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Sample records for severe caries poor

  1. Diet and caries-associated bacteria in severe early childhood caries.

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    Palmer, C A; Kent, R; Loo, C Y; Hughes, C V; Stutius, E; Pradhan, N; Dahlan, M; Kanasi, E; Arevalo Vasquez, S S; Tanner, A C R

    2010-11-01

    Frequent consumption of cariogenic foods and bacterial infection are risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). This study hypothesized that a short diet survey focused on frequency of foods, categorized by putative cariogenicity, would differentiate severe ECC (S-ECC) from caries-free children. Children's diets were obtained by survey and plaque bacteria detected by PCR from 72 S-ECC and 38 caries-free children. S-ECC children had higher scores for between-meal juice (p cariogenicity (p cariogenicity scores. Food frequency, putative cariogenicity, and S. mutans were associated with S-ECC individually and in combination.

  2. A comparative evaluation of bifidobacteria levels in early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries

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    Suraj Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. Aim: The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3–5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Results: Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Conclusions: Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.

  3. Association Between Severe Dental Caries and Child Abuse and Neglect.

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    Sillevis Smitt, Henk; de Leeuw, Jenny; de Vries, Tjalling

    2017-11-01

    In their maxillofacial practice, the authors have encountered some children with severe dental caries whose teeth had to be removed; many later appeared to be abused children. The authors hypothesized that in the group of children who underwent multiple tooth extractions for caries under general anesthesia, a larger percentage would be found to be abused compared with the normal population. The authors identified children who underwent multiple tooth extractions under general anesthesia in a well-defined region in the Netherlands in 2005 and 2006. Subsequently, they sought these children in the database of the Dutch national organization against domestic violence and child abuse (Veilig Thuis) in 2015. Of the total group of 376 children, 205 (55%) underwent the procedure because of caries during this period. Child abuse and neglect was established by Veilig Thuis in 47 of these children (23%; 95% confidence interval, 20-26), whereas the procedure occurred before the child abuse was established in 27. There appears to be a strong association between severe dental caries and child abuse and neglect. Hence, severe dental caries could be regarded as an early symptom of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

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    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  5. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Sandra Feitosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.

  6. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

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    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  7. Is severe early childhood caries predictive of caries and fluorosis in permanent teeth? Ten-year follow-up

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    Danila Lorena NUNES-DOS-SANTOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe early childhood caries is defined as the presence of any sign of decay in children younger than three years. Objective This retrospective longitudinal observational study investigated caries and fluorosis in children with S-ECC from a city with fluoridated water. Material and method We included children under the age of three years who followed a maternal and child dental care program between the years of 1997 and 2003. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (S-ECC and group 2 (no caries. Guardians were contacted by telephone or mail. Caregivers completed questionnaire on socio-demographic and behavioral variables. The clinical dental examinations were performed in a dental clinic to assess caries experience and dental fluorosis. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors associated with DMFT, and multivariate analysis by multiple logistic regression was used to determine the possible independent factors associated with the occurrence of fluorosis. Result The sample consisted of 126 patients aged 8-12 years, of whom 52.4% were male. The presence of S-ECC increased the DMFT by an average of 0.84 (p = 0.02. Both the frequency of tooth brushing and the use of standard toothpaste were protective factors from the development of caries in the permanent dentition (p <0.05. Parents who reported that their children refused to brush their teeth had 70% less chance of developing fluorosis (p = 0.02. Conclusion The presence of S-ECC was a risk factor for the development of caries in the permanent dentition, but not for the development of fluorosis.

  8. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

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    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  9. Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents.

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    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Scapini, Annarosa; Busato, Adair Luiz Stefanello; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis. A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT  =  1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean  =  29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P  =  .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P  =  .021). Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

  10. Prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents.

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    Žemaitienė, Miglė; Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Razmienė, Jaunė; Slabšinskienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents and to disclose possible differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries related to gender, urbanization, and different county. A total of 1063 18-year-old adolescents attending school, 427 boys and 636 girls from 10 Lithuanian counties including urban and rural areas, were included in the cross-sectional study on dental caries. The method of multistage cluster sampling was used. The dental examination was performed according to the methodology of oral status evaluation recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of dental caries, DMFT score, Significant Caries Index, and dental care index were determined. The overall prevalence of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents was 78.3%. The study population had a mean DMFT score of 2.93 [SD, 2.81]. Considering the gender, a higher DMFT score was observed among girls than boys (3.03 [SD, 2.88] versus 2.73 [SD, 2.71]) and in rural than urban areas (3.02 [SD, 2.98] versus 2.89 [SD, 2.73]). The Significant Caries Index and the dental care index among 18-year-old adolescents were 6.14 and 62.3%, respectively. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of dental caries. The existing differences of caries experience between the urban and the rural areas as well as between the counties could be influenced by the socioeconomic differences in the country. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative assessment of salivary oral bacteria according to the severity of dental caries in childhood.

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    Colombo, Natália H; Kreling, Paula F; Ribas, Laís F F; Pereira, Jesse A; Kressirer, Christine A; Klein, Marlise I; Tanner, Anne C R; Duque, Cristiane

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to assess differences in selected oral bacteria in children according to the severity of dental caries. One hundred and thirty-six children, 36-60 months old were divided into three groups according to caries status: caries-free (CF) (n=47), early childhood caries (ECC) (n=40) and severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) (n=49). Saliva was collected for detection and quantification of selected oral streptococci, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Scardovia wiggsiae by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the detection and quantitative levels of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Bifidobacterium spp. and S. wiggsiae were significantly higher in S-ECC children compared to CF and ECC children, while for S. salivarius were significantly higher in CF compared to ECC and S-ECC children. There was no statistical difference among the clinical groups for S. mitis, S. oralis, A. naeslundii and Lactobacillus spp. levels and detection. S-ECC children had a lower monthly family income, started tooth brushing later and were breastfeed for a longer duration compared to CF children. S. mutans levels were positively correlated with S. wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium spp. levels, lower mother's education and child bottle-feeding before sleeping and negatively correlated with S. salivarius. It was concluded that in addition to S. mutans, other bacterial species, including bifidobacteria, Scardovia wiggsiae and S. sobrinus, are associated with severity of early childhood caries, although their role in the progress of dental caries remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of First-Time Mothers' Early Employment on Severe Early Childhood Caries in Their Child

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    Kamila Plutzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (. However, there were no significant differences in children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.

  13. Comparative evaluation and correlation of salivary total antioxidant capacity and salivary pH in caries-free and severe early childhood caries children.

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    Muchandi, Sneha; Walimbe, Hrishikesh; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Nankar, Meenakshi; Chaturvedi, Srishti; Karekar, Priyanka

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is a major problem in preschool children. The contribution of saliva in providing defense during caries process is of primary importance. pH buffer capacity through bicarbonate, phosphate and protein buffer systems have universal acceptance as a caries defense mechanism. Antioxidant capacity of saliva can constitute a first line of defense against chronic degenerative diseases including dental caries. Till date, no study is presented with salivary antioxidant capacity of younger children affected with severe early childhood caries with its salivary pH correlation. Hence, this study was carried out to compare, evaluate and correlate the salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and salivary pH of children with caries-free and severe early childhood caries. Fifty children from ages 3 to 5 years divided into two study groups had undergone screening. Group I (n = 25) with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and group II (n = 25) who were caries free. Unstimulated whole saliva of subjects were in the collection during the study by draining method. Salivary pH determination of saliva samples was done using pH indicator paper strips. The TAC was done using an antioxidant assay with the help of a spectrophotometer at wavelength 532 nm. The means of salivary pH and TAC were subjected to analysis using unpaired student 't' test and correlation was determined using Pearsons correlation coefficient analysis. Mean salivary pH was higher in group II (7.46 ± 0.37). Mean TAC was greater in group I (1.82 ± 0.19). A statistically significant negative correlation as seen between TAC and salivary pH in S-ECC patients. The study concludes that salivary TAC increases in patients with S-ECC are by that showing a high indirect relationship with salivary pH.

  14. Influence of first-time mothers' early employment on severe early childhood caries in their child.

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    Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (P early childhood caries in their child.

  15. Diagnosing the severity of buccal caries lesions in orthodontic patients at de-bonding using digital photographs.

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    Almosa, Naif A; Lundgren, Ted; Bresin, Andrea; Birkhed, Dowen; Kjellberg, Heidrun

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the severity of buccal caries lesions according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria via scoring buccal caries lesions on digital photographs at the time of de-bonding and (2) to compare this method with clinical examination. In total, 89 patients treated with upper and lower fixed appliances were clinically examined immediately after de-bonding by the first author and buccal caries were scored according to the ICDAS-II. Close-up digital photographs were taken of 245 teeth with different buccal caries lesion scores according to the ICDAS-II. Thirteen postgraduate orthodontics students independently scored the buccal caries lesions in the digital photographs using the modified clinical criteria (ICDAS-II). Intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities were evaluated by calculating the weighted kappa. To evaluate the validity of diagnosing the severity of buccal caries lesions using digital photographs compared to clinical examination, Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated. Intra-examiner reliability and the reliability between each examiner and the clinical examination showed moderate-to-excellent agreement, with kappa values of 0.52-0.83. Scoring buccal caries lesions via clinical examinations and scoring via photographs were well correlated according to the modified ICDAS-II criteria (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.76). Thus, scoring buccal caries lesions on digital photographs according to ICDAS-II criteria is a reliable and valid method for assessing the severity of buccal caries lesions.

  16. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

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    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  17. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition

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    Heloisa Carvalho Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821, and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875. The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05. The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  18. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

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    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  19. Influence of First-Time Mothers' Early Employment on Severe Early Childhood Caries in Their Child

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    Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J. N. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6%...

  20. [Experience, prevalence, severity, treatment needs for dental caries and care index in Mexican adolescents and young adults].

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    García-Cortés, José Obed; Mejia-Cruz, Jorge Adrián; Medina-Cerda, Eduardo; Orozco-De la Torre, Guillermo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Carlo; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Islas-Granillo, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    To determine the experience, prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as to establish the treatment needs and restorative care in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study included 638 subjects 16-25 years old candidates to enter to state public university of San Luis Potosí, México. For caries detection was used the DMFT index (sum of decayed teeth + missing teeth + filled teeth in the permanent dentition). With DMFT index data were calculated the experience, the prevalence and the severity of caries. Also are reported the significant caries index (SiC), the treatment needs index (TNI) and the care index (CI). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests. The mean DMFT index was 4.24 ± 3.85, prevalence 76.5% and severity of 52.3% for DMFT > 3 and 26.2% for DMFT > 6. The SiC index was 8.7. The TNI was 43.0% and 52.8% CI. No variation was observed (p > 0.05) on the experience, prevalence and severity of caries by age. The component "filled teeth" showed differences by age (p caries experience and severity than men (p dental caries in this sample of adolescents and young adults. We found almost 40% of untreated caries lesions. We found some differences by sex.

  1. Caries risk profile of Korean dental patients with severe intellectual disabilities.

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    Chang, Juhea; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Son, Ho-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the caries risk profile of patients with severe intellectual disabilities (IDs) who received dental treatment under general anesthesia. One hundred and two patients with ID [ID group, mean age (SD); 23.8(9.3)] and 100 healthy patients without ID [NID group, mean age (SD); 23.19(3.3)] were included. Medication, disability type, oral hygiene maintenance, and cooperation of the patients were investigated. Dietary habits, plaque index, mutans streptococci counts, fluoride availability, and salivary buffering were scored and analyzed using the Cariogram. The mean chance of avoiding caries (SD) was 28.1(20.4) in the ID group and 54.7(18.4) in the NID group. The ID group had significantly higher numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth than the NID group (p oral hygiene maintenance (p oral hygiene maintenance and low fluoride availability most contributed to the high risk. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Korelasi Jumlah Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans dan Level Ekspresi Interlukin 8 (IL-8 pada Severe Early Childhood Caries

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    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karies gigi pada anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat serius karena merupakan penyakit infeksi kronis yang menular. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir pandangan tentang neutrofil telah berubah secara dramatis. Neutrofil tidak hanya berperan sebagai pembunuh mikroba melalui proses fagositosis, pelepasan reactive oxigen species (ROS dan peptida antimikrobialnya tetapi neutrofil turut mengatur aktifasi respon imun. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 berfungsi sebagai aktivator kuat dan kemoatraktan neutrofil oleh karena itu IL-8 merupakan mediator kunci dalam migrasi neutrofil ke lokasi peradangan dan infeksi. Untuk menganalisis hubungan dari jumlah S. mutans dan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva pada anak usia dini bebas karies dan severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. Perlakuan dilakukan pada dua kelompok yaitu isolasi dan menghitung jumlah S. mutans pada sampel saliva dan sampel hasil kumur dengan NaCl 1,5% yang diisolasi neutrofilnya kemudian dianalisis ekspresi IL-8 menggunakan flow cytometry dari 20 anak bebas karies dan 20 anak severe early childhood caries. Hasil nilai rata-rata diketahui bahwa jumlah S. mutans anak usia dini bebas karies lebih rendah (513.500,00±185.565,28 CFU/ml dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (977.000,00±222.500,15 CFU/ml, sedangkan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva anak usia dini bebas karies lebih tinggi (3,31±0,50 dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (2,95+0,56. Penurunan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva kemungkinan sebagai penyebab meningkatnya jumlah S. mutans pada S-ECC. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans Level and Interleukin 8 (IL-8 Expressions of Salivary Neutrophils in Severe Early Childhood Caries. Early childhood caries is a very serious health problem because it is a chronic infectious disease that is contagious. Dental caries begins after the primary teeth grow and develop on the tooth surface very quickly and progressively. In recent years the views of neutrophils have changed dramatically. Neutrophils

  3. Effect of Enamel Caries Lesion Baseline Severity on Fluoride Dose-Response

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    Frank Lippert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of enamel caries lesion baseline severity on fluoride dose-response under pH cycling conditions. Early caries lesions were created in human enamel specimens at four different severities (8, 16, 24, and 36 h. Lesions were allocated to treatment groups (0, 83, and 367 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN and pH cycled for 5 d. The cycling model comprised 3 × 1 min fluoride treatments sandwiched between 2 × 60 min demineralization challenges with specimens stored in artificial saliva in between. VHN was measured again and changes versus lesion baseline were calculated (ΔVHN. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p<0.05. Increased demineralization times led to increased surface softening. The lesion severity×fluoride concentration interaction was significant (p<0.001. Fluoride dose-response was observed in all groups. Lesions initially demineralized for 16 and 8 h showed similar overall rehardening (ΔVHN and more than 24 and 36 h lesions, which were similar. The 8 h lesions showed the greatest fluoride response differential (367 versus 0 ppm F which diminished with increasing lesion baseline severity. The extent of rehardening as a result of the 0 ppm F treatment increased with increasing lesion baseline severity, whereas it decreased for the fluoride treatments. In conclusion, lesion baseline severity impacts the extent of the fluoride dose-response.

  4. Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study.

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    Majorana, Alessandra; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo

    2014-02-15

    Several maternal health determinants during the first period of life of the child, as feeding practice, smoking habit and socio-economic level, are involved in early childhood health problems, as caries development. The potential associations among early childhood caries, feeding practices, maternal and environmental smoking exposure, Socio-Economic Status (SES) and several behavioral determinants were investigated. Italian toddlers (n = 2395) aged 24-30 months were recruited and information on feeding practices, sweet dietary habit, maternal smoking habit, SES, and fluoride supplementation in the first year of life was obtained throughout a questionnaire administered to mothers. Caries lesions in toddlers were identified in visual/tactile examinations and classified using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Associations between toddlers' caries data and mothers' questionnaire data were assessed using chi-squared test. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations among caries severity level (ICDAS score), behavioral factors and SES (using mean housing price per square meter as a proxy). Caries prevalence and severity levels were significantly lower in toddlers who were exclusively breastfed and those who received mixed feeding with a moderate-high breast milk component, compared with toddlers who received low mixed feeding and those exclusively fed with formula (p smoked five or more cigarettes/day during pregnancy showed a higher caries severity level (p smoke. Environmental exposure to smoke during the first year of life was also significantly associated with caries severity (odds ratio =7.14, 95% confidence interval = 6.07-7.28). No association was observed between caries severity level and fluoride supplementation. More than 50% of toddlers belonging to families with a low SES, showed moderate or high severity caries levels (p smoke during pregnancy living in area with a low mean housing price per square meter.

  5. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

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    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  6. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

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    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  7. Effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the counts of salivary Streptococcus mutans in children with severe early childhood caries.

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    Fekrazad, Reza; Seraj, Bahman; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rokouei, Mehrak; Mousavi, Niloofar; Ghadimi, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a novel technique for reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aPDT on Streptococcus mutans reduction in children with severe early childhood caries. Twenty-two children with severe early childhood caries aged 3-6 years were treated with toluoidine blue O (TBO) for 1min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED; FotoSan, CMS Dental, Denmark) with the exposure time of 150s. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, 1h and 7 days after treatment. S. mutans counts were determined using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans. The counts of S. mutans in saliva decreased significantly after 1h (Pmutans counts in saliva was not significant between the baseline and 7 days after treatment (P>0.05). aPDT seems to be efficient to reduce salivary S. mutans immediately after treatment in children with severe early childhood caries. However, further research is needed to evaluate different doses and frequency of irradiation in combination with restoring carious teeth to find more durable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of health behavior in preventing dental caries in resource-poor adults: a pilot intervention.

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    Wu, Andrew; Switzer-Nadasdi, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent, yet preventable disease that is commonly overlooked in the adult population. It is strongly related to health-related behaviors and knowledge, and therefore, is potentially receptive to a behavioral health intervention. However, prevention strategies that target health behaviors in adults are fundamentally different from those in children, whom most current intervention strategies for dental caries target. This study attempts to pilot design, implement, and assess health behavior intervention tools for adults, in order to improve their oral health. To increase knowledge about dental caries by 80% and increase positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors by 80% in low-income adult participants at Interfaith Dental Clinic by piloting novel interventional and educational tools based on the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior. A convenience sample of newly registered participants to the Interfaith Dental Clinic between August 2011 and May 2013, were interviewed on each participant's first appointment, exposed to the interventional tools, and subsequently interviewed at their next appointment. A control group, comprised of participants who had completed their caries care as deemed by the clinic and had not been exposed to the interventional tools, were also interviewed on their last appointment before graduating the clinic's program. A total of 112 participants were exposed to the intervention, and forty-two participants comprised the control group. Follow-up for the intervention group was 20.5% (n = 23). Knowledge about the cause of caries increased by 29.9%, and positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors increased by 25.4%. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significance between the interview scores of the post-intervention group and that of the control group (p = 0.18 for knowledge, p = 0.284 for behaviors). Qualitative results show the vast majority of participants blamed diet for cause of caries, that this participant

  9. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.

  10. Expression analysis of CD63 in salivary neutrophils and the increased level of Streptococcus mutans in severe early childhood caries

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    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and decay exfoliation filling teeth (def-t >6 is a destructive disease that afflicts teeth, including maxillary anterior teeth. In Indonesia, the prevalence of this disease is still high, for instance in Semarang 2007, the rate reached 90.5% in urban areas and 95.9% in rural areas for early childhood caries which is caused by Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity which become the main component of the very first line of defense against microbes. Purpose: This study analyzed the effect caused by the change of CD63 expression on the surface of salivary neutrophils and the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC. Method: This study employs observational analytic and cross sectional approach by using T test analysis technique for forty cases of early childhood that had been divided into two groups, first group of twenty children positively diagnosed as S-ECC and second group of twenty children negatively diagnosed as the control group. The sample’s result of gargling with 1.5% NaCl was used for neutrophils isolation and analysis function of salivary neutrophils phagocytosis by using flow cytometry test, while the sample of saliva was used to isolate S. mutans and calculate the level of S. mutans. Result: The expression of CD63+ salivary neutrophils in S-ECC was lower (2.32% ± 0.57 than in caries-free (2.67% ± 0.46, while the level of S. mutans showed that the level was not higher than in S-ECC (9.78 ± 2.22x105 CFU/ml compared to in caries-free (5.13 ± 1.86x105 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The low expression of CD63 in salivary neutrophils can lead to the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC.

  11. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

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    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000caries severity among a school children.

  12. Koreksi dimensi vertikal oklusal dengan modifikasi restorasi mahkota logam pada kasus severe early childhood caries (Correcting occlusal vertical dimension using modified stainless steel crown restoration in severe early childhood caries case

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    Amrita Widyagarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (SECC describes progressively dental caries in primary dentition among children aged less than 3 to 5-year-old. Loss of Occlusal Vertical Dimension (OVD with deep bite in clinical feature found 2.5 times more often in s-ecc children than others. It leads discrepancies of vertical development of permanent dentition, hence creates malocclusion. Purpose: The aim of this paper was to report consideration and correction of OVD in SECC child. Case: A 5-year-old girl was accompanied by her mother came to pediatric dental clinic Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia. Patient’s chief complaint was decay on all her teeth. Clinical examination revealed caries on all primary dentition, tooth #16, #46 have not yet been occluded, 26 erupted partially and it occluded with 36, anterior deep bite. Diagnose was anterior deep bite caused by SECC. Case management: Operative-rehabilitative treatment restores OVD to prevent malocclusion by modifying height of ssc in primary molars. Correcting deep bite using stainless steel crown (SSC modified in posterior was done. First, restoration with glass-ionomer cement for raising the bite followed by a week evaluation to observe masticatory function and functional analysis of temporomandibular joint. Second, ssc were placed in primary molars. Conclusion: Modifying height of ssc in primary molars could corrected OVD in SECC child. Permanent first molars eruption could be guided to completely occlusion and prevent early malocclusion.Latar belakang: Severe early childhood caries (SECC menunjukan pola karies gigi sulung yang progresif dan menyeluruh pada anak usia di bawah 3 hingga 5 tahun. Kehilangan dimensi vertikal oklusal (DVO, dengan gambaran gigitan dalam pada periode gigi sulung dilaporkan terjadi 2,5 kali lebih banyak pada anak SECC. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan gangguan perkembangan vertikal gigi permanen yang nantinya menyebabkan maloklusi. Tujuan: Laporan kasus ini

  13. Prosthetic rehabilitation in a four-year-old child with severe early childhood caries: a case report.

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    Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; de Souza-E-Silva, Cintia Maria; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a 4-year-old girl presenting early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is highly prevalent in developing countries and its severity increases with age. This disease implies serious consequences for the development of the stomatognathic system and for the child's quality of life. As young children are usually anxious about dental treatment, their level of co-operation is limited, leading to a challenging situation. A 4-year-old girl was brought by her mother for dental treatment with the complaint of pain. The clinical examination revealed extensive carious coronary destructions. After preventive and curative measures, the oral rehabilitation was performed; it included the use of stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns with previous cementation of glass post pins when necessary, an amalgam restoration, orthodontic treatment, and a partial removable prosthesis. The child has been monitored in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at 4-monthly intervals. The oral rehabilitation was able to reestablish the oral health in the primary arches mutilated by early childhood caries. This is important for the establishment of an adequate mixed and permanent dentition, for proper facial and maxillary growth, and to the child's psychological and social development. The full management, including preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with severe ECC was found successful after 8 months of follow up. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns, and partial removable prosthesis to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psycho-social development.

  14. The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Haddad, João Paulo A; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2012-07-31

    In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24). The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.

  15. Prevalence and severity of dental caries in school students aged 6-12 years in Mafraq governorate: Northeast of Jordan

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    Leena Smadi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The caries prevalence in this age group in Mafraq was very high. One-third of the examined students had very high deft and DMFT scores, which reflected negligence of children oral health. Untreated dental caries was the main component of DMFT scores among the examined population, indicating lack of dental care services for those children, especially for refugees.

  16. Relationship between the IgA antibody response against Streptococcus mutans GbpB and severity of dental caries in childhood.

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    Colombo, Natália Helena; Pereira, Jesse Augusto; da Silva, Márjully Eduardo Rodrigues; Ribas, Laís Fernanda Fonseca; Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; Mattos-Graner, Renata de Oliveira; Smith, Daniel J; Duque, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Explore the associations between the severity of dental caries in childhood, mutans streptococci (MS) levels and IgA antibody response against Streptococcus mutans GbpB. Moreover, other caries-related etiological factors were also investigated. 36-60 month-old children were grouped into Caries-Free (CF, n=19), Early Childhood Caries (ECC, n=17) and Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, n=21). Data from socio-economic-cultural status, oral hygiene habits and dietary patterns were obtained from a questionnaire and a food-frequency diary filled out by parents. Saliva was collected from children for microbiological analysis and detection of salivary IgA antibody reactive with S. mutans GbpB in western blot. S-ECC children had reduced family income compared to those with ECC and CF. There was difference between CF and caries groups (ECC and S-ECC) in MS counts. Positive correlations between salivary IgA antibody response against GbpB and MS counts were found when the entire population was evaluated. When children with high MS counts were compared, S-ECC group showed significantly lower IgA antibody levels to GbpB compared to CF group. This finding was not observed for the ECC group. This study suggests that children with S-ECC have reduced salivary IgA immune responses to S. mutans GbpB, potentially compromising their ability to modify MS infection and its cariogenic potential. Furthermore, a reduced family income and high levels of MS were also associated with S-ECC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth: would it be problems?

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    Udijanto Tedjosasongko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries still remain as the most prevalent oral health disease in children. Many efforts have been done to prevent dental caries in children, but unfortunately there are dental practitioners who still have false mindset and prefer not to treat the dental caries case in primary teeth with the most common reasons are because it will be replaced with the permanent teeth. There are many negative effect will occur if the dental caries treatments in primary teeth are neglected.This topic would review the effects of untreated dental caries in children based on research reports.Severely decayed teeth have an important impact on children’s general health, nutrition, growth and body weight by causing discomfort, pain, sleeping problems, learning disorders and absence from school.  Untreated caries may affect seriously the quality of children’s life because of pain and discomfort, which could lead to acute and chronic infections, oral mucosal conditions and altered eating and sleeping habits. Furthermore, untreated caries in primary teeth can have a lasting detrimental impact on the permanent dentition by causing high caries risk or developmental defects of the permanent successor tooth. Moreover it has been reported that children at each higher level of caries had significantly lower height and weight outcomes than those with lower caries levels. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth would lead the children to poor growth and health which lowering the their quality of life.

  18. The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol- and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people.

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    Brailsford, S R; Fiske, J; Gilbert, S; Clark, D; Beighton, D

    2002-01-01

    To compare the clinical effects of a fluoride-containing varnish (Fluor-Protector) in combination with a chlorhexidine-containing varnish (Cervitec) on existing root caries lesions in a group of frail elderly subjects. A randomised double blind longitudinal study was utilised. Subjects (n = 102) were randomly allocated to a Test or Placebo group. All leathery and soft root caries lesions in all subjects were coated with Fluor-Protector while the lesions in the Test group were also coated with Cervitec and the lesions in the Placebo group were coated with a Placebo varnish. Treatments were repeated five times in a 12-month period. Clinical parameters associated with root caries, measurements of individual lesions and salivary levels of caries associated bacteria were made at intervals. The clinical severity of the lesions in the Test group did not change significantly during the 12-month study period. In the Placebo group the mean lesion width and lesion height and length of exposed root increased significantly and the lesions were significantly closer to the gingival margin. There were no significant changes in the salivary levels of caries-associated microorganisms after 12 months although, in both groups, there was initially a significant reduction in the salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The combination of Fluor-Protector and Cervitec is a useful, simple, quick and non-invasive method for the control and management of existing root caries lesions. The procedure could be performed by a dental hygienist and may be usefully applied in other high-risk groups including persons with Parkinson's disease, debilitating neuromuscular conditions and dry mouth from whatever cause. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Severity of Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Poor and Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Hickman, Enith; Wood, Frank B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents with poor and typical single word reading ability (N = 188) recruited from public schools and followed for a median of 2.4 years. Youth and parents were repeatedly assessed to obtain information regarding the severity and course of symptoms…

  20. Cárie precoce e severa na infância: uma abordagem integral Severe early childhood caries: an integral approach

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    Estela M. Losso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Fornecer informações para auxiliar o médico pediatra a reconhecer os fatores de risco para o início da cárie precoce na infância e da cárie severa na infância (CSI, possibilitando a intervenção precoce de tais fatores, e, assim, evitar a instalação dessa doença prevenível e as suas consequências. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos científicos publicados nas bases de dados SciELO, MEDLINE e PUBMED nos últimos 25 anos, livros técnicos e publicações de consenso de organismos internacionais. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: early childhood caries, severe early childhood caries, dental caries e children. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A CSI é uma forma de cárie dentária que afeta bebês e crianças. É infecciosa, de etiologia multifatorial e de desenvolvimento rápido, iniciando logo após a erupção dos dentes. Por apresentar fatores de risco local e sociocultural, deve ser considerada como sintoma de uma alteração na criança e de falta de cuidados adequados. Suas manifestações incluem dor, abscessos e dificuldades mastigatórias, afetando a alimentação e o sono da criança. Além disso, afeta também sua saúde geral, fala e autoestima. CONCLUSÕES: A CSI é uma doença com métodos preventivos estabelecidos, que devem ser introduzidos o mais precocemente possível, por meio de programas preventivos na comunidade e no núcleo familiar. Os profissionais que atendem bebês e crianças devem estar atentos aos casos com risco para o desenvolvimento da doença cárie e interceder a fim de se obter saúde.OBJECTIVE: To provide information with the purpose of helping pediatricians to recognize the risk factors for the onset of severe early childhood caries, allowing for early intervention and thus avoiding this preventable disease and its consequences. SOURCES: Information was collected from scientific articles published on the databases SciELO, MEDLINE and PUBMED in last 25 years, as

  1. Poor Executive Functions among Children with Moderate-into-Severe Asthma: Evidence from WCST Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) measures of 27 asthmatic children, with general learning difficulties, were tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), and were compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children with general learning difficulties. The results revealed that the asthmatic group has poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the perseverative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor EFs could be associated with the learning difficulties of asthmatic children. Neurophysiological framework has been suggested to explain the etiology of poor EFs among children with moderate into severe asthma.

  2. Evaluation of severity of dental caries in primary teeth among children 5-7 years-old in Tehran in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hessari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study aimed to assess the severity of tooth decay and related factors in children 5-7 years old, in 2016, in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed on 572 children aged 5-7 years old (300 girls and 272 boys in public schools in Tehran, Iran. Severity of dental caries (number of decayed, missing, filled surfaces recorded for C, D and E teeth according to WHO criteria. Data analysis was performed by Backward Linear Regression Analyses using SPSS 20 (P≤0.05. Results: Assessment of dental caries severity according to the number of decayed surfaces showed generally higher figures in upper jaw. The order of average severity of carious teeth was C, E and D from low to high in both jaws. According to the results of Linear Regression Analysis, severity of dental caries was more than other children in boys (OR=1.83, 95%CI: 0.81-2.8, those visited dentist due to dental problems associated with pain (OR=1.17, 95%CI: 0.73-1.6, and those without fluoride therapy (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 0.58-2.6 in C, D and E teeth. Conclusion: Flow the results, it was concluded that gender, level of mother's education, type of snack consumption, start age of tooth brushing, reason for dental visit and fluoride therapy affected severity of tooth decay.

  3. Allergens associated with severe symptoms of hand eczema and a poor prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Marianne; Agner, Tove; Blands, Jette

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is frequent among persons with hand eczema and may be associated with a poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To identify allergens associated with the most severe initial clinical symptoms and the worst prognosis in a cohort of hand eczema patients followed for 6 months. METHODS......: The study population comprised 799 consecutive hand eczema patients enrolled during January 2006-February 2007. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series. Severity assessment of the hand eczema was performed initially and at the 6-month follow-up using a validated scoring system...... (HECSI). With logistic regression analyses, associations of severe hand eczema or a poor prognosis with 15 individual allergens were analysed and adjusted for by sex, age, atopic dermatitis and other allergens. RESULTS: At baseline, greater severity of hand eczema was associated with a positive patch...

  4. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008-10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J.; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Study Design Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities. PMID:23984289

  7. Factors Affecting Dental Caries of Preschool Children in Shiraz, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, Soheila; Abolvardi, Masoud; Akhlaghian, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Dental caries, the most common infectious disease, can lead to several consequences, including inflammation and bleeding of the gum, abscess formation, tooth loss, and subsequently loss of available space in the arch. Purpose: This study was designed to determine dental caries status of Shiraz preschool children and its related factors. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the children registered in Shiraz kindergartens in 2014. The study recruited 453 children by randomized cluster sampling. We evaluated the children’s demographic and oral hygiene factors, and their dental caries status using decayed, missed, and filled tooth (dmft) index and prevalence of the children with untreated dental caries. Relationship between the children’s characteristics and their dental caries status was evaluated. Results: Only 119 children (30.1%) were caries-free. The children’s mean dmft index was 3.88(±3.9). After controlling the effect of confounding factors, the children’s dental caries status was significantly associated with variables indicating their socioeconomic status such as fathers’ job, mothers’ education, and number of children in the family. Furthermore, there was a significant association between the children’s dental caries status and their oral hygiene habits such as frequency of tooth brushing. Conclusion: The dental caries status of the studied preschool children was not desirable which could be indicative of the inadequacy of the current preventive programs. To improve this issue, interventional preventive programs such as tooth brushing are recommended. The programs are more necessary for the children of low socioeconomic families and those with poor oral hygiene habits. PMID:29854883

  8. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  9. In vitro caries-inhibitory properties of a silver cermet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, E J

    1989-06-01

    Recurrent caries is one of the primary causes of failure of dental restorations. One method for reducing the frequency and severity of this problem is the use of fluoride-releasing restorative materials. The glass-ionomer cements are a type of fluoride-releasing material. They have been used extensively in recent years for a variety of clinical applications. However, in comparison with other restorative materials such as amalgam and composite resins, glass ionomers have relatively poor physical properties. Sintering of silver particles to glass-ionomer powder is a means of improving these physical properties. The sintered material is called a silver-glass ionomer or silver cermet. This study examined the in vitro caries-inhibitory potential of a silver cement by means of two methods. First, long-term fluoride release was measured. Second, an artificial caries system was used for evaluation of caries inhibition by cerment restorations in extracted teeth. In comparison with a standard glass-ionomer restorative material, fluoride release from the cermet material was significantly less throughout a 12-month period. The results from the artificial caries system indicated that this decreased fluoride release corresponded with a lesser degree of caries inhibition. Lesions around cermet restorations in both enamel and root surfaces were significantly more severe than those around conventional glass-ionomer restorations. However, in comparison with amalgam and composite resin restorations, the cermet did have some cariostatic activity.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices

  11. Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kerr, Stephen J; Kariminia, Azar; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Vun, Mean Chhi; Vibol, Ung; Vannary, Bun; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) 1 in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1-11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms and CD4 15-24% were enrolled. Their caregivers completed the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group QOL questionnaire prior to ART commencement. Six QOL domains were assessed using transformed scores that ranged from 0 to 100. Higher QOL scores indicated better health. Mean age was 6.1 (SD 2.8) years, mean CD4 was 723 (SD 369) cells/mm(3), 57% was female, and%CDC N:A:B was 2:63:35%. One-third knew their HIV diagnosis. Mean (SD) scores were 69.9 (17.6) for health perception, 64.5 (16.2) for physical resilience, 84.2 (15.6) for physical functioning, 77.9 (16.3) for psychosocial well-being, 74.7 (28.7) for social and role functioning, 90.0 (12.1) for health care utilization, and 87.4 (11.3) for symptoms domains. Children with CD4 counts above the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) ART-initiation criteria (n=53) had higher scores in health perception and health care utilization than those with lower CD4 values. Younger children had poorer QOL than older children despite having similar mean CD4%. In conclusion, untreated Asian children without severe HIV symptoms had relatively low QOL scores compared to published reports in Western countries. Therapy initiation criteria by the WHO identified children with lower QOL scores to start ART; however, children who did not fit ART-initiation criteria and those who were younger also displayed poor QOL. QOL assessment should be considered in untreated children to inform decisions about when to initiate ART.

