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during both types of tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. Whereas fuel liquefaction leads to an enhanced release of fission products in trace-irradiated fuel, the occurrence of fuel liquefaction in high-burnup fuel can degrade fission product release. This phenomenon is due in part to reduced gas-bubble mobilities in a viscous medium as compared to vapor transport, and in part to a degradation of grain growth rates and the subsequent decrease in grain-boundary sweeping of intragranular fission products into the liquefied lamina. The analysis shows that total UO 2 dissolution due to eutectic melting leads to increased release for both trace-irradiated and high-burnup fuel. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in high-burnup fuel are highlighted

  17. Antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas spp. in the aquatic environment: A prevalence study under tropical and temperate climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Köhler, Thilo; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; van Delden, Christian; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mpiana, Pius T; Ibelings, Bastiaan W; Poté, John

    2017-05-15

    Microbial populations which are resistant to antibiotics are an emerging environmental concern with potentially serious implications for public health. Thus, there is a growing concern in exploring the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the environment with no limitations to the factors that contribute to their emergence. The aquatic environment is considered to be a hot-spot for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance due to pollution with emerging contaminants derived from anthropogenic activities. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of 141 Pseudomonas spp. from aquatic sediments receiving partially (un)treated hospital and communal effluents from three distinct geographical locations: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), India (IN), and Switzerland (CH). P. putida (42%) and P. aeruginosa (39%) were the dominant Pseudomonas species. The highest frequency of antibiotic resistance against eight anti-pseudomonas agents was found among IN isolates (35-60%), followed by DRC (18-50%) and CH (12-54%). CTX-M was the most frequent β-lactamase found in CH (47% of isolates), while VIM-1 was dominant in isolates from DRC (61%) and IN (29%). NDM-1 was found in 29% of the total IN isolates and surprisingly also in 6% of CH isolates. Chromosomally-encoded efflux mechanisms were overexpressed in P. aeruginosa isolates from all three geographic locations. In vitro conjugative transfers of antibiotic resistance plasmids occurred more frequently under tropical temperatures (30 and 37 °C) than under temperate conditions (10 °C). The presence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in the isolates from environmental samples has important implications for humans who depend on public water supply and sanitation facilities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a comparison between treated/untreated effluents from urban and hospital settings as a source of microbial resistance

  18. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat �Sourav�, �Pradip�, �Sufi�, �Shatabdi� and �Bijoy� were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23�C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28�C to 30�C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in �Sourav�, 58.41% in �Pradip�, 73.01% in �Sufi�, 55.46% in �Shatabdi� and 53.42% in �Bijoy�.

  19. Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burnup condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. D.; Kim, D. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.

    2005-10-01

    This project was performed by KAERI in the frame of construction of the international cooperative basis on the nuclear energy. This was supported from MOST under the title of 'Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burn up condition'. The current operating NPP are converting the burned fuel to the wasted fuel after burn up of 40 GWD/MTU. But in Korea, burn up of more than 60 GWD/MTU will be expected because of the high fuel efficiency but also cost saving for storing the wasted fuel safely. The domestic research for the purpose of developing the fuel and the cladding that can be used under the high burn up condition up to 100 GWD/MTU is in progress now. But the current computer code adopts the model and the data that are valid only up to the 40 GWD/MTU at most. Therefore the current model could not take into account the phenomena that may cause differences in the fission product release behavior or in the core damage process due to the high burn up operation (more than 40 GWD/MTU). To evaluate the safety of the NPP with the high burn up fuel, the improvement of current severe accident code against the high burn up condition is an important research item. Also it should start without any delay. Therefore, in this study, an expert group was constructed to establish the research basis for the severe accident under high burn up conditions. From this expert group, the research items regarding the high burn up condition were selected and identified through discussion and technical seminars. Based on these selected items, the meeting between IRSN and KAERI to find out the cooperative research items on the severe accident under the high burn up condition was held in the IRSN headquater in Paris. After the meeting, KAERI and IRSN agreed to cooperate with each other on the selected items, and to co-host the international seminar, and to develop the model and to

  20. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de [Institute for Experimental Nuclear Physics (IEKP), KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne [CERN, Meyrin (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb{sup -1} corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the

  1. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb -1 corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the CCE in

  2. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  3. Optimizing the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the MLZ for small samples and complex sample environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utschick, C.; Skoulatos, M.; Schneidewind, A.; Böni, P.

    2016-11-01

    The cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the neutron source FRM II has been serving an international user community studying condensed matter physics problems. We report on a new setup, improving the signal-to-noise ratio for small samples and pressure cell setups. Analytical and numerical Monte Carlo methods are used for the optimization of elliptic and parabolic focusing guides. They are placed between the monochromator and sample positions, and the flux at the sample is compared to the one achieved by standard monochromator focusing techniques. A 25 times smaller spot size is achieved, associated with a factor of 2 increased intensity, within the same divergence limits, ± 2 ° . This optional neutron focusing guide shall establish a top-class spectrometer for studying novel exotic properties of matter in combination with more stringent sample environment conditions such as extreme pressures associated with small sample sizes.