  12. Dental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors Cárie dentária em homens jovens: prevalência, severidade e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as the needs for dental treatment in 18-year-old males from Maringá, PR, Brazil. The association of dental caries experience with socioeconomic variables was also tested. A cross sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 241 conscripts of the Brazilian Army. The adopted diagnosis criteria were those proposed by the World Health Organization. A socioeconomic questionnaire was utilized to determine family income and the criterion of the Brazil Economic Classification of the National Association of Research Enterprises. Associations among caries prevalence, DMF-T index, treatment needs and socioeconomic variables were evaluated by means of the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Caries prevalence was 82.6% and the mean DMF-T index was 4.6. Only a mean of 0.8 tooth per individual presented treatment needs. Significant statistical differences were found in caries prevalence and severity (DMF-T. The worst results were observed in the groups of lower income and purchasing power, indicating a need for the implementation of social policies that address these populations aiming at diminishing the existing differences in the health-disease process indicators. On the other hand, treatment needs were only associated to the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion variable (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária, bem como as necessidades de tratamento odontológico de jovens de 18 anos de idade do sexo masculino em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. A associação da experiência de cárie com variáveis socioeconômicas também foi testada. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma amostra aleatória de conscritos (n = 241 do Exército Brasileiro. Os critérios de diagnóstico adotados foram aqueles estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram utilizados um question

  13. [Poor self-esteem is correlated with suicide intent, independently from the severity of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, C; Vera, L; Gorwood, P

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is a major Public Health concern, and low self-esteem might represent a major risk factor. Our main objective was to assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. More specifically, we aimed to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social) and suicide intent. We also sought the role of depression in the relationship of self-esteem to suicide intent. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a suicide prevention department at the CMME (Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France). We included patients aged 15 and older and admitted for suicide attempt over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Self-esteem was assessed with the Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) scale that takes into account several domains of self-esteem. Subjects scoring over 5 points on the lie scale were excluded. Our primary endpoint was the correlation between self-esteem and suicide intent. Our secondary endpoint was the same correlation adjusted for depression severity (using the Hamilton scale). Suicide intent was estimated using Beck's Suicide Intentionality Scale (SIS). We examined the Pearson's correlation coefficients between self-esteem and suicide intent. These analyses were adjusted for the severity of depressive symptoms assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Overall, 132 patients were included. Suicide intent was correlated with total self-esteem (r=-0.227, P=0.009), social self-esteem (r=-0.331, Pself-esteem (r=-0.260, P=0.003). These results remained significant after adjusting for the level of depression for total score (r=-0.181, P=0.038), and the social (r=-0.282, P=0.001) and familial (r=-0.237, P=0.006) dimensions. Self-esteem (and especially social and familial dimensions) is likely to be associated with suicide intent, at least in part independently of the severity of depression, in a population of subjects

  14. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  15. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations across the world, problems still persist particularly among poor and disadvantaged groups in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Oral Health Report 2003, dental caries remains a major public health problem...... in most industrialized countries, affecting 60-90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Although it appears that dental caries is less common and less severe in developing countries of Africa, it is anticipated that the incidence of caries will increase in several countries of that continent......, due to changing living conditions and dietary habits, and inadequate exposure to fluorides. Research on the oral health effects of fluoride started around 100 years ago; the focus has been on the link between water and fluorides and dental caries and fluorosis, topical fluoride applications, fluoride...

  16. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate...... of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also...... assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher...

  17. Revitalising Silver Nitrate for Caries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Shiqian Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate has been adopted for medical use as a disinfectant for eye disease and burned wounds. In dentistry, it is an active ingredient of Howe’s solution used to prevent and arrest dental caries. While medical use of silver nitrate as a disinfectant became subsidiary with the discovery of antibiotics, its use in caries treatment also diminished with the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Since then, fluoride agents, particularly sodium fluoride, have gained popularity in caries prevention. However, caries is an infection caused by cariogenic bacteria, which demineralise enamel and dentine. Caries can progress and cause pulpal infection, but its progression can be halted through remineralisation. Sodium fluoride promotes remineralisation and silver nitrate has a profound antimicrobial effect. Hence, silver nitrate solution has been reintroduced for use with sodium fluoride varnish to arrest caries as a medical model strategy of caries management. Although the treatment permanently stains caries lesions black, this treatment protocol is simple, painless, non-invasive, and low-cost. It is well accepted by many clinicians and patients and therefore appears to be a promising strategy for caries control, particularly for young children, the elderly, and patients with severe caries risk or special needs.

  18. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  19. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  20. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: emerging role in poor left ventricular function severe aortic stenosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. John Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has become an established treatment option for high risk elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Its role in less high risk patients is being evaluated in clinical trials. Patients with severely impaired left ventricular function may be another group who may benefit from this emerging percutaneous treatment option.

  1. Dental caries and pulpal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T; Zandona, Andrea Ferreira; Vail, Mychel Macapagal; Spolnik, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnostic process, from the first clinically evident stages of the caries process to development of pulpal pathosis. The caries diagnostic process includes 4 interconnected components-staging caries lesion severity, assessing caries lesion activity, and risk assessments at the patient and tooth surface level - which modify treatment decisions for the patient. Pulpal pathosis is diagnosed as reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis (asymptomatic), irreversible pulpitis (symptomatic), and pulp necrosis. Periapical disease is diagnosed as symptomatic apical periodontitis, asymptomatic apical periodontitis, acute apical abscess, and chronic apical abscess. Ultimately, the goal of any diagnosis should be to achieve better treatment decisions and health outcomes for the patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of severe thrombocytopenia and poor prognosis in pregnancies with aplastic anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We sought to estimate the risks of adverse obstetric outcomes and disease outcomes associated with severe thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with aplastic anemia (AA. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we compared demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and outcomes between severe thrombocytopenia (ST and non-severe thrombocytopenia (non-ST groups comprising pregnant women with AA. RESULTS: Of 61 AA patients, 43 (70% were diagnosed as AA before pregnancy and 18 (30% were AA during pregnancy. The ST group exhibited lower gestational age at nadir of platelet count (26.0 versus 37.0 weeks, p<0.001 and at delivery (37.3 versus 39.1 weeks, p = 0.008, and a higher rate of bleeding gums (33.8 versus 7.7%, p = 0.015 than the non-ST group. In addition, the ST group exhibited more transfusions during pregnancy (72.7 versus 15.4%, p<0.001 and postpartum period (45.0 versus 2.7%, p<0.001, and more bone marrow transplant after delivery (25.0 versus 0.0%, p<0.001 than the non-ST group. The ST group had a higher odds ratio of composite disease complications (OR, 9.63; 95% CI, 2.82-32.9; p<0.001 and composite obstetric complications (OR, 6.78; 95% CI, 2.11-21.8; p = 0.001 than the non-ST group. CONCLUSIONS: Severe thrombocytopenia is more associated with obstetric and disease complications than is non-severe thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with AA.

  3. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  4. Crouch severity is a poor predictor of elevated oxygen consumption in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Katherine M; Shuman, Benjamin R; Schwartz, Michael H

    2017-07-26

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) expend more energy to walk compared to typically-developing peers. One of the most prevalent gait patterns among children with CP, crouch gait, is often singled out as especially exhausting. The dynamics of crouch gait increase external flexion moments and the demand on extensor muscles. This elevated demand is thought to dramatically increase energy expenditure. However, the impact of crouch severity on energy expenditure has not been investigated among children with CP. We evaluated oxygen consumption and gait kinematics for 573 children with bilateral CP. The average net nondimensional oxygen consumption during gait of the children with CP (0.18±0.06) was 2.9 times that of speed-matched typically-developing peers. Crouch severity was only modestly related to oxygen consumption, with measures of knee flexion angle during gait explaining only 5-20% of the variability in oxygen consumption. While knee moment and muscle activity were moderately to strongly correlated with crouch severity (r 2 =0.13-0.73), these variables were only weakly correlated with oxygen consumption (r 2 =0.02-0.04). Thus, although the dynamics of crouch gait increased muscle demand, these effects did not directly result in elevated energy expenditure. In clinical gait analysis, assumptions about an individual's energy expenditure should not be based upon kinematics or kinetics alone. Identifying patient-specific factors that contribute to increased energy expenditure may provide new pathways to improve gait for children with CP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Severe anemia is associated with poor tumor oxygenation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Axel; Stadler, Peter; Lavey, Robert S.; Haensgen, Gabriele; Kuhnt, Thomas; Lautenschlaeger, Christine; Feldmann, Horst Juergen; Molls, Michael; Dunst, Juergen

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between tumor oxygenation and the blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials: A total of 133 patients with SCCHN underwent pretreatment polarographic pO 2 measurements of their tumors. In 66 patients measurements were also made in sternocleidomastoid muscles. The patients were divided into three groups according to their Hb concentration--severe anemia (Hb 2 . Conclusion: Our data suggest that a low Hb concentration and cigarette smoking contribute to inadequate oxygenation of SCCHN and thus for increased radioresistance. Consequently, Hb correction and abstinence from smoking may significantly improve tumor oxygenation

  6. Which factors most influence referral for restorative dental treatment under sedation and general anaesthesia in children with complex disabilities: caries severity, child functioning, or dental service organisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norderyd, Johanna; Faulks, Denise; Molina, Gustavo; Granlund, Mats; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2018-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child gives all children right to the highest standard of services for treatment and rehabilitation. For children with disabilities, sedation and general anaesthesia (GA) are often indicated for dental treatment; however, accessibility to this varies. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) enables a biopsychosocial description of children undergoing dental treatment. To investigate conscious sedation and GA in children with complex disabilities and manifest caries and analyse how caries, child functioning, and dental service organisation relate to dental GA (DGA), comparing Argentina, France, and Sweden using the ICF-CY. Quantitative, cross-sectional; data collected through structured interviews, observation, and dental records. Sedation and DGA were common. Children with limitations in interpersonal interactions and relationships were more likely to have had DGA (OR: 5.3, P = 0.015). Level of caries experience was strongly correlated with experience of DGA. There were significant differences between countries regarding caries prevalence, sedation, DGA, and functional and environmental factors. Although caries experience and child functioning are important, dental health service organisation had the most impact on the incidence of DGA, and for the use of conscious sedation, for children with complex disabilities. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Disparities in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronzio Cynthia R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.

  8. Digital radiography and caries diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    1998-01-01

    Direct digital acquisition of intra-oral radiographs has been possible only in the last decade. Several studies have shown that, theoretically, there are a number of advantages of direct digital radiography compared with conventional film. Laboratory as well as controlled clinical studies are needed to determine whether new digital imaging systems alter diagnosis, treatment and prognosis compared with conventional methods. Most studies so far have evaluated their diagnostic performance only in laboratory settings. This review concentrates on what evidence we have for the diagnostic efficacy of digital systems for caries detection. Digital systems are compared with film and those studies which have evaluated the effects on diagnostic accuracy of contrast and edge enhancement, image size, variations in radiation dose and image compression are reviewed together with the use of automated image analysis for caries diagnosis. Digital intra-oral radiographic systems seem to be as accurate as the currently available dental films for the detection of caries. Sensitivities are relatively high (0.6-0.8) for detection of occlusal lesions into dentine with false positive fractions of 5-10%. A radiolucency in dentine is recognised as a good predictor for demineralisation. Radiography is of no value for the detection of initial (enamel) occlusal lesions. For detection of approximal dentinal lesions, sensitivities, specificities as well as the predictive values are fair, but are very poor for lesions known to be confined to enamel. Very little documented information exists, however, on the utilization of digital systems in the clinic. It is not known whether dose is actually reduced with the storage phosphor system, or whether collimator size is adjusted to fit sensor size in the CCD-based systems. There is no evidence that the number of retakes have been reduced. It is not known how many images are needed with the various CCD systems when compared with a conventional bitewing

  9. Combined deficiencies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and anemia in preschool children with severe early childhood caries: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Shannon; Schroth, Robert J; Sharma, Atul; Rodd, Celia

    2018-05-01

    Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is common and has adverse affects on children's health. Children with S-ECC have been shown to have anemia or vitamin D deficiency. No studies have assessed the presence of combined deficiencies with S-ECC. The purpose of our study was to examine whether those with S-ECC had a higher prevalence of combined anemia and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) compared to controls. Covariates associated with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), previously noted in S-ECC, were examined. This is a re-analyses of a previously described cross-sectional case-control study; data were collected between 2009 and 2011. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of dental surgery and controls from the community. Blood was drawn for complete blood count, ferritin, 25(OH)D and PTH. Families completed a questionnaire. A total of 266 children participated (S-ECC n=144); the mean age was 40.8 ± 14.1 months. Children with S-ECC were more likely to have low 25(OH)D, hemoglobin, elevated PTH or iron-deficiency anemia compared to controls. Significant differences between groups were seen for a combined deficiency of low hemoglobin (<110 g/L) and 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L; controls 0/114 versus S-ECC 15/140 (P<0.001). In an adjusted regression model, PTH was negatively associated with 25(OH)D (P<0.001) and higher income (P<0.02); it was positively associated with less regular milk consumption (P=0.001). Combined deficiencies of vitamin D and anemia are more prevalent in children with S-ECC; the etiology remains unclear. A detailed diet history is key in those with S-ECC to assess risks for deficiencies.

  10. The Need of Interdisciplinary Approach for the Treatment of Children with Down Syndrome with Severe Caries Unintentionally Facilitated by Hypotonia Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, Enrique; Miskovich, Camilla

    2018-05-11

    This manuscript describes a case of a 4-year-old child with Down syndrome involving hypotonia in which the use of sweets to induce oral muscular function contributed to the need to extract all the primary teeth due to extensive caries. The need for interdisciplinary education and practice targeted to the treatment of children with special health care needs is emphasized.

  11. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  12. Dental caries clusters among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John J; Van Buren, John M; Levy, Steven M; Marshall, Teresa A; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Curtis, Alexandra M; Kolker, Justine L; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2017-12-01

    There have been very few longitudinal studies of dental caries in adolescents, and little study of the caries risk factors in this age group. The purpose of this study was to describe different caries trajectories and associated risk factors among members of the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS) cohort. The IFS recruited a birth cohort from 1992 to 1995, and has gathered dietary, fluoride and behavioural data at least twice yearly since recruitment. Examinations for dental caries were completed when participants were ages 5, 9, 13 and 17 years. For this study, only participants with decayed and filled surface (DFS) caries data at ages 9, 13 and 17 were included (N=396). The individual DFS counts at age 13 and the DFS increment from 13 to 17 were used to identify distinct caries trajectories using Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm. A number of multinomial logistic regression models were developed to predict trajectory membership, using longitudinal dietary, fluoride and demographic/behavioural data from 9 to 17 years. Model selection was based on the akaike information criterion (AIC). Several different trajectory schemes were considered, and a three-trajectory scheme-no DFS at age 17 (n=142), low DFS (n=145) and high DFS (n=109)-was chosen to balance sample sizes and interpretability. The model selection process resulted in use of an arithmetic average for dietary variables across the period from 9 to 17 years. The multinomial logistic regression model with the best fit included the variables maternal education level, 100% juice consumption, brushing frequency and sex. Other favoured models also included water and milk consumption and home water fluoride concentration. The high caries cluster was most consistently associated with lower maternal education level, lower 100% juice consumption, lower brushing frequency and being female. The use of a clustering algorithm and use of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to determine the best representation of the data

  13. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. "MI" caries management--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Minimum intervention dentistry, with its non-operative prevention and control of disease, underpins the basis of a patient-centred, team-based approach to managing dental caries in patients, who must take an active responsibility in maintaining their personal oral health. In patients where cavities are present causing pain, poor aesthetics and/or functional problems, restorations will need to be placed. Minimally invasive caries excavation strategies can be deployed depending on the patient's caries risk, lesion-pulp proximity and vitality, the extent of remaining supra-gingival tooth structure and clinical factors (e.g., moisture control, access) present in each case treated. Excavation instruments, including burs/handpieces, hand excavators, chemo-mechanical agents and/or air-abrasives which limit caries removal selectively to the more superficial caries-infected dentine and partial removal of caries-affected dentine when required, help create smaller cavities with healthy enamel/dentine margins. Using adhesive restorative materials, the operator can, if handling with care, optimize the histological substrate coupled with the applied chemistry of the material so helping to form a durable peripheral seal and bond to aid retention of the restoration as well as arresting the carious process within the remaining tooth structure. Achieving a smooth tooth-restoration interface clinically to aid the co-operative, motivated patient in biofilm removal, is an essential pre-requisite to prevent further secondary caries.

  15. Dental caries in Victorian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Hopcraft, M; Morgan, M

    2014-09-01

    The poor oral health of nursing home residents is the cause of substantial morbidity and has major implications relating to health care policy. The aim of this study was to measure dental caries experience in Australians living in nursing homes, and investigate associations with resident characteristics. Clinical dental examinations were conducted on 243 residents from 19 nursing homes in Melbourne. Resident characteristics were obtained from nursing home records and interviews with residents, family and nursing home staff. Two dental examiners assessed coronal and root dental caries using standard ICDAS-II criteria. Residents were elderly, medically compromised and functionally impaired. Most required assistance with oral hygiene and professional dental care was rarely utilized. Residents had high rates of coronal and root caries, with a mean 2.8 teeth with untreated coronal caries and 5.0 root surfaces with untreated root caries. Functional impairment and irregular professional dental care were associated with higher rates of untreated tooth decay. There were no significant associations with medical conditions or the number of medications taken. Nursing home residents have high levels of untreated coronal and root caries, particularly those with high needs due to functional impairment but poor access to professional services. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  16. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  17. Dental Caries Status of HIV Infected Children in Nigeria | Obileye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV positive children may be prone to developing Dental Caries due to prolonged and frequent use of sucrose containing medications and poor feeding practices. Objetive: To determine the caries status of primary and permanent dentition in HIV positive Nigerian children using dmft/DMFT indices. Methods: ...

  18. Severe malnutrition evaluated by patient-generated subjective global assessment results in poor outcome among adult patients with acute leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wang, Chang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Qiuju; Lin, Hai; Liu, Chunshui; Jin, Fengyan; Yang, Yan; Bai, Ou; Tan, Yehui; Gao, Sujun; Li, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate nutritional status in adult patients with acute leukemia (AL) using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to investigate the influence of nutritional status on prognosis. We observationally investigated 68 adult patients with newly diagnosed AL who received PG-SGA at the First Hospital of Jilin University between May 2013 and July 2015. Clinical features, chemotherapy regimens, biochemical indexes, body composition, complete remission (CR) rate, minimal residual disease (MRD), survival time, and side-effects of chemotherapy were compared between patients with and without severe malnutrition. Mean PG-SGA scores of the total patients were 6.1 ± 4.0, and 19 of 68 (27.9%) patients had severe malnutrition (PG-SGA score ≥9). Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had higher scores than those with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; P = .011) and high-risk patients had higher scores regardless of whether they had AML or ALL (AML, P = .012; ALL, P = .043). Univariate analysis showed that severe malnutrition was correlated with age (P = .041), transferrin (P = .042), Karnofsky Performance Status score (P = .006), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .018). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that severe malnutrition was associated with CRP (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.020, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–1.039, P = .026). No difference was found in CR rate (P = .831) between patients with and without malnutrition, but those who were severely malnourished had higher MRD (P = .048 in AML patients, P = .036 in ALL patients) and more gastrointestinal side-effects (P = .014). Severe malnutrition was also associated with inferior overall survival (HR = 0.243, 95% CI: 0.063–0.945, P = .041) but not with event-free survival (HR = 0.808, 95% CI: 0.338–1.934, P = .663). Severe malnutrition defined by PG-SGA in adult patients with de novo AL may result in poor outcome

  19. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  20. Brief episodes of intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion are associated with poor functional outcome after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Deborah M; Hu, Peter F; Brenner, Megan; Sheth, Kevin N; Liu, Keng-Hao; Xiong, Wei; Aarabi, Bizhan; Scalea, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    Management strategies after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) target prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension (ICH) and cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). We have previously established that continuous automated recordings of vital signs (VS) are more highly correlated with outcome than manual end-hour recordings. One potential benefit of automated vital sign data capture is the ability to detect brief episodes of ICH and CH. The purpose of this study was to establish whether a relationship exists between brief episodes of ICH and CH and outcome after severe TBI. Patients at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center were prospectively enrolled over a 2-year period. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >14 years, admission within the first 6 hours after injury, Glasgow Coma Scale score GOSE). Sixty subjects were enrolled with a mean admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6.4 ± 3.1, a mean Head Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale score of 4.2 ± 0.7, and a mean Marshall CT score of 2.5 ± 0.9. Significant differences in the mean number of brief episodes of CPP GOSE 1-4 versus GOSE 5-8 (9.4 vs. 4.7, p = 0.02 and 9.3 vs. 4.9, p = 0.03) were found. There were significantly more mean brief episodes per day of ICP >30 (0.52 vs. 0.29, p = 0.02), CPP GOSE 1-4. Number of brief episodes of CPP <50, CPP <60, BTI <2, and BTI <3 all demonstrated high predictive power for unfavorable functional outcome (area under the curve = 0.65-0.75, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the number of brief 5-minute episodes of ICH and CH is predictive of poor outcome after severe TBI. This finding has important implications for management paradigms which are currently targeted to treatment rather than prevention of ICH and CH. This study demonstrates that these brief episodes may play a significant role in outcome after severe TBI.

  1. Prevalência e severidade da cárie dentária em escolares de seis e doze anos de idade Prevalence and severity of dental caries among schoolchildren aged six and twelve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz Traebert

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária e as necessidades de tratamento em escolares de 6 e 12 anos de idade, comparando-se os alunos de escolas públicas com os de privadas. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a população de escolares do município de Blumenau, SC, a partir de uma amostra de 1.473 escolares, representativa de quatro estratos: escolares de 6 anos de escolas públicas, de 6 anos de escolas privadas, de 12 anos de escolas públicas e de 12 anos de escolas privadas. Utilizaram-se os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial de Saúde (1997. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de cárie na dentição decídua em escolares de 6 anos foi de 60,9% em escolas públicas e de 34,9% em escolas privadas (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and to assess treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 in Blumenau, Brazil, and to compare the results found for private and public schools. METHODS: A schoolchildren population of Blumenau, SC, Brazil, was studied. A random sample of 1,473 schoolchildren from Blumenau, Brazil, was obtained. Four strata were studied: 6 and 12 years old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. WHO (1997 criteria for caries diagnosis and treatment needs were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries in the primary dentition of 6-years-old children was 60.9% and 34.9% in public and private schools (p<0.0001, respectively. The mean DMF-T for children aged 6 was 2.98 and 1.32 for public and private schools, respectively, (p<0.0001, and 2.42 for the whole sample. The prevalence of caries in the permanent dentition of 12-years-old children was 54.7% and the mean DMF-T was 1.46 for public schools. The response rate for private schools was low and the results could not be analyzed. Forty-two percent and 77.0% of children aged six of public and private schools, respectively, had no treatment needs. For those aged 12, the percentage was 53.0% for public

  2. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; Rashmi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio.

  3. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  4. Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Lee, Angeline Hui-Cheng; Zheng, Liwu; Mei, May Lei; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2014-01-03

    Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from β-thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, and depapillation of tongue indicating an underlying condition of anemia. The poor oral condition due to topical and systemic immunosuppressants was seriously aggravated, and rampant caries developed rapidly, affecting all newly erupted, permanent teeth. The teeth were hypersensitive and halitosis was apparent. Strategies for oral health education and diet modification were given to the patient. Xylitol chewing gum was used to stimulate saliva flow to promote remineralization of teeth. Silver diamine fluoride was topically applied to arrest rampant caries and to relieve pain from hypersensitivity. Carious teeth with pulpal involvement were endodontically treated. Stainless steel crowns were provided on molars to restore chewing function, and polycarbonate crowns were placed on premolars, upper canines and incisors. This case report demonstrates success in treating a young teenager with severe rampant dental decay by contemporary caries control and preventive strategy.

  5. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  6. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  7. Epidemiology of dental caries: when structure and context matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread expansion of the sugar market drove dental caries prevalence to high levels in several regions of the world. On the other hand, the dissemination of fluoride use is one of the reasons for caries decline at the end of the 20th century. However, caries remains one of the most prevalent non-communicable chronic diseases in human beings, and an important cause of pain and dental loss, which lead to school and work absenteeism affecting individuals' daily activities and emotional stability. The decline in caries has important implications for research, human resources and oral healthcare. The aim of this study was to summarize the changes in dental caries occurrence in the population, and bring to light the latest research on the role of non-biological determinants in caries distribution.

  8. Original Research. The Evaluation of Caries Severity Index and Dental Hypoplasia in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Results from a Romanian Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bica Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a type of cancer that most frequently affects children, and its treatment involves intensive chemotherapy, which might interfere with the normal development of dental tissues. The aim of our study was to measure the incidence of dental caries and enamel hypoplasia in children diagnosed with ALL treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-95 (ALL-BFM-95 protocol during the complete remission phase. Two groups of children between 8-12 years of age were investigated: Group 1 consisted of 36 children with ALL, and Group 2 of 58 control age-matched children. The decay-missing-filling index for the deciduous teeth (DMFT and the presence of hypoplasia in the first permanent molars (MH or in both incisors and molars (MIH were recorded. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that there were no differences between the groups regarding the DMFT values (p >0.05, but there was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of MH and MIH between groups (p <0.05. According to our results, chemotherapy was not responsible for the decay process, as there were no differences in DMFT indices between the groups, but the high incidence of MH and MIH in the ALL group indicates the need of a good dental care for these children in order to prevent future dental complications.

  9. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  10. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  11. Dental Caries: A Disease Which Needs Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur

    2018-03-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent disease (about 50%) in children across the globe. If not treated in time, it can affect not only the mastication function but also the speech, smile and psychosocial environment and the quality of life of the child and the family. The treatment of dental diseases is very expensive in all countries and prevention is very simple and effective. The caries in children below 6 y is called early childhood caries (ECC). It is most commonly caused by milk bottle or mother's feed during night. The ECC spreads very fast and can cause severe pain, abscess, swelling, fever and psychological disturbances in children. The treatment of ECC requires multiple appointments and still the prognosis is not very promising in mutilated dentitions. A physician or pediatrician can easily identify early caries and habits of parents leading to caries and can counsel them for prevention and refer them to the specialist. Good oral hygiene, dietary modification with respect to use of sugar and sticky food and healthy diet can help in preventing this disease in children. The need of the time is to appraise all on the methods of dental caries prevention.

  12. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  13. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja; Lakhanpal, Manav

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it's important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997) format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0. The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72) as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21) which was followed by underweight (2.31) and obese children (2.23). Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES) is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors such as diet

  14. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  15. O desempenho na pré-escola de crianças portadoras de cárie severa - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2164 School performance of pre-school children with severe caries - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Colares

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de avaliar o desempenho na escola de crianças de quatro anos de idade portadoras de cárie severa. Foram examinadas 101 pré-escolares pertencentes a 4 escolas municipais da cidade do Recife, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, no ano de 2002. Os exames clínicos foram realizados por 3 pesquisadoras (Kappa inter-examinador = 0,89 e intra-examinador = 0,91, com o objetivo de selecionar crianças livres de cárie (grupo A e portadoras de cárie severa (grupo B, compondo a amostra final de 41 crianças selecionadas A avaliação do desempenho das crianças na escola foi obtida por meio da aplicação de um questionário com as professoras. Verificou-se que o grupo dos alunos livres de cárie apresentou-se, em geral, mais atento às explicações das professoras em sala de aula e com menor dificuldade na realização das tarefas escolares, bem como não apresentaram faltas à escola por motivos relacionados aos dentes, o que não ocorreu com os alunos do grupo B. Quanto à participação oral em sala de aula e a pronúncia das palavras, não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos, de acordo com as informações fornecidas pelas professoras. No grupo A, não foi relatado apelido constrangedor relacionado aos dentes, fato que foi verificado em 11% das crianças do grupo B. As professoras consideraram que 22% das crianças portadoras de cárie severa apresentavam prejuízos em suas atividades escolares devido às condições de sua saúde bucal. Concluiu-se que o desempenho das crianças portadoras de cárie severa na escola pode ser prejudicado por sua saúde bucal. Outras pesquisas devem ser desenvolvidas para melhor avaliar o impacto da cárie severa no desempenho da criança na escola.The study evaluated and compared school performance of caries-free and severe caries of 4-year-old children by their teachers’ perception. The selected group consisted of 101 preschoolers from 4 randomly chosen

  16. Catheter-based intervention for symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation and very poor left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bourantas, Christos V; Chan, Pak Hei

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction have concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Their symptoms and prognosis worsen with increasing severity of MR. Percutaneous MitraClip(®) can be used safely to reduce the severity of MR even in patients with advanced heart failure and is as...

  17. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  18. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  19. [Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusek, Ivan; Carević, Momir; Tusek, Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Backa area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and chi2 (p family (46.9%) and in part-time employed mothers (47.2%) who had only elementary education (59.3%) and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1%) of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%). The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

  20. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb 11 g/dl, n = 303. Logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each of the outcome measures: preeclampsia, eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW and stillbirth. Results There were 9578 deliveries at Kassala hospital, 4012 (41.8% women had anaemia and 303 (3.2% had severe anaemia. The corrected risk for preeclampsia increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.1, P = 0.007. Compared with women with no anaemia, the risk of LBW was 2.5 times higher in women with mild/moderate anaemia (95% CI: 1.1-5.7, and 8.0 times higher in women with severe anaemia (95% CI: 3.8-16.0. The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia (OR = 3.2 for women with mild/moderate anaemia and OR = 6.6 for women with severe anaemia, compared with women with no anaemia. The corrected risk for stillbirth increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P Conclusions The greater the severity of the anaemia during pregnancy, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, LBW and stillbirth. Preventive measures should be undertaken to decrease the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy.

  1. Can prevention eliminate caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D

    1995-07-01

    There are four main factors involved in the carious process: at-risk tooth structure, plaque flora, fermentable carbohydrates, and time. Based on our knowledge of the carious process, four main preventive strategies have been developed over the years, namely, fluorides, fissure sealing, dietary choice, and plaque control. Fluorides are having a major impact on smooth-surface caries; hence, strategies combining fluorides and fissure sealing are very effective. However, use of fissure sealing is still problematic. Changing dietary practices with a view to reducing dental caries seems to be having little impact on a global scale. Plaque control, as practiced routinely by the majority of people, is not sufficient to result in caries reductions. Deprivation and poverty are strongly associated with high caries levels. Although the preventive strategies currently available are likely to result in lower caries levels for many, for logistical reasons and because of factors associated with deprivation and poverty, caries is likely to remain a major public health problem in most communities for the foreseeable future.

  2. On dental caries and dental erosion in Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Helén

    2013-01-01

    All children in Sweden are entitled to regular, free dental care up to 20 years of age. While dental caries generally continues to decline, still there is a pronounced skewness in caries prevalence. Furthermore, the reported increase in dental erosion in young adults is cause for concern. The aim was to study the prevalence of dental caries and dental erosion in a cohort of Swedish 20 year-olds, with special reference to the influence of previous caries experience and lifestyle as well as parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. The study was prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional in design and based on registration of caries lesions, dental erosion, body adiposity status, saliva sampling, interviews, and questionnaires at 20 years of age. Data were available for the same cohort at 1, 3, 6 and 15 years of age. 499 subjects (74 percent of the original cohort) were included. Five individuals were subsequently excluded, leaving a final sample of 494. 74 percent of the subjects had initial and/or manifest caries lesions and/or restorations. The mean number of DimFS was 5.8 and the mean number of DmFS on occlusal surfaces of molars was 1.1. There was a strong relationship between caries activity at 3 and 6 years of age and approximal caries prevalence in premolars and molars at 20 years of age. Overweight/obese individuals had significantly higher caries prevalence than normal weight individuals. Parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors during infancy were related to approximal caries at age 20. Dental erosion was found in 75 percent of the individuals: 18 percent of these had extensive erosion. There was a significant association between caries and dental erosion. A relationship was found between dental erosion and lifestyle factors and overweight/obesity. There is a strong relationship between caries prevalence at age 20 and caries experience in early childhood. Young adults show a high prevalence of dental erosion, but the severity is

  3. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Elbashir Mustafa I; Abdallah Tajeldin M; Rayis Duria A; Ali AbdelAziem A; Adam Ishag

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) < 7 g/dl, n = 303) who delivered from January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. Socio-demographic and obstetric data were analyse...

  4. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  5. Genetic variations of PIP4K2A confer vulnerability to poor antipsychotic response in severely ill schizophrenia patients.

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    Harpreet Kaur

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that disease severity and neurotransmitter signaling pathway genes can accurately identify antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients. However, putative role of signaling molecules has not been tested in schizophrenia patients based on severity of illness, despite its biological plausibility. In the present study we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms from five candidate genes RGS4, SLC6A3, PIP4K2A, BDNF, PI4KA with response to antipsychotic in variably ill schizophrenia patients. Thus in present study, a total 53 SNPs on the basis of previous reports and functional grounds were examined for their association with antipsychotic response in 423 schizophrenia patients segregated into low and high severity groups. Additionally, haplotype, diplotype, multivariate logistic regression and multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR analyses were performed. Furthermore, observed associations were investigated in atypical monotherapy (n = 355 and risperidone (n = 260 treated subgroups. All associations were estimated as odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI and test for multiple corrections was applied. Single locus analysis showed significant association of nine variants from SLC6A3, PIP4K2A and BDNF genes with incomplete antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients with high severity. We identified significant association of six marker diplotype ATTGCT/ATTGCT (rs746203-rs10828317-rs7094131-rs2296624-rs11013052-rs1409396 of PIP4K2A gene in incomplete responders (corrected p-value = 0.001; adjusted-OR = 3.19, 95%-CI = 1.46-6.98 with high severity. These associations were further observed in atypical monotherapy and risperidone sub-groups. MDR approach identified gene-gene interaction among BDNF_rs7103411-BDNF_rs1491851-SLC6A3_rs40184 in severely ill incomplete responders (OR = 7.91, 95%-CI = 4.08-15.36. While RGS4_rs2842026-SLC6A3_rs2975226 interacted synergistically in

  6. Improved ability of biological and previous caries multimarkers to predict caries disease as revealed by multivariate PLS modelling

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    Ericson Thorild

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88 for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries and prospective (2-year caries development setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the numbers of incipient and manifest caries lesions at all surfaces. Results A wide but shallow gliding scale of one fifth caries promoting or protecting, and four fifths non-influential, variables occurred. The influential markers behaved in the order of plaque bacteria > diet > saliva, with previously known plaque bacteria/diet markers and a set of new protective diet markers. A differential variable patterning appeared for new versus progressing lesions. The influential biological multimarkers (n = 18 predicted baseline caries better (ROC area 0.96 than five markers (0.92 and a single lactobacilli marker (0.7 with sensitivity/specificity of 1.87, 1.78 and 1.13 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick, respectively. Moreover, biological multimarkers (n = 18 explained 2-year caries increment slightly better than reported before but predicted it poorly (ROC area 0.76. By contrast, multimarkers based on previous caries predicted alone (ROC area 0.88, or together with biological multimarkers (0.94, increment well with a sensitivity/specificity of 1.74 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick. Conclusion Multimarkers behave better than single-to-five markers but future multimarker strategies will require systematic searches for improved saliva and plaque bacteria markers.

  7. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare

    2013-01-01

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  8. Prevention of dental caries through the effective use of fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that dental caries is a severe public health problem across the world. The current global and regional patterns of dental caries reflect distinct risk profiles of countries which relate to the structure of the society, living conditions......, lifestyles, and the existence of preventive oral health programmes. Research conducted in high income countries documents that systematic use of fluoride reduces the burden of dental caries; such research is scarce in low and middle income countries. Objectives: This article reviews the evidence on effective...... use of fluoride, highlights the public health approach to fluoridation, and clarifies how automatic fluoridation contributes to breaking social inequities in dental caries. Data collection: Scientific publications on fluoride administration stored in PubMed/Medline and caries data from the WHO...

  9. Dental Caries and General Health in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    in society with caries risk due to age- and medication-induced salivary reduction. However, a general disease may not always have a negative influence on dental health. Therefore, a regular individual caries risk assessment is of utmost importance for clinical decision-making and tailoring of recall......Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...... diseases are mainly derived from case–control studies with various sample sizes and quality of matching. Few observational studies are available and the majority of all research is conducted in childhood and among older adults. There is an increased caries risk for subjects with obesity, severe asthma...