  4. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Silverman, John D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Patton, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  5. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East-California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Mendel, J. Trevor [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Patton, David R., E-mail: ekhabibo@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  6. Dinocysts as tracers of sea-surface conditions and sea-ice cover in polar and subpolar environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vernal, Anne; Rochon, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists that produce a cyst (dinocyst) as part of their life cycle. The cyst wall of many species is composed of highly resistant organic matter. Dinocysts are thus routinely recovered in marine sediments and occur in high number along the continental margins of the world oceans notably in high latitude environments. They are widely used as proxy indicators of marine conditions and provide valuable information on the natural variability of climate, which in turn helps understanding and assessing the potential threat posed by the actual global warming. Here we present a brief outline of their biology, ecology and distribution in Arctic and subarctic areas. We also provide a few examples of paleoenvironmental reconstructions and briefly discuss on the significance of these results.

  7. Dinocysts as tracers of sea-surface conditions and sea-ice cover in polar and subpolar environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vernal, Anne [GEOTOP, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, PO Box 8888, succursale ' centre ville' Montreal, Qc, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Rochon, Andre, E-mail: devernal.anne@uqam.ca [GEOTOP and Institut des Sciences de la Mer (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Qc, G5L 3A1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists that produce a cyst (dinocyst) as part of their life cycle. The cyst wall of many species is composed of highly resistant organic matter. Dinocysts are thus routinely recovered in marine sediments and occur in high number along the continental margins of the world oceans notably in high latitude environments. They are widely used as proxy indicators of marine conditions and provide valuable information on the natural variability of climate, which in turn helps understanding and assessing the potential threat posed by the actual global warming. Here we present a brief outline of their biology, ecology and distribution in Arctic and subarctic areas. We also provide a few examples of paleoenvironmental reconstructions and briefly discuss on the significance of these results.

  8. The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments. Recent research results in monsoon tropical condition of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Y, Truong; Sieu, Le Nhu; Ngo, Nguyen Trong; Phuc, Nguyen Van; Huong, Mai Thi; Quang, Nguyen Hao; Nhan, Dang Duc

    2003-01-01

    The data on Radionuclide transfer parameters in the environments, which are used in radioecological models, are very necessary for setting release limits of radioactive effluent and assessing the radiation dose to Man related to the releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. They strongly depend on climatic, geographic, environmental and pedological conditions. For temperate environments, they are abundant and have been established fairly well. Meanwhile the literature data are still scare and dispersal for Tropical and Sub-tropical zones. Besides, the improvement of Environmental Transfer Models and Parameters is an important problem so that they may be adapted for Southeast Asian countries including Japan as environmental conditions and foodstuffs in this Region are significantly different from those in Europe and North America. The paper presents measurements results of the dry deposition velocities of atmospheric aerosols carrying 7 Be, 137 Cs radionuclides and measurements results of soil to plant transfer factors (TF) for 60 Co, 65 Zn, 85 ASr and 134 Cs resulted from the out door radiotracer experiments with large pots. The selected soil types (Podzolic, Ferralitic, Ferralic Acrisols, Eutric Fluvisols and Orthi-thionic Fluvisols soil) and the plants (rice, black bean, cabbage, lettuce, tomato, cucumber, carrot, white radish, potato) used for the research are the most common in Vietnam. The measured Vg values (cm/s) are in the range of 0.01 - 1.84 for 7 Be and 1.95 - 49.77 for 137 Cs. An analysis of the associated meteorological parameters showed some correlations between 7 Be Vg with humidity and 137 Cs Vg with wind velocity. More than 400 TF (edible part) values were determined and their dependences on some soil parameters have been shown. (author)

  9. Reaction Norms in Natural Conditions: How Does Metabolic Performance Respond to Weather Variations in a Small Endotherm Facing Cold Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2014-01-01

    Reaction norms reflect an organisms' capacity to adjust its phenotype to the environment and allows for identifying trait values associated with physiological limits. However, reaction norms of physiological parameters are mostly unknown for endotherms living in natural conditions. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) increase their metabolic performance during winter acclimatization and are thus good model to measure reaction norms in the wild. We repeatedly measured basal (BMR) and summit (Msum) metabolism in chickadees to characterize, for the first time in a free-living endotherm, reaction norms of these parameters across the natural range of weather variation. BMR varied between individuals and was weakly and negatively related to minimal temperature. Msum varied with minimal temperature following a Z-shape curve, increasing linearly between 24°C and −10°C, and changed with absolute humidity following a U-shape relationship. These results suggest that thermal exchanges with the environment have minimal effects on maintenance costs, which may be individual-dependent, while thermogenic capacity is responding to body heat loss. Our results suggest also that BMR and Msum respond to different and likely independent constraints. PMID:25426860

  10. Frequency Analysis of Extreme Sub-Daily Precipitation under Stationary and Non-Stationary Conditions across Two Contrasting Hydroclimatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, E. M.; Goodrich, D. C.; Keefer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Observed sub-daily precipitation intensities from contrasting hydroclimatic environments in the USA are used to evaluate temporal trends and to develop Intensity-Duration Frequency (IDF) curves under stationary and nonstationary climatic conditions. Analyses are based on observations from two United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) experimental watersheds located in a semi-arid and a temperate environment. We use an Annual Maximum Series (AMS) and a Partial Duration Series (PDS) approach to identify temporal trends in maximum intensities for durations ranging from 5- to 1440-minutes. A Bayesian approach with Monte Carlo techniques is used to incorporate the effect of non-stationary climatic assumptions in the IDF curves. The results show increasing trends in observed AMS sub-daily intensities in both watersheds whereas trends in the PDS observations are mostly positive in the semi-arid site and a mix of positive and negative in the temperate site. Stationary climate assumptions lead to much lower estimated sub-daily intensities than those under non-stationary assumptions with larger absolute differences found for shorter durations and smaller return periods. The risk of failure (R) of a hydraulic structure is increased for non-stationary effects over those of stationary effects, with absolute differences of 25% for a 100-year return period (T) and a project life (n) of 100 years. The study highlights the importance of considering non-stationarity, due to natural variability or to climate change, in storm design.

  11. Effect of phase change materials on indoor thermal environment under different weather conditions and over a long time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Haoshu; Chen, Chao; Wei, Shen; Guan, Yong; Ma, Caiwen; Xie, Guangya; Li, Na; Chen, Ziguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Indicators evaluating the performance of PCMs in greenhouses are introduced. • Real equivalent specific heat capacity of PCMs is embedded in a numerical model. • Real behaviour of PCMs has been monitored over a long time. • Efficiency of PCMs walls are compared for sunny and cloudy days. • Heat storage and release amounts of PCMs walls have been calculated. - Abstract: To evaluate the effect of phase change materials (PCMs) on the indoor thermal environment of greenhouses under different weather conditions and over a long time in the heating season, a study was carried out using both experimental method and numerical method. The study was conducted in a typical greenhouse located in Beijing, China, and important parameters have been monitored continuously for 61 days, including indoor air temperature, outdoor air temperature, solar radiation, surface temperature of greenhouse envelopes and soil temperature. Based on these parameters, a number of indicators, namely, operative temperature, daily effective accumulative temperature, irradiated surface temperature of the north wall, average temperature of PCMs, and daily heat storage and release, have been used to evaluate the performance of PCMs in greenhouses. All indicators have provided consistent results that confirm the positive effect of PCMs on improving the indoor thermal environment of greenhouses over a long time. Additionally, the paper has demonstrated that a sunny weather could help to promote the efficiency of PCMs, comparing to a cloudy weather

  12. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing methods used in a hand gesture recognition system. The pre-processing methods are based on the combinations of several image processing operations, namely edge detection, low pass filtering, histogram equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possible classes. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  13. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  14. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

  15. TASAC a computer program for thermal analysis of severe accident conditions. Version 3/01, Dec 1991. Model description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempniewicz, M.; Marks, P.; Salwa, K.

    1992-06-01

    TASAC (Thermal Analysis of Severe Accident Conditions) is computer code developed in the Institute of Atomic Energy written in FORTRAN 77 for the digital computer analysis of PWR rod bundle behaviour during severe accident conditions. The code has the ability to model an early stage of core degradation including heat transfer inside the rods, convective and radiative heat exchange as well as cladding interactions with coolant and fuel, hydrogen generation, melting, relocations and refreezing of fuel rod materials with dissolution of UO 2 and ZrO 2 in liquid phase. The code was applied for the simulation of International Standard Problem number 28, performed on PHEBUS test facility. This report contains the program physical models description, detailed description of input data requirements and results of code verification. The main directions for future TASAC code development are formulated. (author). 20 refs, 39 figs, 4 tabs

  16. TASAC a computer program for thermal analysis of severe accident conditions. Version 3/01, Dec 1991. Model description and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempniewicz, M; Marks, P; Salwa, K

    1992-06-01

    TASAC (Thermal Analysis of Severe Accident Conditions) is computer code developed in the Institute of Atomic Energy written in FORTRAN 77 for the digital computer analysis of PWR rod bundle behaviour during severe accident conditions. The code has the ability to model an early stage of core degradation including heat transfer inside the rods, convective and radiative heat exchange as well as cladding interactions with coolant and fuel, hydrogen generation, melting, relocations and refreezing of fuel rod materials with dissolution of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} in liquid phase. The code was applied for the simulation of International Standard Problem number 28, performed on PHEBUS test facility. This report contains the program physical models description, detailed description of input data requirements and results of code verification. The main directions for future TASAC code development are formulated. (author). 20 refs, 39 figs, 4 tabs.