  10. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1994-01-01

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  11. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  12. Caries lesion remineralization with fluoride toothpastes and chlorhexidine - effects of application timing and toothpaste surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. Almohefer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitual toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste followed by rinsing with antibacterial mouthwashes is a method to maintain good oral hygiene and to diminish the occurrence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. However, our understanding of how antimicrobial agents in mouthwashes affect fluoride-mediated caries lesion remineralization is still poor. Objective: The objectives of this in vitro study were a to determine the effects of the waiting period of chlorhexidine (CHX rinsing after fluoride toothpaste use and b to further determine the effect of the type of toothpaste surfactant [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB] on caries lesion remineralization associated with CHX rinsing. Material and Methods: Caries lesions were formed in bovine enamel specimens and assigned to 10 treatment groups (n=18 based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN. Lesions were then pH-cycled for 10 days with daily regimen comprised of twice daily toothpaste slurry treatments (1150 ppm fluoride, with SDS or CAPB, followed by CHX solution treatments [0, 15, 30 or 60 minutes following slurry treatment or no CHX treatment (negative control]. VHN was measured again and the extent of lesion remineralization calculated (∆VHN. Results: ∆VHN with SDS-toothpaste was significantly lower than with CAPB-toothpaste, indicating more remineralization for the CAPB-toothpaste. ∆VHN with 0-minute waiting time was significantly lower than with 30-minute waiting time and with negative control. Conclusions: The absence of CHX as an adjunct to fluoride toothpastes led to greater remineralization of enamel lesions compared with the immediate use of CHX treatment for both SDS- and CAPB-toothpastes. CAPB-toothpastes indicated significantly greater remineralization than SDS-toothpastes, and can be suggested for patients at high risk of caries. A 30-minute waiting time for CHX treatment is recommended after brushing.

  13. Severe vitamin D deficiency upon admission in critically ill patients is related to acute kidney injury and a poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero, A; Dot, I; Diaz, Y; Gracia, M P; Pérez-Terán, P; Climent, C; Masclans, J R; Nolla, J

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its prognostic implications. A single-center, prospective observational study was carried out from January to November 2015. Patients were followed-up on until death or hospital discharge. The department of Critical Care Medicine of a university hospital. All adults admitted to the ICU during the study period, without known factors capable of altering serum 25(OH)D concentration. Determination of serum 25(OH)D levels within the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Prevalence and mortality at 28 days. The study included 135 patients, of which 74% presented deficient serum 25(OH)D levels upon admission to the ICU. Non-survivors showed significantly lower levels than survivors (8.14ng/ml [6.17-11.53] vs. 12ng/ml [7.1-20.30]; P=.04], and the serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated to mortality (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; P=.04]. The area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.75), and the best cut-off point for predicting mortality was 10.9ng/ml. Patients with serum 25(OH)D<10.9ng/ml also showed higher acute kidney injury rates (13 vs. 29%; P=.02). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent upon admission to the ICU. Severe Vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<10.9ng/ml) upon admission to the ICU is associated to acute kidney injury and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes: A poorly known allergen in Western countries responsible for severe work-related asthma

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    Valerio Pravettoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the IgE-mediated pathogenesis of severe asthma presented by a patient only after handling shiitake (Lentinus edodes mushrooms (SM. Material and Methods: Skin tests were performed using in-house extracts from mushrooms that the patient usually handled, i.e., shiitake, porcini, oyster and black fungus mushroom varieties. Specific IgE to champignons and various molds were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE immunoblotting was performed to detect IgE-binding components. Four negative controls were included in the study. Results: Skin prick tests performed with in-house mushroom extracts from varieties other than shiitake were completely negative, in contrast to the positive test obtained for shiitake mushrooms. Serum specific IgE levels for common molds and champignons were all negative. SDS-PAGE revealed many protein bands in the four mushroom extracts. Immunoblotting using the patient’s serum showed allergenic bands at about 15 and 24 kDa exclusively for SM that were not shared with negative controls. Another faint band was detectable at approximately 37 kDa for SM and porcini varieties. Conclusions: Here, we present the first European case of SM-induced occupational asthma, a disease more frequently occurring in Asia. Asthma attacks stopped when the patient avoided contact with shiitake mushrooms. No skin reactions and no IgE-binding proteins by immunoblotting were detectable with the other mushrooms tested. The positive skin test with shiitake mushrooms and IgE-binding components in the shiitake extract confirmed the IgE-mediated etiology of the reaction.

  15. Adolescent rampant caries

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    Namita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.

  16. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  17. Social inequalities and dental caries in six-year-old children from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tas, Justin T; Kragt, Lea; Elfrink, Marlies E C; Bertens, Loes C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of different socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with dental caries in six-year-old children. Furthermore, we applied a district based approach to explore the distribution of dental caries among districts of low and high socioeconomic position (SEP). In our cross-sectional study 5189 six-year-olds were included. This study was embedded in a prospective population-based birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, the Generation R Study. Parental education level, parental employment status, net household income, single parenting, and teenage pregnancy were considered as indicators for SEP. Dental caries was scored on intraoral photographs by using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index. We compared children without caries (dmft=0) to children with mild caries (dmft=1-3) or severe caries (dmft >3). Multinomial logistic regression analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between SEP and caries, and between district and caries, respectively. Only maternal education level remained significantly associated with mild caries after adjusting for all other SEP-indicators. Paternal educational level, parental employment status, and household income additionally served as independent indicators of SEP in children with severe caries. Furthermore, living in more disadvantaged districts was significantly associated with higher odds of dental caries. Dental caries is more prevalent among six-year-old children with a low SEP, which is also visible at the district level. Maternal educational level is the most important indicator of SEP in the association with caries. Our results should raise concerns about the existing social inequalities in dental caries and should encourage development of dental caries prevention strategies. New knowledge about the distribution of oral health inequalities between districts should be used to target the right audience

  18. Catheter-based intervention for symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation and very poor left ventricular systolic function - Safe but no room for complacency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bourantas, Christos V; Chan, Pak Hei; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Gustafsson, Fin; Clark, Andrew L; Price, Susanna; Mario, Carlo Di; Moat, Neil; Alamgir, Farqad; Estevez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Søndergaard, Lars; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-11-26

    Many patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction have concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Their symptoms and prognosis worsen with increasing severity of MR. Percutaneous MitraClip(®) can be used safely to reduce the severity of MR even in patients with advanced heart failure and is associated with improved symptoms, quality of life and exercise tolerance. However, a few patients with very poor left ventricular systolic function may experience significant haemodynamic disturbance in the peri-procedural period. We present three such patients, highlighting some of the potential problems encountered and discuss their possible pathophysiological mechanisms and safety measures.

  19. Oral hygiene, dental caries and nutritional Status of in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries has become a disease of public health significance with dietary and hygiene practices being identified has major contributors. The extent of this burden is poorly explored among the adolescents in Nigeria. This study examines the association between oral hygiene, dental caries and nutritional ...

  20. Psychophysiological types of clinically healthy individuals with different levels of teeth resistance to caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Khalturina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is a result of the psychophysiological tests with the help of cutting examination and psychogeometrical tests for 76 healthy individuals ages 20,18±1,25 years, having different caries resistance. It is known that group of people with poor caries resistance has a conflict type of personality. There is a positive tendency to growth of anxiety level and reducing caries resistance. The article concludes that the prophylaxis of caries and its complications must contain methods of psychophysiological correction

  1. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  2. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  3. The effect of impaired dentin formation on dental caries:an experimental study in the molars of growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Huumonen, S. (Sisko)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The effects of dietary sucrose and systemic glucocorticoid treatment on the response of the pulpodentinal complex to dental caries were examined in an experimental rat model. The possible role of dentinal caries on dentin formation was also examined. After 5-6 weeks of a dietary and/or medication period, the areas of dentin formation and dentinal caries were quantified in the molars of growing animals. Also the number and severity of caries lesions were estimated. Th...

  4. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratios Are More Effective than the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index for Predicting Poor Prognosis in Fournier's Gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sang Un; Kim, Sun Woo; Ahn, Ji Hoon; Cho, Yang Hyun; Chung, Hoseok; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Jung, Seung Il; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as markers of mortality in patients with Fournier's gangrene. Records from 62 patients treated for Fournier's gangrene between 2003 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected regarding medical history, symptoms, physical examination findings, admission laboratory tests, and the extent of body surface area involved (%). Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score, NLR, and PLR were calculated. The data were assessed separately for surviving and deceased patients. Of the 62 patients, 36 survived (58%, group 1) and 26 died (42%, group 2). Parameters that were statistically different between the two groups (p Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score, and admission laboratory parameters, including body temperature, heart rate, bicarbonate, albumin, and serum calcium. The average body surface area affected in group 2 was statistically different from that of group 1 (6.0% versus 2.3%, p = 0.001). A high Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score (>9), high NLR (>8), and high PLR (>140) were associated more frequently with group 2 patients. Multivariable regression analysis showed that high NLR (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-17.3; p = 0.022) and high PLR (adjusted OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 2.7-49.5; p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for poor prognosis from Fournier's gangrene. However, the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score did not shown any statistically significant effect on mortality (p = 0.086). The Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index scoring system was not associated with determining poor prognosis, however, high NLR and high PLR were associated with predictors of mortality in patients with Fournier's gangrene.

  5. The biomarkers neuron-specific enolase and S100b measured the day following admission for severe accidental hypothermia have high predictive values for poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kjærgaard, Benedict

    2017-01-01

    was analyzed for NSE and S100b. Follow-up was conducted after 30days and poor neurologic outcome was defined as a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 3-5. The predictive value of NSE and S100b was assessed as the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: A total of 34......AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of the biomarkers neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein b (S100b) to predict mortality and poor neurologic outcome after 30days in patients admitted with severe accidental hypothermia. METHODS: Consecutive patients...... in 30 unconscious and/or sedated patients. NSE and S100b achieved AUCs of 0.93 and 0.88, respectively, for prediction of 30day mortality and AUCs of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively, for prediction of poor neurologic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In patients remaining unconscious the day following admission...

  6. Diabetes mellitus and female gender are the strongest predictors of poor collateral vessel development in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, Ertan; Topal, Ergun; Erguzel, Nuri; Senen, Kubilay; Heper, Gulumser; Waltenberger, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Coronary collateral vessel development (CVD), i.e., arteriogenesis, is regarded as one of the most important mechanisms—along with angiogenesis—to result in protection of the myocardium. Coronary CVD is associated with a reduction in infarct size, future cardiovascular events and improved survival in patients with occlusive coronary artery disease by enhancing regional perfusion in the chronically ischemic myocardium. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relation of cardiovascular risk factors and hematological parameters with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic (≥95%) and totally occluded coronary artery disease including at least one major coronary artery. The study population was selected from the patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2008 and March 2009. Five hundred and two patients who had at least one coronary artery stenosis ≥95% (368 men; mean age 59 ± 10 years) comprised the study population. Of the 502 patients, 228 had total occlusion in at least one major epicardial coronary artery. Collateral artery grading was performed by using Cohen-Rentrop method to the vessel with coronary artery stenosis of ≥95% and patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO). Patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as the poor collateral group, and patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as the good collateral group. Two hundred and fifty-eight (51%) of 502 patients had poor collateral development, and 244 (49%) had good collateral development. Logistic regression analysis revealed that DM was independently associated with poor CVD in patients with ≥95% stenosis (p risk factor for poor CVD in addition to DM in patients with CTO.

  7. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  8. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  9. Longitudinal associations between children’s dental caries and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankanka, Oitip; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Levy, Steven M.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara; Kolker, Justine L.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common disease in children of all ages. It is desirable to know whether children with primary, mixed and permanent dentitions share risk factors for cavitated and non-cavitated caries. Objective To assess the longitudinal associations between caries outcomes and modifiable risk factors. Methods One hundred and fifty-six children in the Iowa Fluoride Study met inclusion criteria of three dental examinations and caries-related risk factor assessments preceding each examination. Surface-specific counts of new non-cavitated caries and cavitated caries at the primary (Exam 1: age 5), mixed (Exam 2: age 9) and permanent (Exam 3: age 13) dentition examinations were outcome variables. Explanatory variables were caries-related factors, including averaged beverage exposure frequencies, toothbrushing frequencies, and composite water fluoride levels collected from 3–5, 6–8, and 11–13 years, dentition category, socioeconomic status and gender. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to explore the relationships between new non-cavitated or cavitated caries and caries-related variables. Results Greater frequency of 100% juice exposure was significantly associated with fewer non-cavitated and cavitated caries surfaces. Greater toothbrushing frequency and high SES were significantly associated with fewer new non-cavitated caries. Children had significantly more new cavitated caries surfaces at the mixed dentition examination than at the primary and permanent dentition examinations. Conclusions There were common caries-related factors for more new non-cavitated caries across the three exams, including less frequent 100% juice exposure, lower toothbrushing frequency and lower socioeconomic status. Less frequent 100% juice exposures might be associated with higher exposures to several other cariogenic beverages. PMID:22320287

  10. Dental caries and risk indicators for patients with leprosy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Tian, Li-Li; Zhang, Feng-Yi; Bu, Yan-Hong; Feng, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Hou-De

    2017-02-01

    In leprosy, oral health is often neglected and poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk indicators of dental caries in patients with leprosy in China. This cross-sectional, multicentre study included 613 patients with leprosy and 602 control subjects. Based on the established standards of the World Health Organization, we investigated dental caries in cluster samplings from six so-called 'leprosy villages' in three Chinese provinces. Clinical oral examinations were performed and data were reported as decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT scores). The average DMFT scores were 10.39 in patients with leprosy (D = 4.43; M = 5.94; and F = 0.02) and 4.39 in control individuals (D = 2.29; M = 2.02; F = 0.08). The DMFT scores were statistically significantly different in patients with different ages, educational backgrounds and daily brushing frequency (P leprosy have a high prevalence of severe dental caries. Effective therapy and oral health education should be enhanced for this group of patients. © 2016 The Authors. International Dental Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Dental Federation.

  11. Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and χ2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

  12. Xylitol and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used. Ten studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5–3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF −0.13, 95% CI −0.18 to −0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects

  13. Caries in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, H L; Uusitupa, M; Niskanen, L; Koivisto, A M; Markkanen, H; Meurman, J H

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dental caries in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and to determine whether these factors are associated with metabolic control and vascular complications of the disease. Both the occurrence of caries, acidogenic oral bacteria, and yeasts and salivary flow were studied in 25 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus whose diagnosis had been set 13 to 14 years earlier and in whom the metabolic evolution of the disease was well established. The patients' glycemic control was determined by means of analysis of the blood hemoglobin A1C concentration at the time of dental examination. The control group consisted of 40 nondiabetic subjects in the same age group. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth indices and numbers of surfaces with caries, filled surfaces, and root caries were determined by means of clinical dental caries examination. Stimulated salivary flow was measured, and levels of Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, and yeasts were analyzed. The median hemoglobin A1C concentration of the patients was 8.6%, which indicates poor metabolic control of diabetes. No association was found between the metabolic control of disease and dental caries. The occurrence of dental caries was not increased in the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in comparison with the control subjects. The counts of acidogenic microbes and yeasts did not differ statistically significantly between the groups. There was no association of caries with the prevalence of coronary artery disease or hypertension in either the patients or the control subjects. In a stepwise logistic regression model, a salivary flow of at least 0.8 ml/min was related to the occurrence of dental caries in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, whereas negligence with respect to dental care was the most important risk predictor in the control group. Our results showed no effect

  14. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  15. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  16. Cetuximab plus FOLFOX for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer with Poor Performance Status and/or Severe Tumor-Related Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Kohei; Yokota, Tomoya; Takahari, Daisuke; Shibata, Takashi; Sato, Yozo; Tajika, Masahiro; Ura, Takashi; Muro, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cetuximab-based chemotherapy showed a statistically significantly higher response rate compared with chemotherapy such as FOLFOX. Therefore, FOLFOX plus cetuximab is suspected to be the best regimen to alleviate tumor-related symptoms with a high response rate. Case Report Here we present the results of 8 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with poor performance status and/or severe complications who were treated with first-line FOLFOX with cetuximab. Six of 8 patients achieved an apparent clinical benefit, including radiological response and symptoms improvement. Two patients with BRAF mutation could achieve neither clinical benefit nor radiological response. Conclusion Although an optimal line of therapy with cetuximab is unclear yet with bevacizumab in mind, we propose that patients who need a tumor response to alleviate their symptoms due to advanced disease might be candidates for first-line cetuximab-based therapy as shown in our cases. Additionally, patients with BRAF mutant tumors might be important candidates for novel targeted therapy in the future to improve their poor prognosis. PMID:21347194

  17. Cetuximab plus FOLFOX for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer with Poor Performance Status and/or Severe Tumor-Related Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Shitara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cetuximab-based chemotherapy showed a statistically significantly higher response rate compared with chemotherapy such as FOLFOX. Therefore, FOLFOX plus cetuximab is suspected to be the best regimen to alleviate tumor-related symptoms with a high response rate. Case Report: Here we present the results of 8 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with poor performance status and/or severe complications who were treated with first-line FOLFOX with cetuximab. Six of 8 patients achieved an apparent clinical benefit, including radiological response and symptoms improvement. Two patients with BRAF mutation could achieve neither clinical benefit nor radiological response. Conclusion: Although an optimal line of therapy with cetuximab is unclear yet with bevacizumab in mind, we propose that patients who need a tumor response to alleviate their symptoms due to advanced disease might be candidates for first-line cetuximab-based therapy as shown in our cases. Additionally, patients with BRAF mutant tumors might be important candidates for novel targeted therapy in the future to improve their poor prognosis.

  18. Dental caries-associated risk factors and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Norma; Mello, Sandra; Alves, Cresio

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with various oral complications. However there is no consensus regarding the association of T1DM and caries. Critical revision of dental caries-associated risk factors and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Search of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases from 2000 to 2010, using, in different combination, the key words "dental caries", "diabetes mellitus" and "type 1 diabetes mellitus". The association between T1DM and dental caries remains controversial. Although some studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of caries due to the increased concentration of salivary glucose, acidity of the oral cavity, salivary viscosity, reduced salivary flow rate, and salivary gland dysfunction; other studies report a reduction of caries levels, probably caused by decreased ucrose ingestion. Although patients with uncontrolled T1DM and poor oral hygiene may present increased prevalence of dental caries, the literature does not describe a consistent relationship between T1DM and dental caries. Further investigations are warranted. If a true association is substantiated, intervention studies to prevent or reduce the occurrence of caries in this population should follow.

  19. Prevalência de estreptococos do grupo mutans em crianças de 12 a 31 meses de idade e sua associação com a freqüência e severidade de cárie dental Prevalence of mutans streptococci in 12-31-month-old children and its association with frequency and severity of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira MATTOS-GRANER

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os níveis salivares de estreptococos do grupo mutans (GM e a prevalência de cárie dental em 142 crianças, de 12 a 31 meses de idade, da cidade de Piracicaba - SP. Ao exame clínico, foram diagnosticadas as lesões de cárie iniciais (mancha branca e cavitadas de todas as superfícies dentárias. GM foram detectados em 80,3% (n = 114 das crianças estudadas, sendo que 21,8% (n = 31 delas apresentavam altos níveis salivares desses microrganismos. Os níveis salivares de GM foram dependentes do número de dentes irrompidos na cavidade bucal (c2 = 19,03; p c2 = 28,67; p The prevalence of mutans streptococci (MS was evaluated in samples of unstimulated saliva from 142 12-31-month-old children. Initial and manifest caries of all teeth surfaces were recorded. Mutans streptococci were detected in 80.3% (n = 114 of the studied children, and 21.8% of all children (n = 31 presented high levels of these microorganisms. The salivary levels of mutans streptococci depended on the number of erupted teeth (c2 = 19.03; p c2 = 28.67; p < 0.001. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the salivary levels of these microorganisms and the number of caries lesions which was higher when initial caries were considered (r = 0.537; p < 0.001. These data show a high prevalence of mutans streptococci in children with 12 to 31 months of age and its positive association with the frequency and severity of dental caries.

  20. Clinicians' preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Roxana; Gahnberg, Lars; Gabre, Pia

    2011-05-01

    Clinicians handle diagnosis and treatment planning of caries in different ways, and the underlying factors leading to management of risk and choice of treatment strategies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' and dental hygienists' choices of preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries. A sample of dental records from 432 of a total of 3372 children in a Swedish county identified as at high risk of developing caries, aged 3-19 years, was randomly selected for analysis in the study. Information of importance for the therapists' choice of caries management strategies were obtained from the dental records. The results showed that therapists considered tooth brushing instruction and fluoride treatment at the clinic to be of primary importance as treatment given in 60% of the cases, respectively. Fluoride treatment at home and diet counselling were both chosen in half of the cases. Fissure sealant therapy was used in 21% of the cases, and 15% of the patients did not receive any preventive treatment at all. The results also showed that girls more often received fluoride treatment, tooth brushing instruction and oral hygiene information than boys. In the majority of the children and adolescents, several preventive measures were given. The more background factors included in the risk assessment, the more preventive measures were given. The differences between the treatments given to girls and the boys need to be further investigated. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Presence of plaque, gingivitis and caries in Sudanese children with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hiba Mohamed; Mustafa, Manal; Hasabalrasol, Siham; Elshazali, Osama Hafiz; Nasir, Elwalid Fadul; Ali, Raouf Wahab; Berggreen, Ellen; Skeie, Marit Slåttelid

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the presence of plaque, gingivitis, and caries in a group of Sudanese children with congenital heart defects CHDs (cases) and compare them to children without CHDs (controls). This analytical cross-sectional study included cases (N = 111, with a mean age of 7.2 ± 3.0 years) and controls (N = 182, with a mean age of 7.2 ± 2.8 years) from Khartoum, Sudan. Examinations were done by two calibrated dentists using plaque index, gingival index, and WHO (World Health Organization) caries diagnostic criteria (dmft/DMFT index: decayed, missing, and filled teeth). Children with CHDs (cases) had statistically significantly higher mean number of sites with plaque and gingivitis than children without CHDs (controls), although almost all children experienced plaque. Cases also experienced significantly higher mean dmft/DMFT than controls (age group 1, 3-7 years: 3.7 vs 2.3 and age group 2, 8-12 years: 1.3 vs 0.6). The Significant Caries Indices in cases (age groups 1 and 2) were also significantly higher than among controls (SiC 8.2 vs 5.9 and 1.8 vs 0.8, respectively). Fillings were totally lacking among cases and scarce among controls. The findings clearly showed that this group of Sudanese children with CHDs was more severely affected with gingivitis and caries than the control group without CHDs. These results are cause for concern in children at risk of developing systemic infections and serious complications related to poor oral health. These findings provide important baseline data for planning appropriate dental preventive strategies for Sudanese children with CHDs.

  2. Severe malnutrition evaluated by patient-generated subjective global assessment results in poor outcome among adult patients with acute leukemia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wang, Chang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Qiuju; Lin, Hai; Liu, Chunshui; Jin, Fengyan; Yang, Yan; Bai, Ou; Tan, Yehui; Gao, Sujun; Li, Wei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate nutritional status in adult patients with acute leukemia (AL) using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to investigate the influence of nutritional status on prognosis.We observationally investigated 68 adult patients with newly diagnosed AL who received PG-SGA at the First Hospital of Jilin University between May 2013 and July 2015. Clinical features, chemotherapy regimens, biochemical indexes, body composition, complete remission (CR) rate, minimal residual disease (MRD), survival time, and side-effects of chemotherapy were compared between patients with and without severe malnutrition.Mean PG-SGA scores of the total patients were 6.1 ± 4.0, and 19 of 68 (27.9%) patients had severe malnutrition (PG-SGA score ≥9). Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had higher scores than those with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; P = .011) and high-risk patients had higher scores regardless of whether they had AML or ALL (AML, P = .012; ALL, P = .043). Univariate analysis showed that severe malnutrition was correlated with age (P = .041), transferrin (P = .042), Karnofsky Performance Status score (P = .006), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .018). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that severe malnutrition was associated with CRP (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.020, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.039, P = .026). No difference was found in CR rate (P = .831) between patients with and without malnutrition, but those who were severely malnourished had higher MRD (P = .048 in AML patients, P = .036 in ALL patients) and more gastrointestinal side-effects (P = .014). Severe malnutrition was also associated with inferior overall survival (HR = 0.243, 95% CI: 0.063-0.945, P = .041) but not with event-free survival (HR = 0.808, 95% CI: 0.338-1.934, P = .663).Severe malnutrition defined by PG-SGA in adult patients with de novo AL may result in poor outcome. Copyright

  3. Inequality in dental caries distribution at noncavitated and cavitated thresholds in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Del Fabro, Joana; Buzzati, Bruna Cássia Schmidt; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the inequality in dental caries distribution according to different thresholds assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and to investigate the associations of socioeconomic factors with caries lesions at both noncavitated and cavitated thresholds. Study subjects were recruited in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Day of Children's Vaccination, and 639 children aged 12-59 months were included. Fifteen calibrated examiners performed the examinations using ICDAS criteria. Inequality in dental caries distribution was measured using the Gini coefficient, and the Significant Caries Index was calculated for several thresholds of ICDAS. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with the highest caries scores. The inequality in the distribution of dental caries was lower when precavitated caries were included; the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.77 to 0.60 when noncavitated caries lesions were included in the analyses. Moreover, the inequalities were higher in the younger than in the older children for all thresholds. Socioeconomic factors were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with caries when an ICDAS score of 3 was considered as the cut-off point. Children whose mothers did not complete primary education (P < 0.001) and those with low household income (P < 0.001) were more likely to have increased dental caries. Caries lesions were more equally distributed when noncavitated lesions were included in the dental survey. Socioeconomic factors are found to be associated with the inequalities in caries distribution in this age group. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. The effect of methamphetamine abuse on dental caries and periodontal diseases in an Eastern China city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Sun, Dongliang; Dong, Guangying; Xu, Guangjie; Wang, Ligang; Du, Jinjin; Ren, Pengcheng; Yu, Shibin

    2018-01-10

    Dental diseases are among the most frequently reported health problems in drug abusers. However, few studies have been conducted on oral health of methamphetamine (meth) abusers in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the caries and periodontal health profile of former meth abusers in Eastern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 162 former meth abusers in the male Zhoushan Compulsory Detoxification Center. A standardized questionnaire, which collected information about age, drug-use duration / pattern, oral hygiene habit and systemic diseases, was administered. Then, a dental examination was performed to investigate the severity of dental caries and periodontal diseases. In evaluating dental caries, the prevalence of dental caries, the scores of decayed teeth (DT), missing teeth (MT), filled teeth (FT), and decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) were recorded. In evaluating periodontal diseases, community periodontal index (CPI), and the prevalence of gingival bleeding, dental calculus, periodontal pocket and loose teeth, were recorded. Additionally, the non-parametric test was adopted to analyze the potential risk factors via SPSS. All the participants abused meth by inhalation. The mean scores of DT, MT, FT and DMFT in the former meth users were 2.72 ± 2.78, 3.07 ± 3.94, 0.33 ± 1.03 and 6.13 ± 5.20 respectively. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, dental calculus, periodontal pocket and loose teeth was 97.53%, 95.68%, 51.23% and 9.26% respectively. The DT, DMFT and CPI scores in those who had abused meth for longer than 4 years were significantly higher than those who abused for less than 4 years (P = 0.039, 0.045, P periodontal diseases among former male meth users in Eastern China was poor. Prolonged drug abuse and lower frequency of tooth brushing may be the risk factors of their poor status of caries and periodontal diseases.

  5. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an independent predictor of poor global outcome in severe traumatic brain injury up to 5 years after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesinger, Matthew Ryan; Kumar, Raj G; Wagner, Amy K; Puyana, Juan Carlos; Peitzman, Andrew P; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L

    2015-02-01

    predictor of low GOSE score (OR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.82-11.60; p = 0.001). HAP is independently associated with poor outcomes in severe TBI extending 5 years after injury. This suggests that precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of HAP in individuals with severe TBI. Prognostic study, level III.

  6. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia is an Independent Predictor of Poor Global Outcome in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury up to 5 Years after Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesinger, Matthew R.; Kumar, Raj G.; Wagner, Amy K.; Puyana, Juan C.; Peitzman, Andrew P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Long-term outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) correlate with initial head injury severity and other acute factors. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common complication in TBI. Little information exists regarding the significance of infectious complications on long-term outcomes post-TBI. We sought to characterize risks associated with HAP on outcomes 5 years post-TBI. Methods Ddata from the merger of an institutional trauma registry and the TBI Model Systems outcome data. Individuals with severe head injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale≥4), who survived to rehabilitation were analyzed. Primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scaled-Extended (GOSE) at 1, 2, and 5 years. GOSE was dichotomized into LOW (GOSEGOSE≥6). Logistic regression was utilized to determine adjusted odds of LOW-GOSE associated with HAP after controlling for age, sex, head and overall injury severity, cranial surgery, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), ventilation days, and other important confounders. A general estimating equation (GEE) model was used to analyze all outcome observations simultaneously while controlling for within-patient correlation. Results A total of 141 individuals met inclusion criteria, with a 30% incidence of HAP. Individuals with and without HAP had similar demographic profiles, presenting vitals, head injury severity, and prevalence of cranial surgery. Individuals with HAP had lower presenting GCS. Logistic regression demonstrated that HAP was independently associated with LOW-GOSE scores at follow-up (1year: OR=6.39, 95%CI: 1.76-23.14, p=0.005; 2-years: OR=7.30, 95%CI 1.87-27.89, p=0.004; 5-years: OR=6.89, 95%CI: 1.42-33.39, p=0.017). Stratifying by GCS≤8 and early intubation, HAP remained a significant independent predictor of LOW-GOSE in all strata. In the GEE model, HAP continued to be an independent predictor of LOW-GOSE (OR: 4.59; 95%CI: 1.82-11.60′ p=0.001). Conclusion HAP is independently associated with poor outcomes in severe-TBI extending 5

  7. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Harald A B; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that green tea and Oolong tea extracts have antibacterial and anticariogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized black tea extract (BTE) on caries formation in inbred hamsters on a regular and a cariogenic diet. Eighty hamsters were divided into four groups of 20 animals each. Two groups received a pelleted regular diet (LabChow) with water or BTE ad libitum. The other two groups received a powdered cariogenic diet (Diet 2000, containing 56% sucrose) with water or BTE ad libitum. The animals were kept for 3 months on their respective diets and then were sacrificed. The heads were retained, the jaws were prepared and stained using alizarin mordant red II, and were then scored for dental caries according to the Keyes method. This is the first study indicating that BTE, as compared with water, significantly decreased caries formation by 56.6% in hamsters on a regular diet and by 63.7% in hamsters on a cariogenic diet (P cariogenic diet group BTE, reduced the mandibular caries score of the hamsters slightly more than the maxillary caries score. The fluoride content of the standardized BTE solution was frequently monitored during the experiment; the mean fluoride concentration was found to be 4.22 ppm. A frequent intake of black tea can significantly decrease caries formation, even in the presence of sugars in the diet.

  8. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  9. Screening Children for Caries: An Ethical Dilemma in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatoyin Folayan, Morenike; Gabriella Haire, Bridget; Adeniyi, Abiola A; Lanre Adeyemo, Wasiu

    2018-03-13

    Dental caries is the main oral health challenge for children in Nigeria. Concern about its negative impact makes screening for caries in children an attractive public health strategy. The ability to detect the preclinical phase of caries, the availability of screening tools with high accuracy, and the possibility of treatment before onset of clinical symptoms with significant cost and health benefits, makes it appropriate for screening. However in Nigeria, the poor availability of highly specific and sensitive screening tools, poor access to oral health care and concerns with pre-screening consent, raise the question of the appropriateness of conducting screening programmes for children. We argue that a number of structural challenges associated with poor uptake of oral health care services need to be addressed before screening for caries can be considered ethically appropriate. These include facilitating access of children to quality oral health care and a systematic national approach to oral health implementation. Failure to address challenges associated with dental service utilization by children in Nigeria increases the risk of screening programmes promoting inequitable access to oral health care services.

  10. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  11. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  12. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmyer, Marcia; Dounis, Georgia; Mobley, Connie; Schwarz, Eli

    2011-04-05

    With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009) that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Significant Caries Index (SiC) were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES) data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of caries free individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was significantly higher than DMFT scores within each

  13. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: Dental Caries Onset Linked to Multiple Species by 16S rRNA Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin L.; Beall, Clifford J.; Kutsch, Stacey R.; Firestone, Noah D.; Leys, Eugene J.; Griffen, Ann L.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have

  14. Mechanical dispersion is associated with poor outcome in heart failure with a severely depressed left ventricular function and bundle branch blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Ivan; Janicijevic, Aleksandra; Dimic, Aleksandra; Stefanovic, Milica; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2018-03-01

    Bundle branch blocks (BBB)-related mechanical dyssynchrony and dispersion may improve patient selection for device therapy, but their effect on the natural history of this patient population is unknown. A total of 155 patients with LVEF ≤ 35% and BBB, not treated with device therapy, were included. Mechanical dyssynchrony was defined as the presence of either septal flash or apical rocking. Contraction duration was assessed as time interval from the electrocardiographic R-(Q-)wave to peak longitudinal strain in each of 17 left ventricular segments. Mechanical dispersion was defined as either the standard deviation of all time intervals (dispersion SD ) or as the difference between the longest and shortest time intervals (dispersion delta ). Patients were followed for cardiac mortality during a median period of 33 months. Mechanical dyssynchrony was not associated with survival. More pronounced mechanical dispersion delta was found in patients with dyssynchrony than in those without. In the multivariate regression analysis, patients' functional class, diabetes mellitus and dispersion delta were independently associated with mortality. Mechanical dispersion, but not dyssynchrony, was independently associated with mortality and it may be useful for risk stratification of patients with heart failure (HF) and BBB. Key Messages Mechanical dispersion, measured by strain echocardiography, is associated with poor outcome in heart failure with a severely depressed left ventricular function and bundle branch blocks. Mechanical dispersion may be useful for risk stratification of patients with heart failure and bundle branch blocks.

  15. Quantifying the severity of fuel poverty, its relationship with poor housing and reasons for non-investment in energy-saving measures in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John D.; Clinch, J. Peter

    2004-01-01

    Fuel poverty has generally been calculated by quantifying the number of households spending in excess of 10% of income on home heating. This definition has a number of significant practical and scientific limitations. This paper employs self-reported data to calculate the severity of fuel poverty in Ireland to identify chronic fuel-poor households from occasional sufferers. It also assesses domestic energy-efficiency levels. Ireland is a useful case study as it demonstrates the highest variations in seasonal mortality and morbidity in northern Europe, both of which are associated with fuel poverty. Ireland is also experiencing extreme difficulties meeting its environmental emissions targets in light of recent spectacular economic growth. Reducing fuel poverty would lower energy-related emissions, assisting policy makers achieve these challenging targets. Furthermore, little empirical research has been undertaken on fuel poverty in Ireland. This paper identifies key social groups at risk by conducting detailed socio-economic and socio-demographic analyses. The relationship between fuel poverty and adverse housing conditions (damp, condensation) is also examined. Moreover, the reasons behind householders not investing in energy-saving measures are reported. The results show that Ireland suffers from similar levels of fuel poverty as the UK, with low-income households suffering the greatest. The key policy implications are outlined. (Author)

  16. Association between body mass index, diet and dental caries in Grade 6 boys in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayat, A; Ahmad, M S; Fadel, H T

    2016-12-12

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Saudi Arabia and although caries is associated with obesity, this association has not been investigated in Medina. This study aimed to determine the association between dental caries, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits of 12-year-old boys from four geographically distinct schools in Medina. Mean BMI was 22.17 kg/m² (± 5.15); 41% had normal BMI, 25% were overweight and 30% were obese. The mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was 1.46 (± 2.04). Those in the normal BMI range had a significantly higher prevalence of caries (57%) and DMFT score (1.92) compared with the overweight and obese groups (P caries. Normal and underweight participants had an almost 2 times greater risk of developing caries compared with their overweight and obese counterparts. The children had poor dietary habits and there were no significant associations between dietary variables and caries.

  17. Genome-wide association studies of pit-and-fissure- and smooth-surface caries in permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z; Shaffer, J R; Wang, X; Feingold, E; Weeks, D E; Lee, M; Cuenco, K T; Wendell, S K; Weyant, R J; Crout, R; McNeil, D W; Marazita, M L

    2013-05-01

    While genetics clearly influences dental caries risk, few caries genes have been discovered and validated. Recent studies have suggested differential genetic factors for primary dentition caries and permanent dentition caries, as well as for pit-and-fissure- (PF) and smooth- (SM) surface caries. We performed separate GWAS for caries in permanent-dentition PF surfaces (1,017 participants, adjusted for age, sex, and the presence of Streptococcus mutans) and SM surfaces (1,004 participants, adjusted for age, education group, and the presence of Streptococcus mutans) in self-reported whites (ages 14 to 56 yrs). Caries scores were derived based on visual assessment of each surface of each tooth; more than 1.2 million SNPs were either successfully genotyped or imputed and were tested for association. Two homologous genes were suggestively associated: BCOR (Xp11.4) in PF-surface caries (p value = 1.8E-7), and BCORL1 (Xq26.1) in SM-surface caries (p value = 1.0E-5). BCOR mutations cause oculofaciocardiodental syndrome, a Mendelian disease involving multiple dental anomalies. Associations of other plausible cariogenesis genes were also observed for PF-surface caries (e.g., INHBA, p value = 6.5E-6) and for SM-surface caries (e.g., CXCR1 and CXCR2, p value = 1.9E-6). This study supports the notion that genes differentially affect cariogenesis across the surfaces of the permanent dentition, and nominates several novel genes for investigation.

  18. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries.

  19. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazolla, E.R.; Miziara, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)

  20. Personal oral hygiene and dental caries: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe Pierre; Hujoel, Margaux Louise A; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2018-05-15

    To conduct a systematic review of randomised trials assessing the association between personal oral hygiene and dental caries in the absence of the confounding effects of fluoride. Dental caries continues to affect close to 100% of the global population. There is a century-old conflict on whether dental caries is caused by poor oral hygiene or poorly formed teeth (ie, teeth with dental defects). Resolving this conflict is of significant public health importance as these two hypotheses on dental caries aetiology can lead to different prevention strategies. A systematic search for randomised trials was conducted using predefined criteria in 3 databases. The impact of personal oral hygiene interventions on coronal dental caries incidence was evaluated using random-effects models. Three randomised studies involving a total of 743 participants were included. Personal oral hygiene interventions failed to influence the incidence of dental caries (Δ Decayed, Missing and Filled Surfaces (DFMS) = -0.11; 95% confidence interval: (-0.91, 0.69; P-value Personal oral hygiene in the absence of fluorides has failed to show a benefit in terms of reducing the incidence of dental caries. © 2018 The Authors. Gerodontology published by British Society of Gerodontology, European College of Gerodontology and Geriatric Oral Research Group and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  2. Experts' opinions on the role of diet in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C; Duggal, M S

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 54 experts in preventive dentistry in 23 European countries in order to make an inventory of existing national dietary guidelines for the prevention of dental caries. In addition, the experts were asked to give their personal opinion on several issues concerning the relationship between diet and dental caries. Forty-five experts from 20 countries returned the questionnaire. In 13 European countries dietary guidelines for caries prevention were available issued by a National (Dental) Association or a Government Body. All guidelines emphasised a reduction of the frequency of intakes of cariogenic foods. Two of them included a threshold level for the amount of sugar. When asked for their personal opinions, almost all experts mentioned reduction of frequency of 'cariogenic' intakes as the principal dietary messages for caries prevention. Four experts, however, explicitly mentioned that proper oral hygiene with fluoride toothpaste is more important. There was no agreement among the experts about a daily number of cariogenic intakes in between meals that can be regarded as safe, nor whether the message: 'Use products with sugar substitutes' should be part of the dietary guidelines for the prevention of dental caries. There was no agreement amongst experts on preventive dentistry in Europe on the contemporary validity of the paradigm: 'Sucrose is the arch criminal of dental caries.' Taking the variation in opinions into account and the fact that a balanced diet may lead to a moderate eating and snacking frequency, the authors propose that the emphasis on good versus bad foods for caries prevention should be replaced by an emphasis on good versus bad diets. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  4. Dental caries associated with dietary and toothbrushing habits of 6- to 12-year-old mentally retarded children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Yueh Liu

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: Children with MR tend to have poor oral health. A higher number of decayed teeth and a higher prevalence of caries were statistically significantly related to eating sweets and not having good oral hygiene habits of toothbrushing after eating.

  5. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  6. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  7. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  8. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  9. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  10. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition statu...

  11. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and ...

  12. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村, 俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  13. Caries prevalence in Danish pre-school children delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Mette Nelun; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante Henrik Agardh

    2012-01-01

    -section had a higher mean value in comparison with those delivered vaginally (dmfs 6.8 vs 3.2), but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a significant relationship between caries prevalence and low family income in the total study group (OR = 5.8, p Within...... study group with complete information consisted of 594 children, 443 delivered vaginally and 151 by C-section. RESULTS: The total caries prevalence was 8% and no significant difference was displayed between the groups. When only the children with caries (dmfs > 0) were compared, those delivered by C...... the limitations of this observational cohort study, caries prevalence in 3-year-old children was not related to the mode of delivery. However, the tendency of more severe caries in the C-section group justifies further studies, preferably with a prospective design....

  14. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children aged 1 year old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children aged 1 year old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children aged 1 year old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  15. Factors influencing caries incidence in permanent teeth in children/adolescents under and after anti-neoplastic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krasuska-Sławińska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To determine reasons for the increase in caries among children/adolescents treated for neoplasms. Material and methods : Health promoting behaviour, oral hygiene (PLI, gingiva (GI, dentition (DMFt/DMFs, number of teeth with white spot lesions (WSL, and enamel defects (ED were assessed in three groups of 60 patients each. The three groups were as follows: under chemotherapy (CH, after chemotherapy (PCH, and generally healthy (CG. Medical files supplied information on neoplasm type, chemotherapeutic type and dose, age at treatment start, chemotherapy duration, and complications. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman’s rho test. Results: The age at which chemotherapy was started/its duration was 5.9 ±4.0/1.3 ±0.5 years in PCH and 9.12 ±4.44/0.8 ±0.3 years in CH; PCH completed treatment 4.9 ±3.4 years ago. Chemotherapy most often included vincristine (VCR, etoposide (VP-16, adriamycin (ADM, cyclophosphamide (CTX, cisplatin (CDDP, and ifosphamide (IF. Mucositis occurrence was 28.33% in PCH and 45.00% in CH; vomiting occurrence was 43.33% and 50.00%, respectively. Nutrition and prophylaxis mistakes occurred more often in CH/PCH than in CG; PLI, GI, caries incidence and severity, and the number of teeth with WSL were higher. Correlation between caries incidence and chemotherapeutic type and dose, age at treatment start and treatment duration, mucositis, emesis, PLI, GI, ED, no fluoride prophylaxis, and nutritional mistakes was established. Ifosphamide and mucositis treatment played a major role in chemotherapy; after chemotherapy – ED and CTX, ADM, IF, and VP-16. Conclusions : Caries in permanent teeth in children/adolescents undergoing chemotherapy result from nutritional mistakes, poor prophylaxis, and indirectly from chemotherapy complications (first mucositis and emesis, and later developmental ED.

  16. Use of caries-preventive agents in children: findings from the dental practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical regions. The objective of the present study was to characterise the use of specific caries-preventive agents for paediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of practising clinicians. The present study surveyed clinicians from the Dental Practice-based Research Network who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey consisted of a questionnaire that presented a range of questions about caries risk assessment and the use of preventive techniques in children aged 6 to 18 years. Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used caries-preventive agents of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries-preventive agents ranged from 36% to 7%,with the most commonly used agent being non-prescription fluoride rinse. Clinicians who practised in a large group practice model and clinicians who come from the Scandinavian region use caries risk assessment more frequently compared to clinicians who come from regions that had, predominantly, clinicians in private practice. Whether or not clinicians used caries risk assessment with their paediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries-preventive treatments on patients. Although clinicians reported the use of some form of in-office caries-preventive agent, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practising clinicians about the benefits of caries-preventive agents, or a function of differing financial incentives, or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk.

  17. DENTAL CARIES IN SIX, 12 AND 15 YEAR OLD VENDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. ... Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries of school children; determine ... Setting: School children in the Donald Fraser Health District, Venda in the Northern .... with the examiner behind using direct vision and a mouth ... micro-computer.

  18. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  19. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  20. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  1. CARIES PREVENTION AMONG JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.К. Matelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  2. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...... (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained...... caries detection method has good overall performance. Furthermore, although the identified studies had high heterogeneity and risk of bias, the use of detailed and validated indices seems to improve the accuracy of the method....

  3. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  4. Managing Early Childhood Caries for Young Children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty Jieyi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment.

  5. The contribution of dietary factors to dental caries and disparities in caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars, is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (undernutrition or overnutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods, substituting instead high-energy, low-cost, nutrient-poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation, including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for early childhood caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents, and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods, to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health.

  6. Comments on Soltysiak's paper: "Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora compositions?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    A low frequency of dental caries in Neandertal population is still puzzling. Many authors stress that the lower frequency of dental caries was related to a meat diet. However, a recent publication in HOMO - Journal Comparative Human Biology presented a new interpretation of dental caries in Neandertals. In this article, Soltysiak supports the thesis that the lower frequency of caries in the Neandertal population from the Near East could not be related to the low-sugar diet, but rather to the absence of cariogenic bacteria species (S. mutans). Although this hypothesis is interesting, I suspect it to be based on several erroneous assumptions, and a misunderstanding of caries as a disease. Although he stressed that the caries lesion is related to many different factors, in his argument he considers one of two alternatives "a low-sugar diet or a lack of cariogenic bacterial species". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  8. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Designing the Interventional Strategies for School Children in Rural Konkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asawari Modak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1 Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result in toothache, permanent cavitations and children with active disease become adult with tooth decay. Also poor dentition and malocclusion decreases the masticatory performance effecting oral health and quality of life. Fortunately dental caries is both preventable and treatable with effective home care and regular access to preventive dental services. The present study was carried out in the rural area of Konkan region to assess the awareness regarding oral hygiene, prevalence of dental caries, to assess the masticatory performance.

  9. Caries prevalence and fluoride use in low SES children in Clermont-Ferrand (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubert-Jeannin, S; Riordan, P J; Manevy, R; Lecuyer, M M; Pegon-Machat, E

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the association between dental caries experience and preventive behaviours of children residing in a deprived area in Clermont-Ferrand (France). All 4-5 yr-olds attending nine schools in deprived areas of the city were invited to participate and 81% (n=282) consented and were examined. Dental caries was recorded at the dentine threshold. Parents completed a questionnaire concerning family demographics and the child's use of fluoride. Non-parametric tests and logistic regression assessed the relative importance of SES and fluoride variables on dental status (dt>1). Fifty four (19%) of the examined children were living in families with an immigrant background, 33% were fully covered by the national health insurance programme for deprived families. Caries experience was high; mean dft was 1.94 (3.31) and 30% of the children had >1 carious teeth. Thirty percent of the families reported using fluoridated salt. Tooth brushing once daily was reported for 39% and twice daily for 26%. Parents declared supervising tooth brushing for 60%. Two thirds of the children, according to their parents, used fluoride supplement between birth and two years. Supervised tooth brushing was significantly correlated with lower mean dt scores. Systemic fluoride use was poorly related to dental caries Immigrant background, family size, type of health insurance and mother's unemployment were significantly correlated with caries prevalence. In multivariate analysis, immigrant status, supervised tooth brushing and parental knowledge about fluoride in toothpastes were significant caries predictors. The majority of low SES children did not practice effective caries prevention; few reported twice daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste. Caries experience was very high and much was untreated. Immigrant status, supervised tooth brushing and parental knowledge about fluoride in toothpastes were significant caries predictors.

  10. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  11. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  12. Caries prevalence in Suriname schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the oral health status of children living throughout the Interior of Suriname in order to define needs for dental care in line with WHO goals and guidelines. Basic research design: In this cross sectional study, dental caries was recorded according

  13. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  14. Is cost-effectiveness analysis preferred to severity of disease as the main guiding principle in priority setting in resource poor settings? The case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norheim Ole

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several studies carried out to establish the relative preference of cost-effectiveness of interventions and severity of disease as criteria for priority setting in health have shown a strong preference for severity of disease. These preferences may differ in contexts of resource scarcity, as in developing countries, yet information is limited on such preferences in this context. Objective This study was carried out to identify the key players in priority setting in health and explore their relative preference regarding cost-effectiveness of interventions and severity of disease as criteria for setting priorities in Uganda. Design 610 self-administered questionnaires were sent to respondents at national, district, health sub-district and facility levels. Respondents included mainly health workers. We used three different simulations, assuming same patient characteristics and same treatment outcome but with varying either severity of disease or cost-effectiveness of treatment, to explore respondents' preferences regarding cost-effectiveness and severity. Results Actual main actors were identified to be health workers, development partners or donors and politicians. This was different from what respondents perceived as ideal. Above 90% of the respondents recognised the importance of both severity of disease and cost-effectiveness of intervention. In the three scenarios where they were made to choose between the two, a majority of the survey respondents assigned highest weight to treating the most severely ill patient with a less cost-effective intervention compared to the one with a more cost-effective intervention for a less severely ill patient. However, international development partners in in-depth interviews preferred the consideration of cost-effectiveness of intervention. Conclusions In a survey among health workers and other actors in priority setting in Uganda, we found that donors are considered to have more say than

  15. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    fluoridated) or non-fluoridated water. We used an adaptation of the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess risk of bias in the included studies.We included the following caries indices in the analyses: decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft (deciduous dentition) and DMFT (permanent dentition)), and proportion caries free in both dentitions. For dmft and DMFT analyses we calculated the difference in mean change scores between the fluoridated and control groups. For the proportion caries free we calculated the difference in the proportion caries free between the fluoridated and control groups.For fluorosis data we calculated the log odds and presented them as probabilities for interpretation. A total of 155 studies met the inclusion criteria; 107 studies provided sufficient data for quantitative synthesis.The results from the caries severity data indicate that the initiation of water fluoridation results in reductions in dmft of 1.81 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.31; 9 studies at high risk of bias, 44,268 participants) and in DMFT of 1.16 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.61; 10 studies at high risk of bias, 78,764 participants). This translates to a 35% reduction in dmft and a 26% reduction in DMFT compared to the median control group mean values. There were also increases in the percentage of caries free children of 15% (95% CI 11% to 19%; 10 studies, 39,966 participants) in deciduous dentition and 14% (95% CI 5% to 23%; 8 studies, 53,538 participants) in permanent dentition. The majority of studies (71%) were conducted prior to 1975 and the widespread introduction of the use of fluoride toothpaste.There is insufficient information to determine whether initiation of a water fluoridation programme results in a change in disparities in caries across socioeconomic status (SES) levels.There is insufficient information to determine the effect of stopping water fluoridation programmes on caries levels.No studies that aimed to determine the effectiveness of water fluoridation for preventing caries in adults

  16. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  18. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  19. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SULUR - COIMBATORE

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    Abhirami Kannan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a universal health problem with involving the people globally of all regions and society. The agonising fact is that despite several efforts towards total eradication, dental caries is still prevalent. As the prevalence of dental caries is very high among school children and there is a paucity of such data in Coimbatore and the literature review does not reveal many such studies from this area, the study was conducted in the school going children in Sulur. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. A health screening camp was conducted for the students in private school, Sulur, February 20-25, 2017, by a team of doctors from PSG UHTC. A total of 1945 students were screened. The students health details have been entered in their health card and those requiring further evaluation have been counseled and the nursing staff at school has been requested to facilitate and guide for followup. All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. All the students who were present in school during 20th to 25th were screened and considered as the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were the absentees during this period. The students were made to sit in an ordinary chair in broad daylight facing away from the sunlight and examined in their school. Data were compiled in an excel worksheet and the percentage calculated. RESULTS A total of 1945 students were screened, of which, 541 students were found to have dental problems that is about 28% of the total screening done. The percentage of dental caries were found to be higher compared to other dental diseases like deep caries, malalignment, malocclusion and calculus. The percentage of dental caries was found to be higher in the females about 78% than the male for whom it was about 72%. The percentage of deep

  1. A framework for streamflow prediction in the world's most severely data-limited regions: Test of applicability and performance in a poorly-gauged region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M. H.; Kibler, Kelly M.

    2018-02-01

    A framework methodology is proposed for streamflow prediction in poorly-gauged rivers located within large-scale regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation. A multi-criteria model evaluation is developed to select models that balance runoff efficiency with selection of accurate parameter values. Sparse observed data are supplemented by uncertain or low-resolution information, incorporated as 'soft' data, to estimate parameter values a priori. Model performance is tested in two catchments within a data-poor region of southwestern China, and results are compared to models selected using alternative calibration methods. While all models perform consistently with respect to runoff efficiency (NSE range of 0.67-0.78), models selected using the proposed multi-objective method may incorporate more representative parameter values than those selected by traditional calibration. Notably, parameter values estimated by the proposed method resonate with direct estimates of catchment subsurface storage capacity (parameter residuals of 20 and 61 mm for maximum soil moisture capacity (Cmax), and 0.91 and 0.48 for soil moisture distribution shape factor (B); where a parameter residual is equal to the centroid of a soft parameter value minus the calibrated parameter value). A model more traditionally calibrated to observed data only (single-objective model) estimates a much lower soil moisture capacity (residuals of Cmax = 475 and 518 mm and B = 1.24 and 0.7). A constrained single-objective model also underestimates maximum soil moisture capacity relative to a priori estimates (residuals of Cmax = 246 and 289 mm). The proposed method may allow managers to more confidently transfer calibrated models to ungauged catchments for streamflow predictions, even in the world's most data-limited regions.

  2. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time...

  3. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity...

  4. Dental Erosion and Caries Status of Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun Hung; Ng, Alice; Chau, Alex Man Him; Lo, Edward Chin Man

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosion and caries experience of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. First-year Chinese students were invited to attend a dental clinic at a university campus in Hong Kong during their freshman orientation. A questionnaire was used to investigate the potential factors affecting their dental status, including sociodemographic factors, toothbrushing habits, dietary habits (consumption of sugary drinks), time elapsed since last dental check-up and self-perceived dental erosion status. Three calibrated dentists performed the clinical examinations. Dental erosion was evaluated using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) and dental caries experience was measured using the DMFT index. In total, 600 participants aged 18-21 were examined and 44% showed some signs of dental erosion (maximum BEWE > 0). Severe dental erosion (BEWE = 3) was found in 1% of the adults. Many (69%) had caries experience (DMFT > 0); their mean DMFT score was 2.5 ± 2.7 (± SD). The total BEWE scores were found to be associated with age and self-perception of tooth misalignment. No correlation was found between BEWE score and dietary habits, oral hygiene practices or self-perceived dental erosion status. Females, those whose last dental check-up was more than a year ago and those who perceived having dental decay or tooth wear had higher caries experience. Nearly half of the Chinese Hong Kong university students had signs of dental erosion, but very few showed signs of severe erosion. Caries experience was widespread but not high.

  5. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations around the world. It is recognized that fluoride plays a significant role in dental caries reduction. Meanwhile, several low- and middle-income countries of Asia have not yet implemented systematic fluoride programs...... coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition...... need further dissemination. The meeting was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the International Association for Dental Research, and the World Dental Federation....

  6. How different do visuo-tactile criteria assess caries lesions activity status on occlusal surfaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floriano, I; Bonini, G C; Matos, R

    2015-01-01

    the International Caries Detection and Assessment System with an additional criteria--Lesion Activity Assessment (ICDAS + LAA), and a reference examiner classified lesions regarding plaque stagnation, colour, lustre, cavities, depth and texture. Logistic regressions were used to test associations. For analyses, we...... lesions present lustre. CONCLUSION: Most clinical signs associated with active caries lesions were similar, but texture and severity tend to have a greater importance when using ICDAS + LAA for distinguishing caries activity status. Attention should be given to differences due to texture and lustre when...

  7. Clinical Diagnosis of Dental Caries in the 21st Century: Introductory Paper - ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Carvalho, Joana Christina

    2018-03-05

    Classifications employed to measure dental caries should first of all reflect the dynamics of the disease, in order to provide a solid basis for subsequent treatment decisions and for further monitoring of dental health of individual patients and populations. The contemporary philosophy of dental caries management implies that nonoperative treatment of caries lesions should be implemented whenever possible, limiting operative interventions to the severe and irreversible cases. The ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2016, held back-to-back to the 63rd ORCA Congress in Athens, Greece, was intended to provide an update on general requirements for clinical caries diagnosis and to overview caries diagnostic classifications including their rationale, validation, advantages, and limitations. Clinical caries diagnostic criteria and caries management outcomes are interrelated, and any diagnostic classification disregarding this concept is outdated, according to the current understanding of oral health care. Choosing clinical caries diagnostic classifications that assess the activity status of detected lesions should be a priority for dental professionals since these classifications favor the best clinical practice directed towards nonoperative interventions. The choice of clinical caries diagnostic classifications in research, in clinical practice, and in public health services should be guided by the best available scientific evidence. The clinical caries diagnostic classifications should be universally applicable in all these fields. Policy making in oral health care and the underlying policy analyses should follow the same standards. Any clinical caries diagnostic classification disregarding the universality of its use is of limited or no interest in the context of the clinical caries diagnosis of today. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo The dental caries associated with risk factor during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    bajo, se vieron afectadas por caries dental en ambos trimestres.The gestational period is related to a great incidence of dental caries although the association between pregnancy and the caries's increase has not possible to determine scientifically yet. To determine the presence of dental caries and some associated risk factors during the first and the third trimester of pregnancy to detect the appearance of new carious lesions and the changes related to risk factors between both trimesters. A longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted from December, 2006 to February, 2008 in Florida municipality of Camagüey province. Study universe included 38 pregnants and sample included 21 interviewed and examined during both trimesters to determine the presence of caries y the risk factors, a poor oral hygiene, cardiogenic diet, a low salivary pH, occurrence of vomiting and a previous pregnancy. The necessary information was registered in a form designed to that end. At the first trimester the 80.95 % had dental caries with appearance of new lesions in 6 pregnants for the third trimester. The more frequent risk factors during the first trimester were the cariogenic diet in the 66.66 % and a poor oral hygiene in the 47.61 % of patients. None of the pregnants modified its diet during pregnancy; however, the poor oral hygiene only remained in the 14.28 %. The 52.38 % of the pregnants involved during the first trimester had a cariogenic diet and the 47.61 % had a previous pregnancy. There was involvement due to new caries during pregnancy. The more frequent risk factors were a cariogenic diet, a poor oral hygiene and a previous pregnancy. The pregnants not modified their diet but improved the oral hygiene during pregnancy and all of them with vomiting and a low salivary pH had dental caries in both trimesters.

  9. Characterization of enamel caries lesions in rat molars using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, R.D.; DeRocher, K.; Stock, S.R.; Keane, D.; Scott-Anne, K.; Bowen, W.H.; Joester, D. (Rochester); (NWU)

    2017-08-18

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous infectious disease with a nearly 100% lifetime prevalence. Rodent caries models are widely used to investigate the etiology, progression and potential prevention or treatment of the disease. To explore the suitability of these models for deeper investigations of intact surface zones during enamel caries, the structures of early-stage carious lesions in rats were characterized and compared with previous reports on white spot enamel lesions in humans. Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography non-destructively mapped demineralization in carious rat molar specimens across a range of caries severity, identifying 52 lesions across the 30 teeth imaged. Of these lesions, 13 were shown to have intact surface zones. Depth profiles of fractional mineral density were qualitatively similar to lesions in human teeth. However, the thickness of the surface zone in the rat model ranges from 10 to 58 µm, and is therefore significantly thinner than in human enamel. These results indicate that a fraction of lesions in rat caries possess an intact surface zone and are qualitatively similar to human lesions at the micrometer scale. This suggests that rat caries models may be a suitable analog through which to investigate the structure of surface zone enamel and its role during dental caries.

  10. A review of the biological and clinical aspects of radiation caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Gabrielle P; Jham, Bruno C; Magalhães, Cláudia S; Sensi, Luis Guilherme; Freire, Addah R

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical and biological features underlying the development and progression of radiation caries. Although radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. To review the condition, the Pubmed database was searched using the keywords "radiotherapy," "radiation," "caries," "hyposalivation," "prevention" and "management". Only studies published in the English language were selected. Cross-referencing identified additionally relevant studies. RT leads to alterations in the dentition, saliva, oral microflora, and diet of patients. Consequently, irradiated patients are at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Motivation of patients, adequate plaque control, stimulation of salivary flow, fluoride use, and nutritional orientation are essential to reduce the incidence of radiation caries and ultimately improve the quality of life for HNC patients. Radiation caries is an aggressive side effect of RT. Dentists play an important role in the prevention of the condition via comprehensive oral healthcare before, during, and after the active cancer therapy. Dentists should understand the clinical and biological aspects underlying radiation caries to prevent the development of lesions and provide optimal treatment when needed.

  11. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore Kannan Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth or proximal (22 teeth dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT, radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases.

  12. Low reproducibility between oral radiologists and general dentists with regards to radiographic diagnosis of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Pakkala, Tuomas; Haukka, Jari; Siukosaari, Päivi

    2018-04-12

    Early clinical and radiological diagnosis of dental caries is one of the fundamental objectives of clinical dentistry because of the high frequency of the disease and severe complications if caries remains untreated, especially among the elderly and patients with immunodeficiency. Dental panoramic tomography (DPT) is a common radiographic method for evaluating dentition when indicated, especially in an adult population. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of diagnosis between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists with regards to caries lesions based on DPTs of adults. One-hundred DPTs taken from adult patients (average age 35) and then analyzed and reported on by 42 general dentists were then analyzed independently by two specialists in oral radiology with respect to caries lesions in the premolar and molar areas using radiographic criteria established for caries diagnosis. The general dentists versus oral radiologists were not calibrated before. Level of agreement between specialists and general dentists was measured using Cohen's kappa. Comparison between observations of general dentists and specialists in oral radiology showed that 61% of the caries lesions on proximal surfaces of premolars and molars observed by specialists went unobserved by general dentists. Cohen's kappa value for specialists was 0.85 (p < .001) and for each specialist and general dentists 0.48 (p < .001) and 0.44 (p < .001). The reproducibility between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists for detecting caries in DPTs was low.

  13. Post-Traumatic Hypoxia Is Associated with Prolonged Cerebral Cytokine Production, Higher Serum Biomarker Levels, and Poor Outcome in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Edwin B.; Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Paul, Eldho; Bye, Nicole; Nguyen, Phuong; Agyapomaa, Doreen; Kossmann, Thomas; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Secondary hypoxia is a known contributor to adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on the evidence that hypoxia and TBI in isolation induce neuroinflammation, we investigated whether TBI combined with hypoxia enhances cerebral cytokine production. We also explored whether increased concentrations of injury biomarkers discriminate between hypoxic (Hx) and normoxic (Nx) patients, correlate to worse outcome, and depend on blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Forty-two TBI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8 were recruited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected over 6 days. Patients were divided into Hx (n=22) and Nx (n=20) groups. Eight cytokines were measured in the CSF; albumin, S100, myelin basic protein (MBP) and neuronal specific enolase (NSE) were quantified in serum. CSF/serum albumin quotient was calculated for BBB function. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was assessed at 6 months post-TBI. Production of granulocye macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was higher, and profiles of GM-CSF, interferon (IFN)-γ and, to a lesser extent, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were prolonged in the CSF of Hx but not Nx patients at 4–5 days post-TBI. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 increased similarly in both Hx and Nx groups. S100, MBP, and NSE were significantly higher in Hx patients with unfavorable outcome. Among these three biomarkers, S100 showed the strongest correlations to GOSE after TBI-Hx. Elevated CSF/serum albumin quotients lasted for 5 days post-TBI and displayed similar profiles in Hx and Nx patients. We demonstrate for the first time that post-TBI hypoxia is associated with prolonged neuroinflammation, amplified extravasation of biomarkers, and poor outcome. S100 and MBP could be implemented to track the occurrence of post-TBI hypoxia, and prompt adequate treatment. PMID:24279428

  14. Epidemiology of dental caries among adolescents in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Arthi; Kirk, Ray; Gage, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Economic and dietary changes in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu have led to compromised oral health status of the adolescent population. Adequate epidemiological data are not available to address the prevention or treatment needs in this region of India. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents of Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India. The study sample included 974 adolescent school students (12-15 years of age) from both rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu, India. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index of these students was measured using the World Health Organization oral health survey method, in a quantitative cross-sectional study. The oral health survey indicated that the prevalence of dental caries among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu was 61.4%, with an average DMFT score of 2.03. Multiple regression analyses indicated factors such as gender, mother's education, type of school and caste as significant predictors of dental caries. Female gender, Scheduled Caste and Tribes attending public schools in rural areas were identified as the more vulnerable populations to be affected by dental caries. Oral health policies should be targeted to these adolescent populations in the Tamil Nadu region. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-05-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks.

  16. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-01-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks. PMID:19434767

  17. Association between Peritonsillar Abscess and Molar Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayani Nasab

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep neck infections that are related with periodontal disease which has the same pathogenesis. We determined the relationship between peritonsillar infection and molar caries. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 33 consecutive patients whom referred to Hamadan university clinic of otolaryngologic for peritonsillar abscess were examined by otolaryngologist and dentist who investigated relationship between peritonsillar infection and molar caries. Results: There were 27 males and 6 females with mean age 26.7+_7 years. The frequency caries on ipsilateral peritonsillar infection sides was in relation to molars caries on opposite sides (conterol group. This corrolation was significant with odds ratio 2.5. Conclusion: Molar caries were seen 2.5 times more likely to have peritonsillar infection compared with normal molar sides. Key Words: Peritonsillar abscess, Infection, Periodontal disease, Dental caries

  18. Caries prevalence and its association with brushing habits, water availability, and the intake of sugared beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Joseph A; Martinez Mier, Esperanza A; Soto, Armando; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Weddell, James A; Villanueva Cruz, Irma; Anton de la Concha, Jose Luis

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. With Dental Caries being the most common disease amongst children in the world today, there is a need to fully understand risk factors that may be related to caries prevalence and how they could be best addressed. AIM. The aim of this study was to evaluate soda, juice, sugared-beverage intake, brushing habits, and community water source availability as they relate to the prevalence of both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions in small rural villages in Mexico. DESIGN. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in children from small, isolated, villages in Mexico. Risk factors were assessed via questionnaires. RESULTS. Caries prevalence in the villages was very high, ranging from 94.7% to 100% of the children studied. The mean number of surfaces with lesions per child (D1MFS + d1mfs) having scores ≥1 (noncavitated and cavitated) ranged from 15.4 ± 11.1 to 26.6 ± 15.2. Many of the children reported drinking beverages containing sugar. CONCLUSIONS. Drinking sugared beverages, poor oral hygiene habits, and lack of access to tap water were identified as risk factor for caries in this sample of residents of rural Mexico. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human t...

  20. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  1. Poor performance of quick-SOFA (qSOFA) score in predicting severe sepsis and mortality - a prospective study of patients admitted with infection to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim, Åsa; Moser, Florentin; Gustad, Lise T; Stene, Helga; Gundersen, Maren; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Dale, Jostein; Bjørnsen, Lars Petter; Damås, Jan Kristian; Solligård, Erik

    2017-06-09

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of qSOFA as a risk stratification tool for patients admitted with infection compared to traditional SIRS criteria or our triage system; the Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System (RETTS). The study was an observational cohort study performed at one Emergency Department (ED) in an urban university teaching hospital in Norway, with approximately 20,000 visits per year. All patients >16 years presenting with symptoms or clinical signs suggesting an infection (n = 1535) were prospectively included in the study from January 1 to December 31, 2012. At arrival in the ED, vital signs were recorded and all patients were triaged according to RETTS vital signs, presenting infection, and sepsis symptoms. These admission data were also used to calculate qSOFA and SIRS. Treatment outcome was later retrieved from the patients' electronic records (EPR) and mortality data from the Norwegian population registry. Of the 1535 admitted patients, 108 (7.0%) fulfilled the Sepsis2 criteria for severe sepsis. The qSOFA score ≥2 identified only 33 (sensitivity 0.32, specificity 0.98) of the patients with severe sepsis, whilst the RETTS-alert ≥ orange identified 92 patients (sensitivity 0.85, specificity 0.55). Twenty-six patients died within 7 days of admission; four (15.4%) of them had a qSOFA ≥2, and 16 (61.5%) had RETTS ≥ orange alert. Of the 68 patients that died within 30 days, only eight (11.9%) scored ≥2 on the qSOFA, and 45 (66.1%) had a RETTS ≥ orange alert. In order to achieve timely treatment for sepsis, a sensitive screening tool is more important than a specific one. Our study is the fourth study were qSOFA finds few of the sepsis cases in prehospital or at arrival to the ED. We add information on the RETTS triage system, the two highest acuity levels together had a high sensitivity (85%) for identifying sepsis at arrival to the ED - and thus, RETTS should not be replaced by qSOFA as a screening and

  2. Portsmouth physiological and operative severity score for the Enumeration of Mortality and morbidity scoring system in general surgical practice and identifying risk factors for poor outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Nagpal, Nitin; Sidhu, D. S.; Singh, Amandeep; Tyagi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the outcome is paramount in disease stratification and subsequent management in severely ill surgical patients. Risk scoring helps us quantify the prospects of adverse outcome in a patient. Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (P-POSSUM) the world over has proved itself as a worthy scoring system and the present study was done to evaluate the feasibility of P-POSSUM as a risk scoring system as a tool in efficacious prediction of mortality and morbidity in our demographic profile. Materials and Methods: Validity of P-POSSUM was assessed prospectively in fifty major general surgeries performed at our hospital from May 2011 to October 2012. Data were collected to obtain P-POSSUM score, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Majority (72%) of patients was male and mean age was 40.24 ± 18.6 years. Seventy-eight percentage procedures were emergency laparotomies commonly performed for perforation peritonitis. Mean physiological score was 17.56 ± 7.6, and operative score was 17.76 ± 4.5 (total score = 35.3 ± 10.4). The ratio of observed to expected mortality rate was 0.86 and morbidity rate was 0.78. Discussion: P-POSSUM accurately predicted both mortality and morbidity in patients who underwent major surgical procedures in our setup. Thus, it helped us in identifying patients who required preferential attention and aggressive management. Widespread application of this tool can result in better distribution of care among high-risk surgical patients. PMID:28250670

  3. Relationship between dental caries and metabolic syndrome among 13 998 middle-aged urban Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Wang, Dongliang; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2017-04-01

    The association between dental caries and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dental caries and MetS and its components in a middle-aged Chinese population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of 13 998 participants aged 45-65 years undergoing a health check during 2013-14. An index variable of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for sex, age, education level, dietary habits, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and periodontitis. Of the 13 998 participants, 6164 had dental caries and 7834 did not; 3571 had MetS, whereas 10 427 did not. Participants with severe caries showed a higher prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia than those with mild or no caries (all P dental caries and those with two or more DMFT were 1.12 (95 % CI 1.14-1.74) and 1.09 (95 % CI, 0.89-1.21), respectively (P trend  caries were associated with MetS among subjects with hyperglycemia (OR 1.14 [95%CI, 0.98-1.34]; P caries and abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure (adjusted ORs [95 % CIs] 0.98 [0.82-1.16], 1.01 [0.85-1.19], 0.84 [0.70-1.00], and 0.96 [0.86-1.13], respectively; all P > 0.05). Dental caries were associated with MetS among middle-aged Chinese in the present study. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries among 12-14 year old children in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-07-01

    To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12-14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12-14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  6. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, M. S

    1991-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  7. Patients with poor response to antipsychotics have a more severe pattern of frontal atrophy: a voxel-based morphometry study of treatment resistance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantelli, Mario; Palladino, Olga; Prinster, Anna; Schiavone, Vittorio; Carotenuto, Barbara; Brunetti, Arturo; Marsili, Angela; Casiello, Margherita; Muscettola, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  8. Impact of oral hygiene and socio-demographic factors on dental caries in a suburban population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedele, T A; Fadeju, A D; Adeyemo, Y I; Nzomiwu, C L; Ladeji, A M

    2018-05-14

    This was to determine dental caries determinants in the study participants. This was a secondary data study extracted from primary data through a school-based study that recruited students from primary and secondary schools in a suburban population in Nigeria. The variables included age, gender, socio-economic status, oral hygiene status, type of parenting, birth rank, family size and presence of dental caries. The diagnosis of dental caries was based on the World Health Oral Health Survey recommendations while oral hygiene was determined using simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Data was analysed using STATA version 13, statistical significance was set at P caries for the study population was 12.2%, DMFT and dmft were 0.16 and 0.06 respectively. Children within age groups 11-13 and 14-16 years had reduced chances of having dental caries (P = 0.01; P = 0.01); children with fair oral hygiene and poor oral hygiene had increased odds of having dental caries (P ≤ 0.001; P ≤ 0.001), last child of the family also had increased odds of having dental caries while children from large family size had reduced odds of having dental caries. This study also showed that first permanent molars and second primary molars were mostly affected by dental caries but there was no significant difference between distribution of the maxillary or mandibular jaw or between right and left quadrants. Age, oral hygiene, birth rank and family size were the significant determinants of dental caries in the study population and the teeth mostly affected were first permanent molars and second primary molars.