  17. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  18. Interaction of genotype and environment: Effect of strain and housing condition on cognitive behaviour in rodent models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M. Turner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with many genetic and environmental risk factors and there is growing evidence that the interactions between genetic and environmental ‘hits’ are critical for disease onset. Animal models of schizophrenia have traditionally used specific strain and housing conditions to test potential risk factors. As the field moves towards testing gene (G x environment (E interactions the impact of these choices should be considered. Given the surge of research focused on cognitive deficits, we have examined studies of cognition in rodents from the perspective of GxE interactions, in which strain or housing manipulations have been varied. Behaviour is clearly altered by these factors, yet few animal models of schizophrenia have investigated cognitive deficits using different strain and housing conditions. It is important to recognise the large variation in behaviour observed when using different strain and housing combinations because GxE interactions may mask or exacerbate cognitive outcomes. Further consideration will improve our understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying neurobiology of cognitive impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Impact of surface coating and environmental conditions on the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, Jamie R., E-mail: Jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk (CENR), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 (United States); Baalousha, Mohammed, E-mail: Mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk (CENR), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The role of surface coating (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate) and water chemistry on the fate and behavior of AgNPs in aquatic microcosms is reported in this study. The migration and transformation of the AgNPs was examined in low (ultrapure water-UPW) and high ionic strength (moderately hard water – MHW) preparations, and in the presence of modeled natural organic matter (NOM) of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The migration and fate of the AgNPs in the microcosms was validated using a sedimentation-diffusion model and the aggregation behavior was monitored by UV–visible spectrometry (UV–vis). Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (% Ag) were analyzed by ultrafiltration methods. Imaging of the AgNPs was captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) remained stable for 28 days with similarly distributed concentrations of the PVP-AgNPs throughout the columns in each of the water conditions after approximately 96 h (4 days). The sedimentation-diffusion model confirmed PVP-AgNP stability in each condition, by showing diffusion dominated transport by using the original unaltered AgNP sizes to fit the parameters. In comparison, citrate AgNPs were largely unstable in the more complex water preparations (MHW). In MHW, aggregation dominated behavior followed by sedimentation/dissolution controlled transport was observed. The addition of SRFA to MHW resulted in small stabilizing effects, to the citrate coated AgNPs, producing smaller sized AgNPs (TEM) and mixed sedimentation and diffusion migration compared the studies absent of SRFA. The results suggest that surface coating and solution chemistry has a major impact on AgNP stability, furthermore the corresponding modeling will support the experimental understanding of the overall fate of AgNPs in the environment. - Highlights: • Aquatic microcosms were used to study the transport and behavior of AgNPs • Experiments were conducted in low

  20. Impact of surface coating and environmental conditions on the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R.; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface coating (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate) and water chemistry on the fate and behavior of AgNPs in aquatic microcosms is reported in this study. The migration and transformation of the AgNPs was examined in low (ultrapure water-UPW) and high ionic strength (moderately hard water – MHW) preparations, and in the presence of modeled natural organic matter (NOM) of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The migration and fate of the AgNPs in the microcosms was validated using a sedimentation-diffusion model and the aggregation behavior was monitored by UV–visible spectrometry (UV–vis). Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (% Ag) were analyzed by ultrafiltration methods. Imaging of the AgNPs was captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) remained stable for 28 days with similarly distributed concentrations of the PVP-AgNPs throughout the columns in each of the water conditions after approximately 96 h (4 days). The sedimentation-diffusion model confirmed PVP-AgNP stability in each condition, by showing diffusion dominated transport by using the original unaltered AgNP sizes to fit the parameters. In comparison, citrate AgNPs were largely unstable in the more complex water preparations (MHW). In MHW, aggregation dominated behavior followed by sedimentation/dissolution controlled transport was observed. The addition of SRFA to MHW resulted in small stabilizing effects, to the citrate coated AgNPs, producing smaller sized AgNPs (TEM) and mixed sedimentation and diffusion migration compared the studies absent of SRFA. The results suggest that surface coating and solution chemistry has a major impact on AgNP stability, furthermore the corresponding modeling will support the experimental understanding of the overall fate of AgNPs in the environment. - Highlights: • Aquatic microcosms were used to study the transport and behavior of AgNPs • Experiments were conducted in low

  1. Analysis and evaluation of the impact of climatic conditions on the photovoltaic modules performance in the desert environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouraiou, Ahmed; Hamouda, Messaoud; Chaker, Abdelkader; Mostefaoui, Mohammed; Lachtar, Salah; Sadok, Mohammed; Boutasseta, Nadir; Othmani, Mourad; Issam, Attoui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling and simulation of PV Module based on one and two diode model. • Power loss due to partial shading and dust accumulation were investigated. • Effect of variation of irradiation and temperature on PV performance parameters was examined. • Performance degradation of PV modules was evaluated using I–V and P–V curves. • Mean annual maximum power degradation rate due to delamination and discoloration equal to 1.89%/year. - Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of climatic conditions on the performance of photovoltaic modules installed in the desert region in south of Algeria. Firstly, the performance of ISOFOTON 100 module under daily weather conditions is evaluated. Next, the effects of partial shading and accumulation of sand dust for a period of two months on power loss and the current–voltage characteristics of photovoltaic modules are examined. Finally, the visual inspection of the degradation of the UDTS 50 modules such as discoloration of encapsulant and delamination show the influence of high temperature and the other climatic factors in the Saharan environment after a long time exposure of more than 10 years observed in the field at the Unit of Research in Renewable energy URERMS Adrar. The performance degradation is also assessed using (I–V and P–V) curves normalized at STC condition compared with the nominal STC data given by the manufacturer. The experimental results show that the performance parameters such as maximum output current (I_m_a_x), maximum output voltage (V_m_a_x), maximum power output (P_m_a_x), open-circuit voltage (V_o_c), short-circuit current (I_s_c) and fill factor (FF) of UDTS 50 modules are degraded after these years of exposition.