  9. Fluoride-releasing restorative materials and secondary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Donly, Kevin; Flaitz, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. Risk factors for secondary caries are similar to those for primary caries development. Unfortunately, it is not possible to accurately predict which patients are at risk for restoration failure. During the past several decades, fluoride-releasing dental materials have become a part of the dentist's armamentarium. Considerable fluoride is released during the setting reaction and for periods up to eight years following restoration placement. This released fluoride is readily taken up by the cavosurface tooth structure, as well as the enamel and root surfaces adjacent to the restoration. Resistance against caries along the cavosurface and the adjacent smooth surface has been shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Fluoride-releasing dental materials provide for improved resistance against primary and secondary caries in coronal and root surfaces. Plaque and salivary fluoride levels are elevated to a level that facilitates remineralization. In addition, the fluoride released to dental plaque adversely affects the growth of lactobacilli and mutans streptococci by interference with bacterial enzyme systems. Fluoride recharging of these dental materials is readily achieved with fluoridated toothpastes, fluoride mouthrinses, and other sources of topical fluoride. This allows fluoride-releasing dental materials to act as intraoral fluoride reservoirs. The improvement in the properties of dental materials with the ability to release fluoride has improved dramatically in the past decade, and it is anticipated that in the near future the vast majority of restorative procedures will employ fluoride-releasing dental materials as bonding agents, cavity liners, luting agents, adhesives for orthodontic brackets, and definitive restoratives.

  10. Dental examiners consistency in applying the ICDAS criteria for a caries prevention community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S; Eggertsson, H; Powell, B; Mandelaris, J; Ntragatakis, M; Richardson, T; Ferretti, G

    2011-09-01

    To examine dental examiners' one-year consistency in utilizing the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria after baseline training and calibration. A total of three examiners received baseline training/calibration by a "gold standard" examiner, and one year later re-calibration was conducted. For the baseline training/calibration, subjects aged 8-16 years, and for the re-calibration subjects aged five to six years were recruited for the study. The ICDAS criteria were used to classify visual caries lesion severity (0-6 scale), lesion activity (active/inactive), and presence of filling material (0-9 scale) of all available tooth surfaces of permanent and primary teeth. The examination used a clinical light, mirror and air syringe. Kappa (weighted: Wkappa, unweighted: Kappa) statistics were used to determine inter-and intra-examiner reliability at baseline and re-calibration. For lesion severity and filling criteria, the baseline calibration on 35 subjects indicated an inter-rater Wkappa ranging from 0.69-0.92 and intra-rater Wkappa ranging from 0.81-0.92. Re-calibration on 22 subjects indicated an inter-rater Wkappa of 0.77-0.98 and intra-rater Wkappa ranged from 0.93-1.00. The Wkappa for filling was consistently in the excellent range, while lesion severity was in the good to excellent range. Activity kappa was in the poor to good range. All examiners improved with time. The baseline training/calibration in ICDAS was crucial to maintain the stability of the examiners reliability over a one year period. The ICDAS can be an effective assessment tool for community-based clinical trials.

  11. Pain sensitisation and the risk of poor outcome following physiotherapy for patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Helen; Smart, Keith M; Moloney, Niamh A; Blake, Catherine; Doody, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pain is the dominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and recent evidence suggests factors outside of local joint pathology, such as pain sensitisation, can contribute significantly to the pain experience. It is unknown how pain sensitisation influences outcomes from commonly employed interventions such as physiotherapy. The aims of this study are, first, to provide a comprehensive description of the somatosensory characteristics of people with pain associated with knee OA. Second, we will investigate if indicators of pain sensitisation in patients with knee osteoarthritis are predictive of non-response to physiotherapy. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre prospective cohort study with 140 participants. Eligible patients with moderate to severe symptomatic knee osteoarthritis will be identified at outpatient orthopaedic and rheumatology clinics. A baseline assessment will provide a comprehensive description of the somatosensory characteristics of each participant by means of clinical examination, quantitative sensory testing, and validated questionnaires measuring pain and functional capacity. Participants will then undergo physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome will be non-response to physiotherapy on completion of the physiotherapy treatment programme as defined by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International treatment responder criteria. A principal component analysis will identify measures related to pain sensitisation to include in the predictive model. Regression analyses will explore the relationship between responder status and pain sensitisation while accounting for confounders. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by St James’ Hospital/AMNCH Research Ethics Committee and by the St Vincent's Healthcare Group Ethics and Medical Research Committee. The results will be presented at international conferences and published in a peer review journal. Trial registration number NCT02310945. PMID:26059523

  12. Pain sensitisation and the risk of poor outcome following physiotherapy for patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Helen; Smart, Keith M; Moloney, Niamh A; Blake, Catherine; Doody, Catherine M

    2015-06-09

    Pain is the dominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and recent evidence suggests factors outside of local joint pathology, such as pain sensitisation, can contribute significantly to the pain experience. It is unknown how pain sensitisation influences outcomes from commonly employed interventions such as physiotherapy. The aims of this study are, first, to provide a comprehensive description of the somatosensory characteristics of people with pain associated with knee OA. Second, we will investigate if indicators of pain sensitisation in patients with knee osteoarthritis are predictive of non-response to physiotherapy. This is a multicentre prospective cohort study with 140 participants. Eligible patients with moderate to severe symptomatic knee osteoarthritis will be identified at outpatient orthopaedic and rheumatology clinics. A baseline assessment will provide a comprehensive description of the somatosensory characteristics of each participant by means of clinical examination, quantitative sensory testing, and validated questionnaires measuring pain and functional capacity. Participants will then undergo physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome will be non-response to physiotherapy on completion of the physiotherapy treatment programme as defined by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International treatment responder criteria. A principal component analysis will identify measures related to pain sensitisation to include in the predictive model. Regression analyses will explore the relationship between responder status and pain sensitisation while accounting for confounders. This study has been approved by St James' Hospital/AMNCH Research Ethics Committee and by the St Vincent's Healthcare Group Ethics and Medical Research Committee. The results will be presented at international conferences and published in a peer review journal. NCT02310945. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  13. Molecular study of the dentin-pulp complex responses to caries progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dentin-pulp complex exhibits various responses to caries, including events of injury, defense, and repair. The overall responses dependent on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes, which regulate the behavior of these cells. The signals for tissue repair are thought to be mediated by dentin-bound growth factors released during caries progression. Growth factors are a key of molecules responsible for signaling a variety of cellular process following dental injury. The endogenous proteolytic enzymes (Matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs present in dentin matrix might also participate in releasing bioactive molecule. Several members of the MMP family are found in the soft and hard tissue compartment of dentin-pulp complex. Their presumed role in many physiological process during the development and maintenance of the dentin-pulp complex, they may also contribute to the pathogenesis of dentin caries and the responses elicited by caries.

  14. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John DB

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. Methods This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deeme...

  15. Teeth Caries Decay in MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasiewicz, M.M.; Kupka, T.W.; Weglarz, W.P.; Jasinski, A.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray based visualization techniques were for many years the only way to asses structure and state of the human teeth. MRI has been used in the research of the healthy and decayed teeth during last decade. Several papers were presented showing usefulness of spin echo and gradient echo imaging, Single Point Imaging, SPRITE and STRAFI techniques for visualization of the dental surface geometry as well as for distinction between soft tissue (pulp) and mineralized tissue (enamel, dentine and root cement) in the extracted teeth. Recently, MRI was used for estimation of the facial bone structure, in preparation to implantation, localization of the tumor in the facial bone tissue, and in detection of the osteoporosis. The aim of this work was to investigate potential of MRI for detection and estimation of the caries, on the level of laboratory pre-clinical tests. This work was done within the project to develop original, MRI based diagnostic technique for dentistry needs. MRI experiments were performed on the 5 decayed extracted human teeth (impossible conservative therapy), obtained at Dept. of Dental Surgery MUS. After extraction teeth were stored in saline. MRI measurements were done in MR Tomography Lab INP. Prior to the experiment, tooth was degassed to minimize magnetic susceptibility artifacts. A 3D spin echo pulse sequence on the 4.7 T research MRI system, equipped with Maran DRX console, and dedicated home-built probe head, was used to obtain three dimensional (256x128x128) images of the teeth. Corresponding resolution was 60x120x160 mm 3 . High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from mineralized tooth tissue, allow for visualization of the presence and extent of caries. Among the 5 measured teeth, MRI allows for detection of the caries in two most decayed tooth. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from

  16. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and red...

  17. Relationship of children's salivary microbiota with their caries status: a pyrosequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomar-Vercher, S; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Mira, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2014-12-01

    Different dental caries status could be related with alterations in oral microbiota. Previous studies have collected saliva as a representative medium of the oral ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to assess the composition of oral microbiota and its relation to the presence of dental caries at different degrees of severity. One hundred ten saliva samples from 12-year-old children were taken and divided into six groups defined in strict accordance with their dental caries prevalence according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II criteria. These samples were studied by pyrosequencing PCR products of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed statistically significant intergroup differences at the class and genus taxonomic levels. Streptococcus is the most frequent genus in all groups; although it did not show intergroup statistical differences. In patients with cavities, Porphyromonas and Prevotella showed an increasing percentage compared to healthy individuals. Bacterial diversity diminished as the severity of the disease increased, so those patients with more advanced stages of caries presented less bacterial diversity than healthy subjects. Although microbial composition tended to be different, the intragroup variation is large, as evidenced by the lack of clear intragroup clustering in principal component analyses. Thus, no clear differences were found, indicating that using bacterial composition as the sole source of biomarkers for dental caries may not be reliable in the unstimulated saliva samples used in the current study.

  18. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and relationship with dental caries in Melbourne preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M L; Ghanim, A; Elsby, D; Manton, D J

    2018-03-01

    Dental caries and enamel defects (DDE) are prevalent amongst children. The presence of DDE, especially enamel hypomineralization, may increase caries experience. The reported prevalence of hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM) is 2.7-21.8%, although the occurrence in Australian children remains unknown. These HSPM represent a potential predictive factor for molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). In total, 623 children aged 3-5 years from 30 randomly selected kindergartens participated. The HSPM were recorded using an index combining the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry MIH Judgment Criteria and modified DDE Index. Caries was recorded using International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. In total, 144 HSPM were observed in 88 of the 623 (14.1%) children, a tooth-level prevalence of 5.8%. The prevalence of dentinal carious lesions was 13.2%, and caries prevalence (d 2-6 mft > 0) was 36.4%. Cavitated carious lesions affected 30.7% of HSPM. The relationship between an increase in HSPM lesion extent and increasing number of HSPM per child was statistically significant. A positive association between HSPM severity and extent at tooth level existed (P < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between the extent of HSPM and carious lesion severity (P < 0.05). In this population, children with HSPM did not have overall greater caries experience. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Holistic care patient with Early Childhood Caries (ECC: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Maulani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.

  20. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  1. Cariogenic potential of foods. II. Relationship of food composition, plaque microbial counts, and salivary parameters to caries in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff-Shrestha, S A; Featherstone, J D; Eisenberg, A D; Cowles, E; Curzon, M E; Espeland, M A; Shields, C P

    1994-01-01

    A series of rat caries experiments was carried out to test the relative cariogenic potential and to identify the major carcinogenic elements of 22 popular snack foods. Parameters that were measured included rat caries, number of cariogenic bacteria in plaque, salivary parameters including flow rate, buffering capacity, total protein, lysozyme and amylase content, and composition of test foods including protein, fat, phosphorus, calcium, fluoride, galactose, glucose, total reducing sugar, sucrose, and starch. Many interesting relationships were observed between food components, numbers of plaque bacteria, salivary components, and specific types of carious lesions. Protein, fat, and phosphorus in foods were all associated with inhibition of both sulcal and buccolingual (smooth-surface) caries. Food fluoride was associated with inhibition of buccolingual caries, whereas calcium was related to inhibition of sulcal caries. Glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose in foods were all related to promotion of both sulcal and smooth-surface caries. The numbers of Streptococcus sobrinus in plaque were associated with promotion of smooth-surface caries only, whereas lactobacilli, non-mutans bacteria, and total viable flora were related to promotion of both smooth-surface and sulcal caries. The salivary flow rate was associated with inhibition of both buccolingual and sulcal caries. Salivary buffering capacity (at pH 7) and salivary lysozyme delivery were associated with inhibition of number and severity of sulcal caries, while the salivary amylase content was related to the promotion of the number of sulcal lesions.

  2. Dental Caries Level and Sugar Consumption in 12-Year-Old Children from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Turska, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The frequent and high consumption of sugar products, particularly sucrose, is one of the causative factors of dental caries. Meta-analyses assessing the relationship between sugar intake and dental caries revealed that a restricted sugar intake to less than 10% of the daily energy intake results in substantial health benefits. Sugar consumption in Poland is 2-fold higher than recommended by the WHO. As change in dietary habits is slow, knowledge of whether a gradual reduction of sugar consumption influences beneficially the dental condition is important. Assessment of the relationship between caries experience and sugar consumption in 12-year-old children. The data obtained from the Statistical Agricultural Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office in Poland regarding the average yearly sugar intake by a person in the years 1995-2013, and caries prevalence (frequency and DMFT) resulting from the national epidemiological studies of the 12-year-old children conducted by the Ministry of Health in those years were analyzed. The data was analyzed by linear regression. Regression function parameters and coefficients of determination were assessed for a possible link between sugar consumption and dental caries frequency and severity was expressed as DMFT value. The mean yearly sugar intake by a statistical Pole ranged from 43.6 kg (2002) to 35.3 kg (2006). Despite a slight trend to lower the sugar consumption, its mean intake in 1995 and 2013 was the same (41.9 kg). Caries frequency and DMFT decreased in 2012 compared to 1995 from 90.5% to 79.6% and from 4.3 to 3.53 kg in 2012, respectively. The increased sugar intake by 1 kg/year caused the increase of caries frequency by 1% and DMFT value by 0.2. Even a relatively low decrease in sugar consumption can exert some beneficial influence on the dental condition in adolescents, particularly upon the severity of caries.

  3. Genetica en cariës

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Soet, J.J.; Laine, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cariës is een multifactoriële ziekte die primair wordt veroorzaakt door zuren. Deze zuren worden geproduceerd door bacteriën die suiker fermenteren. Het ontstaan en het verloop van cariës staan onder invloed van leefstijl- en omgevingsfactoren, maar ook de genetische eigenschappen van de gastheer

  4. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  5. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p 

  6. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    structure. We observed differences in abundance for several microbial groups between the caries and caries-free host populations, which were consistent with the ecological plaque hypothesis. Our approach and findings could be extended to correlating microbiomic changes after occlusion establishment and caries treatment.

  7. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review*

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-01-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the ...

  8. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  9. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm 2 . The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  10. Evaluation of dietary habits and caries experience among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no relationship between nutritional status and dental caries of children with HD and those without HD. However there was a relationship between the dietary habits and dental caries. "Kool" was related to caries experience of children with HD while milk/tea with sugar was related to caries experience of children ...

  11. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.

  12. The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: scientific advances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T; Fontana, Margherita; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andréa; Ando, Masatoshi; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Bayne, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Scientific advances in cariology in the past 150 years have led to the understanding that dental caries is a chronic, dietomicrobial, site-specific disease caused by a shift from protective factors favoring tooth remineralization to destructive factors leading to demineralization. Epidemiologic data indicate that caries has changed in the last century; it now is distributed unequally in the U.S. population. People who are minorities, homeless, migrants, children with disabilities and of lower socioeconomic status suffer from the highest prevalence and severity of dental caries. Scientific advances have led to improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, but there is a need for new diagnostic tools and treatment methods. and Future management of dental caries requires early detection and risk assessment if the profession is to achieve timely and cost-effective prevention and treatment for those who need it most. Dental professionals look forward to the day when people of all ages and backgrounds view dental caries as a disease of the past.

  13. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them.

  14. Protective effects of salivary factors in dental caries in diabetic patients of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N; Shahid, Syed M; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  15. Dental caries in diabetes mellitus: role of salivary flow rate and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Shahid, Syed M; Qader, Shah A; Azhar, Abid

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the possible protective role of salivary factors like salivary flow rate and adequate level of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients with dental caries. A total of 398 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients with dental caries and 395 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic subjects with dental caries were included as controls, all of whom gave informed consent. All subjects were divided into four groups according to their age. Decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) were scored to indicate the severity of dental caries. Saliva was collected, flow rate was noted, and calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were analyzed. The blood glucose, HbA1c, and DMFT indices were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients as compared to controls. The salivary flow rate, calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were found to be significantly low whereas no significant difference was found in salivary magnesium in patients as compared to controls. Optimum salivary flow rate is responsible for establishing protective environment against dental caries. Adequate level of salivary calcium, phosphate, and fluoride is also involved in significant deposition of these minerals in plaque, which greatly reduces the development of caries in the adjacent enamel of teeth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  17. Status and progress of treatment methods for root caries in the last decade: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J; Palamara, Jea; Manton, D J; Burrow, M F

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this literature review is to explore the treatment methods for root caries in laboratory and clinical research in the last decade. A systematic search of publications in PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. The timespan was limited to the last 10 years and English language. Further retrieval was conducted using the search terms of specific therapies or treatments. Eighty-two articles were included in this systematic review and full texts were retrieved. Types of studies included laboratory studies and clinical trials. Therapeutic approaches for root caries without risk of pulp exposure can be categorized into non-invasive and restorative treatment. Non-invasive treatments which targeted different causative factors of root caries have been developed in the last decade. Accordingly, several artificial caries model systems have been proposed for the study of root caries in the laboratory. Carious tissue excavation techniques and restorative materials and procedures have been modified to improve the prognosis of invasive treatment. It is of importance to determine the most appropriate therapy for root caries and further clinical trials are needed to draw firm conclusions concerning the efficacy and consistency of the various treatment methods proposed. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Drug-Induced Dental Caries: A Disproportionality Analysis Using Data from VigiBase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campaigno, Emilie Patras; Kebir, Inès; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rueter, Manuela; Maret, Delphine; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sallerin, Brigitte; Despas, Fabien

    2017-12-01

    Dental caries is defined as a pathological breakdown of the tooth. It is an infectious phenomenon involving a multifactorial aetiology. The impact of drugs on cariogenic risk has been poorly investigated. In this study, we identified drugs suspected to induce dental caries as adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and then studied a possible pathogenic mechanism for each drug that had a statistically significant disproportionality. We extracted individual case safety reports of dental caries associated with drugs from VigiBase ® (the World Health Organization global individual case safety report database). We calculated disproportionality for each drug with a reporting odds ratio (ROR) and 99% confidence interval. We analysed the pharmacodynamics of each drug that had a statistically significant disproportionality. In VigiBase ® , 5229 safety reports for dental caries concerning 733 drugs were identified. Among these drugs, 88 had a significant ROR, and for 65 of them (73.9%), no information about dental caries was found in the summaries of the product characteristics, the Micromedex ® DRUGDEX, or the Martindale databases. Regarding the pharmacological classes of drugs involved in dental caries, we identified bisphosphonates, atropinic drugs, antidepressants, corticoids, immunomodulating drugs, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, opioids and β 2 -adrenoreceptor agonist drugs. Regarding possible pathogenic mechanisms for these drugs, we identified changes in salivary flow/composition for 54 drugs (61.4%), bone metabolism changes for 31 drugs (35.2%), hyperglycaemia for 32 drugs (36.4%) and/or immunosuppression for 23 drugs (26.1%). For nine drugs (10.2%), the mechanism was unclear. We identified 88 drugs with a significant positive disproportionality for dental caries. Special attention has to be paid to bisphosphonates, atropinic drugs, immunosuppressants and drugs causing hyperglycaemia.

  19. Dental Caries and its Socio-Behavioral Predictors- An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    To assess dental caries status and oral health related behavior of 12 year old school children in relation to urbanization and gender; to analyze the effect of socio-demographic and behavioral variables on dental caries experience. Study sample comprised 831, 12 year old school children in, India. Caries status was assessed by Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index and a 16 item closed ended questionnaire was administered to children for assessing their oral health related knowledge, beliefs and behavior. Mean caries experience and prevalence was 1.94 and 64.9% respectively. Decay was the dominant component of DMFT. Greater proportion of female and urban children presented better oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices. Boys were more liable (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.10-1.96) for having caries than girls. Children living in rural areas and whose parents were not professionals or semiprofessionals were more likely to experience caries. Children whose mothers were unskilled or house wives were more than twice likely to present caries (OR=2.14, 95% CI-2.03-2.45) than those children whose mothers were skilled or semi-skilled. Children of illiterate fathers and mothers were 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.13-1.99) times more likely to have dental caries than those children whose parents had greater than 10 years of education. Children, those who cleaned their teeth less than once a day presented an odds ratio of 1.36 (CI-1.17-1.86) also higher odds of dental caries was observed in children consuming sweets or soft drinks more than once a day. The prevalence and severity of dental caries was low among urban children and girls than their rural and boy counterparts. In general, oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices were low, predominantly in rural and male children. Caries experience was significantly associated with gender, location of residence, brushing frequency, frequency of consumption of soft drinks and sweets, parents' occupation and education.

  20. A comparative study of salivary buffering capacity, flow rate, resting pH, and salivary Immunoglobulin A in children with rampant caries and caries-resistant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Sundaresan, C; Mathai, V; Khosla, E; Gaffoor, F M A

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify various factors in the development of rampant type of dental caries in South Kerala children, other than high sucrose intake and poor oral hygiene. This was done by comparing the salivary buffering capacity(BC), flow-rate(FR), resting pH and salivary immunoglobulin-A(s-IgA) levels in children who are caries resistant(CR) and who have rampant dental caries. Two study groups, a rampant caries group(RC) with more than five active caries lesions in the early stages and a CR with no caries lesions were selected based on a specific criteria. Unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected directly from the floor of the mouth for a period of 10 min and the FR was calculated. Resting pH of saliva was measured using color coded pH paper. BC was measured by calculating the amount of citric acid of pH2.5, required to lower the initial pH of saliva down to 3. s-IgA levels were also estimated by immunoturbidometric method after forming a precipitate of s-IgA with specific anti-IgA antibodies. The salivary BC, FRs, pH and s-IgA levels were significantly lower in the RC group when compared to the CR group. This study showed that salivary BC, flow-rate, resting pH and levels of s-IgA in saliva are risk factors in the development of RC in children.

  1. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Root caries: a survey of Queensland dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, B J; Ford, P J

    2013-08-01

    Root caries stands to be a significant burden for Australia's ageing population. The objective of this study was to describe Queensland dental practitioners' perceptions of root caries prevalence, presentation and predisposing factors as well as diagnosis and recording practices. Using the Queensland Dental Board register, all 2,515 dentists and dental specialists practising in Queensland were invited to participate in a questionnaire-based postal survey. Of the 660 responses received, 638 were included for final analysis. Use of diagnostic measures such as surface elasticity and contour were reported frequently. A majority of respondents (77%) reported not recording root caries in a way that could be distinguished from coronal caries. Dietary analysis was the most commonly reported adjunctive aid for risk assessment. Recommendations for use of remineralizing agents were frequently reported (home use 90%; in office use 71%). Salivary impairment was reported to be an important risk factor for root caries by 93% of respondents, but only 18% reported performing salivary analysis. A large proportion of respondents (32%) considered patients with diabetes to be of low or no risk of root caries. While the Queensland dental practitioners who participated in this survey demonstrated an awareness of root caries and its predisposing factors, clinical risk assessment particularly for patients with diabetes should be further examined. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Illness perceptions amongst individuals with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villalobos-Galvis, F H; Heft, M W

    2018-03-01

    To assess individuals' perception of dental caries, in order to explain how illness representations might influence their coping with the disease. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 520 consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) of the General Dentistry Clinic at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia who had experienced dental caries. Illness perception of dental caries was assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R). The most frequent self-reported symptoms associated with dental caries were "toothache" (56.2%), "tooth sensitivity" (53.8%) and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking" (51.2%). The dimensions of illness perception were related to socio-economic status (SES). Symptoms of "loose or separating teeth" and "pus in your tooth" were associated with dental caries by low SES participants, while "bleeding while brushing, flossing or eating hard food" and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold" were related more to higher SES. Perceptions of caries were related to socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote health literacy in order to improve the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information could increase an early detection of caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  4. Caries Experience in Children with and without Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Juliana de Aguiar; Cabral, Renata Nunes; Leal, Soraya Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the caries experience of children with and without molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). A case-control study was designed in which 130 children aged between 7 and 13 years with MIH (cases) were matched with 130 children without the condition (controls) according to age, sex, and school. Dental caries and MIH were assessed using the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) and European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria, respectively, by three examiners. CAST was converted into DMFT/dmft; the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to analyse whether dmft/DMFT was influenced by the severity of MIH. Associations between MIH and dental caries were analysed at child and tooth levels: between and within subjects, respectively. To correlate MIH severity and the occurrence of dental caries, the Cochran-Armitage test was used. The mean age of the children was 9.63 ± 1.29 years. The mean dmft for cases was 1.23 ± 1.99 and for controls 1.71 ± 2.22 (p > 0.05). For the DMFT, the mean scores for cases and controls were 0.45 ± 0.90 and 0.07 ± 0.25, respectively (p MIH than in those without the condition. The same pattern was seen for the within-subject analysis. It was observed that the increase in MIH severity resulted in more teeth being affected by dentine carious lesions (p = 0.0003). Children with MIH presented a higher experience of caries in the permanent dentition than those without the condition. MIH was considered a risk factor for caries development. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Caries and salivary status in young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edblad, E; Lundin, S A; Sjödin, B; Aman, J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary status, prevalence of caries and the status of primary dentition, when primary teeth were exfoliated, in 41 patients, 18-24 years of age, with type 1 diabetes since childhood in comparison with age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. The blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c), dosage of daily insulin and retinal fundus photography was recorded for the diabetic group. According to the concentration of HbA1c, the diabetic patients were divided into well and poorly controlled groups. The study was based on three intra-oral photos, dental examination including intra-oral radiographs, flow rate and buffering capacity of the saliva and amount of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Retrospective data regarding the primary dentition was found in the dental files of each patient, and are based on the last registration for respective tooth before exfoliation. The patients with type 1 diabetes, without any relationship to metabolic control, displayed more initial buccal caries compared to healthy controls (pflow rate, buffering capacity nor amount of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli), manifest caries or the status of the primary dentition were seen. We conclude that initial, but not manifest caries seems to be overrepresented in young adults with type 1 diabetes. These patients, thus, need more intense efforts regarding dental health care to prevent the development from initial to manifest caries.

  6. [Caries of permanent dentition in medieval inhabitants of Wrocław].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniowski, Tomasz; Dabrowski, Paweł; Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The study of dentition plays an important role in the reconstruction of the diet and in assessment of the overall health and living conditions of paleopopulations. The aim of this study was to determine the condition of permanent dentition of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław basing on the prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition. The material consisted of 1156 permanent teeth from 118 skulls recovered from two medieval cemeteries in Wrocław: the parish cemetery at the St. Elisabeth Church (13th-14th century) and the cemetery in Ołbin (12th-13th century). Two age classes were formed taking into account anthropologic assessment and group size. The younger class consisted of material up to the age of 35 years; the remaining skulls were assigned to the older class. The prevalence and incidence of caries was determined. The prevalence and intensity of caries was 56.91% and 15.7%, respectively. Carious lesions predominated in males and in the older age class. The prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition did not differ from other medieval populations and increased with age. High prevalence of caries reflects a high proportion of carbohydrates in the diet of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław, their high socioeconomic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  7. In vivo Dentin Caries Model using Rat Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, HIGASHI; Junji, TAGAMI; Nobuhiro, HANADA; Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Oral Science The National Institute of Infectious Diseases(NIID)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental dentinal caries was induced in rat molars which were inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans and maintained on a carionenic diet 2000. After 30 days on the diet, the rats were sacrificed. The caries lesions were confirmed with a caries detector, then nanohardness determination of caries dentin were measured with nanoindentation. After hardness measurement, the lesion was examined by SEM and EDS. Dentin caries in sixteen fissures was induced among 20 fissures in the mandibular...

  8. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  9. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  10. Contemporary aspects of caries prevention in children

    OpenAIRE

    Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Naskova, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the trends of the caries dispersion in the developed countries in the last 40 years, show signifi cantly diminished values of CIA (caries index average) from11 to 4. But, the situati on in the developing countries is completely diff erent. The caries goes upwards, and CIA is increased for 5 points in the last 20 years. (WHO 2000) The purposel of our study would be to suggest a strategy for preventive dental protecti on which will be applied on the whole territory of the countr...

  11. Caries Epidemiology and Community Dentistry: Chances for Future Improvements in Caries Risk Groups. Outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium, Greifswald, 2014. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Christiansen, Jette; Foster Page, Lyndie A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the first part of the outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2014 dealing with 'caries epidemiology and community dentistry: chances for future improvements in caries risk groups'. After the caries decline in many countries, there are remaining pockets of higher caries levels, mostly in the primary dentition and/or linked to a low socio-economic status (SES). The review into the evidence of caries-preventive measures clearly points to the use of fluorides, especially toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and collective measures such as water fluoridation. In contrast to several unsuccessful high-risk approaches, community and public health programmes seem to be able to ensure a population-wide access and compliance in risk groups. Their simple and evidence-based measures mostly combine regular plaque removal and fluoride applications via toothbrushing, at least for children and adolescents. For the future, the common risk factor approach which addresses associations between oral health, social deprivation, diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use and stress should lead to combined efforts with other community health and education specialists. Further engagement with public policy, community leaders and administration is needed in order to strengthen healthy choices and behaviour, e.g. in 'healthy' schools and kindergartens. It seems advisable that these population programmes also aim at improving upstream factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    OpenAIRE

    Giacaman,Rodrigo Andrés; Miranda Reyes,Paulina; Bravo León,Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years). Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to co...

  13. Caries in five-year-old children and associations with family-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, M L; Rautava, P; Sillanpää, M; Paunio, P

    2000-03-01

    It is generally understood that the teeth of pre-school-aged children are healthy, but the improvement in the dmft index has halted in the industrialized countries. Those few children who have caries have more of it than before. Little is known of the family-related factors which are associated with this polarization of caries. A representative population-based sample consisted of 1443 mothers expecting their first child. The children were followed at well-baby clinics and public dental health clinics for over five years. The objective was to study the prevalence of dental caries and its predictors in five-year-old children and to assess children's own dental health habits and the meaning of family-related factors in dental health. The findings were based on questionnaire data from parents and on clinical dental examinations of the five-year-old children as completed by 101 public health dentists. In firstborn five-year-old children, dental health was found to be good in 72%, fair in 20%, and poor in 8% of the cases. The final multivariate analysis illustrated that the dmft index > 0 was independently associated with the mother's irregular toothbrushing (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5), annual occurrence of several carious teeth in the father (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.9-3.6), daily sugar consumption at the age of 18 months (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1), occurrence of child's headaches (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.5-8.8), parents' cohabitation (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.5-7.6), rural domicile (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and mother's young age (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.3-19.8). The findings indicated that attention should be paid not only to the child's dental health care but also to that of the whole family. Parents should be supported in their upbringing efforts and encouraged to improve their children's dental health habits. In everyday life, parents function as role models for their children, and therefore, parents' own dental hygiene habits are very meaningful.

  14. Does caries risk assessment predict the incidence of caries for special needs patients requiring general anesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhea; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the caries-related variables of special needs patients to the incidence of new caries. Data for socio-demographic information and dental and general health status were obtained from 110 patients treated under general anesthesia because of their insufficient co-operation. The Cariogram program was used for risk assessment and other caries-related variables were also analyzed. Within a defined follow-up period (16.3 ± 9.5 months), 64 patients received dental examinations to assess newly developed caries. At baseline, the mean (SD) values of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DT (decayed teeth) for the total patients were 9.2 (6.5) and 5.8 (5.3), respectively. During the follow-up period, new caries occurred in 48.4% of the patients and the mean value (SD) of the increased DMFT (iDMFT) was 2.1 (4.2). The patients with a higher increment of caries (iDMFT ≥3) showed significantly different caries risk profiles compared to the other patients (iDMFT dentistry. Past caries experience and inadequate oral hygiene maintenance were largely related to caries development in special needs patients.

  15. Dental caries and salivary alterations in Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K; Hegde, A M; Kamath, A; Shetty, S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a severe disease that raises blood glucose levels because of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Fluctuations in water and electrolyte levels may result in xerostomia and other changes in the salivary composition. Since diabetes has an influence on oral health, it is important for the dentist to be aware of newer advances in the field of diabetes and to recognize specific oral problems related to diabetes. Thus, the dentist becomes an important part of the health care team for the patients with diabetes. The present study correlated salivary flow rate, salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant levels and dental caries in type I diabetic patients. A total of 200 children that included 100 known diabetic children (study group) and 100 healthy children (controls) of both the sexes and from similar socioeconomic backgrounds formed the part of this study. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phospho molybdic acid using spectrophotometric method. The salivary flow rate was recorded using the Zunt method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. The analyzed parameters showed increase in salivary anti-oxidant levels, reduced salivary flow rate, increase incidence of dental caries, salivary pH was decreased when compared to the control group.

  16. Fluoride Varnish for Caries Prevention: Efficacy and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Clarkson, Jan E

    2016-01-01

    Many reviews support fluoride varnish (FV) as a caries-inhibitory agent. Evidence from 6 Cochrane systematic reviews involving 200 trials and more than 80,000 participants further confirms the effectiveness of FV, applied professionally 2-4 times a year, for preventing dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth. The relative benefit of FV application seems to occur irrespective of baseline caries risk, baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, use of fluoride toothpaste and application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride or frequency of application. While the efficacy of FV is acknowledged in clinical practice guidelines globally, the implementation of this recommendation may still be an issue. Factors that may facilitate FV application in the USA include Medicaid eligibility, relationships with dentists/community centers and strong cooperation and communication between physicians and support staff. Barriers include insufficient time to integrate oral health services into well-child visits, difficulty in applying FV (lack of skills/training) and resistance among colleagues and staff. Research in the UK/Scotland also suggests encouraging clinicians in their motivation to perform this treatment and addressing professional and parental concerns relating to possible negative consequences may be influential. Further research targeting cost-effectiveness and how FV in routine care may fit in with political agendas relating to, for example, inequalities in health care provision and access will also play a key part in stakeholder decisions to put resources into this issue. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Poor sleep quality is associated with greater circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and severity and frequency of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) symptoms in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrad, Sara F; Hall, Daniel L; Jutagir, Devika R; Lattie, Emily G; Ironson, Gail H; Wohlgemuth, William; Nunez, Maria Vera; Garcia, Lina; Czaja, Sara J; Perdomo, Dolores M; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Antoni, Michael H

    2017-02-15

    Poor sleep quality has been linked to inflammatory processes and worse disease outcomes in the context of many chronic illnesses, but less is known in conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This study examines the relationships between sleep quality, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CFS/ME symptoms. Sixty women diagnosed with CFS/ME were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-based CFS/ME symptom questionnaires. Circulating plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Multiple regression analyses examined associations between sleep, cytokines and symptoms, controlling for age, education, and body mass index. Poor sleep quality (PSQI global score) was associated with greater pro-inflammatory cytokine levels: interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (β=0.258, p=0.043), IL-6 (β=0.281, p=0.033), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (β=0.263, p=0.044). Worse sleep quality related to greater fatigue severity (β=0.395, p=0.003) and fatigue-related interference with daily activities (β=0.464, p<0.001), and more severe and frequent CDC-defined core CFS/ME symptoms (β=0.499, p<0.001, and β=0.556, p<0.001, respectively). Results underscore the importance of managing sleep-related difficulties in this patient population. Further research is needed to identify the etiology of sleep disruptions in CFS/ME and mechanistic factors linking sleep quality to symptom severity and inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of diet in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C; Duggal, M S

    2001-01-01

    Over the last three decades the condition of the teeth of children has improved tremendously. This has generally been attributed to the increased use of fluoride toothpaste. During this period the total amount of sugars disappearing into the population per capita has hardly changed. This suggests that the relationship between diet and caries has to be reassessed, which provokes different opinions among dental experts. Some suggest a maximum threshold level for the daily amount of sugars to prevent caries. Others propose that in general the amount of sugars eaten is not an important determinant of caries experience. The scientific evidence for the various opinions on the role of diet in caries development will be discussed. It is concluded that the role of diet is not so much related to the diet itself but to the individual behaviour of people. Where oral hygiene and fluoride supplementation are adequate, the diet has become a lesser factor in caries prevention. However, those diets may cause caries when there is too little fluoride. It is a mistake to classify a diet as cariogenic it may be potentially cariogenic. When one wants to decrease this potency, one should modify those factors that are actually controlling it, which is, in most cases, the topical presence of fluoride and not the composition of the diet. A model is proposed to guide caries prevention. The (insufficient) use of fluoride, (insufficient) oral hygiene and (insufficient) clearance by saliva form a window of risk. The total burden of cariogenic food that can be seen through the window constitutes the actual caries risk.

  19. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of ...

  20. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Moraga, Carla Paola; Rodríguez Martínez, Gonzalo Andrés; Lefimil Puente, Claudia Andrea; Morales Bozo, Irene Cecilia; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca Regina

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish associations among the Candida carriage rate, the diversity of Candida species carried and the different caries status of preschool children. Sixty-one children between 2 and 5 years of age were examined by a single expert examiner and were divided into three groups, the caries-free, moderate caries and severe caries groups, according to the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS). Saliva samples were obtained from the members of each group and were plated on Sabouraud agar plates to assess the Candida carriage rates. CHROMagar Candida medium was used for the preliminary screening. Biochemical testing or PCR/sequencing was conducted to identify the different Candida species in the samples. The differences observed were considered significant if the p value was Candida carriage rate and the number of species of this fungus carried were higher in the group with the highest level of caries severity (p Candida albicans was the most predominant Candida species in the saliva of all of the children, C. dubliniensis was identified only in the most caries-affected group in addition to other rare species of Candida non-albicans. A high salivary Candida carriage rate and the presence of specific species of this fungus (such as C. albicans and C. dubliniensis) appear to be related to the severity of caries experienced by preschool children.

  1. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and Treatment needs. The overall caries prevalence was 87%. Mean caries experience differed significantly among women in various trimesters, it was found to be 3.59 and 3.00 in 1st and 2nd trimester subjects respectively while it was greatest (4.13) among those in 3rd trimester. One surface filling was the most predominant treatment need. Age and occupation of husband explained a variance of 6.8% and 4.2% for decayed and filled components respectively while the only predictor for missing teeth and DMFT that explained a variance of 9.6% and 5.7% respectively was trimester of pregnancy. Dental caries experience and the need for one surface restoration increased with age. Trimester of pregnancy was a significant predictor for missing teeth and DMFT, while decayed teeth and filled teeth were influenced by age and socio-economic level respectively. Key words:Dental caries, treatment needs, pregnant, age, trimester.

  2. Evidence for dental caries decline among children in an East European country (Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, J.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren......Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren...

  3. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitha Animireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  4. Trend Analysis of Studies on Water Fluoridation Related to Dental Caries in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Mi; Kim, Chonghyuck; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2018-04-04

    Water fluoridation has been cited as one of the top 10 public health achievements of the 20th century. Herein, we analyzed water fluoridation articles related to dental caries published in PubMed between 1950 and 2016 using informetrics and linguistic methods to investigate trends in the studies. To this aim, queries such as "dental caries and (water fluoridation or fluoridated water)," "dental caries and (fluoride or fluoridation)," and "dental caries" were submitted to PubMed to retrieve information about articles on water fluoridation within the area of dental caries and fluoride - their titles, abstracts, publication dates, author affiliations, and publication journals. This article information was then collected by an automatic web crawler and examined through informetrics and linguistic analyses. It was found that the number of articles concerned with water fluoridation and dental caries was 3,381 and declined over time after 1970. The articles were published by 750 journals - most notably, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology and Caries Research. With regard to the geographic distribution of the authors, Europe and North America, especially the USA and UK, accounted for 59.9% of the articles published during the years 1987 to 2015, though there was a sharp increase in the number of authors in Oceania and Asia in recent years. In the titles and abstracts of the articles, "community" and "fluorosis" were mentioned more frequently than the other key terms selected in this study, regardless of the period examined. Our findings may allow one to assess how the research on water fluoridation has evolved over the past several decades. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Contemporary operative caries management: consensus recommendations on minimally invasive caries removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Schwendicke, F.; Innes, N.P.

    2017-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration (ICCC) presented recommendations on terminology, on carious tissue removal and on managing cavitated carious lesions. It identified 'dental caries' as the name of the disease that dentists should manage, and the importance of controlling the activity

  6. Profile of Dental Caries in Teenagers in Mumbai City Visiting Nair Hospital Dental College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Kulvinder Singh; Rastogi, Sweta; Mistry, Siddhi

    2018-01-01

    Witnessing the alarming rise and pattern of distribution of dental caries worldwide, the need of the hour is to take initiative in preventing the spread further. This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of dental caries and its associated risk factors in teenagers of Mumbai city who visited Nair Hospital Dental College. The objective of the study was to analyze the current dietary habits, oral hygiene status, and the number of sugar exposures in teenagers by a questionnaire followed by clinical examination which was carried out using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II to detect the profile of dental caries. The data obtained from the questionnaire and examination were analyzed using Chi-square test. The survey showed that, out of the 300 teenagers examined, 67% visited the dentist only when they were symptomatic. Around 60% consumed sweets 2-3 times/day. A major percentage, 89%, consumed sweets irrespective of meal time and 52% consumed aerated drinks often. Only 16% used appropriate brushing techniques and 93% were not aware if their toothpaste was fluoridated. ICDAS II revealed that a total number of teeth requiring preventive treatment ranged from 8.3% to 14% and total number of teeth requiring definitive treatment ranged from 36% to 48%. It was found that tooth most commonly treated was 36 followed by tooth number 46 showing that the incidence of caries is higher in lower arch. Most of the teenagers had a high rate of sweet consumption in between meals and poor knowledge of brushing techniques, fluoridated toothpaste, interdental aids, and mouthrinses. ICDAS showed a high incidence of caries in teenagers, especially in the lower arch. ICDAS II showed good accuracy in differentiating between noncavitated and cavitated lesions which helps to provide an accurate treatment plan for teenagers so that it prevents the progression of the lesion.

  7. Profile of dental caries in teenagers in Mumbai City visiting Nair Hospital Dental College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulvinder Singh Banga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Witnessing the alarming rise and pattern of distribution of dental caries worldwide, the need of the hour is to take initiative in preventing the spread further. Aim: This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of dental caries and its associated risk factors in teenagers of Mumbai city who visited Nair Hospital Dental College. Materials and Methods: The objective of the study was to analyze the current dietary habits, oral hygiene status, and the number of sugar exposures in teenagers by a questionnaire followed by clinical examination which was carried out using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II to detect the profile of dental caries. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained from the questionnaire and examination were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The survey showed that, out of the 300 teenagers examined, 67% visited the dentist only when they were symptomatic. Around 60% consumed sweets 2–3 times/day. A major percentage, 89%, consumed sweets irrespective of meal time and 52% consumed aerated drinks often. Only 16% used appropriate brushing techniques and 93% were not aware if their toothpaste was fluoridated. ICDAS II revealed that a total number of teeth requiring preventive treatment ranged from 8.3% to 14% and total number of teeth requiring definitive treatment ranged from 36% to 48%. It was found that tooth most commonly treated was 36 followed by tooth number 46 showing that the incidence of caries is higher in lower arch. Conclusion: Most of the teenagers had a high rate of sweet consumption in between meals and poor knowledge of brushing techniques, fluoridated toothpaste, interdental aids, and mouthrinses. ICDAS showed a high incidence of caries in teenagers, especially in the lower arch. ICDAS II showed good accuracy in differentiating between noncavitated and cavitated lesions which helps to provide an accurate treatment plan for teenagers so that it prevents the

  8. Association between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Anganwadi Children of Belgaum City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluckal, Eby; Anzil, Ksa; Baby, Mathews; George, Eldhose K; Lakshmanan, Sanju; Chikkanna, Shilpa

    2016-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an index that measures height for weight, which is commonly used to categorize underweight, overweight, and obese individuals. Deviation from normal weight results from an imbalance between caloric consumption and energy expenditure. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations, probably due to common confounding risk factors, such as intake frequency, cariogenic diet, and poor oral hygiene. So the aim of the present study was to assess the BMI status and to corelate between dental caries and BMI among the Anganwadi children of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. Four hundred and thirty three children from 20 Anganwadi's belonging to the age group of 2 to 6 years of both sexes were measured for BMI and dental caries status. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d) and filled (f) teeth (t) (dft). The BMI in units of kg/m 2 was determined and children were categorized according to age-and gender-specific criteria as underweight (95th percentile). The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. The proportion of subjects in Centre for Disease Control (CDC) weight categories was: 5% underweight, 79% normal, 9% under the risk for overweight, and 6% overweight. A significant association was found between children with normal BMI and those who were underweight, overweight, and under the risk for overweight. Children with overweight/obese or underweight/malnourished children had higher decayed and filled surfaces compared to children with normal weight. Nutritional status has a profound effect on dental caries. Both underweight/malnutrition and overweight/ obesity have significant adverse implications for health. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations.

  9. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  10. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  11. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: Dental caries and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikiran N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  12. NEW DATA ON THE CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF OCCLUSAL CARIES (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ANDRIAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the control of occlusal caries, the major challenges are related not only to the detection of non-cavitary lesions, but also to the establishment of the treatment strategies to be subsequently applied. Considering the objective of each treatment, that of helping the patient, it is essential to control the progression of carious lesions by means of nonsurgical, preventive/therapeutical methods, whenever necessary. The new strategies applied in caries management are based on the evaluation and predictibility of possible risks, a major aspect in the daily taking of therapeutical decisions. The management plan should include: (I patient’s level of risk, (II patient’s activity level and (III severity of the lesion. Various strategies for a most efficient management of patient’s problems, as well as of the carious lesions, have been elaborated by specialized medical organisms, such as: strategies established within ICDAS, CAMBRA, strategies of the caries management system (SMC and protocols indicated by the system of caries classification according to ADA (American Dental Association. The mission of any new model of caries management is first of all to preserve the dental tissues, and to restore them when only recommended – an idea to guide the decisions of practitioners, starting with the moment of anamnesis, clinical examination and estabishment of diagnosis, until the end of the treatment

  13. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q G; Xu, Y; Zhu, H H; Chen, H; Lin, B

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565–750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565–750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as <0.66, 0.66–1.06, 1.06–1.62, and >1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems. (paper)

  14. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as 1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  15. Caries risk and orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl Vital, Sibylle; Haignere-Rubinstein, Claire; Lasfargues, Jean-Jacques; Chaussain, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    It is now established that orthodontic treatment increases the risk of carious lesions, with consequent harm to the patient and a high risk of compromising treatment outcome. This risk is related to the appliances, which increase the number of sites where plaque can accumulate as well as to changes in the bacterial flora and the age of the patient. A thorough evaluation of the risk of caries is therefore needed before any appliance is put in place and further evaluations should then be performed regularly throughout the course of treatment. In addition, preventive measures should be taken, involving first and foremost educating and motivating patients regarding the need for good oral hygiene. Prevention also implies adequate usage of the various sources of local fluoride administration, notably the application of fluoride-rich varnish. Other prophylactic measures such as using chlorhexidine varnish and sealing dental grooves are also recommended. Finally, the orthodontist can reduce to a minimum the use of items likely to retain dental plaque such as bands and elastomeric ties. The aim of this article is to suggest a specific diagnostic approach and to present the scientifically validated prevention measures, which need to be applied throughout orthodontic treatment. Copyright 2010 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The Caries Phenomenon: A Timeline from Witchcraft and Superstition to Opinions of the 1500s to Today's Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Ruby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries—holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.

  17. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  18. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, dental caries .... cavity and is easily obtainable, noninvasive, and patient .... providing or developing dental caries treatment alternatives. .... frequency in children after heart transplantation and.

  19. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  20. General evaluation of hard dental tissue and risk factors of dental caries in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антоніна Михайлівна Політун

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The prognostication of caries in youth is important for determination and prescription of individual prophylactic arrangements and its further influence on mineralization of the hard dental tissues.Aim of the work: the study of the prevalence and intensity of caries among the young people and determination of possible connection with the risk factor of caries development for further choice of the reasonable prophylactic arrangement.Materials and methods of research: epidemiological, clinical, statistic ones.Results of research: The article describes results of the comprehensive dental examination of 135 persons18-25 years old. There was determined the high prevalence of caries (96,3±0,74 % with considerable intensity (8,87±0,39. The main etiological factors among youth are: poor nutrition with prevalence of carbohydrate (74,81±0,56 %, lack of oral hygiene (59,27±0,73 %, quantitative and qualitative composition of oral fluid, presence of somatic diseases (40±0,30 %, bad habits (31,85±0,24 %, neglect of the sport (48,88±0,36 %, chronic emotional stress (38,51±0,29 %, due to the increased workload and related stress factors.Conclusions: the high prevalence (96,3±0,74 % and intensity of carious process (8,87±0,39 is caused by the unsatisfactory state of oral cavity, (1,91±0,06, under the influence of general factors (somatic diseases, stress, poor nutrition the reactivity of protective mechanisms is lowered and the risk of dental morbidity of youth increases. So, it proves the necessity of elaboration and introduction of the active arrangements of primary prophylaxis directed on the raise of caries resistance of the hard dental tissues in young people

  1. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden...... of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy...... food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts...

  2. Theory of X-ray microcomputed tomography in dental research: application for the caries research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seok Park

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains prevalent throughout modern society and is the main disease in the field of dentistry. Although studies of this disease have used diverse methodology, recently, X-ray microtomography has gained popularity as a non-destructive, 3-dimensional (3D analytical technique, and has several advantages over the conventional methods. According to X-ray source, it is classified as monochromatic or polychromatic with the latter being more widely used due to the high cost of the monochromatic source despite some advantages. The determination of mineral density profiles based on changes in X-ray attenuation is the principle of this method and calibration and image processing procedures are needed for the better image and reproducible measurements. Using this tool, 3D reconstruction is also possible and it enables to visualize the internal structures of dental caries. With the advances in the computer technology, more diverse applications are being studied, such automated caries assessment algorithms.

  3. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  4. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-12-15

    To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth) and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS), as well as the significant caries index (SiC). The median DMFT and DMFS of all children were 3 and 4, respectively. The median DMFT and DMFS of 12-year-old children were 4 and 5, respectively. The highest median DMFT score of 7 was found among 14-year-old children. There was a significant difference between age groups (7-10 years and 11-14 years) in DMFT and DMFS. Among 8-year-old children, the median dmft index was the highest (5.5) and SiC index was 7.4. As far as the location of caries on the surface of the first permanent molar is concerned, caries occurred mostly in the central occlusal surface (27.6%). Our results showed a high caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, indicating a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care.

  5. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild......OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1......,595 schoolchildren aged 10-17 years, randomly allocated by clusters into a stratified sample population. The dental caries were scored according to the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria and expressed based on tooth and surface levels [Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth/Surfaces indices (DMFT....../DMFS)]. A questionnaire was administered to the children to determine the education level of their parents and their living standard. RESULTS: The caries prevalence was 75 percent, and 64 percent had untreated caries. The mean DMFT value for the entire sample was 2.8, and its highest component was decayed teeth (mean DT...

  6. Prevalence of dental caries and associated factors among 12 years old students in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andegiorgish, Amanuel Kidane; Weldemariam, Bizen Weldmicheal; Kifle, Meron Mehari; Mebrahtu, Filmon Gebreysus; Zewde, Henos Keflom; Tewelde, Micheal Gebregziabhir; Hussen, Mohammed Anwar; Tsegay, Winta Kesete

    2017-12-29

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases of childhood in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries in Eritrea. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among 12 years old school children in Eritrea. A school based cross sectional study was conducted among 225 twelve years old students in two selected schools. One school from randomly selected urban and rural subzones of the country were selected. WHO adopted questionnaire and a standard checklist were used to collect relevant data. To assess dental caries, two examiners were calibrated by a certified dentist and inter observer agreement was calculated using the Cohen's Kappa statistic (0.82). All data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of dental caries was 78%, without significant difference between males (78%) and females (79%).The mean DMFT value was 2.50 (±2.21). The decayed component contributed 98.3% of the score as it had 2.44 (±1.2) share to the mean DMFT value. The first molar was the most affected tooth with a DMFT value of 1.55 (±1.36). The mean significant caries index score (SiC) was 4.97 (±1.9) which is higher than the upper limit of SiC value of 3 set by the WHO as a global average. More than half of the respondents had never visited a dentist and out of the students who had utilized a dental health facility, 82% of visits were due to dental pain while visits for regular checkups were cited by only 6.6% of the respondents. Dental caries was found to be a common public health problem among 12 years old Eritrean students. The prevalence of dental caries, mean DMFT and SiC scores were higher than the average score of other developing countries. Gaps in dental health service utilization, dental health practices and suboptimal water fluoride levels contribute to poor dental health among school children in Eritrea.

  7. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  8. Factors associated with dental caries in children aged 4-6 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Widayati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental caries is one of the dental health problems. Dental caries are formed because there was leftover food that sticks to the teeth, which eventually lead to tooth calcification. Impact, teeth become brittle, hollow, even broken.Dental caries experience a loss of power to make a child chewing and digestive disruption, which resulted in growth of less than the maximum. This study aims to determine the relationship of parents’ behavior towards the maintenance of dental health of children (feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk, teeth maintenance, inspection tooth and mouth with dental caries in the TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun village Turi District of Lamongan. This study Analytics whose data is collected with a cross sectional sample of kindergarten children aged 4–6 years with a total sample of 49 children. The collection of primary data through interviews parents TK R.A Bustanussholihin student using questionnaires and secondary data obtained from the agency are in the region of the profile data TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun Village of Turi District of Lamongan. This study used a correlation coefficient of contingency. Based on the results of the contingency coefficient correlation test showed that the factors that have a strong relationship is the habit of feeding the sweet, sticky, and drink milk with a value of P = 0.504. While the factors that have a weak link is the habit of maintaining dental hygiene habits of children and child oral examination . From this study it can be concluded that there is a relationship or a strong correlation between feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk with the incidence of dental caries in children aged 4–6. So as to prevent dental caries severity we need to hold counseling on feeding sweet, soft and gooey on the effect of dental caries as well as how it should be formula feeding or breast milk to the child to prevent rampant caries. Keywords: dental caries, sweetened

  9. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  10. Caries Risk Assessment in School Children Using Reduced Cariogram Model

    OpenAIRE

    Taqi, Muhammad; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Ab-Murat, Norintan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the percentage of children with low, moderate and high caries risk; and to determine the predictors of caries risk amongst 11-12 year old Pakistani school children. Methods: Subjects’ caries risk was assessed using the Cariogram programme. The survey was done among school children in Bhakkar district of Punjab, Pakistan. Caries and plaque level were assessed using the DMFT and Sillnes and Loe indices respectively, while diet content and frequency were assessed using a t...

  11. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D

    2004-01-01

    important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....

  12. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level....

  13. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child's socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58-2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34-1.01) insignificantly. Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking.

  14. Caries experience of Egyptian adolescents: does the atraumatic restorative treatment approach offer a solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobarak, E.H.; Shabayek, M.M.; Mulder, J.; Reda, A.H.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries amongst Egyptian adolescents and the prevalence of carious lesions treatable through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a convenient sample procedure, two secondary schools with a dental

  15. Dental caries experience, rather than toothbrushing, influences the incidence of dental caries in young Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, C; Ebisawa, M; Nakashima, H; Sakurai, Y

    2017-06-01

    A dose-response relationship between toothbrushing frequency and the incidence of dental caries has not been confirmed. Furthermore, no longitudinal study about this relationship has considered dental caries experience at baseline, which is an important factor influencing the frequency of future caries. To elucidate the association between the incidence of dental caries and toothbrushing frequency after adjusting for dental caries experience at baseline in a Japanese population. The 92 recruits of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force in Kure, Japan, in 2011 were followed up for 3 years. They underwent oral examination at the annual checkups and answered questions about toothbrushing frequency. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the incidence of dental caries and to identify independent effects of toothbrushing frequency and dental caries experience at baseline. Furthermore, the relative importance of the incidence of dental caries was investigated among other independent variables using the partial adjusted R² score. Logistic regression analysis showed that toothbrushing frequency alone did not influence the increment in decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). However, DMFT at baseline alone was associated with the increment in DMFT (crude odds ratio, OR, 1.20, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.08,1.33). In the fully adjusted model, only DMFT at baseline was associated with the increment in DMFT (adjusted OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.09,1.38). After three years, the incidence of dental caries in young adult Japanese males was influenced by DMFT at baseline, rather than toothbrushing frequency. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  16. Dental caries experience and treatment needs of an adult female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult females attending outreach programmes were examined for dental caries using the. Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth caries index (DMFT).

  17. Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence among 12 and 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries ...

  18. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on dental caries among patients attending Mulago Hospital is scarce. Yet knowledge of the pattern of caries can be used to plan preventive and treatment interventions. This study describes the pattern of dental caries (in terms of age group, tooth and tooth surface and gender) among patients attending the ...

  19. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for Arresting Caries Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.T.F.; Holmgren, C.J.; Mulder, J.; Lama, D.; Walker, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT) has been proposed to manage untreated dental caries in children. This prospective randomized clinical trial investigated the caries-arresting effectiveness of a single spot application of: (1) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with tannic acid as a reducing agent;

  20. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's tooth...

  1. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  2. The use of the X-ray investigation for dental caries diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecetkova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Caries is defect of the hard dental tissue which is cause by cariogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity. New classification of caries is D1, D2, D3 and D4. D1 is caries in the first layer of enamel. D2 is caries in the second layer of enamel till the margin of dentine ( caries superficial ). D3 is caries in the first layer of dentine ( caries media ).D4 is caries on the top of pulp chamber ( caries pulpae proxima ). One of the most frequently used methods of radiography to detect of caries is bitewing ( BTW ) radiography. (authors)

  3. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-08-01

    Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  4. Prevention of root caries with dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogono, A L; Mayo, J A

    1994-04-01

    This in vitro investigation determined the feasibility of using dentin adhesives to protect root surfaces against caries. The roots of 22 recently extracted human teeth were all painted with a protective lacquer leaving two unprotected small windows. On each specimen, one window (control) was left untreated and the other window (experimental) was treated using a dentin adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose). The roots were then immersed in an in vitro acetate/calcium/phosphate demineralization model at pH 4.3. After 70 days, the samples were removed and sectioned through the windows. The undecalcified ground sections were examined under transmitted and polarized light. Lesions characteristic of natural root caries were seen in the untreated control windows. No such lesions were apparent in the experimental windows. The results of this preliminary study suggest that dentin adhesives may provide protection against root caries.

  5. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  6. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...

  7. A retrospective analysis of caries treatment and development in relation to assessed caries risk in an adult population in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...

  8. Caries oclusal incipiente : Un nuevo enfoque

    OpenAIRE

    Machado de Almeida, Cristiane Nishiyama; Geller Palti, Dafna; Francisconi Silveira, Paulo A.

    2014-01-01

    No obstante que el conocimiento sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la caries dental haavanzado, el diagnóstico de las lesiones oclusales todavía constituye un reto para los clínicos ylos epidemiólogos. Los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, así como los conceptos, formas dediagnóstico y tratamiento de la odontología han evolucionado debido, principalmente, a tresgrandes factores: (1) la visión de la caries dental como una enfermedad y, consecuentemente, laposibilidad de intervenir más temp...

  9. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  10. DENTAL CARIES AND TREATMENT NECESSITY IN INSTITUTIONALIZED DRUG USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferraz Neves Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on drugs is a complex disease, incurable and that its use persists in the face of extremely negative consequences. Objective: was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of caries in users of legal drugs. Methods:It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study, held with adults, users of legal and illegal drugs, institutionalized in rehabilitation centers of municipalities in the southwestern region of the state of Bahia. We used a form with sociodemographic questions about the use of licit and illicit drugs. To assess tooth decay, we used the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT, and the dental units were assessed with a World Health Organization (WHO Model probe and a dental mirror. Data were tabulated and analyzed in Excel. Results: 73 individuals were evaluated, aged between 18 and 64, mean age 35.5 (SD ± 10.7. It was found that 71.4% are single, 73,7% with low level of education, 74.6% do not use dental floss. Caries prevalence was 98.6%, DMF-T average 15.6. In 18-34 years old individuals, the DMF-T average was 12.1 and from 35 to 64 years old it was 19.8. Regarding dentition, 52.6% of the teeth were affected by the disease. Among the affected teeth, 39.9% were decayed, 44.1% lost and 16% filled. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of caries in this population. Among the dental needs, the restoration of the dental element has to be highlighted.

  11. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  12. Clarifying the Impact of Untreated and Treated Dental Caries on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Hernandez, Pedro Antonio González; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dental caries experience and the components of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled at public schools in the municipality of Osório (southern Brazil). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination for caries (World Health Organization: DMFT index), malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index) and traumatic dental injuries [Andreasen et al., 2007]. The participants answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form, and their parents/guardians answered a structured questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of rate ratios adjusted for potential confounding variables. High severity of dental caries experience exerted a significant impact on OHRQoL, even after controlling for socioeconomic and clinical factors (rate ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.12-1.51). All OHRQoL domains were affected by untreated dental caries. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CPQ11-14 scores were 33% higher among adolescents with untreated caries (rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.50) and 24% higher among those with missing teeth (rate ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.47). No difference in OHRQoL was found between adolescents with filled teeth and those without dental caries. In conclusion, dental caries experience, untreated dental caries and missing teeth exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL among the adolescents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  14. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models for appraisal of risk factors associated with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Manu; Shah, Aasim Farooq; Rajput, Prashant; Shah, Ishrat Aasim

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries among children has been described as a pandemic disease with a multifactorial nature. Various sociodemographic factors and oral hygiene practices are commonly tested for their influence on dental caries. In recent years, a recent statistical model that allows for covariate adjustment has been developed and is commonly referred zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models. To compare the fit of the two models, the conventional linear regression (LR) model and ZINB model to assess the risk factors associated with dental caries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1138 12-year-old school children in Moradabad Town, Uttar Pradesh during months of February-August 2014. Selected participants were interviewed using a questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by recording decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index. To assess the risk factor associated with dental caries in children, two approaches have been applied - LR model and ZINB model. The prevalence of caries-free subjects was 24.1%, and mean DMFT was 3.4 ± 1.8. In LR model, all the variables were statistically significant. Whereas in ZINB model, negative binomial part showed place of residence, father's education level, tooth brushing frequency, and dental visit statistically significant implying that the degree of being caries-free (DMFT = 0) increases for group of children who are living in urban, whose father is university pass out, who brushes twice a day and if have ever visited a dentist. The current study report that the LR model is a poorly fitted model and may lead to spurious conclusions whereas ZINB model has shown better goodness of fit (Akaike information criterion values - LR: 3.94; ZINB: 2.39) and can be preferred if high variance and number of an excess of zeroes are present.

  16. Caries experience of Egyptian adolescents: does the atraumatic restorative treatment approach offer a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, E H; Shabayek, M M; Mulder, J; Reda, A H; Frencken, J E

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries amongst Egyptian adolescents and the prevalence of carious lesions treatable through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. Using a convenient sample procedure, two secondary schools with a dental clinic were selected (967 students, average age: 13.7 ± 0.8 years, range: 12-15). Dental caries was diagnosed using the ART caries criteria, and plaque and calculus were assessed using the Green and Vermillion criteria amongst students grades 1-3 in the dental clinic by 3 calibrated examiners. The effect of the independent variables gender, age, tooth surface, jaw side (left or right) and type of jaw (mandible/maxilla) on dependent caries experience variables and D(2) and D(3) variables were tested using ANOVA. The prevalence of dental caries including enamel lesion (D(2)MFT) amongst the 967 students was 51.4% and that of dental caries excluding enamel lesions (D(3)MFT) was 38.1%. The mean D(2)MFT and D(3)MFT scores were 1.5 and 0.8, respectively. The percentage of teeth filled and extracted was low. Female students had statistically significantly higher mean D(3)MFT/S and D(2)MFT/S scores than males (p ART was 48% for score 2 and 28% for score 3. Most of the cavitated lesions were found untreated despite the presence of a dental clinic and a dentist on the school premises. The majority of cavitated lesions without pulp involvement could be treated using the preventive and restorative components of the ART approach. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study ( n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk a method for assessment of preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive

  19. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  20. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawani, Narendar; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Nazeer; Syed, Shahbano; Tanweer, Navara

    2012-12-27

    Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value dental plaque (p-value dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of different display types in detection of recurrent caries under restorations by using CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoĝlu, İsmail H; Eren, Hakan; Yavuz, Yasemin; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    To assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of CBCT images using seven different display types in the detection of recurrent caries. Our study comprised 128 extracted human premolar and molar teeth. 8 groups each containing 16 teeth were obtained as follows: (1) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling without caries; (2) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling without caries; (3) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling without caries; (4) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling without caries; (5) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling with caries; (6) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling with caries; (7) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling with caries; and (8) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling with caries. Teeth were imaged using 100 × 90 mm field of view at three different voxel sizes of a CBCT unit (Planmeca ProMax(®) 3D ProFace™; Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). CBCT TIFF images were opened and viewed using custom-designed software for computers on different display types. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer, reading and restoration were compared using z-tests against Az = 0.5. The significance level was set at p = 0.05. We found poor and moderate agreements. In general, Az values were found when software and medical diagnostic monitor were utilized. For Observer 2, Az values were statistically significantly higher when software was used on medical monitor [p = 0.036, p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, for normal-resolution mode (0.200 mm(3) voxel size), high-resolution mode (0.150 mm(3) voxel size) and low-resolution mode (0.400 mm(3) voxel size), respectively]. No statistically significant differences were found among other display types for all modes (p > 0.05). In general, no difference was found among 3 different voxel sizes (p > 0.05). In general, higher Az values were

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of different display types in detection of recurrent caries under restorations by using CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoĝlu, İsmail H; Eren, Hakan; Yavuz, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of CBCT images using seven different display types in the detection of recurrent caries. Methods: Our study comprised 128 extracted human premolar and molar teeth. 8 groups each containing 16 teeth were obtained as follows: (1) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling without caries; (2) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling without caries; (3) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling without caries; (4) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling without caries; (5) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling with caries; (6) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling with caries; (7) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling with caries; and (8) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling with caries. Teeth were imaged using 100 × 90 mm field of view at three different voxel sizes of a CBCT unit (Planmeca ProMax® 3D ProFace™; Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). CBCT TIFF images were opened and viewed using custom-designed software for computers on different display types. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer, reading and restoration were compared using z-tests against Az = 0.5. The significance level was set at p = 0.05. Results: We found poor and moderate agreements. In general, Az values were found when software and medical diagnostic monitor were utilized. For Observer 2, Az values were statistically significantly higher when software was used on medical monitor [p = 0.036, p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, for normal-resolution mode (0.200 mm3 voxel size), high-resolution mode (0.150 mm3 voxel size) and low-resolution mode (0.400 mm3 voxel size), respectively]. No statistically significant differences were found among other display types for all modes (p > 0.05). In general, no difference was found among 3 different voxel sizes (p > 0.05). In general

  3. Caries With Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-year School Children In Moderate-fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, E.; Vichayanrat, T.; Satitvipawee, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: A total of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Result: Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2 percent) with mean DMFT 0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6 percent of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5 percent). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Conclusion: Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries. (author)

  4. Use of new minimum intervention dentistry technologies in caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassery, H; Levallois, B; Terrer, E; Manton, D J; Otsuki, M; Koubi, S; Gugnani, N; Panayotov, I; Jacquot, B; Cuisinier, F; Rechmann, P

    2013-06-01

    Preservation of natural tooth structure requires early detection of the carious lesion and is associated with comprehensive patient dental care. Processes aiming to detect carious lesions in the initial stage with optimum efficiency employ a variety of technologies such as magnifying loupes, transillumination, light and laser fluorescence (QLF® and DIAGNOdent® ) and autofluorescence (Soprolife® and VistaCam®), electric current/impedance (CarieScan(®) ), tomographic imaging and image processing. Most fluorescent caries detection tools can discriminate between healthy and carious dental tissue, demonstrating different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Based on the fluorescence principle, an LED camera (Soprolife® ) was developed (Sopro-Acteon, La Ciotat, France) which combined magnification, fluorescence, picture acquisition and an innovative therapeutic concept called light-induced fluorescence evaluator for diagnosis and treatment (LIFEDT). This article is rounded off by a Soprolife® illustration about minimally or even non-invasive dental techniques, distinguishing those that preserve or reinforce the enamel and enamel-dentine structures without any preparation (MIT1- minimally invasive therapy 1) from those that require minimum preparation of the dental tissues (MIT2 - minimally invasive therapy 2) using several clinical cases as examples. MIT1 encompasses all the dental techniques aimed at disinfection, remineralizing, reversing and sealing the caries process and MIT2 involves a series of specific tools, including microburs, air abrasion devices, sonic and ultrasonic inserts and photo-activated disinfection to achieve minimal preparation of the tooth. With respect to minimally invasive treatment and prevention, the use of lasers is discussed. Furthermore, while most practices operate under a surgical model, Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CaMBRA) encourages a medical model of disease prevention and management to control the manifestation of the

  5. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyvad, B.; Crielaard, W.; Mira, A.; Takahashi, N.; Beighton, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial

  6. DENTAL CARIES, GINGIVITIS AND ORAL HYGIENE STATUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRAC'f: A survey was conducted among 200 school children in llala district. The average age of the children was 12 years. The schools were chosen from the city centre namely Kisarawe and Mnazi. Mmoja Primary Schools. Prevalence of caries and periodontal condi- tions was studied. The diagnostic cr:teria used.

  7. Caries prevention through life course approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Gomez, F.; van Loveren, C.; Eden, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological analyses showed that caries risk continues throughout all age groups. Moreover, it seems that there are trajectories of oral health. Individuals seem to enter such a trajectory at an early age and it shows to be difficult to escape to another trajectory with better health

  8. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  9. Vroegdiagnostiek van cariës

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijp, A.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of carious lesions enables the dental p rofessional to interfere in caries development. Visual inspection in combination with bitewing radiographs p erformed better than new quantitative methods in detecting early non-cavitated carious lesions. Once a lesion has been detected

  10. The relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with moderate- and high-fluoride drinking water in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwossen, Fantaye; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bjorvatn, Kjell; Bårdsen, Asgeir

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between caries and dental fluorosis in Ethiopian children living in Rift Valley areas known for endemic fluorosis. A total of 306 children (12-15 years old), selected from areas with moderate (0.3-2.2 mg/l), or high (10-14 mg/l) fluoride concentration in the drinking water were interviewed and examined for caries and dental fluorosis. Scorings were recorded according to the DMF system, and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis (TF-score > or = 1) was 91.8% (moderate area) and 100% (high-fluoride area). The corresponding caries prevalence and mean DMFT in the areas were 45.3% versus 61.6%, and 1.2 versus 1.8, respectively. Age and severity of dental fluorosis were found to be independent predictors for DMFT > or = 1. When compared with 12-year olds with TF-scores 0-4, odds ratios were 3.0 (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.2) if TF-scores were > or = 5 and age 13-15 years, respectively. A positive relationship between caries and fluorosis was observed across tooth types in both areas. The percentage of children with DMFT > or = 1 was highest in groups with TF-score > or = 5 in the second molar, followed by the first molar. The present findings indicate that the second molar is the tooth most severely affected by dental fluorosis and dental caries. Dental caries increased with increasing severity of dental fluorosis, both in moderate- and high-fluoride areas. Thus, a positive relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis was observed across various tooth types, in both areas. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  11. Dental caries and salivary status in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, related to the metabolic control of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudikiene, Jolanta; Machiulskiene, Vita; Nyvad, Bente; Tenovuo, Jorma; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among type 1 diabetes mellitus, dental caries, and salivary status in children. The study comprised 68, 10-15-yr-old diabetics, and 68, age- and gender-matched non-diabetic controls. Diabetics were categorized into well-to-moderately controlled (HbA1c or= 9.0%) groups. Caries was recorded by assessing lesion activity at non-cavitated and cavity levels. Teeth were examined visually for the presence of dental plaque. Saliva was analyzed for unstimulated and stimulated flow rates, buffer effect, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and yeasts. Diabetics had fewer caries and plaque, lower salivary flow rates and buffer effect, and more frequent growth of yeasts than their non-diabetic controls. Well-to-moderately controlled diabetics had fewer decayed surfaces and lower counts of mutans streptococci and yeasts than poorly controlled diabetics, but the level of metabolic control of diabetes had no influence on salivary flow rates and buffer effect. High caries levels in diabetics were significantly associated with age, plaque score, and decreased unstimulated salivary flow rate, but were not associated with the level of metabolic control of diabetes. High caries experience in this study population could be related to plaque accumulation and/or to changes in saliva induced by diabetes mellitus.