  2. Unlike physical exercise, modified environment increases the lifespan of SOD1G93A mice however both conditions induce cellular changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick N Gerber

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by a gradual muscular paralysis resulting from progressive motoneurons death. ALS etiology remains unknown although it has been demonstrated to be a multifactorial disease involving several cellular partners. There is currently no effective treatment. Even if the effect of exercise is under investigation for many years, whether physical exercise is beneficial or harmful is still under debate.We investigated the effect of three different intensities of running exercises on the survival of SOD1(G93A mice. At the early-symptomatic stage (P60, males were isolated and randomly assigned to 5 conditions: 2 sedentary groups ("sedentary" and "sedentary treadmill" placed on the inert treadmill, and 3 different training intensity groups (5 cm/s, 10 cm/s and 21 cm/s; 15 min/day, 5days/week. We first demonstrated that an appropriate "control" of the environment is of the utmost importance since comparison of the two sedentary groups evidenced an 11.6% increase in survival in the "sedentary treadmill" group. Moreover, we showed by immunohistochemistry that this increased lifespan is accompanied with motoneurons survival and increased glial reactivity in the spinal cord. In a second step, we showed that when compared with the proper control, all three running-based training did not modify lifespan of the animals, but result in motoneurons preservation and changes in glial cells activation.We demonstrate that increase in survival induced by a slight daily modification of the environment is associated with motoneurons preservation and strong glial modifications in the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1(G93A. Using the appropriate control, we then demonstrate that all running intensities have no effect on the survival of ALS mice but induce cellular modifications. Our results highlight the critical importance of the control of the environment in ALS studies and may explain discrepancy in the literature regarding the

  3. Adjustment of the architecture to the bioclimatic conditions of the environment on case study of the monsoon modernism of architect Geoffrey Bawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović-Hristić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffrey Bawa (1919-2003, not well known in our ambience, was Sri Lanka's most influential architect and South Asia's leading guru of unique style, named tropical architecture. The distinction of his work is outstanding aesthetic sensitivity to site and context, especially to peculiar climatic conditions and demands. For his architectural opus he received in 2001 prestigious Aga Khan Award for Architecture, Special Chairman's Award. Although he started to engage in architecture late, in age of 38, soon he became a noted by his inventiveness in forming new canons and prototypes of modern architecture, based on traditional knowledge and perfectly fitted in local surrounding. Bawa created sustainable architecture even before the term started to be used and his masterpieces broke down the barrier between inside and outside space, designing of the interior and landscaping, reducing the building to a series of scenic spaces separated by courtyards and gardens. He is well known by his designs for private villas and hotels, but his portfolio contains public building, as schools and universities, new Sri Lanka's Parliament, sacral, office and industrial structures. Through the presentation of several projects, the paper analyzes his development path and basic characteristics of so called 'monsoon modernism' and special relationship to the bioclimatic conditions of the environment.

  4. Does Apolipoprotein e4 Status Moderate the Association of Family Environment with Long-Term Child Functioning following Early Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L; Kurowski, Brad G

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether apolipoprotein e4 (APOE) status moderates the association of family environment with child functioning following early traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-five children with moderate to severe TBI and 70 children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed assessments 6, 12, 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years post injury. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and genotyped for APOE e4 status. Linear mixed models examined moderating effects of APOE e4 status on associations between two family environment factors (parenting style, home environment) and three child outcomes (executive functioning, behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning). Children with TBI who were carriers of the e4 allele showed poorer adaptive functioning relative to non-carriers with TBI and children with OI in the context of low authoritarianism. At high levels of authoritarianism, non-carriers with TBI showed the poorest adaptive functioning among groups. There were no main effects or interactions involving APOE and executive functioning or behavioral adjustment. The APOE e4 allele was detrimental for long-term adaptive functioning in the context of positive parenting, whereas in less optimal parenting contexts, being a non-carrier was detrimental. We provide preliminary evidence for an interaction of APOE e4 status and parenting style in predicting long-term outcomes following early TBI. (JINS, 2016, 22, 859-864).

  5. Coastal sand dune ecosystem services in metropolitan suburbs: effects on the sake brewery environment induced by changing social conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Korehisa; Matsushima, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    Chiba Prefecture, Japan, lies very near Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. It borders the sea on three sides and is banded by coastal dunes. Several sake breweries are located near these dunes. Although there are records of sake brewing along the coast of Tokyo Bay since 1925, sake breweries have completely disappeared in several areas. We believe that sake brewing in these areas benefited from the ecosystem services afforded them by their proximity to the coastal ecosystem. We investigated potential environmental factors (e.g., landscape, soil, and groundwater), as well as conditions that could have driven sake brewers away from the coastal area. Many of the sake breweries that no longer exist were located on coastal dunes (i.e., sand, sandbanks, and natural levees) and obtained their water from a freshwater layer located 3-10 m below the surface. We speculate that these sake breweries benefited from using natural ingredients found in the coastal zone. We also investigated the following factors that may have negatively impacted the breweries, driving them out of business: (1) bankruptcies and reconstruction difficulties that followed the destructive 1923 Great Kanto earthquake, (2) industrial wartime adjustments during World War II (1939-1945), (3) development of coastal industries during the period from 1960 to 1975, and (4) increasing choices for other alcoholic drinks (e.g., beer, wine, and whiskey) from the 1960s to the present.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Contain calculations of debris conditions adjacent to the BWR Mark I drywell shell during the later phases of a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Best estimate CONTAIN calculations have recently been performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to predict the primary containment response during the later phases of an unmitigated low-pressure Short Term Station Blackout at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. Debris pour conditions leaving the failed reactor vessel are taken from the results of best estimate BWRSAR analyses that are based upon an assumed metallic debris melting temperature of 2750/degree/F (1783 K) and an oxide debris melting temperature of 4350/degree/F (2672 K). Results of the CONTAIN analysis for the case without sprays indicate failure of the drywell seals due to the extremely hot atmospheric conditions extant in the drywell. The maximum calculated temperature of the debris adjacent to the drywell shell is less than the melting temperature of the shell, yet the sustained temperatures may be sufficient to induce primary containment pressure boundary failure by the mechanism of creep-rupture. It is also predicted that a significant portion of the reactor pedestal wall is ablated during the period of the calculation. Nevertheless, the calculated results are recognized to be influenced by large modeling uncertainties. Several deficiencies in the application of the CORCON module within the CONTAIN code to BWR severe accident sequences are identified and discussed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.,

  7. Microstructural and superficial modification in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy due to superficial severe plastic deformation under sliding wear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, C. G.; Garcia-Castillo, F. N.; Jacobo, V. H.; Cortés-Pérez, J.; Schouwenaars, R.

    2017-05-01

    Stress induced martensitic transformation in copper-based shape memory alloys has been studied mainly in monocrystals. This limits the use of such results for practical applications as most engineering applications use polycristals. In the present work, a coaxial tribometer developed by the authors was used to characterise the tribological behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-11.5%Al-0.5%Be shape memory alloy in contact with AISI 9840 steel under sliding wear conditions. The surface and microstructure characterization of the worn material was conducted by conventional scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the mechanical properties along the transversal section were measured by means of micro-hardness testing. The tribological behaviour of Cu-Al-Be showed to be optimal under sliding wear conditions since the surface only presented a slight damage consisting in some elongated flakes produced by strong plastic deformation. The combination of the plastically modified surface and the effects of mechanically induced martensitic transformation is well-suited for sliding wear conditions since the modified surface provides the necessary strength to avoid superficial damage while superelasticity associated to martensitic transformation is an additional mechanism which allows absorbing mechanical energy associated to wear phenomena as opposed to conventional ductile alloys where severe plastic deformation affects several tens of micrometres below the surface.

  8. Study of the Analytical Conditions for the Determination of Cadmium in Coal Fly Ashes by GFAAS with evaluation of several matrix modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M.I.; Petit, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the determination of cadmium in coal fly ash samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) has been developed. Analytical conditions and different instrumental parameters have been optimized. In a first step, several types of matrix modifiers have been tested and a mixture of 2% NH 4 H 2 PO 4 with 0.4%Mg(NO 3 ) 2 in 0.5N HNO 3 has been selected, since it provides the highest sensitivity. In a second step, an optimization of several conditions, using the selected modifier, has been carried out, such as ashing and atomization temperatures, heating rate, etc. The influence of the use of a L' vov platform on the analytical and background signals has been studied, showing a significative decrease on the background signal, being the net absorbance similar to those obtained in absence of the platform. Using the optimal conditions, the direct method with standard samples provides cadmium concentration consistent with those obtained using the standard addition method. (Author) 18 refs

  9. Complex-Spectrum Magnetic Environment enhances and/or modifies Bioeffects of Hypokinetic Stress Condition: an Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuriantz, N. A.; Martinyuk, V. S.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.; Tyasto, M. I.; Dorman, L. I.

    During last decades it was shown by many authors that ultra-low and extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields ULF 0-10 Hz ELF 10-1000 Hz may produce biological effects and consequently may be a possible source for health problems Spaceflight electric and magnetic environments are characterized by complex combination of static and time-varying components in ULF-ELF range and by high variability The objective of this study was to investigate the possible influence of such magnetic fields on rats to understand the pathway regarding functional state of cardiovascular system Magnetic field MF pattern with variable complex spectra in 0-150 Hz frequency range was simulated using 3-axial Helmholtz coils and special computer-based equipment The effect of the real world MF exposure on rats was also tested in combination with hypokinetic stress condition which is typical for spaceflights It was revealed that variable complex-spectrum MF acts as a weak or moderate stress-like factor which amplifies and or modifies the functional shifts caused by other stress-factors The value and direction of the functional shifts caused by MF exposure significantly depend on gender individual-typological constitutional features and also on the physiological state norm stress of organism Our results support the idea that variable complex-spectrum MF action involves sympathetic activation overload in cholesterol transport in blood and also secretor activation of tissue basophyls mast cells that can influence the regional haemodynamics These

  10. Features of the Institutional Structure of the Polish Stock Market under Conditions of Transformational Changes in the Global Financial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko Nataliia I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under modern conditions of transformational changes in the global financial environment, the international stock market acquires stable features of activization of investment activity, formation of a large network of professional participants in the stock market and its multi-level institutional structure, expansion of the range of trade in securities, access of economic entities of different countries to financial resources and diversification of mechanisms of concentration, etc. There conducted a study of peculiarities of the institutional structure of the Polish stock market in the context of transformational changes in the global economic system. The factors influencing the volume of capitalization of the Warsaw Stock Exchange are analyzed; the dependence of the capitalization of the Exchange on foreign portfolio investments in shares of Polish issuers is revealed. Based on the results of own calculations of multiple correlation coefficients, the level of dependence between capital stock market indicators and assets of such financial institutions in Poland as investment and open pension funds, insurance companies is determined, and a significant interconnection of assets of investment and open pension funds and insurance companies is revealed. The obtained results can become a basis for institutional investors in the process of making effective decisions on expanding the range of trading in securities.

  11. Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. II - Effect of Coolant Conditions on Cylinder Temperatures and Heat Rejection at Several Engine Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povolny, John H.; Bogdan, Louis J.; Chelko, Louis J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on a V-1650-7 engine to determine the cylinder temperatures and the coolant and oil heat rejections over a range of coolant flows (50 to 200 gal/min) and oil inlet temperatures (160 to 2150 F) for two values of coolant outlet temperature (250 deg and 275 F) at each of four power conditions ranging from approximately 1100 to 2000 brake horsepower. Data were obtained for several values of block-outlet pressure at each of the two coolant outlet temperatures. A mixture of 30 percent by volume of ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The effect of varying coolant flow, coolant outlet temperature, and coolant outlet pressure over the ranges investigated on cylinder-head temperatures was small (0 deg to 25 F) whereas the effect of increasing the engine power condition from ll00 to 2000 brake horsepower was large (maximum head-temperature increase, 110 F).

  12. Development and validation of a condition-specific diary to measure severity, bothersomeness and impact on daily activities for patients with acute urinary tract infection in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Cordoba, Gloria; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common condition in primary care. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are crucial in the evaluation of interventions to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of UTI. The aim of this study was to identify an existing condition-specific PROM...... for polytomous items in a cohort of 451 women participating in two studies regarding UTI. Results: No existing PROM fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Content validation resulted in one domain concerning symptom severity (18 items), one concerning bothersomeness (18 items), and one concerning impact on daily...... activities (7 items). Psychometrical validation resulted in four dimensions in each of the first two domains and one dimension in the third domain. Conclusions: Domains were not unidimensional, which meant that we identified dimensions of patient-experienced UTI that differed substantially from those...

  13. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Baitun; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Hamadani, Jena D; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Persson, Lars-Ake

    2012-08-07

    Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS) on the quality of the home environment and mothers' child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Severely underweight children (n = 507), 6-24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS); PS + FS; clinic-control (CC); and, hospital-control (CH). PS included fortnightly follow-up visits for six months at community clinics where a play leader demonstrated play activities and gave education on child development and child rearing practices. FS comprised cereal-based supplements (150-300 kcal/day) for three months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplements and growth monitoring. Mothers were given the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory and a questionnaire on parenting at baseline and after six months to assess the outcome. 322 children completed the study. After six months of intervention the PS + FS and PS groups benefitted in the total HOME score (depending on the comparison group, effect sizes varied from 0.66 to 0.33 SD) The PS + FS and PS groups also benefitted in two HOME subscales: maternal involvement (effect sizes: 0.8 to 0.55 SD) and play materials, (effect sizes: 0.46 to 0.6 SD), and child-rearing practices scores (effect size: 1.5 to 1.1 SD). The PS + FS group benefitted 4.0 points in total HOME score compared with CH, 4.8 points compared with CC and 4.5 points compared with FS (p Child-rearing practice scores of the PS + FS group improved 7.7, 6.4 and 6.6 points and the PS group improved 8.5, 7.2 and 7.4 points more than CH, CC and FS, respectively (p Child-rearing practices of mothers of severely malnourished children and the quality of their home environment can be improved through community

  14. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Baitun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS on the quality of the home environment and mothers’ child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Method Severely underweight children (n = 507, 6–24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS; PS + FS; clinic-control (CC; and, hospital-control (CH. PS included fortnightly follow-up visits for six months at community clinics where a play leader demonstrated play activities and gave education on child development and child rearing practices. FS comprised cereal-based supplements (150–300 kcal/day for three months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplements and growth monitoring. Mothers were given the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME inventory and a questionnaire on parenting at baseline and after six months to assess the outcome. Results 322 children completed the study. After six months of intervention the PS + FS and PS groups benefitted in the total HOME score (depending on the comparison group, effect sizes varied from 0.66 to 0.33 SD The PS + FS and PS groups also benefitted in two HOME subscales: maternal involvement (effect sizes: 0.8 to 0.55 SD and play materials, (effect sizes: 0.46 to 0.6 SD, and child-rearing practices scores (effect size: 1.5 to 1.1 SD. The PS + FS group benefitted 4.0 points in total HOME score compared with CH, 4.8 points compared with CC and 4.5 points compared with FS (p  Conclusions Child-rearing practices of mothers of severely malnourished children and the quality of their home environment can be improved through community-based psychosocial stimulation with or without food supplementation. This may be of importance to promote child development.

  15. Features of RAPTA-SFD code modelling of chemical interactions of basic materials of the WWER active zone in accident conditions with severe fuel damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Sokolov, N.B.; Salatov, A.V.; Nechaeva, O.A.; Andreyeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.; Vlasov, F.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    A brief description of RAPTA-SFD code intended for computer simulations of WWER-type fuel elements (simulator or absorber element) in conditions of accident with severe damage of fuel. Presented are models of chemical interactions of basic materials of the active zone, emphasized are special feature of their application in carrying out of the CORA-W2 experiment within the framework of International Standard Problem ISP-36. Results obtained confirm expediency of phenomenological models application. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  16. Phenylcarboxylic Acids in The Assessment of The Severity of Patient Condition and The Efficiency of Intensive Treatment in Critical Care Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of accurate and applicable methods to assess the severity of patient condition is an urgent need in critical care medicine.The goal of the study was to determine whether the quantitave evaluation of phenylcarboxylic acids (PhCAs concentrations in blood might be employed to assess the severity of patient condition and treatment efficiency intensive care unit.Materials and methods. Clinical and laboratory findings in patients (n=58 with acute surgical diseases of abdominal organs were registered on the day of admission to intensive care unit and during follow-up control including lactate level and blood serum PhCA concentrations of phenyllactic (PhLA, p#hydroxyphenyllactic (p-HPhLA and phydroxyphenylacetic (p#HPhAA acids. Patients' condition was assessed using APACHE II and SOFA international scales. PhCA concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The reference group included healthy blood donors (n=25.Results. PhLA, p-HPhAA, p-HPhLA levels and total concentration of the three PhCAs were shown to be in direct correlation with APACHE II score (rs: 0.624; 0.757; 0.763 and 0.804, respectively; P<0.001. When testing PhCAs as a molecular prognostic criteria, areas under ROC#curves (AUC were within the range of 0.800—0.900 (P<0.001. Therewith the molecular prognostic criteria were comparable with APACHE II multi#parameter scale by accuracy: AUCAPACHE II was 0.897 (P<0.001. Lactate level dynamics as a prognostic criterion was inferior in accuracy to the dynamics of PhCA total concentration: AUCС lactate, % 0.667 (P=0.071 vs AUCС 3PhCAs, % 0.862 (P<0.001. In patients with documented bacterial inflammatory complications PhCA level was 2.5 times higher (P<0,001, n=35 and p#HPhLA level was 1.5 times higher than in patients without infectious complications (P=0.048, n=23.Conclusion. The findings provide evidence for the inclusion of PhCAs (PhLA, p-HPhAA, p-HPhLA, 3PhCAs in clinical practice as biomarkers of the severity of

  17. DETERMINING THE INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO IN THE ENVIRONMENT FIELD BY USING THE SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENT CONDITION. EXEMPLIFYING THE ECOLOGIC REHABILITATION IN THE IER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ioan Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to the environment investment, there is a great challenge in determining the project portfolio because there is no unanimously accepted solution. The objective to bring an area to its initial shape, existing before the anthropic investment, is only possible theoretically. In practice, my recommendation is to rebuild to a certain extent the whole area in order to make it attractive for economic activities which, once implemented, should justify the investment effort. Economic effectiveness strictly calculated for environment projects is an unproper approach in my opinion. By the SWOT analysis I shall follow to cause a relationship between the area’s business opportunities and its environment investment needs.

  18. Modelling the chemical behaviour of tellurium species in the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor cooling system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Gonzalez, C.

    1991-07-01

    This state of the art report contains information on the behaviour of tellurium and its compounds in the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor coolant system under light water reactor severe accident conditions. To characterise tellurium behaviour, it is necessary the previous knowledge of the species of tellurium released from the core, and simultaneity of its release with that of other materials which can alter the transport, for instance, control rod and structural materials. Release and transport experiments have been reviewed along with the models implemented in the codes which are used in the international community: TRAPMELT, RAFT, VICTORIA and SOPHIE. From the experiments, it can be concluded that other species different to Te 2 , such as tin telluride and cesium telluride, may be released from the fuel. That is why they must be considered in the transport phenomena. There is also experimental evidence of the strong interaction of Te 2 with Inconel 600 and stainless steel of the pipe walls and structures, however this strong interaction is in competition with the interaction of tellurium with aerosols, which under severe accident conditions may represent an area greater than that of the primary system. It is for the absence of significant tellurium species in the transport models, and also for the interaction of tellurium with aerosols, for which some codes show the greatest deficiencies

  19. European