  12. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or

  13. Factores de riesgo asociados con la caries dental en niños de círculos infantiles Risk factor associated to dental caries in children from nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodríguez Llanes

    2009-06-01

    nurseries in Artemisa municipality from April to December, 2007 to identify prevalence and the risk factors associated with dental caries, and also to analyze risk degree in study sample. Universe includes 642 infants from 6 nurseries and sampling was performed by feasibility, in which we choice 2 nurseries for a total of 240 infants grouped according age, sex, dental caries prevalence, and most of risk factors, as well as risk degree. We applied a form including a questioning to parents and guardians and buccal examination to children from the same institutions, applying in each case the ceo-d rate. Among the main results we noted that 80% of children was caries-free, that the more incident risk factors were cariogenic diet and a poor oral hygiene, and that more than 80% of sample has a low risk of caries. We conclude that dental caries prevalence in these institutions is low despite risk factor influence conditioning appearance of this condition.

  14. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  15. ROC analysis of acid demineralized artificial caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1997-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the artificial incipient proximal caries lesion detectability by dentists on Ektaspeed Plus film using ROC analysis. Sixteen premolars and 30 molars, which have 52 proximal caries-like demineralized lesions using acid-gel technique were added to 20 sound premolars and 30 sound molars to make 24 plaster blocks. Each block with 4 teeth and 6 contacting proximal surfaces was placed in an optical bench to take 12 bitewing radiographs with Ektaspeed Plus film. Thirty-six dentists acted as observers to evaluated the proximal lesions using five rating scales for ROC analysis. They were also asked to determine the presence or absence of the proximal caries. The true status of the proximal caries was established by the consensus of three oral and maxillofacila radiologists. For evaluation of intra-observer agreement, 9 dentist reread the radiographs at an interval of 1 month. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the intra-observer agreement was 0.746 (good agreement). Ten observer's data set were degenerated. The mean area under ROC curve from 26 observers was 0.806 and standard deviation was 0.061. The sensitivity and the specificity of the binary response were 0.17 (SD=0.11) and 0.78 (SD=0.17) respectively. The binary response only reveal a single values of sensitivity and the specificity. The ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy in caries detection, which producing estimates of sensitivities for all specifities, yield more comprehensive measures of diagnostic performance than single values for sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Evaluating the Dental Caries-Related Information on Brazilian Websites: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Patricia Estefania Ayala; Coelho, Melina Martins; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Cruvinel, Agnes Fátima Pereira; Cruvinel, Thiago

    2017-12-13

    Dental caries is the most common chronic oral disease, affecting 2.4 billion people worldwide who on average have 2.11 decayed, missing, or filled teeth. It impacts the quality of life of patients, socially and economically. However, the comprehension of dental caries may be difficult for most people, as it involves a multifactorial etiology with the interplay between the tooth surface, the dental biofilm, dietary fermentable carbohydrates, and genetic and behavioral factors. Therefore, the production of effective materials addressed to the education and counseling of patients for the prevention of dental caries requires a high level of specialization. In this regard, the dental caries-related contents produced by laypersons and their availability on the Internet may be low-quality information. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the quality of dental caries-related information on Brazilian websites. A total of 75 websites were selected through Google, Bing, Yahoo!, and Baidu. The websites were organized in rankings according to their order of appearance in each one of the 4 search engines. Furthermore, 2 independent examiners evaluated the quality of websites using the DISCERN questionnaire and the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria. The readability of the websites was assessed by the Flesch Reading Ease adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (FRE-BP). In addition, the information presented on the websites was categorized as etiology, prevention, and treatment of dental caries. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney U test, hierarchical clustering analysis by Ward minimum variance method, Kruskal-Wallis test, and post hoc Dunn test. Pcaries information showed significantly higher quality scores than those with limited contents (P=.009). On the basis of this sample, dental caries-related contents available on Brazilian websites were considered simple, accessible

  17. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  18. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Farges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  19. Elevated incidence of dental caries in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis.

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    Marcelo A Catalán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is the single most prevalent and costly infectious disease worldwide, affecting more than 90% of the population in the U.S. The development of dental cavities requires the colonization of the tooth surface by acid-producing bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans. Saliva bicarbonate constitutes the main buffering system which neutralizes the pH fall generated by the plaque bacteria during sugar metabolism. We found that the saliva pH is severely decreased in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis disease (CF. Given the close relationship between pH and caries development, we hypothesized that caries incidence might be elevated in the mouse CF model.We induced carious lesions in CF and wildtype mice by infecting their oral cavity with S. mutans, a well-studied cariogenic bacterium. After infection, the mice were fed a high-sucrose diet for 5 weeks (diet 2000. The mice were then euthanized and their jaws removed for caries scoring and bacterial counting. A dramatic increase in caries and severity of lesions scores were apparent in CF mice compared to their wildtype littermates. The elevated incidence of carious lesions correlated with a striking increase in the S. mutans viable population in dental plaque (20-fold increase in CF vs. wildtype mice; p value < 0.003; t test. We also found that the pilocarpine-stimulated saliva bicarbonate concentration was significantly reduced in CF mice (16 ± 2 mM vs. 31 ± 2 mM, CF and wildtype mice, respectively; p value < 0.01; t test.Considering that bicarbonate is the most important pH buffering system in saliva, and the adherence and survival of aciduric bacteria such as S. mutans are enhanced at low pH values, we speculate that the decrease in the bicarbonate content and pH buffering of the saliva is at least partially responsible for the increased severity of lesions observed in the CF mouse.

  20. Prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level: consensus report of group 3 of joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Blanco, Juan; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Carvalho, Joana C; Dietrich, Thomas; Dörfer, Christof; Eaton, Kenneth A; Figuero, Elena; Frencken, Jo E; Graziani, Filippo; Higham, Susan M; Kocher, Thomas; Maltz, Marisa; Ortiz-Vigon, Alberto; Schmoeckel, Julian; Sculean, Anton; Tenuta, Livia M A; van der Veen, Monique H; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2017-03-01

    The non-communicable diseases dental caries and periodontal diseases pose an enormous burden on mankind. The dental biofilm is a major biological determinant common to the development of both diseases, and they share common risk factors and social determinants, important for their prevention and control. The remit of this working group was to review the current state of knowledge on epidemiology, socio-behavioural aspects as well as plaque control with regard to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Discussions were informed by three systematic reviews on (i) the global burden of dental caries and periodontitis; (ii) socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level; and (iii) mechanical and chemical plaque control in the simultaneous management of gingivitis and dental caries. This consensus report is based on the outcomes of these systematic reviews and on expert opinion of the participants. Key findings included the following: (i) prevalence and experience of dental caries has decreased in many regions in all age groups over the last three decades; however, not all societal groups have benefitted equally from this decline; (ii) although some studies have indicated a possible decline in periodontitis prevalence, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that prevalence has changed over recent decades; (iii) because of global population growth and increased tooth retention, the number of people affected by dental caries and periodontitis has grown substantially, increasing the total burden of these diseases globally (by 37% for untreated caries and by 67% for severe periodontitis) as estimated between 1990 and 2013, with high global economic impact; (iv) there is robust evidence for an association of low socio-economic status with a higher risk of having dental caries/caries experience and also with higher prevalence of periodontitis; (v) the most important behavioural factor

  1. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content, plaque...

  2. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee

    2015-06-15

    Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in

  3. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex Mh; Lo, Edward Cm; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-08

    This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children's diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion.

  4. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  5. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection

  6. Impacts on quality of life related to dental caries in a national representative sample of Thai 12- and 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisdapong, S; Prasertsom, P; Rattanarangsima, K; Sheiham, A

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is generally given the highest priority in national oral health services for school-aged populations. Yet, there is no study exploring the impacts on quality of life specifically related to dental caries in national samples of school-aged children. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of oral impacts attributed to dental caries on quality of life and compared them with overall oral health impacts. In addition, associations of oral impacts attributed to dental caries and dental caries status were investigated. A national representative sample of 1,063 12- and 811 15-year-olds completed a sociodemographic and behavioural questionnaire, and were orally examined and interviewed about oral health-related quality of life using the Child-OIDP or OIDP indexes, respectively. Associations of condition-specific impacts (CS impacts) attributed to dental caries with components of DMF were investigated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regressions. CS impacts attributed to dental caries were reported by nearly half the children and such impacts accounted for half of overall oral impacts from all oral conditions. The majority of impacts were of little intensity and affected only 1-2 daily performances, particularly performances on Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth. CS impacts were significantly positively associated with number of decayed teeth, and strongly associated with severe decay. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  8. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  9. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  10. Managing dental caries in children in Turkey--a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E

    2009-11-25

    This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may lead to pain, discomfort and functional limitation and, further, may impact negatively upon general health and cognitive development. As a first step to controlling dental caries, a national health programme including promotional, preventive and minimal intervention approaches for managing dental caries is proposed. The pros and cons of community-oriented caries-preventive measures are discussed. Daily tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste at home, in mother- and child-care centres, kindergartens, and schools is highlighted. The dental profession, government, university officials and other stakeholders need to meet and determine how best the oral health of children in Turkey can be improved. The present proposed plan is considered a starting point.

  11. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  12. Association Between Early Childhood Caries and Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes From Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Noel K; Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R; Wiener, Howard W; Ghazal, Tariq S; Ruby, John D; Moser, Stephen A

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-nine infants (each approximately one year old) had periodic oral examinations (dmfs) and microbial samples collected from dental plaque, saliva, and other oral surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. S mutans isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of S mutans in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Twenty-seven S mutans genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT match (n equals 40) or no-match (n equals 29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36 months (approximately four years old), the estimated dmfs in the match group was 2.61 times that of the no-match group (P=.014). Colonization of children with Streptococcus mutans genotypes that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with early childhood caries. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of S mutans in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the S mutans. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health.

  13. Early childhood caries and associated determinants: a cross-sectional study on Italian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Giovanna; Campus, Guglielmo; Sale, Silvana; Spano, Giovanni; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of several determinants on the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children living in northern Sardinia, Italy. These determinants include the educational level and occupational status of the parents as a proxy for the socioeconomical level (SES) and behavioral factors (dietary and oral hygiene). An observational cross-sectional study was designed with a dental examination and a standardized questionnaire. Five hundred forty-four subjects (260 girls and 284 boys) were enrolled and categorized into two age groups: 359 children were aged 18-47 months and 185 children were aged 48-60 months. The total caries prevalence was 15.99%. Caries risk increased with lower parents' educational level (P = 0.01), increased number of siblings (P family was associated with caries (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.20-2.40). ECC prevalence evaluated was similar to other western countries, and SES and behavioral habits influence the development of ECC. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. [Changes in dental caries indexes in school children in an area of Xochimilco, Mexico: 1984-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; Molina-Feichero, N; Villanueva-Arriaga, R; García-López, S

    1995-01-01

    To describe the changes in dental caries prevalence and severity, in a group of primary schoolchildren. Two dental caries surveys were carried out, one in 1984 and the other in 1992. The dental caries indices were registered using the World Health Organization's criteria. A group of 6-7 years old schoolchildren living in the East Region of Xochimilco were included in the study. A total of 279 children participated in this study; 153 in 1984 and 126 in 1992. The mean value of the deft index was 5.65 (SD 3.35) in 1984, and the mean value of the deft index was 4.89 (SD 3.7) in 1992. For the permanent dentition the DMFT was 0.51 (SD 1.0) in 1984 and 0.48 (SD 0.82) in 1992. Differences in dental caries indices, between the first and second survey, were significant only for the primary dentition in the six years old group (95% CI 0.36, 2.15). An increase in the proportion of filled teeth was found. However, the treatment needs are still very high (69% for primary teeth and 86% for permanent teeth). The findings from this study seem to indicate little change in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the population in the period of study.

  15. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers...... of heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials...... in preschool children and the elderly demonstrated prevented fractions of between 21% and 75% following regular intakes of milk supplemented with L. rhamnosus. No adverse effects or potential risks were reported. The currently available literature does not exclude the possibility that probiotic bacteria can...

  16. Recomendaciones sobre el uso de fluoruros para prevenir y controlar la caries dental en los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of fluoride has been fundamental in reducing the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the United States of America and in other developed countries. When used appropriately, fluoride is safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. Today, nearly all the residents of the United States are in some measure exposed to fluoride, which can come from multiple sources. This document is based on a report prepared by a working group assembled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States. The report details recommendations on fluoride use to prevent and control caries in the United States, but some aspects of the report could also be valid for other countries. Frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride on a daily basis is the best way to reduce the risk of caries in all age groups. Therefore, it is recommended that all people drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and that they brush their teeth twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste. Individuals with a high risk of caries may need additional fluoride sources. These recommendations attempt to provide dentists and other health professionals, public health professionals, and the general public with guidelines for fluoride use so that there is maximum protection against caries but without increasing the risk of enamel fluorosis, and with an efficient use of available resources. The recommendations are divided into four major groups: 1 public health and clinical practice, 2 self-care or individuals, 3 consumer-product industries and professional health care organizations and public health agencies, and 4 new research. Adopting these recommendations could reduce even further the prevalence of dental caries in the United States and save both public and private resources.

  17. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Stamford, T C M; Niederman, R

    2009-02-01

    The antimicrobial use of silver compounds pivots on the 100-year-old application of silver nitrate, silver foil, and silver sutures for the prevention and treatment of ocular, surgical, and dental infections. Ag(+) kills pathogenic organisms at concentrations of linings, water purification systems, hospital gowns, and caries prevention. To distill the current best evidence relative to caries, this systematic review asked: Will silver diamine fluoride (SDF) more effectively prevent caries than fluoride varnish? A five-database search, reference review, and hand search identified 99 human clinical trials in three languages published between 1966 and 2006. Dual review for controlled clinical trials with the patient as the unit of observation, and excluding cross-sectional, animal, in vitro studies, and opinions, identified 2 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The trials indicated that SDF's lowest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 96.1% and 70.3%, respectively. In contrast, fluoride varnish's highest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 21.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Similarly, SDF's highest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and caries prevention were 0.8 (95% CI=0.5-1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI=0.4-1.1), respectively. For fluoride varnish, the lowest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and prevention were 3.7 (95% CI=3.4-3.9) and 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4), respectively. Adverse events were monitored, with no significant differences between control and experimental groups. These promising results suggest that SDF is more effective than fluoride varnish, and may be a valuable caries-preventive intervention. As well, the availability of a safe, effective, efficient, and equitable caries-preventive agent appears to meet the criteria of both the WHO Millennium Goals and the US Institute of Medicine's criteria for 21st century medical care.

  18. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  19. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate...... of caries progression is reflected by the quality of the tertiary dentin. Slowly progressing lesions create tertiary dentin resembling normal tubular dentin. Rapidly progressing lesions lead to the production of a tubular dentin or complete absence of tertiary dentin, as well as pulp necrosis and apical...

  20. Dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Fung, D S; Lo, E C

    1999-12-11

    To describe the dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors which affect their caries status. 658 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years from six randomly selected kindergartens in Hong Kong were surveyed in December 1997. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory variables for caries status was completed by their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1997). Caries experience as measured by the mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were found to be 0.9, 1.8, and 3.3 respectively. Overall, 61% of the children had a zero dmft score. Children born in Mainland China had a higher mean dmft score (4.6) than those born in Hong Kong (1.4). Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's dental caries status and their oral health practices as well as their socio-economic background. Parents' education level, dental knowledge and attitudes were also associated with the children's dental caries experience. In general, the caries status of Hong Kong Chinese preschool children was similar to that of children in industrialised countries and was better than that of children in the nearby areas. However, special dental programmes should be made available to children from lower socio-economic classes and new immigrants from Mainland China because they are the high risk groups for caries in Hong Kong.

  1. Is obesity associated to dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Raquel; Goettems, Marília Leão; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Marcos Britto

    2017-11-06

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between dental caries and weight status, and between dental caries and physical activity in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years. A multi-stage sample of children enrolled in 20 private and public schools in 2010 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. Socioeconomic data were collected from parents, and data regarding children characteristics were collected from children using a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The Body Mass Index was obtained, and children were classified as overweight/obese considering age and sex. Dental examinations were performed to assess the presence of gingival inflammation, dental caries prevalence (DMFT≥1) and dental caries experience (mean DMFT). Multivariate Poisson Regression was used to assess factors associated with dental caries prevalence and experience. A total of 1,210 children were included in the study. Dental caries prevalence was 32.4% (95% CI 29.7-35.2), while the mean DMFT was 0.64 (± SD 1.00). Children who practiced less than 300 minutes per week of physical activity and overweigh/obese children had lower prevalence of dental caries, while children with obesity or overweight presented lower dental caries experience. Obesity/overweight and physical activity level presented an inverse relationship with dental caries. Longitudinal studies investigating the complexity of this relationship are required.

  2. Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espelid, I.

    1987-01-01

    Mineral loss which represents a threshold value for radiographic diagnosis, cannot be defined exactly. For clinical use 10% mineral loss in the direction of the X-ray beam may constitute a border line lesion for radiographic detection, and caries lesions without cavitation seemed to be beyond this diagnostic threshold. The degree of caries estimated by using radiographs is fairly closely related to the depth of the tissue changes recorded in the prepared cavity. Radiographic examinations more often lead to underestimation than overestimation of the degree of caries. Radiographic caries diagnoses made at different degrees of penetration toward the pulp showed insignificant variations with respect to quality, but the observers were more confident of caries being present (used more strict criterion) when they scored caries in inner dentin. Consensus on diagnostic criteria and improved diagnostic quality are considerably more important to the quality of therapeutic decisions on approximal caries than viewing conditions and film density. A semi-radiopaque material in Class II fillings seems to offer advantages compared to amalgam in respect of the diagnosis of secondary caries and marginal defects. There is a danger that dentists will restore approximal caries lesions too early and before these can be diagnosed in dentin radiographically

  3. Radiographic caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileman, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a single diagnostic technique: the bitewing radiograph, and the way it is used by dentists to decide on patient treatment need for interproximal caries. The variation in caries diagnosis and treatment decisions using bitewing radiographs is described and the radiographic criteria of choice for minimizing over and undertreatment according to a norm are investigated. Three possible diagnostic strategies in interproximal caries diagnosis using a decision analysis approach are described and evaluated, and the effect of the reported diagnostic behaviour and knowledge of practicing Dutch dentists in their use of bitewing radiographs for the diagnosis and treatment of interproximal caries is described and analyzed. (Auth.)

  4. Impact of a Web-based intervention on maternal caries transmission and prevention knowledge, and oral health attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David; Barracks, Sharifa Z; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Poor oral health knowledge is thought to significantly contribute to the incidence of early childhood caries, the most common childhood disease in the U.S. This study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based educational program in increasing oral health and caries transmission knowledge, attitudes and planned behavior among mothers and primary caregivers. Study participants were recruited from subscribers to an online health information newsletter distributed by a national dental insurance company and from visitors to a health information website sponsored by the same company. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention surveys and viewed a brief educational program. Results were analyzed for pre- to post-test changes in knowledge and attitudes. Planned behavior change was also assessed. 459 participants completed pre-and post-test surveys. The sample was typically more insured (91.3 %), and college educated (76.9 %), than the general population. At baseline, respondents were knowledgeable about caries and its prevention; however, their specific knowledge about caries transmission was limited. There was a significant increase in caries knowledge from baseline to follow-up, particularly regarding caries transmission. At baseline less than half of the participants (48.8 %) knew that mothers/primary caregivers play a large role in passing cavity causing germs to children and 43.1 % knew that there is a defined period of time when the risk of transmission of cariogenic bacteria is greatest; however in post-testing 99.6 % and 98.3 % answered these question correctly respectively (p education to primary caregivers can be an effective and low cost strategy for promoting maternal and infant oral health.

  5. Prevalence of developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies and association with caries and oral hygiene status of children in Southwestern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Bamidele O; Onyejaka, Nneka; Folayan, Morenike O

    2016-07-07

    Developmental dental hard tissue anomalies are often associated with oral health problems. This study determined the clinical prevalence of developmental dental hard tissue anomalies in the permanent dentition of children resident in southwestern Nigeria and its association with dental caries and poor oral hygiene status. This was a cross-sectional study recruiting 1565 school children, 12 to 15 year old attending schools in Ibadan, Oyo State and Ile-Ife, Osun State. All eligible study participants had oral examinations conducted to determine presence of developmental hard dental tissue anomalies, caries and oral hygiene status. The prevalence of developmental dental hard tissue anomalies was determined. Logistic Poisson regression was used to determine the association of between developmental dental hard tissue anomalies, caries and oral hygiene status. Only 65 (4.2 %) children had clinically diagnosed developmental dental hard tissue anomalies. The most prevalent anomaly was enamel hypoplasia (2.2 %). More females (p = 0.003) and more children with middle socioeconomic class (p = 0.001) had enamel hypoplasia. The probability of having poor oral hygiene was significantly increased for children with developmental dental anomalies (APR: 0.07; 95 % CI: 0.03 - 0.12; p = 0.002). The probability of having caries was insignificantly increased for children with developmental dental hard tissue anomalies (APR: 0.005; 95 % CI: -0.03 - 0.04; p = 0.08). The most prevalence clinically detectable developmental dental hard tissue anomalies for the study population was enamel hypoplasia. The presence of developmental dental hard tissue anomalies significantly increased the chances of having poor oral hygiene but not caries. Further studies are required to understand if poor oral hygiene is associated with dental caries in children with developmental dental hard tissue anomalies.

  6. Microbiologic aspects of dental plaque and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D

    1999-10-01

    Dental plaque is an example of a microbial biofilm with a diverse microbial composition; it is found naturally on teeth and confers advantages to the host, for example, by preventing colonization by exogenous, and often pathogenic, micro-organisms. In individuals with a high frequency sugar diet, or with a severely compromised saliva flow, the levels of potentially cariogenic bacteria (acid-producing and acid-tolerating species) can increase beyond those compatible with enamel health. This article discusses antimicrobial strategies to control dental caries, including; reducing plaque levels, in general or specific cariogenic bacteria in particular, by antiplaque or antimicrobial agents; reducing bacterial acid production by replacing fermentable carbohydrates in the diet with sugar substitutes, or by interfering with bacterial metabolism with fluoride or antimicrobial agents.

  7. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-05

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  8. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  9. The anti-caries activity and toxicity of an experimental propolis-containing varnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Passos DE LUCA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group: G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV; G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle; G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®; and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum for 4 weeks. Total cultivable microbiota and SM were counted, and smooth-surface and sulcal caries were scored. PV, CV and GS cytotoxic effects were tested against fibroblasts. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with the Tukey-Kramer test (p ≤ 0.05. Total microbiota and SM counts did not differ among the treatments (p = 0.78, or in relation to the untreated group (p = 0.52. PV reduced development of smooth-surface enamel caries compared with the untreated group (p = 0.0018, with no significant difference from GS (p = 0.92; however, the PV effects were no longer observed when the dentin was affected. Neither PV nor GS prevented enamel sulcal lesion onset, but GS significantly reduced the severity of dentinal sulcal lesions (p < 0.0001. No significant difference was observed in fibroblast viability between PV and GS (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, PV prevented smooth-surface enamel caries and showed low cell toxicity. Nevertheless, due to the high cariogenic challenge, its effects were not sustained throughout the experiment. Further studies are encouraged to establish a protocol to sustain the long-term anti-caries activity of PV in the oral cavity.

  10. Relationship between Risk Behavior for Eating Disorders and Dental Caries and Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Lorenna Mendes Temóteo; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Aragão, Amanda Silva; Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; Auad, Sheyla Márcia; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Sérgio D'Ávila Lins Bezerra; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between risk behavior for eating disorders (EDs) and dental erosion and caries. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil, involving 850 randomly selected female adolescents. After evaluating risk behavior for eating disorders through the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, 12 adolescents were identified with severe risk behavior for EDs and matched to 48 adolescents without such risk. Dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, and eating habits and oral hygiene were performed. Adolescents with high severity eating disorder condition were not more likely to show dental caries ( p = 0.329; OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 0.35-13.72) or dental erosion ( p = 0.590; OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 0.56-9.70). Adolescents with high body mass index (BMI) were five times more likely to have high severity eating disorder condition ( p = 0.031; OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.61-23.07). Therefore, high severity risk behavior for EDs was not significantly associated with dental caries and dental erosion. However, high BMI was a risk factor for developing eating disorders and should be an alert for individuals with this condition.

  11. Evaluation of English Websites on Dental Caries by Using Consumer Evaluation Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizniuk, Anastasiya; Furukawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of patient-oriented online information about dental caries using existing consumer evaluation tools and to judge the efficacy of these tools in quality assessment. The websites for the evaluation were pooled by using two general search engines (Google and Yahoo!). The search terms were: 'dental caries', 'tooth decay' and 'tooth cavity'. Three assessment tools (LIDA, DISCERN and FRES) were used to evaluate the quality of the information in the areas of accessibility, usability, reliability and readability. In total, 77 websites were analysed. The median scores of LIDA accessibility and usability were 45.0 and 8.0, respectively, which corresponded to a medium level of quality. The median reliability scores for LIDA (12.0) and DISCERN (20.0) both corresponded to low level of quality. The readability was high with the median FRES score 59.7. The websites on caries had good accessibility, usability and readability, while reliability of the information was poor. The LIDA instrument was found to be more convenient than DISCERN and can be recommended to lay people for quick quality assessment.

  12. Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Grimoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation.

  13. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material. We evaluated caries in the teeth of a Spanish school population and determined the percentage treated with dental composites. to relate consumption of breakfast components and oral hygiene habits to dental caries and determine the presence of sealants/composites as potential sources of BPA exposure. subjects: 582 schoolchildren from Granada city (Southern Spain) aged 7 yrs; mean (SD) of 7.55 (0.64) yrs. caries was detected in 21.7% of their teeth. Mean breakfast quality index (BQI) score, based on nutritional questionnaires, was 5.18 (1.29). Breakfast with foods rich in simple sugars representing > 5% of total daily energy was consumed by 24% of the population and was significantly associated with caries frequency in binary logistic regression analysis. Biscuit consumption was reported by 35.8% and significantly associated with caries frequency. Breakfast intake of bakery products/ cereals and of dairy products showed a significant inverse association with caries frequency. No significant relationship was observed between caries and BQI score or oral hygiene factors. further research is required to elucidate the role of diet in caries and the associated risk of exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics such as BPA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Theory of X-ray microcomputed tomography in dental research: application for the caries research

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Seok Park; Kwang-Hak Bae; Juhea Chang; Won-Jun Shon

    2011-01-01

    Caries remains prevalent throughout modern society and is the main disease in the field of dentistry. Although studies of this disease have used diverse methodology, recently, X-ray microtomography has gained popularity as a non-destructive, 3-dimensional (3D) analytical technique, and has several advantages over the conventional methods. According to X-ray source, it is classified as monochromatic or polychromatic with the latter being more widely used due to the high cost of the monochromat...

  15. The mortality of acutely ill medical patients for up to 60 days after admission to a resource poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa compared with patients of similar illness severity admitted to a Danish Regional Teaching Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabayigga, Barbara; Kellett, John; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcomes of patients with the same severity of illness in the developed and developing countries have not been compared. Illness severity can now be measured anywhere by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). METHODS: An exploratory observational study that compared the 7, 30 an...

  16. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2014-12-29

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information.

  17. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-09-24

    Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deemed to be at high risk for dental caries during baseline oral evaluations that were completed between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 at a dental university in the United States. We calculated and compared adjusted mean estimates for the number of new decayed or restored teeth (DFT increment) from baseline to the next completed oral evaluation (N = 2,724 patients with follow-up) across three categories of delivery of non-operative anti-caries agents (e.g., high-concentration fluoride toothpaste, chlorhexidine rinse, xylitol products): never, at a single appointment, or at ≥2 appointments ≥4 weeks apart. Estimates were adjusted for patient and provider characteristics, baseline dental status, losses-to-follow-up, and follow-up time. Approximately half the patients did not receive any form of non-operative anti-caries agent. Most that received anti-caries agents were given more than one type of product in combination. One-time delivery of anti-caries agents was associated with a similar DFT increment as receiving no such therapy (difference in increment: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.28, 0.21). However, repeated, spaced delivery of anti-caries agents was associated with approximately one decayed or restored tooth prevented over 18 months for every three patients treated (difference in increment: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.08). These results lend evidence that repeatedly receiving anti-caries agents can reduce tooth decay among high-risk patients engaged in regular dental care.

  18. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  19. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  20. Dental caries, restorations and extractions by dental caries in first permanent molars. Clinical and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Sandra Maria H.C. Avila de; Santos Pinto, Ruy dos

    1996-01-01

    This research analyse by clinical and radiographic study, dental caries, restorations and extractions in 1.600 first permanent molars, from 400 children, both sexes, aged 5 to 13 years old, assisted in the Children's Clinic, Faculdade de Odontologia de Aracatuba, UNESP, in 1994. (author)

  1. Dental caries in persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden: findings from the KEOHS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, an area in central Stockholm. This paper reports findings regarding the prevalence and severity of dental caries among...

  2. The Impact of Dietary and Tooth-Brushing Habits to Dental Caries of Special School Children with Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…

  3. Bacterial diversity and community structure of supragingival plaques in adults with dental health or caries revealed by 16S pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700 clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity, representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. Smooth rarefaction curves were suggestive of plaque microbial diversity. α diversity analysis showed that healthy plaque microbial diversity exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups and that group members were relatively constant, only showing differences in abundance. Analysis of composition differences identified 10 health-related and 21 caries-related genera. Key genera (27 that potentially contributed to plaque microbiota distributions between groups were identified. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function prediction were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed.

  4. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-01-01

    The management of occlusal caries still remains a major challenge for researchers as well as for general practitioners. The present paper reviews and discusses the most up-to-date knowledge and evidence of the biological principles guiding diagnosis, risk assessment, and management of the caries...

  5. [Role of oral cavity colonization resistance in dental caries development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, T A; Chereda, V V; Loban', G A

    2013-01-01

    Colonization resistance is one of local immunity mechanisms determined by a combination of factors that inhibit the adhesion and growth of mucous membrane bacteria. We examined patients with different levels of caries intensity assessing oral mucosa colonization resistance by our own method. Caries development resulted in changes of colonization resistance with the increased rate of inhibition of the oral mucosa colonization resistance barrier.

  6. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with ...

  7. Previous toothache, dental visits and caries presence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental pain is an ache or soreness within or around a tooth. It has a wide range of etiology, the commonest being dental caries. Dental pain is one of the main reasons for seeking dental care. Objectives: To assess the relationship between experiences of toothache, dental visits and caries experience among ...

  8. Early childhood caries amongst pre-school children and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pretested self-administered questionnaire on the causes of dental caries was sent to the caregivers, and 67% of them were returned. Results: Slightly over half (59.5%) of the children had dental caries. The majority of the caregivers (96.1%) reported that consumption of sugary foods causes tooth decay. Approximately ...

  9. Dental caries pattern of first and second permanent molars and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to assess the dental caries pattern of first and second permanent molars and treatment needs among adolescent Nigerians in Lagos. Method: Examinations for dental caries and treatment needs in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organization Basic Methods for oral ...

  10. Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Caries Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is a lifetime disease and its sequelae have been found to constitute health problems of immense proportion in children. Environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and dietary pattern can have a great impact on cariesresistance or caries-development in a child.

  11. Prevalence and awareness of early childhood caries among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) among attendees of a Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Mnazi Mmoja dispensary in Dar es Salaam. The parents or guardians were aged 16-55 years old, while the children were aged 6-36 months. Caries was ...

  12. Root Surface Caries Occurence in Relation to Social and Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the association between root caries and social and dental behaviour amongst adults in a selected suburband adult population. Methods: The setting, study design and root caries diagnosis were as described in the first part of this three part series. Subjects\\' social and dental health behaviour were ...

  13. Estimation of caries experience by multiple imputation and direct standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A. A.; Van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  14. Estimation of Caries Experience by Multiple Imputation and Direct Standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A. A.; van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  15. Risk Factors of Early Childhood Caries among Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...

  16. Clinical evaluation of three caries removal approaches in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phonghanyudh, A; Phantumvanit, P; Songpaisan, Y

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance and radiographic outcome of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restoration in primary molars using three caries removal techniques.......To evaluate the clinical performance and radiographic outcome of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restoration in primary molars using three caries removal techniques....

  17. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschau, H.E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G.; Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A.

    1990-01-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.)

  18. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among school going children: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar

    2013-07-01

    Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.

  19. Impact of early childhood caries and its treatment under general anesthesia on orofacial function and quality of life : A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, V; Pichot, H; Delfosse, C; Eschevins, C; Nicolas, E; Hennequin, M

    2017-05-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) has become a major public health concern worldwide, mostly affecting children from disadvantaged families in increasingly severe forms. This condition has been frequently reported to alter children's nutrition, growth and general development. It negatively impacts their quality of life, through painful episodes and severe eating difficulties. While this period is crucial for oral praxes development, the impact of dental state on oro-facial functions is poorly documented. This study evaluated the impact of ECC and its treatment under general anesthesia on oro-facial functions and quality of life in pre-school children. The dysfunction and quality of life scores from 25 children with ECC were evaluated before treatment (T0), one month (T1) and three months after treatment (T2), using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), respectively, in comparison with 16 caries-free children. The number and extent of inter-arch dental contacts were also observed. The pre-operative higher NOT-S score observed in children with ECC decreased to reach the control level at T2. The mastication item was the most affected in the ECC group throughout the study. Their mean ECOHIS score also significantly decreased post-operatively and differences remaining between both groups were no longer clinically relevant. In addition, in children with ECC, values of functional inter-arch surfaces tended to increase over the follow-up period. Oro-facial functions and quality of life, altered by ECC, could be restored through a conservative treatment approach. Relations between dental state, orofacial functions and particularly chewing, and nutrition should be investigated further.

  20. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rufus John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  1. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, James Rufus; Daniel, Breena; Paneerselvam, Dakshaini; Rajendran, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results . In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5 ± 2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1 ± 2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8 ± 1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5 ± 1.3. Conclusion . Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  2. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  3. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  4. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  5. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  6. [Selected eating habits and caries occurrence in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywiec, Ewa; Zalewska, Magdalena; Wójcicka, Anna; Jabłoński, Robert; Olejnik, Beata Janina; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Czerech, Ewa; Łuszcz, Anna; Stepek, Agata; Maciorkowska, Elibieta

    2012-01-01

    Normal nutrition is an important element of caries prophylaxis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of chosen bad eating habits on caries occurrence in adolescents. The examination was carried out in the group of 367 (68.5% girls and 31.5% boys) pupils of the 3rd year of high schools in Białystok in 2011. Own questionnaire was used for the evaluation of eating habits. Caries intensity (PUW) was assessed by dental examination. To verify statistic hypotheses, the level of significance was estimated at p Bad eating habits (irregular meals, skipping breakfast, eating between meals as well as overeating sweets) in the developmental age can be a significant caries coefficient in adolescents. 2. High mean coefficient PUW in the examined group of 18-year-old pupils, in relation to abnormal eating habits in the significant percentage of those pupils, indicates the necessity of health education as far as caries prophylaxis is concerned.

  7. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment......H always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  8. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  9. The Health of Naval Recruits: Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    denture 799 100.0 Partial denture 0.029 + 0.201 781 97.7 1 or more Other maxillofacial appliances 799 100.0 Oral Surgery Abscess , incision and drainage...0.089 + 0.740 782 97.9 1 or more Tooth removal 0.602 + 1.078 555 69.5 1 or more Tumors (all types) excision 0.003 + 0.050 797 99.7 1 Periodontics and oral...0.995 + 0.071 4 0.5 1 Scaling ( periodontal ) 0.811 + 0.468 177 22.2 1 or more Caries prevention treatment -------------- All recruits require 2

  10. Dental caries in children: a contagious disease

    OpenAIRE

    Palomer R, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: La carie dental es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia en todo el mundo y actualmente se define como una patología transmisible, en cuyo contagio juega un rol fundamental el Streptococcus Mutans (SM). Muchos estudios indican que la colonización temprana de la boca del niño por dicha bacteria es a través de la saliva de los adultos, especialmente de las madres. Objetivos: Familiarizar al médico pediatra, quien tiene la posibilidad de revisar a los niños desde su nacimiento, en los...

  11. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  12. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  13. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositbowornchai, S.; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S.; Chetchotsak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  14. Three Incomplete Caries Removal Techniques Compared Over Two Years in Primary Molars with Asymptomatic Deep Caries or Reversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompu-inwai, Papimon; Boonsongsawat, Kamolthip; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Sophasri, Tidarat; Mankaen, Siripun; Nondon, Sutasinee; Tunlek, Sumattaya; Katwong, Supitchaya

    2015-01-01

    To directly compare the survival rates of three incomplete caries removal techniques that differed in the amount of caries removal and the base material used. Ninety-six primary molars with asymptomatic deep caries or reversible pulpitis were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) indirect pulp treatment (IPT); (2) minimal caries removal with both resin-modified glass ionomer base material and luting cement (MCRB/L); and (3) minimal caries removal with only resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (MCRL). The treatments were followed clinically and radiographically for two years. The two-year survival probabilities in the IPT, MCRB/L, and MCRL groups were 0.90 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] equals 0.73 to 0.97), 0.93 (95 percent CI equals 0.76 to 0.98), and 0.77 (95 percent CI equals 0.58 to 0.89), respectively. There was no significant difference in the two-year survival probabilities of the three studied groups (generalized Wilcoxon P=.07). Following two years, neither the amount of caries removal nor the base material affected the success of incomplete caries removal treatment. However, minimal caries removal with MCRB/L presented the highest survival rate among the tested groups and resulted in no incidence of pulp exposure.

  15. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp Justesen, Mogens; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor...... often rely heavily on services provided by governments. We test this proposition using micro-level survey data from the Afrobaromenter. Multilevel regressions across 18 countries show that poor people are much more prone to experience having to pay bribes to government officials....

  16. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature...... to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study...

  17. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  18. Accounting for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Economists and other social scientists have long tried to understand the nature of poverty and how poor people make decisions. For example, T.W. Schultz, a Nobel Laureate, former professor of economics at the University of Chicago, and former president of the American Economic Association, spent his career working in development and agricultural economics. In his 1980 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Schultz suggests that there is some accounting for the behavior of the poor in agriculture. "Fa...

  19. Caries risk assessment among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitha, Madhu M; Nijesh, J E; Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth; Priyadharshini, Indra; Junaid, Mohammed; Vaishnavi, S

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12-13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.

  20. Impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Veloso, Isabella; Soares, Maria Eliza C; Alencar, Bruna Mota; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences on the quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8-10 years. A randomly selected sample of 587 children underwent a clinical oral examination for the assessment of untreated dental caries and clinical consequences. The WHO criteria (decayed component of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth--D-DMFT in permanent teeth or d-dfmt in primary teeth) and the PUFA index, which records the presence of severely decayed permanent (upper case) and primary (lower case) teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), as well as ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f), and abscesses (A/a), were used for the oral examination. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was evaluated using the Child's Perception Questionnaire (CPQ8-10). Poisson regression was employed to test unadjusted and adjusted associations between untreated dental caries/clinical consequences and OHRQoL. The prevalence of untreated dental caries was 64.6% (D/d component of DMFT/dmft > 0) and 17.9% of children exhibited clinical consequences of caries (PUFA/pufa index >0). In the adjusted models, untreated caries was significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 score and all subscale scores. The clinical consequences of dental caries (PUFA/pufa index >0) were significantly associated with the total CPQ8-10 as well as the oral symptoms and functional limitations' subscales. Untreated dental caries and its clinical consequences exerted a negative impact on the OHRQoL of the schoolchildren analyzed.

  1. Predictors of dental caries among children 7-14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Fenta A; Taye, Belaynew W; Ayele, Tadesse A; Gelaye, Kassahun A

    2013-01-18

    Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Four hundred sixty three (55%) children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%).The educational status of children's father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80), monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45), regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20) and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80) were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem.

  2. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  3. [Recent findings in the etiopathogenesis of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, P

    1998-10-01

    Caries have three main interrelated etiological factors: 1) a bacteriological factor represented by cariogen oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans, which adhere to the dental surface and initiate the decalcification of the enamel by producing an acid environment through carbohydrate degradation; 2) the quality of the oral biofilm which is colonized more or less rapidly by bacteria after brushing, leading to an adhesive and aggressive dental plaque; 3) the quality of enamel which is reinforced by fluor ion, and of saliva. The early superficial phase of carie constitution is reversible through remineralisation from calcium, phosphate and fluor ions present in the oral cavity. In the absence of remineralisation the destructive and infectious process extends to the inner part of the tooth leading, to its progressive destruction. Prevention is based upon the following pathophysiological data, mainly: 1) family education on oral hygiene by regular brushing, and avoidance of foods or fluids containing sugars between meals; 2) fluoride intake starting at birth and being adapted to age, the prescription of fluoride supplementation, taking into account possible other sources of fluor (salt, water).

  4. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  5. Infant formula and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudamini Girish More

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC is increasing worldwide. Impaired oral health could have a negative impact on the overall health of infants. ECC can continue to deteriorate the growth and development of the child in preschool stage. Feeding practices largely influence the occurrence of ECC. Infant formula is commonly used as supplements or substitutes for breast milk up to the first 2 years of age. The dietary sugars such as lactose and sucrose, present in the infant formula, could act as a favorable substrate and change the oral microflora. Infant formula constitutes of various minerals which are known to affect tooth mineralization including iron, fluoride, and calcium. A number of in vitro, animal, and human studies have been conducted to understand their effect on oral environment and microbiota. Exploring the scientific literature for different types of infant formula and their role in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries could give us an insight into the cariogenic potential of infant formula. Furthermore, this could be source of information for health practitioners as they are the ones who are first sought by parents for advice related to infant feeding.

  6. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  7. The effect of propolis fluoride on caries dentine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwita, Risqa Rina; Soekanto, Sri Angky; Finisha, Andanali Rhukul; Wahyuni, Hardiati Nur; Andiani, Salsabila Ghina

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted to analyze the effect of propolis fluoride on the occurrence of arrested caries dentine surface. The design of the study was a clinical trial experimental. The respondent were primary school students aged 6-8 years, from primary school in Kukusan, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. They were screened of dental examination and the total number of 296 children with an age range of 6-8 year old were included in the study. All students who had dentin caries were get dental treatment with propolis fluoride topical application in dentin caries surface. After one month, two months and four months all students who were got propolis fluoride topical application in dentin caries surface were controlled. All data were analyzed by Wilcoxon test. The total number of dentinal decay of 296 student was 1740 surfaces indicated to Flolis topical application. After one, two and three months of Flolis application, all arrested of dentinal decay was evaluated, the result of evaluation from the second month to the third month evaluation was found that the arrested dentinal caries surfaces were decreased significantly at 29.36% (pcaries surface from the first month to the third month was decreased significantly at 38.62% (pcaries, and their ability to arrest dental caries was significantly different. Flolis was found to be effective in arresting dentinal caries surface until three months application, and should be repeated after 3 months of Flolis application.

  8. Study on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque and the occurrence of dental caries or oral hygiene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lin, Huanjian; Bai, Yang; Qin, Xiaoshu; Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yali

    2008-08-01

    The aims of our study were to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the dental plaque of Chinese children aged 3-6 years by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to investigate the relationship between this infection and the occurrence of dental caries or oral hygiene index. Two hundred and fourteen children from a kindergarten in Guangzhou City of China were evaluated. The children's plaques were assessed by plaque indices of Quigley-Hein. Dental plaque was analyzed using nested PCR for two sets of primers directed to the 860-bp fragment of H. pylori genomic DNA, which have been reported to be highly sensitive and specific by other researchers. H. pylori was detected in dental plaque samples from 126 children, and 70 children with dental caries carried H. pylori in dental plaque. Of these children without infection, only 36 of 88 suffered dental caries. Besides, the average dental plaque index of 126 H. pylori-positive children was higher than that of 88 children without infection. In the present study, there was a significant correlation between H. pylori infection and dental caries or dental hygiene. The oral cavity may be a reservoir for H. pylori infection in children. H. pylori in dental plaque may play a role in the occurrence of dental caries, and poor oral hygiene may represent a risk factor for H. pylori in the oral cavity.

  9. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Does dental caries affect dental development in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Elezi, Besiana; Kragt, Lea; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2018-01-01

    Although a link between dietary changes, caries, and dental development has been observed, the literature provides little insight about this relationship. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between dental caries and dental development in a clinical sample of Albanian children and adolescents. In total, 118 children and adolescents, born between 1995 and 2004 and aged 6–15 years, were included. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Filled Teeth (dft) index and dental caries in the permanent dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. Dental development during the permanent dentition was determined using the Demirjian method. Linear and ordinal regression models were applied to analyze the associations of dental caries with dental age and developmental stages of each left mandibular tooth. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition, estimated as a median dft of 2.0 (90% range, 0.0–9.1), was significantly associated with lower dental age (β = -0.21; 90% CI: -0.29, -0.12) and with delayed development of the canine, both premolars, and the second molar. Untreated dental caries (dt) was associated with lower dental age (β = -0.19; 90% CI: -0.28, -0.10). Dental caries in the permanent dentition, estimated as a median DMFT of 1.0 (90% range, 0.0–8.0), was not significantly associated with dental age (β = 0.05; 90% CI: -0.04, 0.14). However, the DMFT was associated with the advanced stages of development of both premolars and the second molar. The untreated dental caries in the deciduous dentition delays the development of permanent teeth. PMID:29659350

  12. Dental Caries and Related Factors among 7-12 Year-old School Children in Yasuj, Iran, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yousofi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Tooth caries is the most prevalent infectious disease in children. The purpose of this study was to assess carries experience indexes and related factors among 7-12 year-old school children in Yasuj, Iran, in 2014. Materials and methods: In the present Cross-sectional and analytical study, using a two-stage random sampling, 460 students from primary schools of Yasuj city and surrounding villages were selected. The children were clinically examined at their school by a professional calibrated dentistry team. Their demographic and socioeconomic status, mouth health behaviors and teeth carries status and consumed nutritional materials were gathered by a questioner and a dental chart. The data were analyzed using inferential statistical methods. The SPSS software version 22 was used to extract the outputs and &alpha=0.05 was considered as the significant level. Results: The dental caries prevalence of deciduous, permanent and total of  two type of dents were  75.2, 41.1 and  89.8 percent, respectively and the dmft, DMFT and dmft+DMFT indexes were 3.57, 0.87, and 4.44, respectively.. The caries prevalence of permanent teeth and DMFT in girls were significantly higher than boys (p=0.046, but the caries prevalence in total of dents in boys was significantly higher than girls ( p=0.32. Furthermore, the dental caries prevalence in permanent teeth and DMFT in children resident in rural areas were significantly higher than those in urban areas (p0.1.  Conclusions: Prevalence and severity score of dental caries among 7 - 12 year-old Yasuj students were higher than the WHO standards. The tooth caries experiences were more prevalent in boys and in children resident in rural areas, increased with age and decreased with BMI and less prevalent in children with higher family socioeconomic status. Tooth brushing and flossing and consuming dairy foods were protective agents in occurring tooth caries in primary school children in

  13. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  14. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based...... on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk....

  15. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Ole; Bilde, P. Guldager; Bizzarro, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple...... of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions...

  16. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans in oral samples from caries-free and caries-active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkou, S; Balasouli, C; Tsuzukibashi, O; Argyropoulou, A; Menexes, G; Kotsanos, N; Kalfas, S

    2016-10-01

    This was to examine the occurrence of S. mutans, S. sobrinus and C. albicans in dental plaque and saliva from caries-free and caries-active Greek children. Saliva and dental plaque samples from 46 caries-free and 51 caries-active 3-to-13-year-old children were examined using selective media for the three microbes. Identification of isolated mutans streptococci (S. mutans and S. sobrinus) was performed with biochemical test and specific DNA probes. The salivary levels of mutans streptococci were additionally determined by a chair-side test (Dentocult ® SM strips). The isolation frequencies of S. mutans, S. sobrinus and C. albicans were 66, 11 and 18 %, respectively. Caries-active children harboured more frequently and at significantly higher numbers the specific microbes than caries-free children. A similar pattern was observed with the Dentocult ® SM strip scores. No correlation was found between the presence of these microbes and the age or gender of the children. Caries experience was statistically significantly related to the presence of all three microbes under study, both in dental plaque and saliva.

  17. The effect of propolis honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekanto, Sri Angky; Bachtiar, Endang W.; Jiwanakusuma, Pramodanti; Gladea, Zahara; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Propolis Honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subject. The subject of this research was caries and caries-free subjects. The Streptococcus mutans colony was counted in saliva samples before and after a 7-day period of consuming Propolis Honey candy, Honey candy, and "X" candy. The Streptococcus mutans was proliferated in a TYS20B gelatin medium for 48 hours. The number of Streptococcus mutans colonies was expressed in CFU/ml. Compared with the pre-treatment group, the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies in the treatment group tends to show a statistically significant reduction (pcaries-free subject. In caries subject, the result of Propolis honey candy were also lower (2.2×107 CFU/ml) than before (5.8×109 CFU/ml). The study showed a decrease in the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies from caries and caries-free subjects after propolis honey candy consumption.

  18. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE, la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD fue de 2,48 (2,82 (ceod > 0 = 58,9% y 0,40 (0,98 (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%, respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99, el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46, la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57 y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente.Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old

  19. Elevated Incidence of Dental Caries in a Mouse Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Scott-Anne, Kathleen; Klein, Marlise I.; Koo, Hyun; Bowen, William H.; Melvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the single most prevalent and costly infectious disease worldwide, affecting more than 90% of the population in the U.S. The development of dental cavities requires the colonization of the tooth surface by acid-producing bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans. Saliva bicarbonate constitutes the main buffering system which neutralizes the pH fall generated by the plaque bacteria during sugar metabolism. We found that the saliva pH is severely decreased in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis disease (CF). Given the close relationship between pH and caries development, we hypothesized that caries incidence might be elevated in the mouse CF model. Methodology/Principal Findings We induced carious lesions in CF and wildtype mice by infecting their oral cavity with S. mutans, a well-studied cariogenic bacterium. After infection, the mice were fed a high-sucrose diet for 5 weeks (diet 2000). The mice were then euthanized and their jaws removed for caries scoring and bacterial counting. A dramatic increase in caries and severity of lesions scores were apparent in CF mice compared to their wildtype littermates. The elevated incidence of carious lesions correlated with a striking increase in the S. mutans viable population in dental plaque (20-fold increase in CF vs. wildtype mice; p value<0.003; t test). We also found that the pilocarpine-stimulated saliva bicarbonate concentration was significantly reduced in CF mice (16±2 mM vs. 31±2 mM, CF and wildtype mice, respectively; p value<0.01; t test). Conclusions/Significance Considering that bicarbonate is the most important pH buffering system in saliva, and the adherence and survival of aciduric bacteria such as S. mutans are enhanced at low pH values, we speculate that the decrease in the bicarbonate content and pH buffering of the saliva is at least partially responsible for the increased severity of lesions observed in the CF mouse. PMID:21304986

  20. Diet and caries experience among preschool children in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Raghad; Williams, Sheila M; Murray Thomson, Williams

    2009-12-01

    The study investigated the association between food and drink consumption and the caries experience among young children in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A one-stage cluster sample was used to select children who were 5 or 6 yr of age. Clinical examinations for caries were conducted. Parents completed questionnaires seeking information on dietary habits. Principal components analysis was used to derive a summary score for the dietary variables (designated 'snack consumption level') and thus overcome the multicollinearity problems associated with using multiple dietary variables. Dental examination and questionnaire data were obtained for 1,036 children (79.9% participation rate). The overall mean number of decayed, missing or filled teeth (dmft) was 4.5. Snacking three or more times per day was associated with a dmft score that was almost one-third higher than the dmft score for children who snacked only once daily. One-third of children had a low overall snack consumption level (41% moderate and 25% high). There was a consistent dmft gradient across those categories. The severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in young Ajman children is high, with dietary habits being important determinants. Cariogenic snack consumption can be represented using a summary exposure variable that appears to be valid. Young children in Ajman would benefit from health-promotion strategies directed towards appropriate dietary practices.

  1. In vivo evaluation of DIAGNOdent for the quantification of occlusal dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalife, Moufida A; Boynton, James R; Dennison, Joseph B; Yaman, Peter; Hamilton, James C

    2009-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of non-cavitated occlusal caries is generally considered problematic. Induced fluorescence quantified by the DIAGNOdent device (KaVo) gives a reading from 0-99, which may help in the caries diagnostic process. There is some controversy around the implication of increased severity of decay with increased DIAGNOdent readings. This in vivo study assessed the correlation of depth and volume of decay as it was removed by traditional rotary handpieces with DIAGNOdent readings and determined sensitivities/specificities of the device at different cut-off points. Included in the current study were 31 patients providing 60 permanent molar and premolar occlusal surfaces suspected of dentinal decay. DIAGNOdent readings were recorded, along with lesion depth (as measured by periodontal probe) and volume measurements (as calculated from measuring the mass of a polyvinyl siloxane impression of the cavity, divided by the material's calculated density). Clinical detection of decay at the DEJ was used as the gold-standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that DIAGNOdent readings were weakly correlated with lesion depth (r = 0.47) and lesion volume (also r = 0.47). An appropriate cut-off point for the sample in the current study was calculated between 35 and 40; a more specific cut-off point could not be determined due to the sample size distribution. It was concluded that the DIAGNOdent device should be used as an adjunct in the caries diagnosis and treatment planning process.

  2. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  3. Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH): correlation with dental caries and dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, I; Kevrekidou, A; Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Kotsanos, N

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was to investigate correlations between molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH), dental caries and child dental fear. The subjects in the study were representative samples of 8 and 14 year old children from three Greek cities (total N = 2335). Dental examinations were performed by one calibrated examiner in classrooms, after the children had brushed their teeth, using an intraoral mirror and artificial room light supplemented by a penlight. All the children completed the children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS) questionnaire. MIH scores were recorded using EAPD criteria and dental caries experience by DMFS/dmfs index. Data were analysed with the Chi-squared (χ (2)), Mann-Whitney and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests. The mean DMFS in children with MIH (8-year olds: 1.60 ± 2.01, 14-year olds: 4.60 ± 4.41) was statistically significantly higher than children without MIH (8-year olds: 1.01 ± 1.78, 14-year olds: 3.46 ± 4.28) (p MIH had statistically significantly higher mean DMFS scores than children with mild or no MIH (p MIH status (p = 0.332). Caries experience was associated with the MIH status of the first permanent molars in both age groups (p MIH (26.5 ± 9.6) (p = 0.339), regardless of MIH severity. A positive association between MIH and dental caries was confirmed and a lack of association found between MIH and dental fear in Greek children.

  4. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Majority (60%) of the patients were reviewed at least twice in the last 6 months at the time of the interview. 195 (83%) patients reported that drugs prescribed were not available at the hospital pharmacy, but 186 (79%) of. Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence. In Hypertensive Patients In Lusaka, Zambia. 1,4. 1.

  5. The effects of fluoride concentration and the level of cariogenic challenge on caries development in desalivated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabchoury, C M; Holt, T; Pearson, S K; Bowen, W H

    1998-12-01

    Dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease that continues to affect the majority of people. The presence of carbohydrate, mainly sucrose in the diet, is an important factor in its occurrence. The amount of fluoride required for optimal protective effect where there is a high caries challenge is unclear. Differences in the intensity of cariogenic challenge, for whatever reason, may play a part in determining fluctuations in the effectiveness of fluoride. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fluoride on the development of caries and explore the cariostatic effect of fluoride under various levels of cariogenic challenge. The study comprises two experiments. In experiment I, 60 desalivated Sprague Dawley rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus were offered the following to drink for 21 days: group (1), sterile distilled water (SDW); (2) 10 parts/10(6) F SDW; (3) 20 parts/10(6) F SDW; (4) 30 parts/10(6) F SDW; (5) 40 parts/10(6) F SDW. In experiment II, eight groups of 9 rats were placed in a König Höfer programmed feeder and were exposed to different levels of cariogenic challenge through varying frequency of eating and offered water containing 10 parts/10(6) F. In experiment I, exposure to 20, 30 and 40 parts/10(6) F reduced caries development significantly: fluoride, at 10 parts/10(6), reduced the severity of the carious lesions. In this model of severe cariogenic challenge, the results suggest that elevated concentrations of fluoride might be effective in patients at high caries risk. In experiment II, fluoride reduced the incidence and severity of smooth-surface caries in all groups. The protective effect of fluoride decreased as the number of exposures to sugar increased. It is concluded that the effectiveness of fluoride is influenced by the level of cariogenic challenge and that consideration should be given to adjusting the level of fluoride exposure based on perceived caries risk, and that there

  6. Bacterial intensity and localization in primary molars with caries disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Beltrame

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of infections affecting the structures of carious primary molars. Materials and Methods: Forty primary molars were used and classified according to the following clinical situation: With profound caries lesion, with bone loss at the furcation region, with perforation of the pulp chamber floor, and residual roots. The teeth were demineralized, cut, and stained with both haematoxylin-eosin and Brown and Brenn staining techniques. Assessment was performed using optical microscopy. Results: Statistical analysis of the data by means of the Chi-square test suggests that there was a significant relationship (P<0.001 between the intensity and localization of infection and the level of destruction of dental structures. A significant difference was also observed in the intensity and localization of infection between the groups regarding crown, furca, and root (P<0.001. Conclusion: More intense and profound the infection, more severe is the dental destruction. The groups of residual roots showed the most severe bacterial infection compared to other groups.

  7. Sealing properties of a self-etching primer system to normal caries-affected and caries-infected dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Son, H-H; Yoshiyama, Masatoshi; Tay, Franklin R; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2003-09-01

    To compare the ability of an experimental antibacterial self-etching primer adhesive system to seal exposure sites in normal, caries-affected and caries-infected human dentin. 30 extracted human third molars were used within 1 month of extraction. 10 intact normal teeth comprised the normal group. 20 teeth with occlusal caries that radiographically extended halfway to the pulp were excavated using caries-detector solution (CDS) and a #4 round carbide bur in a slowspeed handpiece. Half of those teeth were fully excavated free of CDS-stained material without exposing the pulp, and were designated as the caries-affected dentin group. The remaining 10 teeth were excavated as close to the pulp as possible without obtaining an exposure, but whose dentin continued to stain red with CDS; this group was designated as the caries-infected dentin group. The remaining dentin thickness in all of the specimens in the other two groups was then reduced to the same extent as the caries-infected group. Direct exposures of the pulp chamber were made with a 1/4 round bur in the normal dentin or a 25 gauge needle in the other two groups. After measuring the fluid flow through the exposure, the sites were then sealed with an experimental antibacterial fluoride-containing self-etching primer adhesive systems (ABF). Fluid conductance was remeasured every week for 16 weeks. The fluid conductance through the exposure fell 99% in all groups following resin sealing. The seals of normal and caries-affected dentin remained relatively stable over the 16 weeks, while the seals of caries-infected dentin gradually deteriorated, reaching significance at 8 weeks. TEM examination revealed very thin (ca. 0.5 mm) hybrid layers in normal dentin, 3-4 microm thick hybrid layers in caries-affected dentin and 40 microm thick hybrid layers in caries-infected dentin. The tubules of caries-infected dentin were enlarged and filled with bacteria. Resin tags passed around these bacteria in the top 20-40 microm

  8. [Preventive dentistry 8. Diet and caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C

    2017-10-01

    The call to consume less sugar in order to improve the general health is becoming increasingly loud. The question is in what way consuming less sugar could also contribute to a lower risk of caries. This can be achieved by limiting the frequency of consuming sugary snacks. For oral health reasons, people in the Netherlands are advised not to consume things containing sugar more than four times between meals. Another way to make the diet less cariogenic is to substitute sugar in foods by non-caloric intense sweeteners, caloric sugar alcohols or 'new carbohydrates'. Non-caloric intense sweeteners and caloric sweeteners have been proven to be non-cariogenic. New carbohydrates still have to be individually tested.

  9. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  10. Caries del biberón

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Escribano, Antonia; López Garví, Antonio J.; López Ibáñez, Catalina; Sáez Cuesta, Úrsula

    2008-01-01

    La caries del biberón es una enfermedad de evolución rápida y agresiva que afecta a la dentición temporal de niños de muy corta edad en los que la alimentación con biberón se ha prolongado más allá del tiempo recomendable. El estancamiento de la leche o de otros líquidos azucarados en la boca del niño, unido a la falta de higiene oral, produce este tipo de lesiones, que dan lugar a una odontodestrucción severa. En el presente artículo presentamos el caso de un niño de tres años de edad que pa...

  11. Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M

    1995-02-01

    There is an extensive peer-reviewed literature on xylitol chewing gum as it pertains to effects on tooth decay in human subjects, on human dental plaque reduction, on inhibition of dental plaque acid production, on inhibition of the growth and metabolism of the mutans group of streptococci which are the prime causative agents of tooth decay, on reduction of tooth decay in experimental animals, and on xylitol's reported contribution to the remineralisation of teeth. The literature not only supports the conclusion that xylitol is non-cariogenic but it is now strongly suggestive that xylitol is caries inhibitory, that is, anti-cariogenic in human subjects, and it supplies reasonable mechanistic explanation(s).

  12. Artificial caries formation around fluoride-releasing restorations in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, P; Kotsanos, N; Papadogiannis, Y; Konstantinidis, A

    1998-11-01

    Secondary caries is one of the most important factors leading to replacement of dental restorations. This investigation assessed the capacity of fluoride-releasing restorative materials to resist caries in vitro when used in roots. Class 5 cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 extracted premolars. The six materials used were: glass-ionomer cement (Fuji), glass-ionomer cement with silver particles added (Ketac-silver), fluoride-containing composite resin (Tetric), composite resin (Silux plus), fluoride-containing amalgam (Fluor-Alloy) and high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy). After 5 weeks in an acid gel for caries-like lesion formation, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined with polarized light. The results showed that repair with glass-ionomer materials of a carious lesion may be of great importance in the prevention of secondary caries around the restorations in roots.

  13. [Recent achievements in the microbiological etiology of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chen; Lei, Cheng; Xuedong, Zhou; Xian, Peng

    2018-02-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of the oral cavity. The bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the sole pathogen that causes this disease. However, substantial evidence suggests that prevention and treatment strategies developed from traditional "cariogenic pathogen theory" are inefficient in reducing the prevalence of dental caries. An increasing number of individuals adopt the ecological view of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Recent technological improvements have enabled the detection and analysis of oral microorganisms, and many studies have focused on this area. The core microbiota is defined as a cluster of microbes playing critical roles in the initial and development phases of dental caries and may provide future direction for microorganism-related etiological studies.

  14. Nutrition, dental caries and periodontal disease: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe P; Lingström, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To provide a narrative review of the role of macro- and micronutrients in relation to dental caries, gingival bleeding and destructive periodontal disease. This review is based on systematic reviews (when available) and comparative human studies. Dental caries cannot develop without the presence of dietary fermentable carbohydrates, in particular sugar. The susceptibility to develop caries in the presence of carbohydrates may be influenced by genetics and micronutrients such as vitamin D. Gingival bleeding and destructive periodontal disease are sensitive markers to both abnormalities in macronutrient content (excessive carbohydrates or poly-unsaturated fat intake, deficient protein intake) and micronutrient intake (e.g. vitamin C and B12). Dental caries and periodontal diseases are a sensitive alarm bell for an unhealthy diet, which predicts the future onset of the diseases of civilizations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Retraction: Redundant Publication of the article Dental caries and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retraction: Redundant Publication of the article Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts, Kenya. Gladwell Gathecha et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2012;12:42.

  16. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  17. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  18. Equine peripheral dental caries: An epidemiological survey assessing prevalence and possible risk factors in Western Australian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K; Kelty, E; Tennant, M

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral dental caries is defined as macroscopic destruction of the calcified dental tissues and can cause considerable dental pathology and pain. It appears to occur at a high prevalence in Western Australian horses. At present, risk factors for the condition are poorly understood, making treatment and prevention difficult. To assess the prevalence of and potential risk factors for peripheral caries in Western Australian horses. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A survey of 500 Western Australian horses was administered in two sections. The first section was completed by the owner and referred to the horse's signalment, diet and husbandry conditions. The second section was completed by veterinarians and focused on the horse's oral health. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with peripheral caries. Peripheral caries was present in 58.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.5-63.1%) of surveyed horses. Breed was significantly associated with peripheral caries, with Warmbloods (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.82; P = 0.009) and Western breeds (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.78; P = 0.008) being less likely to have peripheral caries than Thoroughbreds. Dietary risk factors included oaten hay (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.87-4.53; P<0.001). A meadow hay-based diet was protective (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.80; P = 0.005). Horses with access to quality pasture all year were less likely to have peripheral caries than horses without access to grazing (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.66; P = 0.002), as were horses on groundwater compared with horses on rainwater (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.65-6.78; P = 0.001), drinking water (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.14-3.62; P = 0.016) or dam water (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.08-11.53; P = 0.037). Peripheral caries was positively correlated with periodontal disease (OR 4.53, 95% CI 2.91-7.06; P<0.001) and feed packing (feed present between the teeth without significant periodontal pocketing) (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.32-2.85; P = 0.001). Not

  19. Salivary flow and corono-radicular caries in elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    Campodónico Reategui, Carlos; Chein Villacampa, Sylvia; Benavente Lipa, Lourdes; Delgadillo Avila, Juana; Alvarez Paucar, Maria Angelica; Espinoza Escajadillo, Sofia; Vidal Goñi, Raúl; Ventocilla Huasupoma, Maria; Evaristo Chiyong, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between hypo-salivation and corono-radicular caries in older adult patients, which analyzed the physicochemical properties of saliva (flow, pH), the frequency and location of the corono-radicular caries. Was selected a sample of 45 persons, adult patients over 60 years and another 18 to 26 years (control group), from service centers, hospitals and universities. The technique of collection of saliva, consisted of making chewing a piece of ...

  20. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of individuals retaining their teeth lifelong, often with periodontitis-induced root surface exposure, there is the need for cost-effective management strategies for root caries lesions. The present study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of root caries preventive treatments. Patients were simulated over 10 years using a Markov model. Four treatments were compared: No treatment, daily 225-800ppm fluoride rinses, chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish (2×/year), silver diamine fluoride (SDF) varnish (2×/year). Data from a systematic review were submitted to network meta-analysis for inferring relative efficacies of treatments. The health outcome was years of teeth being free of root caries. A mixed public-private payer perspective within 2016 German healthcare was taken, with costs being estimated from fee item catalogues or based on market prices. Populations with different numbers of teeth and tooth-level risks were modelled. Monte-Carlo microsimulations, univariate- and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In populations with 16 teeth at risk and low tooth-level risk for root caries, providing no preventive treatment was least costly, but also least effective (130 Euro, 144 years). SDF ranked next, being more costly (180 Euro), but also more effective (151 years). Payers willing to invest 8.30 Euro per root caries-free tooth-year found SDF most cost-effective. CHX varnish and fluoride rinse were not cost-effective. In populations with more teeth and high tooth-level risk, SDF was the most effective and least costly option. Root caries preventive treatments (like SDF) are effective and might even be cost-saving in high risk populations. Application of SDF can be recommended as a cost-saving treatment for prevention of root caries in patients with high risk of root caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Vitamin D on development of early childhood caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied. Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other. Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children's vitamins D status may be an

  3. Association of onabotulinum toxin A treatment with salivary pH and dental caries of neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Beatriz; Dabbagh, Basma; Daniel, Sam J; Schwartz, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Sialorrhea is a common manifestation of several neurological disorders. The use of intraglandular onabotulinum toxin A (OBTXA) injection has been recognized to effectively treat sialorrhea. As OBTXA injection reduces salivary flow rate and alters salivary quality, its use may have a detrimental effect on oral health. To examine the effect of OBTXA injection on caries experience and salivary pH of neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea. Twenty-five children receiving OBTXA treatment and 25 control children were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva was collected to determine salivary pH. All participants underwent an interview on their dietary habits. Dental clinical examinations were carried out to evaluate caries experience and oral hygiene level. Overall, mean salivary pH value was significantly lower in the OBTXA group (6.92 ± 0.77) compared with the control group (7.36 ± 0.70). Caries activity was significantly higher in the OBTXA group (P = 0.01). The regression analyses showed a significant association between OBTXA treatment and salivary pH value (P = 0.03). Results from the logistic regression show that dental caries was significantly associated with OBTXA treatment (OR = 1.73, CI = 1.14-27.3). The study showed an intricate relationship between OBTXA treatment and oral findings. Hence, special dental care should be given to children receiving OBTXA treatment. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An investigation into the dental health of children with obesity: an analysis of dental erosion and caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H J; Rudolf, M C J; Muyombwe, T; Duggal, M S; Balmer, R

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether children with obesity experienced more erosion and caries than children with normal weight. This study involved children aged 7-15 years. The study and control group comprised 32 children with BMI > 98th centile and 32 healthy children with normal BMI-for-age, respectively. O'Sullivan Erosion Index and WHO Caries Index were used in the examination of erosion and caries, respectively. Stimulated salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli counts (CFU/ml) were evaluated. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was employed to collect information on participant's demographic background, oral health history and habits, and utilisation of dental care services. Children with obesity were more likely to have erosion than healthy children (p erosion in terms of severity (p erosion (OR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.012-0.082). Gender had no effect on erosion. There were no statistically significant differences in the DMFT, saliva profiles or questionnaire responses between the groups. Children with obesity may have high risk of dental erosion, but do not necessarily have higher risk of dental caries than children with normal weight.

  5. Dental caries experience among indigenous children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Érica M; Cavalcanti, Laysa C; Firmino, Ramon T; Ribeiro, Gustavo L; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Menezes, Valdenice A

    2015-06-01

    Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population.

  6. Effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early caries detection is essential for minimal intervention dentistry, since it could give the opportunity to reverse the process and eliminate or at least postpone the surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis for both occlusal and proximal lesions. Thirty-eight adult patients were included in the study. The results from the visual, radiological and near-infrared transillumination examination for proximal caries lesions were compared. The diagnostic abilities of these methods for occlusal lesions were assayed on 60 teeth. The three methods showed a very high level of correlation when there were caries lesions involving the enamel and dentin. Concerning proximal caries involving only the enamel, the visual--tactile diagnosis proved to be insufficiently sensitive even with the use of magnification. Radiographic examination and near-infrared transillumination correlated significantly, but the latter was more sensitive. Radiographic examination proved to be insufficiently sensitive for occlusal lesions. The results obtained with the near-infrared fluorescence correlated most with the visual–tactile examination. These results suggest that near-infrared transillumination is an effective method for diagnosis of lesions both involving only the enamel and involving the enamel and dentin. It could be used for both occlusal and proximal caries lesions and it could eventually substitute radiographic bitewings, especially in children and pregnant women, due to its efficiency as a diagnostic tool and the absence of radiation.

  7. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk