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Sample records for settlement pheromone spatial

  1. `Pheromone for settlement` in sessile marine organisms; Kaiyo fuchakuseibutsu no `chakusei pheromone`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, H. [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the pheromone for settlement in sessile marine organisms, such as barnacles and sea squirts. Barnacles are monoecious, and the fertilization is established through the coitus with another individual. Adjacent existence of the other individuals is necessary for preservation and extension of species. Cypris larvae hatched from parent barnacles search optimum settling places using their antennules, and adhere by secreting cement substances, to grow up into organisms. It was reported over thirty years ago that the settling action of larvae is induced in response to the chemical substance of imagines. In the project of Fuseya`s settling mechanism, glyco-protein with molecular weight of about 600,000, which has settling inductive activity, was isolated from the extract of imago of Balanus amphirite. Through the breeding of sea squirts, it was found that the metamorphosis induction effect increased with exceeding a certain value of larva density, which suggested the existence of pheromone. A trace of activated body substance has just isolated from the breeding water. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tristram D

    2017-08-07

    The reality of invisible chemical signals, pheromones, between members of the same species was recognized long before they could be identified. Charles Darwin proposed that the breeding season sexual smells of male crocodiles, goats and other animals, too, could have evolved by sexual selection of the smelliest males through female choice. But it's not just sex. We now know that pheromones are used by species all across the animal kingdom, in every habitat, and in a wide range of biological contexts, from trail, alarm, and queen pheromones in social insects to the mammary pheromone produced by mother rabbits. Pheromones have provided fascinating examples of signal evolution. In some model organisms, such as moths, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus, a complete signaling system can be genetically dissected, from the enzymes producing pheromones, perception by chemosensory receptors, through to the neural circuits processing the signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

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    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  4. Analysis of spatial pattern of settlements in the federal capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human settlements are important, seemingly static but dynamic, features of the cultural landscape that have attracted several studies due to the important role they play in human life. This paper examined the spatial distribution of settlements in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The analysis uses vector based ...

  5. Spatial focalization of pheromone/MAPK signaling triggers commitment to cell–cell fusion

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    Merlini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Cell fusion is universal in eukaryotes for fertilization and development, but what signals this process is unknown. Here, we show in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that fusion does not require a dedicated signal but is triggered by spatial focalization of the same pheromone–GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor)–MAPK signaling cascade that drives earlier mating events. Autocrine cells expressing the receptor for their own pheromone trigger fusion attempts independently of cell–cell contact by concentrating pheromone release at the fusion focus, a dynamic actin aster underlying the secretion of cell wall hydrolases. Pheromone receptor and MAPK cascade are similarly enriched at the fusion focus, concomitant with fusion commitment in wild-type mating pairs. This focalization promotes cell fusion by immobilizing the fusion focus, thus driving local cell wall dissolution. We propose that fusion commitment is imposed by a local increase in MAPK concentration at the fusion focus, driven by a positive feedback between fusion focus formation and focalization of pheromone release and perception. PMID:27798845

  6. Settlement Networks in Polish Spatial Development Regional Plans

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    Sołtys, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, ten years after the great political changes in Poland, 16 self-governed regions (in Polish: voivodeship) were created. According to Polish law, voivodeship spatial development plans, or regional plans in short, determine basic elements of the settlement network. No detailed regulations indicate the specific elements of the settlement network or what features of these elements should be determined. For this reason, centres as elements of the settlement network are variously named in different regions and take the form of various models. The purposes of the research described in this article are: (1) recognition and systematization of settlement network models determined in regional plans; and (2) assessment of the readability of determination in planning and its usefulness in the practice of regional policy. Six models of settlement networks in regional plans have been identified and classified into types and sub-types. Names of specific levels of centres indicate that they were classified according to two criteria: (1) level of services, which concerns only 5 voivodships; and (2) importance in development, which concerns the 11 other voivodships. The hierarchical model referring to the importance of development is less understandable than the one related to services. In the text of most plans, centres of services and centres of development are treated independently from their names. In some plans the functional types of towns and cities are indicated. In some voivodships, specifications in the plan text are too general and seem to be rather useless in the practice of regional policy. The author suggests that regional plans should determine two kinds of centres: hierarchical service centres and non-hierarchical centres of development. These centres should be further distinguished according to: (1) their role in the activation of surroundings; (2) their level of development and the necessity of action for their development; and (3) the types of actions

  7. Lack of spatial segregation in the representation of pheromones and kairomones in the mouse medial amygdala.

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    Vinicius Miessler de Andrade Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is organized to detect, internally represent and process sensory information to generate appropriate behaviors. Despite the crucial importance of odors that elicit instinctive behaviors, such as pheromones and kairomones, their neural representation remains little characterized in the mammalian brain. Here we used expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity to find that a wide range of pheromones and kairomones produces activation in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, a brain area anatomically connected with the olfactory sensory organs. We see that activity in this nucleus depends on vomeronasal organ input, and that distinct vomeronasal stimuli activate a dispersed ensemble of cells, without any apparent spatial segregation. This activity pattern does not reflect the chemical category of the stimuli, their valence or the induced behaviors. These findings will help build a complete understanding of how odor information is processed in the brain to generate instinctive behaviors.

  8. Socio spatial adaptation as a resilience form of native unplanned settlement in confrontation with new planned settlement development pressure (case study: enclave native settlement in Serpong, Tangerang)

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    Ischak, Mohammad; Setioko, Bambang; Nurgandarum, Dedes

    2017-12-01

    Urban growth refers to expansion of a metropolitan into sub urban areas as the surrounding environment, with no exception of Jakarta city due to limited availability and high price of land within the city. The city of Jakarta, as a metropolitan, carries of expansion in its surrounding environment including Tangerang. Privat developers may an important role in this urban growth through their large scale of new settlement development project. The formation of establishment of enclave native unplanned sub urban settlement scattered within planned new settlement in Tangerang is to be an consequence of Jakarta urban growth. This fenomena could be comprehended as a form of resilience native settlement in confrontation with the new planned settlement pressure. The aim of this research, presented in this paper is to understand the socio-spatial concept of those enclave native settlement as an adaptation form to the new planned settlement pressure. Through descriptive qualitative research method, with indepth interview as a main research instrument, this research could depict or uncover the facts that there are various form of socio-spatial adaptation as the main theme of resilience native suburban settlement formation.

  9. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN AN AGRARIAN REFORM SETTLEMENT

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    James Ribeiro de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study of soil chemical and physical properties variability is important for suitable management practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil properties in the Malhada do Meio settlement to subsidize soil use planning. The settlement is located in Chapadinha, MA, Brazil, and has an area of 630.86 ha. The vegetation is seasonal submontane deciduous forest and steppe savanna. The geology is formed of sandstones and siltstones of theItapecuru Formation and by colluvial and alluvial deposits. The relief consists of hills with rounded and flat tops with an average altitude of 67 m, and frequently covered over by ferruginous duricrusts. A total of 183 georeferenced soil samples were collected at the depth of 0.00-0.20 m inPlintossolos, Neossolo andGleissolo. The following chemical variables were analyzed: pH(CaCl2, H+Al, Al, SB, V, CEC, P, K, OM, Ca, Mg, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3; along with particle size variables: clay, silt, and sand. Descriptive statistical and geostatistical analyses were carried out. The coefficient of variation (CV was high for most of the variables, with the exception of pH with a low CV, and of sand with a medium CV. The models fitted to the experimental semivariograms of these variables were the exponential and the spherical. The range values were from 999 m to 3,690 m. For the variables pH(CaCl2, SB, and clay, there are three specific areas for land use planning. The central part of the area (zone III, where thePlintossolos Pétricos and Neossolos Flúvicos occur, is the most suitable for crops due to higher macronutrient content, organic matter and pH. Zones I and II are indicated for environmental preservation.

  10. Smelly feet are not always a bad thing: the relationship between cyprid footprint protein and the barnacle settlement pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Dreanno, Catherine; Kirby, Richard R; Clare, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    A critical phase in the life cycle of sessile benthic marine invertebrates is locating a suitable substratum for settlement. For barnacles, it is the lecithotrophic cypris larva that makes this plankto–benthic transition. In exploring possible substrata for settlement, the cyprid leaves behind ‘footprints’ of a proteinaceous secretion that reportedly functions as a temporary adhesive, and also acts as a secondary cue in larval–larval interactions at settlement. Here, we show that two polyclon...

  11. Spatial Settlement Pattern of Settlements in Laweyan as Supportive Batik Production Activities

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    Rinaldi Mirsa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laweyan, a traditional village, has existed before 1500 AD. As the trade center yarn (clothing material of Pajang Kingdom, its presence meant after Kyai Ageng Anis (descendant of Brawijaya V and grandson Raden Ngabehi Lor Ing Pasar who later became the first king of Mataram settled in Laweyan in 1546. Laweyan entrepreneurship in the communities ushered in the heyday of batik economic in century. Successfulness in the field of economy turned an impact on development in various fields, helped shape the pattern of space and environment. Spatial pattern and traditional settlements are usually much characterized by the mass of buildings that have appeared in the form of walls covered choke and surrounded by alley or narrow street, as seen in Laweyan with the existence of high ‘beteng’ which raises many narrow alleys and a Laweyan hallmark not only as a security but also one of the merchants attempt to maintain the privacy and obtain local authority in the community.

  12. Settlement

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    John Frow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves  harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.

  13. Smelly feet are not always a bad thing: the relationship between cyprid footprint protein and the barnacle settlement pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreanno, Catherine; Kirby, Richard R; Clare, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    A critical phase in the life cycle of sessile benthic marine invertebrates is locating a suitable substratum for settlement. For barnacles, it is the lecithotrophic cypris larva that makes this plankto–benthic transition. In exploring possible substrata for settlement, the cyprid leaves behind ‘footprints’ of a proteinaceous secretion that reportedly functions as a temporary adhesive, and also acts as a secondary cue in larval–larval interactions at settlement. Here, we show that two polyclonal antibodies raised against peptides localized at the N- and C-terminal regions of the adult settlement cue—the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC)—could both detect ‘temporary adhesive’ indicating that the SIPC is either a component of this secretion or that they are the same protein. PMID:17148421

  14. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements--Taking Dalian as An Example.

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    Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-20

    A person's living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term "pseudo-settlement" (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people's way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.

  15. Data on strategically located land and spatially integrated urban human settlements in South Africa.

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    Musakwa, Walter

    2017-12-01

    In developing countries like South Africa processed geographic information systems (GIS) data on land suitability, is often not available for land use management. Data in this article is based on a published article "The strategically located land index support system for humans settlements land reform in South Africa" (Musakwa et al., 2017) [1]. This article utilities data from Musakwa et al. (2017) [1] and it goes on a step further by presenting the top 25th percentile of areas in the country that are strategically located and suited to develop spatially integrated human settlements. Furthermore the least 25th percentile of the country that are not strategically located and spatially integrated to establish human settlements are also presented. The article also presents the processed spatial datasets that where used to develop the strategically located land index as supplementary material. The data presented is meant to stir debate on spatially integrated human settlements in South Africa.

  16. The spatial study of unplanned settlements on the coastal of Belawan Medan fishermen village

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    Marpaung, B. O. Y.; Winny Silaban, Nadia

    2018-03-01

    One of the determining factors that formed informal settlements is the high demand for homes that are not comparable with the homes that were provided by the government. The settlement of Fisherman Village in Belawan Medan was built without a plan by settlers and was not involve government interference so that the spatial pattern formed uncontrollable. The shape of space that stretches represents the distribution of unplanned space. The purpose of this study is to find the structure of settlement and the relationship between the space structures with the spatial pattern in Belawan Medan Fishermen Village. In the process of collecting data, the researcher makes the maps of the observation area, the structure of the space, and the relationship between one space function with the other space functions. Also, the researchers identify the spacing pattern and the effect of one spatial element against the other. This study found a similar spatial pattern between one unplanned settlement and another unplanned settlement and there are also some tendencies of Belawan Medan Fishermen Village settlers when building the built environment in the relationship between building masses and the road network.

  17. A Comparative Study on Spatial Configuration of Human Settlements in Riparian Area (Case Studies : Old Kampoong and Colonial Settlements in Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyanto, Johannes; Romdhoni, M. Fajri; Warlika, Hendi

    2016-01-01

    Palembang is the city which is divided by Musi River. Palembang is also one of the oldest city in Indonesia. Many old settlements were built in riparian area. This geographic condition of Palembang becomes background of this research. The research questions are: what is the discrepancy between Kampoong and Colonial Settlements in spatial configuration? Does the Musi River have influence in spatial configuration on that case? This research using the space syntax analysis with the following thr...

  18. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

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    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Informal settlements and squatting in Romania: socio-spatial patterns and typologies

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    Bogdan Suditu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of informal settlements in Romania is the result of a mix of factors, including some social and urban planning policies from the communist and post-communist period. Squatting was initially a secondary effect of the relocation process and demolition of housing in communist urban renewal projects, and also a voluntary social and housing policy for the poorest of the same period. Extension and multiple forms of informal settlements and squatting were performed in the post-communist era due to the inappropriate or absence of the legislative tools on urban planning, properties’ restitution and management, weak control of the construction sector. The study analyzes the characteristics and spatial typologies of the informal settlements and squatters in relationship with the political and social framework of these types of housing development.

  20. Spatial point pattern analysis of human settlements and geographical associations in eastern coastal China - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-03-10

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley's K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  1. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning. PMID:24619117

  2. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

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    Zhonghao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  3. Spatial adaptation as the Madurese migrant resilience form at urban informal sector workers settlement: a case study of Kotalama settlement - Malang

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    Asikin, Damayanti; Antariksa; Dwi Wulandari, Lisa; Indira Rukmi, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Migration is the movement of the population that will bring the change of society's behavior because of the adjustments occuring at the destination of migrant area. The availability of houses in urban area is not a proportional comparison to the increasing of limited housing space, thus it encourages urban migrants to adapt to the existing conditions. Adaptation will be closely linked to the resilience of migrants in the process of interacting with their environment. The theory of urban settlement architecture continues to grow constantly, so the used paradigm should be interdisciplinary. Thereby, the understanding of adaptation, which is used will concern to various aspects of physical and non-physical environment, and it is viewed as a process and product of human interactions with the environment holistically. Malang city is one of the migration destinations of Madurese people since 1930s, and Kotalama Malang settlement is the settlement that holds the largest Madurese migrant working in informal sector, which has been developed since 1950s. This study was conducted to determine the spatial adaptation of Madurese migrants in urban settlement area as a resilience form towards their settlement environment. The qualitative descriptive method with the discourse analysis approach of searching the data through the observation and the in-depth interview of key person were used to know the adaptation process that happened. The study result indicated that spatial adaptation as a process and product on meso and micro scale conducted by Madurese migrants was the form of resilience towards their settlement environment.

  4. Where to settle--settlement preferences of Mytilus galloprovincialis and choice of habitat at a micro spatial scale.

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    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available The global mussel aquaculture industry uses specialised spat catching and nursery culture ropes made of multi-filament synthetic and natural fibres to optimise settlement and retention of mussels for on-growing. However, the settlement ecology and preferences of mussels are poorly understood and only sparse information exists in a commercial context. This study quantified the settlement preferences of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis on increasingly complex surfaces and settlement locations at a micro spatial scale on and within ropes under commercial hatchery operating conditions using optical microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT. M. galloprovincialis has clear settlement preferences for more complex materials and high selectivity for settlement sites from the pediveliger through to the plantigrade stage. Pediveligers of M. galloprovincialis initially settle inside specialised culture ropes. Larger pediveligers were located close to the exterior of ropes as they increased in size over time. In contrast, smaller individuals were located deeper inside of the ropes over time. This study demonstrates that X-ray µCT is an excellent non-destructive technique for mapping settlement and attachment sites of individuals as early as one day post settlement, and quantifies the number and location of settled individuals on and within ropes as a tool to understand and optimise settlement in complex multi-dimensional materials and environments.

  5. Spatial attraction in migrants' settlement patterns in the city of Catania

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    Angelo Mazza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In broad terms, and apart from ethnic discriminatory rules enforced in some places and at some times, residential segregation may be ascribed both to economic inhomogeneities in the urban space (e.g., in the cost of rents, or in occupation opportunities and to spatial attraction among individuals sharing the same group identity and culture. Objective: Traditional indices of spatial segregation do not distinguish between these two sources of clustering. Furthermore, they typically rely on census tracts, a scale that does not allow for fine-grained analysis. Also, the use of alternative zoning often leads to conflicting results. The aim of this paper is to measure spatial attraction among groups of foreign migrants in Catania (Italy using individual household data. Methods: We apply a version of Ripley's K-function specially conceived for assessing spatial attraction while adjusting for the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. To avoid the risk of confounding the two sources of clustering, spatial inhomogeneity is estimated following a case-control approach. Results: Different parts of the city exhibit different suitabilities for migrants of different nationalities, with groups mainly involved in housekeeping and caregiving being more spread than the ones specialized in peddling and retailing. A significant spatial attraction has been found for Sri Lankan, Mauritians, Senegalese, and Chinese. Conversely, the settlement patterns of Tunisians and Moroccans comply with random allocation. These results seem consistent with the hypothesis of a relevant correlation between chain migration and spatial attraction.

  6. Problems of spatial-functional organization of Južno Pomoravlje region’s network of settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Krunić Nikola; Tošić Dragutin; Milijić Saša

    2009-01-01

    During the elaboration of the Regional spatial plan of the municipalities of Južno Pomoravlje (Region Južno Pomoravlje) a special attention was paid to its network of settlements. Demographical and functional determinants of this network were analyzed based on the relevant theoretical-methodological concepts and qualitative-quantitative indicators. Settlement network of Južno Pomoravlje was considered as a subsystem of the Republic of Serbia’s settlements’ ...

  7. Informal Settlements in Jamaica’s Tourism Space: Urban Spatial Development in a Small Island Developing State

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    Sheere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the compatibility of government programmes for regularising or relocating informal settlements situated in a growing tourism space in Jamaica, a small island developing state (SIDS. The case study of Ocho Rios involves mapping, charting, and defining this resort town’s island tourism space. The paper questions the effectiveness of broad government programmes aimed at addressing informal settlements at a time when governance actors and Jamaica’s tourism policy agenda prioritise land use that accommodates a diversified and spatially growing tourism industry. Findings show that government programmes have been insufficiently responsive to informal settlements located in the Ocho Rios tourism space for a number of reasons and that attempts to address the informal settlements are often beset by corruption and a lack of trust between residents and the government. Under the current tourism policy agenda, regularisation of existing informal settlements is not feasible in light of the high real estate value of lands surrounding tourist resort towns. A more targeted approach to addressing informal settlements based on the location of an informal settlement in the vicinity of island tourism regions is required.

  8. The spatial analysis of the population settlement peculiarities of Volyn region using centrographic method

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    Volodymyr Lazhnik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the characteristics of population settlement of certain areas different methodological approaches and techniques are used, among which сentrographic method occupies a special place. Centrographic method allows to determine the center of population gravity, the degree of its concentration around the central points of the territory, to identify the space-time changes in their placement, to compare the centers of population areas (democenters with the gravity centers of the other geographical phenomena, which are obtained by similar formulas. By сentrographic methods using the geographic coordinates and location of the geographical center of Volyn region and the center of gravity of all urban and rural population of the region according to Census of 1979, 1989, 2001 are specified. The dynamics and trajectory of weight shift in population over the investigated period are analyzed, the values of discentrіsitets in the distribution of centers of gravity of all are determined, the urban and the rural population regarding the geographical center of the region. The basic causes of demographic displacement centers are established. On the basis of calculation of standard deviation centers the degree of concentration of all urban and rural population around their centers is revealed, and also the decrease of regional system of population settlement. The causes of spatial asymmetry in the distribution of population in the region are set, including important activation of suburbanizational processes in Luts ktown agglomeration and around urban settlements of the area. The parameters of standard deviation and scattering ellipse are calculated taking into account the ellipticity of the region territory, show that urban population of the region has a higher degree of concentration around its center of gravity than the rural population, because of the small number of urban areas on the periphery of the region and in its border areas.

  9. Problems of spatial-functional organization of Južno Pomoravlje region’s network of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the elaboration of the Regional spatial plan of the municipalities of Južno Pomoravlje (Region Južno Pomoravlje a special attention was paid to its network of settlements. Demographical and functional determinants of this network were analyzed based on the relevant theoretical-methodological concepts and qualitative-quantitative indicators. Settlement network of Južno Pomoravlje was considered as a subsystem of the Republic of Serbia’s settlements’ system. Correlation and causality between processes of spatial and socio-economic migration of population and functional transformation of settlements have been highlighted, which caused differentiation of the Region’s municipalities to: urban cores - peri-urban rings - suburban more or less urbanized villages and rural surroundings. Models of decentralized concentration and micro-developing nuclei are proposed as instruments for decentralization of the Region or its municipalities. Based on the level of spatial-functional integration of settlements, regional as well as municipal and micro-functional - micro-regional structures have been identified. This paper gives conceptual and strategic proposals of spatial-functional organization of Južno Pomoravlje, which are based on settlements’ determinants. Authors suggest that functional premises define determinants for the Regional spatial plan and steer the sectoral and strategic decisions.

  10. The Spatial Scale and Spatial Configuration of Residential Settlement: Measuring Segregation in the Postbellum South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Martinez, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Studies of residential segregation typically focus on its degree without questioning its scale and configuration. We study Southern cities in 1880 to emphasize the salience of these spatial dimensions. Distance-based and sequence indices can reflect spatial patterns but with some limitations, while geocoded 100% population data make possible more informative measures. One improvement is flexibility in spatial scale, ranging from adjacent buildings to whole districts of the city. Another is the ability to map patterns in fine detail. In Southern cities we find qualitatively distinct configurations that include not only black “neighborhoods” as usually imagined, but also backyard housing, alley housing, and side streets that were predominantly black. These configurations represent the sort of symbolic boundaries recognized by urban ethnographers. By mapping residential configurations and interpreting them in light of historical accounts, our intention is to capture meanings that are too often missed by quantitative studies of segregation.

  11. Micro-Study of the Evolution of Rural Settlement Patterns and Their Spatial Association with Water and Land Resources: A Case Study of Shandan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libang Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance between population and water and land resources is an important part of regional sustainable development. It is also significant for the ecological civilization in China and can help solve the Three Rural Issues (agriculture, countryside and farmers in China. The Silk Road Economic Belt and Maritime Silk Road in twenty-first Century Strategy have brought new opportunities for the Hexi Corridor, which is facing challenges in the sustainable development of rural settlements. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal-spatial differentiation of rural settlement patterns in Shandan County of Hexi Corridor and studied the spatial association between rural settlements and water-land resources. Results show that the total area of rural settlement patches (CA, the number of rural settlement patches (NP, the mean patch area (MPS, the maximum patch areas (MAXP, the minimum patch areas (MINP and the density of rural settlement patches (PD changed more rapidly from 1998 to 2008 than from 2008 to 2015. In the second period, the indices mentioned before did not change significantly. The kernel density of rural settlements is basically consistent in three periods. Rural settlements mainly distribute along major roads and the hydrographic network and the kernel density of rural settlements decreases in the direction away from these roads and the hydrographic network. In addition, rural settlements in Shandan County are densely distributed in some regions and sparsely distributed in other regions. The dispersion degree of rural settlements increased from 1998 to 2008 and tended to be stable after 2008. These lead to the dispersion, hollowing and chaos of rural settlements in Shandan County. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Shandan County is closely related to that of cultivated land and the hydrographic network. Our results might provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable utilization of water and land resources in Shandan County

  12. Spatial Patterns and Topographic Controls of Post-settlement Deposition and Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Depressional Landscapes of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A.; Bell, J.; Nater, E.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture-enhanced erosion and deposition affect soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and storage on hillslopes. Because soil is the largest terrestrial C inventory, such SOC change can have significant impacts on global C cycling. The downslope deposition and burial of C-rich topsoils in depressional landscapes are likely to sequester SOC, but our understanding of the spatial patterns and mechanisms behind it is still limited. In this study, we aim to identify spatial distribution of post-settlement deposition and SOC and to understand its physical impact on soil C storage in depressional landscapes on the Des Moines Lobe in Minnesota. The specific objectives for this study are to: 1) understand the distribution and thickness of post-settlement deposition by building spatial soil-landscape models using local and upslope dependence area terrain attributes; 2) develop soil C models for various profile depths; and 3) identify the spatial relation between post-settlement deposition and SOC. Using a 1-m LiDAR-based digital elevation model, we apply upslope dependence (contributing areas) and local (3-by-3 cell window) terrain attributes in spatial modeling because topographic features are key factors controlling landscape-scale soil processes. Upslope dependence terrain drives the waterflow-relevant soil processes such as soil erosion production, and local terrain controls redeposition. We predict the spatially-explicit probability of post-settlement deposition presence using logistic regression, and employ multiple linear regressions for the prediction of its thickness. Because the depth distribution of SOC in soil is affected by biological activities and topographic controls, we interpolated and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC in five fixed-depth layers (0-10cm, 10-30cm, 30-60cm, 60-90cm, and 90-120cm) and reported full depth composite values after individual layer modeling. The resulting SOC (kg/m2) map will be overlayed with post-settlement deposition maps

  13. KARAKTERISTIK SPASIAL PERMUKIMAN VERNAKULAR PERAIRAN DI SULAWESI TENGAH (Characteristic Settlement on The Spatial of Aquatic Vernacular at Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahda Mulyati

    2016-02-01

    conditions that are vulnerable to disasters. They have built houses, where the majority or entirely are above of water, using the building materials which are easy to obtain at the environment. This research purposes to get an idea of the spatial characteristics of the vernacular waters of settlements, especially at Central Sulawesi. This research use case study method with qualitative approach and data were collectend with naturalistic and analysis technique was inductive. The settlements of aquatic community were formed because of natural conditions and geography condition that are particularly vulnerable to disasters. At first, the settlements were established by the settlers because of the need for shelter and refuge. They chosed a shelter that can provide security with his family, so that the islands adjacent to the place that gives life is the choice. A group of several families eventually built their houses around the inland cliffs appropriate to their local knowledge. In the development of settlers grew, the settlement units grow and develop over the sea. Also the houses made a linear line form around the coral reef. The settlement consists of a row of houses (very dense on the mainland island which are connected by a road or bridge timber (tetean. These units settlement form a spatial between the houses around public spaces that are streets, mosques, schools, village halls, shops, washing bath, and places to play. Social interaction settlers were carried on the front porch, pathways, and public spaces in neighborhoods. Another interaction is usually done when they are fishing. The sea also serves as an access between the units and a playground for neighborhood children as well as space for the life of settlers. The residential house is a private space but the front porch and the road is public space. The spatial of settlement forms a circular pattern around the land of the cliff, or a linear one-and two-way and the street or tetean serves as the access and public

  14. Modelling distribution of archaeological settlement evidence based on heterogeneous spatial and temporal data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demján, P.; Dreslerová, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, May (2016), s. 100-109 ISSN 0305-4403 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : settlement density * evidence density estimation * predictive modelling * prehistory * large datasets Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  15. Evaluating metropolitan spatial development: a method for identifying settlement types and depicting growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pourpeikari Heris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a method to explore density and growth rates in the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. The outcomes of this method enable planners to understand the growth pattern of a region and compare it with other regions in the country. The main objectives of this research were: (1 to identify settlement types (high, medium and low density, suburbs, and urban fringes in each metropolitan area; (2 to depict and compare general metropolitan structures across the nation; and (3 to evaluate the location of recently developed dwellings in relation to settlement types and structures and estimate growth trends. The paper combined the percentage of impervious surface raster dataset (30-m cell size produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS and block-level housing unit data produced by the Census Bureau to map housing density across the lower 48 states in 2000 and 2010. Neighbourhood density profiles were used to identify the settlement types (high, medium and low density, suburbs, and urban fringes. The paper then compared density-decay functions of 50 metropolitan areas to depict urban growth patterns and to quantify the number of housing units developed in each settlement type. This method effectively distinguishes regions with higher densification (infill development rates versus regions with high-paced sprawl. The results showed that Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas had high percentages of housing units developed in high-density areas between 2000 and 2010, while during the same period Birmingham, Nashville and Charlotte had high percentages of housing development in areas identified as suburbs.

  16. A spatially explicit assessment of the wind energy potential in response to an increased distance between wind turbines and settlements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masurowski, Frank; Drechsler, Martin; Frank, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Setting a minimum distance between wind turbines and settlements is an important policy to mitigate the conflict between renewable energy production and the well-being of residents. We present a novel approach to assess the impact of varying minimum distances on the wind energy potential of a region, state or country. We show that this impact can be predicted from the spatial structure of the settlements. Applying this approach to Germany, we identify those regions where the energy potential very sensitively reacts to a change in the minimum distance. In relative terms the reduction of the energy potential is maximal in the north-west and the south-east of Germany. In absolute terms it is maximal in the north. This information helps deciding in which regions the minimum distance may be increased without large losses in the energy potential. - Highlights: • Distance between wind turbines and settlements is an important policy criterion. • We predict the impact of varying the distance on the regional energy potential. • The impact can be explained from the settlement structure. • The impact varies by region and German Federal state.

  17. Pheromones of cockroaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.; Ritter, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The article presents a review of the bíological significance and the chemistry of several pheromones of cockroaches. The data given are in part based on our own work, and in part taken from the literature.

  18. Pheromone transduction in moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stengl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth´s physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

  19. Spatial-temporal variations of natural suitability of human settlement environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area—A case study in Fengjie County, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jieqiong; Zhou, Tinggang; Du, Peijun; Xu, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    With rapid environmental degeneration and socio-economic development, the human settlement environment (HSE) has experienced dramatic changes and attracted attention from different communities. Consequently, the spatial-temporal evaluation of natural suitability of the human settlement environment (NSHSE) has become essential for understanding the patterns and dynamics of HSE, and for coordinating sustainable development among regional populations, resources, and environments. This study aims to explore the spatialtemporal evolution of NSHSE patterns in 1997, 2005, and 2009 in Fengjie County near the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). A spatially weighted NSHSE model was established by integrating multi-source data (e.g., census data, meteorological data, remote sensing images, DEM data, and GIS data) into one framework, where the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) linear regression model was applied to calculate the weights of indices in the NSHSE model. Results show that the trend of natural suitability has been first downward and then upward, which is evidenced by the disparity of NSHSE existing in the south, north, and central areas of Fengjie County. Results also reveal clustered NSHSE patterns for all 30 townships. Meanwhile, NSHSE has significant influence on population distribution, and 71.49% of the total population is living in moderate and high suitable districts.

  20. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  1. Monitoring informal settlements using SAR polarimetry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The most pervasive form of land-cover change in South Africa is human settlement expansion. In many cases, new human settlements and settlement expansion are informal and occur in areas that were previously covered by natural vegetation. The spatial...

  2. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available vulnerability. These factors are location specific, related to particular local climate, topology and human settlement patterns.” (Department of Environmental Affairs 2014b, p.6).Urban settlements across Africa are experiencing immense changes at a swift rate... CSIR calculations based on latest census figures of each SADC country (projected figures used in case of missing census data, e.g. Angola). Urbanisation rates used as reported by UN ESA (2014). Calculations exclude Mauritius and Seychelles. C H A P...

  3. Sound settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  4. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  5. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  6. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Social and Spatial Determinants of Health Between Formal and Informal Settlements in a Large Metropolitan Setting in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Robert E.; Jaimes, Guillermo; Riley, Lee W.; Faerstein, Eduardo; Corburn, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Urban informal settlements are often under-recognized in national and regional surveys. A lack of quality intra-urban data frequently contributes to a one-size-fits-all public health intervention and clinical strategies that rarely address the variegated socioeconomic disparities across and within different informal settlements in a city. The 2010 Brazilian census gathered detailed population and place-based data across the country's informal settlements. Here, we examined key socio-demograph...

  8. A comparison of social and spatial determinants of health between formal and informal settlements in a large metropolitan setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robert E; Jaimes, Guillermo; Riley, Lee W; Faerstein, Eduardo; Corburn, Jason

    2014-06-01

    Urban informal settlements are often under-recognized in national and regional surveys. A lack of quality intra-urban data frequently contributes to a one-size-fits-all public health intervention and clinical strategies that rarely address the variegated socioeconomic disparities across and within different informal settlements in a city. The 2010 Brazilian census gathered detailed population and place-based data across the country's informal settlements. Here, we examined key socio-demographic and infrastructure characteristics that are associated with health outcomes in Rio de Janeiro with the census tract as the unit of analysis. Many of the city's residents (1.39 million people, 22 % of the population) live in informal settlements. Residents of census tracts in Rio de Janeiro's urban informal areas are younger, (median age of 26 versus 35 years in formal settlements), and have less access to adequate water (96 versus 99 % of informal households), sanitation (86 versus 96 %), and electricity (67 versus 92 %). Average per household income in informal settlement census tracts is less than one third that of non-informal tracts (US\\$708 versus US\\$2362). Even among informal settlements in different planning areas in the same city, there is marked variation in these characteristics. Public health interventions, clinical management, and urban planning policies aiming to improve the living conditions of the people residing in informal settlements, including government strategies currently underway, must consider the differences that exist between and within informal settlements that shape place-based physical and social determinants of health.

  9. New evidence on the spatial organisation of the Valencina de la Concepción Copper Age settlement: geophysical survey between La Pastora and Montelirio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheatley, David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The major Copper Age settlement of Valencina de la Concepción has been the subject of research interest over more than a century. The history of previous investigations at the site has resulted in a heterogeneous archaeological record that is particularly difficult and that displays significant gaps and problems. In this paper, we present the results of a geophysical survey carried out in December 2004 between the La Pastora and Montelirio sectors of this site in response to a proposed road development that was never put into practice, and which revealed several previously unknown features. These data are assessed in the light of the results obtained from the excavation carried out between 2007 and 2008 at the immediately adjacent sector of PP4-Montelirio, currently under study by us, where several dozen prehistoric features (both, non-megalithic and megalithic, funerary and non-funerary, were found. Altogether, this new evidence makes a significant contribution to the spatial interpretation of the Valencina de la Concepción site, particularly as they convey the first-ever cartography of a large area of this settlement. From this evidence, a discussion is made concerning the density and diversity of the features identified both between La Pastora and Montelirio as well as at the PP4-Montelirio sector, their potential patterns and sequence. This raises questions regarding the traditional separation of the site into ‘settlement’ and ‘necropolis’ areas and contributes more generally to a better understanding of the spatial organisation of this large prehistoric settlement.

    El gran asentamiento de la Edad del Cobre de Valencina de la Concepción ha sido objeto de numerosas investigaciones a lo largo de más de un siglo. Estas investigaciones han dado lugar a un registro arqueológico heterogéneo particularmente difícil de interpretar, y que presenta importantes vacíos y problemas. En este artículo se exponen los

  10. Anthropophytes in the flora of different spatial units within old rural settlements of the Lubuskie Lakeland, western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the flora of villages in a connection with the surrounding landscape are rare and mostly limited to the built-up area and its general location in a geographical region. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the diversity patterns of flora against the background of local landscape units in the rural areas and to analyse them in the context of village transformation. The study comprised 30 villages of medieval origin representing the oval-shape type, with differently preserved structure of built-up area and cultivated fields, located in the Lubuskie Lakeland. The terrain within a buffer zone of 200 m in width, located outside of the built-up area, was divided into spatial complexes. In each of these complexes, floristic lists were compiled. The structure of surrounding landscape within the buffer zone of 1 km in width, measuring from the village centroid, was analysed using ArcGIS.

  11. Sex pheromone of marine algae; Kaiso no sei pheromone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-10-20

    The marine ecosystem skillfully uses various `odor materials` as chemical signals. In particular, this `odor materials` are indispensable for various organisms with no motor function or poor underdeveloped visual sensation in order to maintain or expand their species. German algae scholars found a male gamete induction active material secreted from a female gamete of primitive brown algae in 1971. Eleven kinds of sex pheromones have been found from brown algae up to the present since 1971. All of these found sex pheromones are hydrophobic `odor materials` composed of hydrocarbons containing 8 or 11 carbon atoms or epoxide (oxirane), and are compounds with singular chemical structures as physiological active material in the hydrosphere. Some sex pheromones govern not only inducement of spermatozoons but also discharge of spermatozoons from an antheridium. The sex pheromone with both functions of discharge and inducement was found from the culture solution of a certain tangle weed. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Neurotoxicology of insecticides and pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narahashi, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum where a variety of scientists who were interested in the interactions of insecticides and pheromones with the nervous system got together to exchange their views...

  13. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  14. Tissue localization and partial characterization of pheromone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Achaea janata; immunocytochemistry; MALDI-MS; pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN); RP-HPLC. Abstract. Female sex pheromone production in certain moth species have been shown to be regulated by a cephalic endocrine peptidic factor: pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide ...

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The phrase "human settlements system" is a concern for researchers in various fields as geography, economics, regional planning and for those responsible for formulating and implementing spatial development policies. The research covers various aspects of human settlements and is a meeting place of many disciplines and humanities. It is natural, as human settlements, either as isolated or in territorial systems they belong, are where manifests are transformed and develop human communities and societies as a whole. Problems national system of settlements in Romania are varied and complex. The evolution and consolidation of a stable and balanced is a continuous and dynamic process that goes through a series of steps, some characterized by profound transformations that can be called critical. One such step is the present one, where the influence of the changes in the economy and social and political life, the very development of settlements, be they urban or rural, knows a turning point, a certain vulnerability when the progressive or regressive of evolution is may change at any time. Industry restructuring on the one hand and reîmproprietărirea owners, are factors that can create shock effects unchecked urban and rural areas. On the other hand the development of trade, multiplying special services, urban (banks, insurers, etc. and can foster diversity of choices population compared to a net urban areas where living conditions and financial incentives for farmers are still far to be attractive

  16. The Settlements Growth in Mijen District, Suburb of Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigawati, B.; Yuliastuti, N.; Mardiansjah, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Semarang is one of metropolitan cities in Indonesia. As common in metropolitan cities, Semarang has problems regarding the availability of urban space, especially for settlements. This is related to the increase of population in Semarang. The selection of settlements should consider the suitability of space usage. This study aimed to analyze the growth of Semarang settlements in 2006-2015, distribution patterns, characteristics, directions and factors affecting growth. The location of the research is Mijen District located in Suburb of Semarang. This research used a quantitative descriptive spatial approach by using remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that some of the growth sites of settlements in Mijen District, the suburb of Semarang are located in areas which not suitable for settlements. There are several types of settlement patterns in Mijen District. Accessibility is the major factor driving the growth of settlements. An integrated development policy is needed to maintain a sustainable balance of urban settlement development.

  17. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  18. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. African rural settlement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloko, F R

    1983-11-01

    Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people.

  20. REDISCOVERING THE PRINCIPLES OF ECO-CITY AS SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES IN TRADITIONAL HOUSING SETTLEMENT: THE CASE OF URFA IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEMAL INCERUH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban spaces are generally defined and created by physical and non-physical entities. Among these entities buildings play important role in defing urban spaces. These open spaces come into being as a part of building (a private courtyard, as spaces between buildings for semi-public activities in cul-de-sac (as extensions of indoor/courtyard, or as common public gathering and thoroughfare spaces, in a settlement. Yet, these spaces have been studied and analyzed according to different physical and social aspects. But, this paper studies these spaces in different manner inspired from Dominsky`s three domains 'Reuse, Reduce and Recycle' of the outcomes of sustainable settlement. However, in this paper, these three 'Rs' are used as tools to enhance the sustainability of urban spaces and their ecological importance for a society both physically and morally. The objective of this paper is to explore the criteria of ecological sustainability and adaptation of changing society to traditional Anatolian settlements, and to derive physical issues and features of suatinabile design and planning for new sttelements in hot arid regions.

  1. Synthesis and metabolism of pheromones and pheromone analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    [9, 10- 3 H 2 ]Z9-14:Ac was synthesized at high specific activity ( 3 H, 58 Ci/mmole) by partial tritiation of the corresponding alkyne and was converted to the labeled Z9-14:OH and Z9-14:Al to study tissue specificity of acetate esterase (E), alcohol oxidase (OX), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in male and female Heliothis virescens. Soluble and membrane-associated enzyme activities were determined by radio-TLC assays. Compounds of the tritium-labeled Z11-16 series were synthesized and their in vitro fates examined as well. In order to achieve an alternative approach in which (1) pheromone receptor proteins would be stoichiometrically and irreversibly modified, or (2) pheromone-catabolizing enzymes are inactivated by tight-binding or irreversible inhibitors, we have designed analogues of pheromones of lepidopterous insect pests and assayed their biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Various fluorinated molecules such as acyl fluorides, fluoroolefins, 2-fluoro aldehydes, 2,2-difluoro aldehydes and trifluoromethyl ketones were synthesized. The synthesis of some other functional groups such as cyclopropanones, cyclopropanols, cyclopropyl carbinols, cyclopropyl aldehydes and Michael acceptors will also be discussed

  2. Synthesis and metabolism of pheromones and pheromone analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    (9, 10-/sup 3/H/sub 2/)Z9-14:Ac was synthesized at high specific activity (/sup 3/H, 58 Ci/mmole) by partial tritiation of the corresponding alkyne and was converted to the labeled Z9-14:OH and Z9-14:Al to study tissue specificity of acetate esterase (E), alcohol oxidase (OX), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in male and female Heliothis virescens. Soluble and membrane-associated enzyme activities were determined by radio-TLC assays. Compounds of the tritium-labeled Z11-16 series were synthesized and their in vitro fates examined as well. In order to achieve an alternative approach in which (1) pheromone receptor proteins would be stoichiometrically and irreversibly modified, or (2) pheromone-catabolizing enzymes are inactivated by tight-binding or irreversible inhibitors, we have designed analogues of pheromones of lepidopterous insect pests and assayed their biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Various fluorinated molecules such as acyl fluorides, fluoroolefins, 2-fluoro aldehydes, 2,2-difluoro aldehydes and trifluoromethyl ketones were synthesized. The synthesis of some other functional groups such as cyclopropanones, cyclopropanols, cyclopropyl carbinols, cyclopropyl aldehydes and Michael acceptors will also be discussed.

  3. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  4. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore's reefs appears relatively constrained, which could lead

  6. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Pheromonal control: reconciling physiological mechanism with signalling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peso, Marianne; Elgar, Mark A; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals. They can have profound effects on the behaviour and/or physiology of the receiver, and it is still common to hear pheromones described as controlling of the behaviour of the receiver. The discussion of pheromonal control arose initially from a close association between hormones and pheromones in the comparative physiological literature, but the concept of a controlling pheromone is at odds with contemporary signal evolution theory, which predicts that a manipulative pheromonal signal negatively affecting the receiver's fitness should not be stable over evolutionary time. Here we discuss the meaning of pheromonal control, and the ecological circumstances by which it might be supported. We argue that in discussing pheromonal control it is important to differentiate between control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's physiology (proximate control), and control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's fitness (ultimate control). Critically, a pheromone signal affecting change in the receiver's behaviour or physiology need not necessarily manipulate the fitness of a receiver. In cases where pheromonal signalling does lead to a reduction in the fitness of the receiver, the signalling system would be stable if the pheromone were an honest signal of a social environment that disadvantages the receiver, and the physiological and behavioural changes observed in the receiver were an adaptive response to the new social circumstances communicated by the pheromone. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  9. Optimization for manufacturing system based on Pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Dunbing Tang

    2011-01-01

    A new optimization approach, called pheromone, which comes from the collective behavior of ant colonies for food foraging is proposed to optimize task allocation. These ants spread pheromone information and make global information available locally; thus, an ant agent only needs to observe its local environment in order to account for nonlocal concerns in its decisions. This approach has the capacity for task allocation model to automatically find efficient routing paths for processing orders...

  10. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  11. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  12. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  13. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  14. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai-jie Guo; Fu-hai Zhang; Xu-guo Song; Bao-tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP) dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment ...

  15. Pheromone communication in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Davey, William John; Nielsen, Olaf

    1995-01-01

    Conjugation between two haploid yeast cells is generally controlled by the reciprocal action of diffusible mating pheromones, cells of each mating type releasing pheromones that induce mating-specific changes in cells of the opposite type. Recent studies into pheromone signalling in the fission...

  16. Pheromones and ovarian growth in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Pheromones are defined as 'substances which are secreted to the outside by an individual and received by a second individual of the same species, in which they release a specific reaction'. In teleost fish, pheromones play a role in a variety of social interactions. Sex pheromones are

  17. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200 have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia or PBAN receptor gene (in DG expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta.

  18. Differences in Pattern and Driving Forces between Urban and Rural Settlements in the Coastal Region of Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization on the coast of China has attracted much attention. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in dynamics and related driving forces between urban and rural settlements. Applying the quantitative method, we demonstrate that substantial heterogeneity in settlement growth, landscape pattern metrics, change, land sources and driving forces is exhibited across the different types of urban and rural settlements. The spatial growth of urban settlements is dominated by in situ expansion, while rural settlements tend to be scattered and shrinking rapidly. The sprawl of human settlements has mainly occupied farm land, but reclamation projects are increasingly becoming important land sources for urban settlements. Local government has played a critical role in urban settlements, while the expansion of rural settlements is mainly driven by individual choice and village collective organizations. Such differences may account for differential options for the management of human settlements scientifically.

  19. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females.

  20. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many ant species are efficient control agents against a wide range of pest insects in many crops. They control pest insects via predation; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may be eavesdropped by potential prey and serve as chemical warning signals. Thus, the presence...... of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  1. PHEROMONAL MODULATION OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Keller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Social olfactory signals, often known as pheromones, are powerful regulators of reproductive function. These chemosignals can be detected by two olfactory systems, namely the main or the accessory olfactory systems. While initially anatomically segregated, both systems converge functionally as they can detect and process overlapping sets of chemosignals. This convergence also takes place at the level of their central projections in the hypothalamus. It is probably at this level that future investigations will be needed. Indeed, if the physiology of both olfactory system and reproductive function are now quite well characterized, the interrelation between both systems is unclear. Among the many cell populations that can serve as targets or relays for the pheromonal information in the hypothalamus are GnRH cells or the recently discovered Kispeptin population which have been showed to be activated after pheromonal activation. However, many works will be needed before having a definitive picture.

  2. Model for mapping settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  3. Methodology in structural determination and synthesis of insect pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Lin

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of ethereal washing of insect pheromone glands of female moths, GC-MS detection along with microchemical reactions and electroantennogram (EAG survey, six economically important insect species were targeted for pheromone identification. The discovery of a natural pheromone inhibitor, chemo-selectivity and species isolation by pheromone will be described. The modified triple bond migration and triethylamine liganded vinyl cuprate were applied for achiral pheromone synthesis in double bond formation. Some optically active pheromones and their stereoisomers were synthesized through chiral pool or asymmetric synthesis. Some examples of chiral recognition of insects towards their chiral pheromones will be discussed. A CaH2 and silica gel catalyzed Sharpless Expoxidation Reaction was found in shortening the reaction time.

  4. Designers of Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  5. The Settlement Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    The Settlement movement, which originated in late nineteenth-century England, was a pioneer in bettering the conditions of the working poor. It pursued the utopian project of locating ‘settlements’ within poverty-ridden neighbourhoods where respectable students should meet slum dwellers on equal ...

  6. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  7. Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:22016844

  8. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  9. Influence of microbial symbionts on insect pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2018-03-22

    Covering: up to 2018Pheromones serve as chemical signals between individuals of the same species and play important roles for mate localization and mate choice as well as other social interactions in insects. A growing body of literature indicates that microbial symbionts can modulate their hosts' chemical profiles, mate choice decisions and social behavior. This modulation can occur by the direct biosynthesis of pheromone components or the provisioning of precursors, or through general changes in the metabolite pool of the host and its resource allocation into pheromone production. Here we review and discuss the contexts in which microbial modulation of intraspecific communication in insects occurs and emphasize cases in which microbes are known to affect the involved chemistry. The described examples for a symbiotic influence on mate attraction and mate choice, aggregation, nestmate and kin recognition highlight the context-dependent costs and benefits of these symbiotic interactions and the potential for conflict and manipulation among the interacting partners. However, despite the increasing number of studies reporting on symbiont-mediated effects on insect chemical communication, experimentally validated connections between the presence of specific symbionts, changes in the host's chemistry, and behavioral effects thereof, remain limited to very few systems, highlighting the need for increased collaborative efforts between symbiosis researchers and chemical ecologists to gain more comprehensive insights into the influence of microbial symbionts on insect pheromones.

  10. Abuja sustainable spatial housing design: A spatial dialectics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abuja sustainable spatial housing design: A spatial dialectics (volumetric and unvolumetric settlements) ... the influx of new migrants and indigenous settlers have resulted in housing shortage, infrastructure overload, and the proliferation of defective housing and informal settlements in the city and surrounding territories.

  11. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  12. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... of utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Furthermore the growing towns are struggling with an un-sustainable economic situation manly based on public financed jobs or welfare payments and with limited export oriented value creation....

  13. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  14. THE CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT AREAS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Suhadolnik Vovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič [1999] through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?

  15. Queen pheromones: The chemical crown governing insect social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division...... of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility...... with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors....

  16. Dynamical modeling of the moth pheromone-sensitive olfactory receptor neuron within its sensillar environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Gu

    Full Text Available In insects, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, surrounded with auxiliary cells and protected by a cuticular wall, form small discrete sensory organs--the sensilla. The moth pheromone-sensitive sensillum is a well studied example of hair-like sensillum that is favorable to both experimental and modeling investigations. The model presented takes into account both the molecular processes of ORNs, i.e. the biochemical reactions and ionic currents giving rise to the receptor potential, and the cellular organization and compartmentalization of the organ represented by an electrical circuit. The number of isopotential compartments needed to describe the long dendrite bearing pheromone receptors was determined. The transduction parameters that must be modified when the number of compartments is increased were identified. This model reproduces the amplitude and time course of the experimentally recorded receptor potential. A first complete version of the model was analyzed in response to pheromone pulses of various strengths. It provided a quantitative description of the spatial and temporal evolution of the pheromone-dependent conductances, currents and potentials along the outer dendrite and served to determine the contribution of the various steps in the cascade to its global sensitivity. A second simplified version of the model, utilizing a single depolarizing conductance and leak conductances for repolarizing the ORN, was derived from the first version. It served to analyze the effects on the sensory properties of varying the electrical parameters and the size of the main sensillum parts. The consequences of the results obtained on the still uncertain mechanisms of olfactory transduction in moth ORNs--involvement or not of G-proteins, role of chloride and potassium currents--are discussed as well as the optimality of the sensillum organization, the dependence of biochemical parameters on the neuron spatial extension and the respective contributions

  17. Aggregation-Sex Pheromones and Likely Pheromones of 11 South American Cerambycid Beetles, and Partitioning of Pheromone Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weliton D. Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, volatile sex and/or aggregation pheromones and pheromone candidates have been identified for well over 100 species in the large beetle family Cerambycidae, demonstrating that pheromone-based communication is crucial for effective mate location by these insects. Despite this rapid progress in elucidating the chemical ecology of the Cerambycidae, most research to date has focused on species from North America, Europe, and Asia, with almost nothing known about species native to Africa, Australia, and South America. Here, we report the identification and field assessment of aggregation-sex pheromones produced by adult males of Ambonus distinctus (Newman and Ambonus electus (Gahan, two sympatric and synchronic cerambycid species endemic to South America. Analyses of headspace volatiles from adult beetles showed that these species share two male-specific components, (R-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, and lesser amounts of 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl-1,2-propanedione. Headspace volatiles from male A. distinctus also contained a novel minor component, identified as 3-methylthiopropan-1-ol. Field bioassays were conducted in Brazil, testing reconstructed blends of the compounds produced by each species, as well as racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl-1,2-propanedione as single components. Both sexes of A. distinctus and A. electus were most attracted to traps baited with their respective blends. In particular, 3-methylthiopropan-1-ol synergized attraction of A. distinctus and appeared to antagonize attraction of A. electus, suggesting a mechanism to minimize cross-attraction between these two congeners. Nine other cerambycid species were captured in significant numbers during the bioassays, including Ambonus interrogationis (Blanchard, Amorupi fulvoterminata (Berg, Chrysoprasis aurigena (Germar, Itaclytus olivaceus (Laporte & Gory, Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory, Orthostoma abdominale (Gyllenhal, Sphaerion inerme White, Stizocera

  18. Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series: continued support towards more sustainable human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goss, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of current policy as it relates to the establishment of sustainable human settlements and specifically settlement locality. The objective of the Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series is to guide housing / settlement investment decisions by various...

  19. The mode of evolution of aggregation pheromones in Drosophila species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symonds, MRE; Wertheim, B

    Aggregation pheromones are used by fruit flies of the genus Drosophila to assemble on breeding substrates, where they feed, mate and oviposit communally. These pheromones consist of species-specific blends of chemicals. Here, using a phylogenetic framework, we examine how differences among species

  20. Electrophilic derivatives antagonise pheromone attraction in Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Albert; Gago, Rafael; Mingot, Ares; García, Wanda; Bosch, Dolors; Coll, Josep; Rosell, Gloria; Bosch, M Pilar; Riba, Magí; Guerrero, Angel

    2013-11-01

    Pheromone antagonists are good disruptants of the pheromone communication in insects and, as such, have been used in mating disruption experiments. In this study, new non-fluorinated electrophilic keto derivatives structurally related to the pheromone of Cydia pomonella (codlemone) have been synthesised and tested as putative pheromone antagonists. Codlemone (1) was prepared in excellent stereoselectivity in a new, iterative approach involving two Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions. Methyl ketone (2), keto ester (3) and diketone (4) were obtained from codlemone in straightforward approaches in good overall yields and excellent stereochemical purity (≥98% E,E). In electrophysiology, only compound 2 displayed inhibition of the antennal response to the pheromone after presaturation of the antennal receptors. Compounds 2 to 4 did not inhibit the pheromone-degrading enzyme responsible for codlemone metabolism, but mixtures of ketone 2 and diketone 4 with codlemone elicited erratic flights on males in a wind tunnel. In the field, blends of either compound (2 or 4) with the pheromone caught significantly fewer males than codlemone alone. Codlemone and the potential antagonists 2 to 4 have been synthesised in good yields and excellent stereoselectivity. These chemicals behave as pheromone antagonists of the codling moth both in the laboratory and in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Pheromone and Animal Reproducton: Speciation in Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While humans are highly dependent upon visual cues when in close proximity, smell also play a big role in sociosexual behaviours. There is an inherent difficulty in studying human pheromones because of the need for cleanliness and odourlessness in human participants. Pheromones are often divided by function into two: ...

  2. Application of graph theory to the morphological analysis of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmytkie Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper, the analyses of morphology of settlements were conducted using graph methods. The intention of the author was to create a quantifiable and simple measure, which, in a quantitative way, would express the degree of development of a graph (the spatial pattern of settlement. When analysing examples of graphs assigned to a set of small towns and large villages, it was noticed that the graph development index should depend on: a relative number of edges in relation to the number of nodes (β index, the number of cycles (urban blocks, which evidences the complexity of the spatial pattern of settlement, and the average rank of nodes of a graph, which expresses the degree of complexity of a street network.

  3. Complex settlement and the landscape dynamic of the Iščica floodplain (Ljubljana Marshes, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the complex interactions between settlement patterns and landscape dynamics in the Iščica floodplain (the Ljubljana Marshes, Slovenia during the early and middle Holocene. This complex interaction can be observed on many nested spatial and temporal levels. The paper examines landscape and settlement dynamics on the micro-regional scale by exploring settlement patterns and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging imagery, and on the settlement scale by analysis and radiocarbon dating of stratigraphic sequences from the Maharski prekop site.

  4. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  5. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  6. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  7. Physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of Heterodera schachtii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, J; Dietsche, E; Rutencrantz, S; Ladehoff, H

    1998-11-01

    Several physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii were elucidated. At least one component of the pheromone can be extracted from aqueous solutions with diethyl ether. However, the pheromone has a higher solubility in water, as most of the pheromone activity remained in the water fraction. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that the pheromone or at least one of its components is positively charged, whereas another pheromone component may be negatively charged. Fractional distillation of pheromone extracts showed that it is, indeed, composed of at least two components. These components may interact additively rather than synergistically.

  8. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment settlement is mainly affected by the initial sediment concentration and initial settlement height, and the interface settlement rate is attenuated linearly with time on bilogarithmic scales during the hindered settlement and self-weight consolidation settlement stages. Moreover, the deposited sediment layer in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage experiences large strains, and the settlement amount in this stage is about 32% to 59% of the initial height of deposited sediment. EPP is nonlinearly distributed in the settlement direction, and consolidation settlement is faster than EPP dissipation in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage. Consolidation constitutive equations for the hydraulic conductivity and effective stress, applicable to large-strain consolidation calculation, were also determined and fitted in the power function form.

  9. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment settlement is mainly affected by the initial sediment concentration and initial settlement height, and the interface settlement rate is linearly attenuated with time on bilogarithmic scales during the hindered settlement and self-weight consolidation settlement stages. Moreover, the deposited sediment layer in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage experiences large strains, and the settlement amount in this stage is about 32% to 59% of the initial height of deposited sediment. EPP is nonlinearly distributed in the settlement direction, and consolidation settlement is faster than EPP dissipation in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage. Consolidation constitutive equations for the hydraulic conductivity and effective stress, applicable to large-strain consolidation calculation, were also determined and fitted in the power function form.

  10. Fortified settlement Veletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vojislav S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the fortified settlement Veletin are located on a hill of the same name (map marking 969 near the small town Janjevo, in the vicinity of the Monastery Gračanica in Kosovo, in a region rich in metal ore (pic. 1-3. Veletin is mentioned for the first time as a landmark in King Milutin’s charter for the Monastery Gračanica issued in 1321. Namely, the boundary of villages donated to the monastery ran "from Oštri vrh on Veletjen between Sušica and between Gušterica". Villages of Sušica and Gušterica still exist under the same names. The mentioned Veletin refers to the hill with a fortified settlement or fortress at the top. In the past the hill and the fortress were for a long time a characteristic part of the historical landscape. Thanks to its favourable geostrategic position, vicinity of important roads and above all to the nearness of rich silver mines, the hill of Veletin was settled and fortified in pre-historic time, then in antiquity and in the middle ages. It is supposed that the Roman town Ulpiana (Justiniana Secunda, near the Monastery Gračanica, developed because of the vicinity of silver mines and that as a municipium became a center of administration of Janjevo - Novo Brdo metals in the II c. Mining reached its peak in this area only in the first half of the XV c., during the reign of Serbian despots. When this part of Serbia fell under Turkish rule in 1455, mining began to decline. In 1488, during the reign of Sultan Bajazet II, special regulations were made for the organization of work in Janjevo silver mines, which testify about their importance. It is hard to form an opinion about the appearance of Veletin at the time the Gračanica Charter was issued. Mining was growing at that time and it is possible that there was a fortress with a small crew to protect Janjevo and other nearby mining settlements. Veletin is explicitly mentioned as a fortress only in three cartographic sources of a later date. The first was

  11. Insectivorous birds eavesdrop on the pheromones of their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Irene; Amo, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Chemical cues play a fundamental role in mate attraction and mate choice. Lepidopteran females, such as the winter moth (Operophtera brumata), emit pheromones to attract males in the reproductive period. However, these chemical cues could also be eavesdropped by predators. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether birds can detect pheromones of their prey. O. brumata adults are part of the winter diet of some insectivorous tit species, such as the great tit (Parus major) and blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We performed a field experiment aimed to disentangle whether insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by their prey for prey location. We placed artificial larvae and a dispenser on branches of Pyrenean oak trees (Quercus pyrenaica). In half of the trees we placed an O. brumata pheromone dispenser and in the other half we placed a control dispenser. We measured the predation rate of birds on artificial larvae. Our results show that more trees had larvae with signs of avian predation when they contained an O. brumata pheromone than when they contained a control dispenser. Furthermore, the proportion of artificial larvae with signs of avian predation was greater in trees that contained the pheromone than in control trees. Our results indicate that insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by moth females to attract males, as a method of prey detection. These results highlight the potential use of insectivorous birds in the biological control of insect pests.

  12. Insectivorous birds eavesdrop on the pheromones of their prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Saavedra

    Full Text Available Chemical cues play a fundamental role in mate attraction and mate choice. Lepidopteran females, such as the winter moth (Operophtera brumata, emit pheromones to attract males in the reproductive period. However, these chemical cues could also be eavesdropped by predators. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether birds can detect pheromones of their prey. O. brumata adults are part of the winter diet of some insectivorous tit species, such as the great tit (Parus major and blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus. We performed a field experiment aimed to disentangle whether insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by their prey for prey location. We placed artificial larvae and a dispenser on branches of Pyrenean oak trees (Quercus pyrenaica. In half of the trees we placed an O. brumata pheromone dispenser and in the other half we placed a control dispenser. We measured the predation rate of birds on artificial larvae. Our results show that more trees had larvae with signs of avian predation when they contained an O. brumata pheromone than when they contained a control dispenser. Furthermore, the proportion of artificial larvae with signs of avian predation was greater in trees that contained the pheromone than in control trees. Our results indicate that insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by moth females to attract males, as a method of prey detection. These results highlight the potential use of insectivorous birds in the biological control of insect pests.

  13. Functionality of the Paracoccidioides mating α-pheromone-receptor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A Gomes-Rezende

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the α-pheromone (PBα gene, and the α- and a-pheromone receptor (PREB and PREA genes in yeast and mycelia forms of several Paracoccidioides isolates. None of the genes were expressed in a mating type dependent manner. Stimulation of P. brasiliensis MAT1-2 strains with the synthetic α-pheromone peptide failed to elicit transcriptional activation of MAT1-2, PREB or STE12, suggesting that the strains tested are insensitive to α-pheromone. In order to further evaluate the biological functionality of the pair α-pheromone and its receptor, we took advantage of the heterologous expression of these Paracoccidioides genes in the corresponding S. cerevisiae null mutants. We show that S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing PREB respond to Pbα pheromone either isolated from Paracoccidioides culture supernatants or in its synthetic form, both by shmoo formation and by growth and cell cycle arrests. This allowed us to conclude that Paracoccidioides species secrete an active α-pheromone into the culture medium that is able to activate its cognate receptor. Moreover, expression of PREB or PBα in the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae restored mating in these non-fertile strains. Taken together, our data demonstrate pheromone signaling activation by the Paracoccidioides α-pheromone through its receptor in this yeast model, which provides novel evidence for the existence of a functional mating signaling system in Paracoccidioides.

  14. Genomewide identification of pheromone-targeted transcription in fission yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Anthony

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fission yeast cells undergo sexual differentiation in response to nitrogen starvation. In this process haploid M and P cells first mate to form diploid zygotes, which then enter meiosis and sporulate. Prior to mating, M and P cells communicate with diffusible mating pheromones that activate a signal transduction pathway in the opposite cell type. The pheromone signalling orchestrates mating and is also required for entry into meiosis. Results Here we use DNA microarrays to identify genes that are induced by M-factor in P cells and by P-factor in M-cells. The use of a cyr1 genetic background allowed us to study pheromone signalling independently of nitrogen starvation. We identified a total of 163 genes that were consistently induced more than two-fold by pheromone stimulation. Gene disruption experiments demonstrated the involvement of newly discovered pheromone-induced genes in the differentiation process. We have mapped Gene Ontology (GO categories specifically associated with pheromone induction. A direct comparison of the M- and P-factor induced expression pattern allowed us to identify cell-type specific transcripts, including three new M-specific genes and one new P-specific gene. Conclusion We found that the pheromone response was very similar in M and P cells. Surprisingly, pheromone control extended to genes fulfilling their function well beyond the point of entry into meiosis, including numerous genes required for meiotic recombination. Our results suggest that the Ste11 transcription factor is responsible for the majority of pheromone-induced transcription. Finally, most cell-type specific genes now appear to be identified in fission yeast.

  15. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge to express his or her views on an offer of settlement or otherwise to participate in a..., propose an offer of settlement. The amount accepted in settlement may be less than the civil penalty that...) Procedure—(1) Prior to issuance of Penalty Notice. Any offer of settlement made by a respondent prior to the...

  16. The evolution of honest queen pheromones in insect societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn

    2010-01-01

    of their ovaries and by preventing other workers from reproducing (worker policing). However, what maintains the honesty of such queen pheromones is still under discussion. The explanation that an honest queen signal evolves simply because it serves the interest of all colony members does not seem to hold, since...... it is undermined by the fitness benefits of direct reproduction of workers at the individual level. A better explanation may be found in the idea that queen pheromones are difficult to produce for subordinate individuals, either because policing workers attack them, or because queen pheromones are intrinsically...

  17. Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatos Ales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae consists of two distinct strains with different host plant preferences for corn and rice. To assess whether pheromonal-mediated behavioral isolation accompanies the habitat isolation on different host plants, we compared the sex pheromone composition among females of the two strains. Pheromone glands were extracted with or without injection of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN. To assess the mode of inheritance of this variation, we also analyzed the pheromone composition of F1 hybrid females. Results Relative to intra-strain variation, the pheromone composition of the two strains differed significantly. Corn strain females contained significantly more of the second most abundant pheromone compound Z11-16:Ac (m, and significantly less of most other compounds, than rice strain females. When females were injected with PBAN before their glands were extracted, the differences between the strains were less pronounced but still statistically significant. The pheromone composition of hybrid females showed a maternal inheritance of the major component Z9-14:Ac (M as well as of Z11-16:Ac (m. Most other compounds showed an inheritance indicating genetic dominance of the corn strain. The within-strain phenotypic correlations among the various components were consistent with their hypothesized biosynthetic pathway, and between-strain differences in the correlation structure suggested candidate genes that may explain the pheromone differences between the two strains. These include Δ9- and Δ11 desaturases, and possibly also a Δ7-desaturase, although the latter has not been identified in insects so far. Conclusion The two host strains of S. frugiperda produce systematically differing female sex pheromone blends. Previously-documented geographic variation in the sexual communication of this species did not take strain identity into account, and thus may be

  18. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has sole discretion to decide whether to appoint a settlement judge, except that a settlement judge... assigned to hear and decide the case. (ii) The settlement judge shall not be appointed to hear and decide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18...

  19. New insights into honey bee (Apis mellifera pheromone communication. Is the queen mandibular pheromone alone in colony regulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plettner Erika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In social insects, the queen is essential to the functioning and homeostasis of the colony. This influence has been demonstrated to be mediated through pheromone communication. However, the only social insect for which any queen pheromone has been identified is the honey bee (Apis mellifera with its well-known queen mandibular pheromone (QMP. Although pleiotropic effects on colony regulation are accredited to the QMP, this pheromone does not trigger the full behavioral and physiological response observed in the presence of the queen, suggesting the presence of additional compounds. We tested the hypothesis of a pheromone redundancy in honey bee queens by comparing the influence of queens with and without mandibular glands on worker behavior and physiology. Results Demandibulated queens had no detectable (E-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA, the major compound in QMP, yet they controlled worker behavior (cell construction and queen retinue and physiology (ovary inhibition as efficiently as intact queens. Conclusions We demonstrated that the queen uses other pheromones as powerful as QMP to control the colony. It follows that queens appear to have multiple active compounds with similar functions in the colony (pheromone redundancy. Our findings support two hypotheses in the biology of social insects: (1 that multiple semiochemicals with synonymous meaning exist in the honey bee, (2 that this extensive semiochemical vocabulary exists because it confers an evolutionary advantage to the colony.

  20. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  1. Urban geographic processes of settlements network of Ljig municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Dragana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of modern development of settlements are taking place under the strong influence of great urban agglomerations. Belgrade and its gravitational role have triggered huge spatial and populational changes with distinctive differences within its metropolitan area. In northern parts of Belgrade functional zone, there are zones of strong concentration of population and economy, as opposed to southern parts, where depopulation and dissection of economy and activities are present. As a part of Belgrade functional area, settlements network of Ljig municipality has been subject to considerable urban-geographic changes. This paper gives the analysis of all changes in settlements network which occurred as a consequence of gravitational impacts of the capital.

  2. Processes of Integration and Fragmentation of Economic Space: The Structure of Settlement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pavlovich Goryunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of processes of integration and fragmentation caused by the polarization of economic space. Under integration in economic space the authors understand the formation of new and transformation of existing settlement systems, while fragmentation is the dissolution of settlement systems and their transformation into loosely connected settlement networks. The study focuses on the structure of settlement systems. Authors propose a new method for studying the structure of settlement systems, which combines the use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. The proposed method utilizes the maximum of available information about the social-economic status of settlements to reveal regularities in their spatial organization. The authors test the proposed method on 35 large cities of the Central and Volga federal districts of Russia, which comprise the spatial surroundings of Moscow. The authors find four groups of cities forming the core of the settlement system centered around Moscow, a group of four cities forming a buffer zone around that system, as well as four cities in the studied sample which do not participate in the settlement system

  3. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Corey, Elizabeth A; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Montagné, Nicolas; Salvagnin, Umberto; Walker, William B; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bobkov, Yuriy V

    2017-01-24

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expression, in both Drosophila olfactory sensory neurones and in human embryonic kidney cells, together with electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging, we characterize the basic physiological and pharmacological properties of these receptors and demonstrate that they form functional ionotropic receptor channels. Both the homomeric CpomOrco and heteromeric CpomOrco + OR complexes can be activated by the common Orco agonists VUAA1 and VUAA3, as well as inhibited by the common Orco antagonists amiloride derivatives. CpomOR3 responds to the plant volatile compound pear ester ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, while CpomOR6a responds to the strong pheromone antagonist codlemone acetate (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. These findings represent important breakthroughs in the deorphanization of codling moth pheromone receptors, as well as more broadly into insect ecology and evolution and, consequently, for the development of sustainable pest control strategies based on manipulating chemosensory communication.

  4. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  5. Pheromones and Other Semiochemicals for Monitoring Rare and Endangered Species

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    As global biodiversity declines, biodiversity and conservation have become ever more important research topics. Research in chemical ecology for conservation purposes has not adapted to address this need. During the last 10?15?years, only a few insect pheromones have been developed for biodiversity and conservation studies, including the identification and application of pheromones specifically for population monitoring. These investigations, supplemented with our knowledge from decades of st...

  6. Pheromones associated to coleopteran pests in stored products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Marcos Antônio Barbosa; Zarbin, Paulo Henrique Gorgatti; Coracini, Miryan Denise Araújo

    2005-01-01

    One strategy to overcome risks of insecticide-based control in agriculture is to use semiochemicals. In the case of pheromones, these specific compounds can be applied in traps to detect and monitor the occurrence, abundance and distribution of insect pests. Reliable detection helps to time insecticide sprays, to decide the quantity of insecticide that will be used and the place where it will be applied. This manuscript aims to give an overview of the pheromones associated to coleopteran pest...

  7. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  8. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  9. Bumblebee size polymorphism and worker response to queen pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Holman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Queen pheromones are chemical signals produced by reproductive individuals in social insect colonies. In many species they are key to the maintenance of reproductive division of labor, with workers beginning to reproduce individually once the queen pheromone disappears. Recently, a queen pheromone that negatively affects worker fecundity was discovered in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, presenting an exciting opportunity for comparisons with analogous queen pheromones in independently-evolved eusocial lineages such as honey bees, ants, wasps and termites. I set out to replicate this discovery and verify its reproducibility. Using blind, controlled experiments, I found that n-pentacosane (C25 does indeed negatively affect worker ovary development. Moreover, the pheromone affects both large and small workers, and applies to workers from large, mature colonies as well as young colonies. Given that C25 is readily available and that bumblebees are popular study organisms, I hope that this replication will encourage other researchers to tackle the many research questions enabled by the discovery of a queen pheromone.

  10. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Rimeika

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of water consumption. The article presents the analysis of water loss formation and describes reduction measures in a small settlement. The conducted research defines that water loss in big cities is much smaller than that in small settlements. The major part of water used in small settlements is applied for agrarian purposes rather than for domestic needs. It has been found that water is employed for the irrigation of plants and livestock watering, which often is not accounted. Research also shows that slight (<0.2 m³/h physical water loss (holes in the network that occur in small settlements may compose up to 30% of all water supplied to the water network.

  11. Conditional deletion of ERK5 MAP kinase in the nervous system impairs pheromone information processing and pheromone-evoked behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Zou

    Full Text Available ERK5 MAP kinase is highly expressed in the developing nervous system but absent in most regions of the adult brain. It has been implicated in regulating the development of the main olfactory bulb and in odor discrimination. However, whether it plays an essential role in pheromone-based behavior has not been established. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Mapk7 gene which encodes ERK5 in mice in neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors including aggression and mating in male mice. These deficits were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety, or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, we provide evidence that the behavior impairment was associated with defects in the detection of closely related pheromones as well as with changes in their innate preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities. We conclude that expression of ERK5 during development is critical for pheromone response and associated animal behavior in adult mice.

  12. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  13. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  14. Behavioural plasticity in support of a benefit for aggregation pheromone use in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, LEM

    We explored behavioural plasticity in the use of aggregation pheromone in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Based on previous field observations, we formulated two hypotheses on a benefit of using aggregation pheromone for aggregated oviposition. One hypothesis

  15. Sanitation in informal settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    sanitation facilities and interviewing stakeholders including Jockin Arputham, the founder of the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF) and president of Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI). The paper illustrates and compares the failures of technocratic design which turned into unused and dangerous...... public toilets with the creative outcome of participatory design: there the results are not only clean and hygienic toilets for the communities with innovative spatial organisations but also public spaces for meeting and exchange of information. They are examples of empowerment for political action...

  16. Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

    2011-12-01

    In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

  17. Natural gas heating in Serbian settlements according to urbanity parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Brkić , Dejan

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Natural gas can be directly used for heating of flats by gas distribution system. Indirectly, heating power plant can disburse natural gas and deliver hot water or steam for heating of flats. Decision of optimal way for gas heating usage is done based on spatial disposal of building, number and size of buildings in settlement, etc. Optimal solution, between gas distribution and district heating system (local or district heating by natural gas), can be done according to...

  18. Value chain dynamics, settlement trajectories and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Global value chain (GVC) analysis has little to say about the interaction between regions and global chain dynamics. However, recent calls to address broader development issues have resulted in efforts to incorporate a spatial dimension in GVC analysis. Addressing this issue, the paper argues...... by value chain dynamics will improve by adding elements from global production network (GPN) theory to the combined methodology, namely by an examination of territorial embeddedness and value (creation, enhancement, capture, distribution) at settlement level....

  19. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  20. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities...

  1. women living in informal settlements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    infant and child mortality having outpaced gains in rural areas over the past decades.4 At the same time, urban inequalities have increased, with large populations living in newly formed informal settlements characterized by limited access to water and sanitation infrastructure, and generally referred to as “slums”. According ...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in § 152.25(b) of this chapter, when used in retrievably sized...

  4. Peripheral, central and behavioral responses to the cuticular pheromone bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    Full Text Available Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be -- mostly but not only -- detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception.

  5. Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL, and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum to elicit orientation behavior towards females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth.

  6. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement offers. 8.16... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees. (b...

  7. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134.217 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES... issue an order dismissing the case. Settlement negotiations, and rejected settlement agreements, are not...

  8. Avoiding Conflict Relapse Through Inclusive Political Settlements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that the failure to focus on political settlements can increase the risk of peace agreements failing, power-sharing arrangements being contested, and states relapsing into conflict. It is clear that political settlements matter, but we are only beginning to understand the shape of political settlements that ...

  9. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  10. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication.

  11. The structure, stability and pheromone binding of the male mouse protein sex pheromone darcin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie M Phelan

    Full Text Available Mouse urine contains highly polymorphic major urinary proteins that have multiple functions in scent communication through their abilities to bind, transport and release hydrophobic volatile pheromones. The mouse genome encodes for about 20 of these proteins and are classified, based on amino acid sequence similarity and tissue expression patterns, as either central or peripheral major urinary proteins. Darcin is a male specific peripheral major urinary protein and is distinctive in its role in inherent female attraction. A comparison of the structure and biophysical properties of darcin with MUP11, which belongs to the central class, highlights similarity in the overall structure between the two proteins. The thermodynamic stability, however, differs between the two proteins, with darcin being much more stable. Furthermore, the affinity of a small pheromone mimetic is higher for darcin, although darcin is more discriminatory, being unable to bind bulkier ligands. These attributes are due to the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of darcin being smaller, caused by the presence of larger amino acid side chains. Thus, the physical and chemical characteristics of the binding cavity, together with its extreme stability, are consistent with darcin being able to exert its function after release into the environment.

  12. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Formation of Informal Settlements in a Metropolitan Fringe: Seoul (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many metropolitan areas, the urban fringe is defined by highly sensitive habitats such as forests and wetlands. However, the explosive growth of urban areas has led to the formation of informal settlements in the urban fringe, subsequently threatening these sensitive habitats and exaggerating several social and environmental problems. We seek to improve the current understanding of informal settlements and their formation in the metropolitan fringe through a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the Guryong Area (GA in the Gangnam District, Seoul, South Korea. We measured the land-use and land-cover (LULC changes in the entire GA from 1950 to 2015, and then analyzed the changes in one specific land-use type defined as “spontaneous settlements”. We then combined these changes with landform and slope data in 600-m-wide bands along the gradient of urbanization. The results showed spontaneous settlements distributed in small clusters in 1975, and the growth of this distribution into larger, more condensed clusters beginning in 1985. Between 1950 and 2015, the total area of spontaneous settlements decreased, while the settlement locations shifted from the urban core to the marginal area of the GA. Meanwhile, the locations selected for spontaneous settlements moved from plain areas with slopes of 2–7%, to more steeply sloped, remote areas such as the mountain foothills with slopes of 15–30%. These results suggest that the spatial characteristics of informal settlements are shown in the degree of aggregation and marginalized trend indicated from the analysis of spontaneous settlements. Finally, we hope the spatial analysis can be used as a basis and starting point for the evaluation process of informal settlement redevelopments in other areas of Seoul, as well as in other Asian cities.

  13. System of forest insect pheromone communication: stability of «information» molecules to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Soukhovolsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of external environmental factors (such as electromagnetic radiation in certain spectral bands influencing pheromone molecules, which are carriers of information for forest insects in the search of the opposite sex, were examined. Stability of pheromone molecules for external influences has been studied for siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetv., pine moth Dendrilimus pini L., gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., for xylophages Ips typographus L., Monochamus urussovi Fish. and Monochamus galloprovincialis Oliv. Properties of pheromone molecules were evaluated by calculations using quantum-chemical method B3LYP. Existing methods of quantum-chemical calculations are useful for analyzing the properties of quite small and uncomplicated molecules of forest insect pheromones. The calculations showed that the molecules of insect pheromones are able to absorb light in the ultraviolet range and move into an excited state. The values of dipole moments, the wavelengths of the absorption, atomic and molecular electronic properties of pheromones in the ground and excited states were calculated. The calculations showed that for the reaction of pheromones with oxygen an energy barrier is somewhat higher than for reactions of pheromones with water vapor. The worst reaction of pheromones with water molecules likely to pheromones such molecules whose dipole moment is comparable to the dipole moment of water. Quantum-chemical characteristics of the pheromone molecules can be linked to specific behavior of the insects.

  14. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  15. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Overview and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wei N. Kong; J. Li; Ren J. Fan; Sheng C. Li; Rui Y. Ma

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following), invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to d...

  16. [The demographic situation and settlement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaionchkovskaya, Z A

    1986-01-01

    The impact of different rates of population growth on settlement patterns in the various republics of the USSR is examined. The focus is on regions with very low rates of population growth. The consequences of such low levels of growth include a decline in urban growth as the reservoirs of rural-urban migration are depleted and a failure to achieve satisfactory levels of socioeconomic development. Some areas situated far from urban centers are currently experiencing decreases in population.

  17. Mapping Indigenous Settlement Topography in the Caribbean Using Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till F. Sonnemann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of Amerindian settlements in the Caribbean has mostly been identified through scatters of artefacts; predominantly conglomerations of shells, ceramics and lithics. While archaeological material may not always be visible on the surface, particular settlement patterns may be identifiable by a topography created through cultural action: earthen mounds interchanging with mostly circular flattened areas. In northern Hispaniola, recent foot surveys have identified more than 200 pre-colonial sites of which several have been mapped in high resolution. In addition, three settlements with topographical characteristics have been extensively excavated, confirming that the mounds and flattened areas may have had a cultural connotation in this region. Without the availability of high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data, a photogrammetric approach using UAS (unmanned aircraft system, commonly known as drones can fill the knowledge gap on a local scale, providing fast and reliable data collection and precise results. After photogrammetric processing, digital clearance of vegetation, and extraction of the georeferenced DEM (digital elevation model and orthophoto, filters and enhancements provide an opportunity to visualize the results in GIS. The outcome provides an overview of site size, and distribution of mounds and flattened areas. Measurement of the topographic changes in a variety of past settlements defines likely zones of habitat, and provides clues on the actual dimensions and density of living space. Understanding the relation of the mounds and adjacent flat areas within their environment allows a discussion on how, and for what purpose, the settlement was founded at a particular location, and provides clues about its spatial organization.

  18. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  19. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Schneider

    Full Text Available Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  20. Regulation of Isoprenoid Pheromone Biosynthesis in Bumblebee Males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Darina; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 260-267 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GA15-06569S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biosynthesis * Bombus spp. * gene expression * isoprenoids * pheromones * transcriptional regulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  1. Candidate Sex Pheromone Components of Persimmon Bark Borer Euzophera batangensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiujun, W.; Kalinová, Blanka; Manguang, L.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (2009), s. 84-89 ISSN 1001-7488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 860 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Euzophera batangensis * persimmon bark borer * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Counter-perfume: using pheromones to prevent female remating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouines, Clara

    2017-08-01

    Strong selection to secure paternity in polyandrous species leads to the evolution of numerous chemicals in the male's seminal content. These include antiaphrodisiac pheromones, which are transmitted from the male to the female during mating to render her unattractive to subsequent males. An increasing number of species have been shown to use these chemicals. Herein, I examine the taxonomic distribution of species using antiaphrodisiac pheromones, the selection pressures driving their evolution in both males and females, and the ecological interactions in which these pheromones are involved. The literature review shows a highly skewed distribution of antiaphrodisiac use; all species currently known to use them are insects with the exception of the garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and T. radix. Nonetheless, many taxa have not yet been tested for the presence of antiaphrodisiacs, in groups both closely and distantly related to species known to express them. Within the Insecta, there have been multiple cases of convergent evolution of antiaphrodisiac pheromones using different chemical compounds and methods of transmission. Antiaphrodisiacs usually benefit males, but their effect on females is variable as they can either prevent them from mating multiple times or help them reduce male harassment when they are unreceptive. Some indirect costs of antiaphrodisiacs also impact both males and females, but more research is needed to determine how general this pattern is. Additional research is also important to understand how antiaphrodisiacs interact with the reproductive biology and sexual communication in different species. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  4. Are androgen steroids acting as pheromones in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, Bettina M

    2004-10-30

    In animals, chemosensory communication is successfully used to transmit behaviourally relevant information, e.g. information about sexual status, danger and social organisation. In many instances pheromones might have evolved from hormone-like substances. Consequently, a large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromonal properties of androgen steroids. Besides discussing the production and perception of androgen steroids, it will primarily be questioned whether their perception can alter mood and behaviour in humans. Therefore, a study has been carried out to investigate whether local preferences can be altered through androstenone exposure. It is shown that heterosexual women and homosexual men prefer seats sprayed with androstenone. However, as this effect is positively correlated with the sensitivity to androstenone, the effect might be due to a general olfactory attraction of low androstenone concentrations. In regard to the conflicting results of studies on putative human pheromones, it will finally be discussed whether the perceptual context and the individual learning history of the perceiver contribute significantly to a successful communication of pheromonal information.

  5. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  6. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  7. Integration of pheromones and the entomopathogenic fungus for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Integration of pheromones and the entomopathogenic fungus for the management of the banana weevil. W. Tinzaara, C. S. Gold, C. Nankinga, M. Dicke2, Arnold van Huis2, P. E. Ragamaand G.H. Kagezi. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Centre, P. O Box 7878, Kampala, ...

  8. The distribution of weaver ant pheromones on host trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    for correlations between spot density, ant activity and the likelihood of being detected by an ant. Spots were only found on trees with ants. On ant-trees, spots were distributed throughout the trees but with higher densities in areas with high ant activity and pheromone densities were higher on twigs compared...

  9. Geographical evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plants on settlement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divinsky, B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nuclear power plants are classed with respect to their character (one-sided or many-sided), order (primary or secondary), quality (positive or adverse), duration (temporary or permanent), and space (microregional or macroregional). The following topics must be included in the methodology of evaluation of the impacts of a nuclear power plant on the region: characteristics of the present settlement network, relationships within the settlement system, spatial transformation of settlements, development of urbanization, population density, town and village sizes, functional types of settlements, migration, age and social structure of the population, economic activity, town and village facilities, technical infrastructure, transport and traffic, psycho-social impacts of the occurrence of the nuclear power plant, microecology (microenvironment). (M.D.). 5 refs

  10. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  11. Modeling of Forest Insect Pheromone Communication System. Female as a Source of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Soukhovolsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of pheromone communication in insects-phyllophagous was considered in terms of its effectiveness as a communication system. A selected lepidopterous insect (Lepidoptera was chosen for analysis of pheromone communication system. We analyzed data on 250 species of insects from three families – Lasiocampidae, Geometridae, Lymantriidae. Specificity of the chemical composition of the complex pheromones and pheromone component count was assessed for all of these females. Characteristics of complexes of insect pheromones and possible female strategies of behavior were modeled using the methods of information theory, utility theory and game theory. We estimated complementarity for various types of chemical compounds in pheromone composition. The uniqueness of the pheromone signal of separate species of Lepidoptera is achieved by using a multi-component pheromone. There are no hard links between existence or absence of individual components in multi-component pheromones. The model was proposed for explanation of regularities of pheromone composition. Nonmonotonic of relative frequency of insect species curve with different number of components can be explained in terms of a trade-off between increasing the efficiency of males seeking females of the same species with an increasing number of individual components and the complexity of the synthesis of pheromones multi-component pheromones. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the validity of the model description. Possible mechanisms of pheromone signal amplification studied were associated with the aggregation of a large number of individuals in a limited area. If females in the process of attracting individuals of the opposite sex are aggregated, then the source of pheromones is not a private individual, but a group of females, and the intensity of the flow of the group of molecules is defined as the intensity of pheromone release pheromones individual animals and the number of

  12. Determining the border of settlements in the cas of village aglomertions

    OpenAIRE

    Vidic, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to determine the boundaries of dense rural settlements according to various indicators on the basis of available spatial data. In the theoretical part we’re presenting different definitions of the boundaries of the village of Slovenian spatial planning legislation to the various authors who have dealt with the study of settlements. Based on the available data and the indicators we defined in the case of three test areas Gorica and Studenčice in Municipality of Rad...

  13. Modern Settlements in Special Needs Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2016-01-01

    In the history of special needs education, the distinction between human nature and its social environment has been a controversial matter. The controversy regards whether special needs are primarily caused by the child's psycho-medical body or by cultural concepts of normality and deviance. Sett...... such settlements as a product of a modern division between human nature and social environment. Although both these settlements depend on a distinction between human nature and social environment, this distinction generates practical tensions for each settlement....

  14. Shifts in sensory neuron identity parallel differences in pheromone preference in the European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A Koutroumpa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.

  15. How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiletti, Alison L.; Awde, David N.; Thompson, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theory—that social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover ( for R) and sitter ( for s) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background ( for s2) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response.

  16. Dependência espacial da eficiência do uso da terra em assentamento rural na Amazônia Spatial dependence of land use efficiency in an Amazon rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças no uso e manejo da terra podem ser responsáveis por incrementos na produtividade agrícola. Neste artigo propõe-se o uso de modelos de Análise de Envoltória de Dados (DEA para avaliar a distribuição espacial da eficiência de agricultores familiares na forma do uso da terra. Estudou-se a evolução da "produtividade da terra" para um grupo de agricultores de Machadinho d'Oeste (RO, para quatro períodos de tempo. As variáveis dos modelos DEA foram as produções de arroz, milho e café como outputs, e a área total plantada dessas culturas como input. Os resultados mostram que o plantio simultâneo de arroz e milho foi a combinação de melhor desempenho. Houve dependência espacial para a eficiência produtiva nos quatro anos avaliados. Os anos de 1999 e 2002 apresentaram maior uniformização em termos da eficiência produtiva dos lotes por toda área, com os lotes mais eficientes concentrando-se na parte central da área de estudo.Agricultural productivity enhancement can be due to land use and land handling changes. In this paper we propose the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models (DEA to evaluate the spatial distribution of family farmers land use efficiency. We studied the "land productivity" evolution for a sample of family farmers from Machadinho d'Oeste (RO, during four periods of time. DEA models variables were rice, maize and coffee productions as outputs, and these crops total cultivated area as input. As a result we noticed that cultivating simultaneously rice and maize was the best performance case. Efficiency measurements had spatial dependence in the four periods of time. In 1999 and 2002 farms productive efficiency measurements were more uniformly distributed; the most efficient farmers were concentrated in the central part of the studied area.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Evolution and Scaling Properties of Human Settlements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, C.; Milesi, C.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Henebry, G. M.; Nghiem, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Growth and evolution of cities and smaller settlements is usually studied in the context of population and other socioeconomic variables. While this is logical in the sense that settlements are groups of humans engaged in socioeconomic processes, our means of collecting information about spatio-temporal distributions of population and socioeconomic variables often lack the spatial and temporal resolution to represent the processes at scales which they are known to occur. Furthermore, metrics and definitions often vary with country and through time. However, remote sensing provides globally consistent, synoptic observations of several proxies for human settlement at spatial and temporal resolutions sufficient to represent the evolution of settlements over the past 40 years. We use several independent but complementary proxies for anthropogenic land cover to quantify spatio-temporal (ST) evolution and scaling properties of human settlements globally. In this study we begin by comparing land cover and night lights in 8 diverse settings - each spanning gradients of population density and degree of land surface modification. Stable anthropogenic night light is derived from multi-temporal composites of emitted luminance measured by the VIIRS and DMSP-OLS sensors. Land cover is represented as mixtures of sub-pixel fractions of rock, soil and impervious Substrates, Vegetation and Dark surfaces (shadow, water and absorptive materials) estimated from Landsat imagery with > 94% accuracy. Multi-season stability and variability of land cover fractions effectively distinguishes between spectrally similar land covers that corrupt thematic classifications based on single images. We find that temporal stability of impervious substrates combined with persistent shadow cast between buildings results in temporally stable aggregate reflectance across seasons at the 30 m scale of a Landsat pixel. Comparison of night light brightness with land cover composition, stability and variability

  18. Assessment of pheromone production and response in fission yeast by a halo test of induced sporulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Willer, M; Kjaerulff, S

    1994-01-01

    of exogenous pheromone. The tester strains are heterozygous for mating type, are non-switching, and are mutated in one of the early subfunctions (either mat1-Mc or mat1-Pc), so that meiosis is only induced after exposure to exogenous pheromone (M-factor or P-factor, respectively). Pheromone activity...... is assessed as an iodine-positive halo of sporulation surrounding the pheromone source, and the width of the halo is related to the amount of pheromone being produced. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to monitor the low amount of M-factor produced by an M mam1 strain, and its sensitivity towards P......-factor is greatly increased by using a hyper-sensitive tester strain lacking the Sxa2 protease that is believed to degrade this pheromone. We also demonstrate that the production of P-factor is very much stimulated by exposure of P cells to M-factor....

  19. Blind dating - mate finding in planktonic copepods. II. The pheromone cloud of Pseudocalanus elongatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Bagøien, E.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2005-01-01

    as an almost spherical cloud with a very heterogeneous internal structure. This is very different from the long, distinct pheromone trails deposited by females of many cruising copepods and appears to be characteristic of hovering females. We estimate the encounter cross-section area of the pheromone plume...... of P. elongatus and find that it enhances the mate encounter probability by a factor of about 40, and we show that this area increases in proportion to the rate at which pheromones are released. We also show that pheromone clouds are affected by—but still quite robust to—turbulence, with the encounter...... cross section declining with the turbulent dissipation rate raised to a power of 1/2. The sensitivity of mate encounter rates to turbulence is similar among copepods that produce pheromone trails and pheromone clouds....

  20. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  1. Vessel generator noise as a settlement cue for marine biofouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J I; Wilkens, S L; Stanley, J A; Jeffs, A G

    2014-01-01

    Underwater noise is increasing globally, largely due to increased vessel numbers and international ocean trade. Vessels are also a major vector for translocation of non-indigenous marine species which can have serious implications for biosecurity. The possibility that underwater noise from fishing vessels may promote settlement of biofouling on hulls was investigated for the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Spatial differences in biofouling appear to be correlated with spatial differences in the intensity and frequency of the noise emitted by the vessel's generator. This correlation was confirmed in laboratory experiments where C. intestinalis larvae showed significantly faster settlement and metamorphosis when exposed to the underwater noise produced by the vessel generator. Larval survival rates were also significantly higher in treatments exposed to vessel generator noise. Enhanced settlement attributable to vessel generator noise may indicate that vessels not only provide a suitable fouling substratum, but vessels running generators may be attracting larvae and enhancing their survival and growth.

  2. Concise Syntheses of Insect Pheromones Using Z-Selective Cross Metathesis**

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Pederson, Richard L.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of insect sex pheromones to limit specifically targeted pest populations has gained increasing popularity as a viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternative to insecticides. While broad-spectrum insecticides are toxic compounds that have been shown to adversely affect human health,[1] extensive studies have shown that insect pheromones are nontoxic and safe for human consumption at the levels used in pest control practices.[2] Female sex pheromones are mainly employed in pest...

  3. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attorney fees will be included. (4) Claims involving an estate or personal representative of an estate. On... agreement. (f) Claims involving workers' compensation carriers. The settlement of a claim involving a... has authority over workers' compensation awards. Accordingly, claims approval and settlement...

  4. 45 CFR 13.24 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlements. 13.24 Section 13.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 13.24 Settlements. The applicant...

  5. 76 FR 56194 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... issue in an EPA rule that, among other things, beginning in June, 2014, forbade the production of diesel... through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or... Commenting on the Proposed Settlement Agreement A. How can I get a copy of the settlement agreement? The...

  6. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of fact, or conclusion of law to be entered pursuant to the offer; and (ii) Any right to claim bias... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of settlement. (b) Procedure. An offer of settlement shall state that it is made pursuant to this section; shall...

  7. Improving settlement type classification of aerial images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , an automated method can be used to help identify human settlements in a fixed, repeatable and timely manner. The main contribution of this work is to improve generalisation on settlement type classification of aerial imagery. Images acquired at different dates...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., settlement will be made by CCC on the basis of the basic marketing assistance loan rate that is in effect for... other than an authorized warehouse, settlement shall be made by CCC on the basis of the basic marketing...-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance Loans...

  9. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in a rural Amazonian settlement, Acre State, Brazil Prevalência e distribuição espacial de parasitoses intestinais em assentamento agrícola na Amazônia rural, Acre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estéfano Alves de Souza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A population-based survey of the prevalence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasitism was carried out in an agricultural settlement in the Amazon Basin of Brazil (Granada, Acre State. More than half (53.4% of the 429 stool specimens from subjects in all age groups, living in 113 households, had cysts, ova, or larvae of intestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were Giardia duodenalis (19.6% and soil-transmitted helminths (12.7%; 105 (24.5% subjects were infected with more than one species of parasite. Significant age-related differences in prevalence were only found for G. duodenalis (children 30 years were less affected. Six households (5.3%, situated within a radius of 690m, comprised 48.1% of all subjects harboring soil-transmitted helminths in our study area. Households within this cluster were poorer and more crowded than those outside the cluster. The observed spatial clustering of infections with soil-transmitted helminths provides valuable information for the spatial targeting of sanitary interventions in this area.Estudo de base populacional sobre a prevalência e distribuição de parasitoses intestinais foi realizado em assentamento agrícola na Amazônia Brasileira (Granada, Acre. Mais da metade (53,4% das 429 amostras analisadas de indivíduos de todas as idades, moradores de 113 domicílios, continha cistos, ovos ou larvas de parasitas intestinais. Os parasitas intestinais de maior prevalência foram Giardia duodenalis (19,6% e os geo-helmintos (12,7%; 105 (24,5% indivíduos apresentavam co-infecção por mais de uma espécie de parasita. Houve diferença significativa em relação à idade na prevalência somente de G. duodenalis (crianças 30 anos foram menos afetados. Seis domicílios (5,3%, localizados num raio de 690m, concentraram 48,1% de todos os indivíduos infectados por geo-helmintos na área de estudo. Domicílios incluídos nesse agregado (cluster eram mais pobres e com maior número de habitantes do

  10. A carboxylesterase, Esterase-6, modulates sensory physiological and behavioral response dynamics to pheromone in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertemps Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects respond to the spatial and temporal dynamics of a pheromone plume, which implies not only a strong response to 'odor on', but also to 'odor off'. This requires mechanisms geared toward a fast signal termination. Several mechanisms may contribute to signal termination, among which odorant-degrading enzymes. These enzymes putatively play a role in signal dynamics by a rapid inactivation of odorants in the vicinity of the sensory receptors, although direct in vivo experimental evidences are lacking. Here we verified the role of an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (Est-6, in the sensory physiological and behavioral dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster response to its pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Est-6 was previously linked to post-mating effects in the reproductive system of females. As Est-6 is also known to hydrolyze cVA in vitro and is expressed in the main olfactory organ, the antenna, we tested here its role in olfaction as a putative odorant-degrading enzyme. Results We first confirm that Est-6 is highly expressed in olfactory sensilla, including cVA-sensitive sensilla, and we show that expression is likely associated with non-neuronal cells. Our electrophysiological approaches show that the dynamics of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN responses is strongly influenced by Est-6, as in Est-6° null mutants (lacking the Est-6 gene cVA-sensitive ORN showed increased firing rate and prolonged activity in response to cVA. Est-6° mutant males had a lower threshold of behavioral response to cVA, as revealed by the analysis of two cVA-induced behaviors. In particular, mutant males exhibited a strong decrease of male-male courtship, in association with a delay in courtship initiation. Conclusions Our study presents evidence that Est-6 plays a role in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of sex pheromone response in Drosophila males and supports a role of Est-6 as an odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE in male

  11. Pheromone modulates two phenotypically plastic traits - adult reproduction and larval diapause - in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharam, Barney; Weldon, Laura; Viney, Mark

    2017-08-22

    Animals use information from their environment to make decisions, ultimately to maximize their fitness. The nematode C. elegans has a pheromone signalling system, which hitherto has principally been thought to be used by worms in deciding whether or not to arrest their development as larvae. Recent studies have suggested that this pheromone can have other roles in the C. elegans life cycle. Here we demonstrate a new role for the C. elegans pheromone, showing that it accelerates hermaphrodites' reproductive rate, a phenomenon which we call pheromone-dependent reproductive plasticity (PDRP). We also find that pheromone accelerates larval growth rates, but this depends on a live bacterial food source, while PDRP does not. Different C. elegans strains all show PDRP, though the magnitude of these effects differ among the strains, which is analogous to the diversity of arrested larval phenotypes that this pheromone also induces. Using a selection experiment we also show that selection for PDRP or for larval arrest affects both the target and the non-target trait, suggesting that there is cross-talk between these two pheromone-dependent traits. Together, these results show that C. elegans' pheromone is a signal that acts at two key life cycle points, controlling alternative larval fates and affecting adult hermaphrodites' reproduction. More broadly, these results suggest that to properly understand and interpret the biology of pheromone signalling in C. elegans and other nematodes, the life-history biology of these organisms in their natural environment needs to be considered.

  12. REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBBING P. D.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  13. Sustainability and Chinese Urban Settlements: Extending the Metabolism Model of Emergy Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity interacts with urban form and inner metabolic processes, ultimately impacting urban sustainability. China’s cities have experienced many environmental issues and metabolic disturbances since the nation-wide market-oriented “reform and opening-up” policy was adopted in the 1980s. To analyze urban reform policy impacts and metabolism sustainability at a settlement scale, this study provides an integrated analysis to evaluate settlement metabolism and sustainability using a combination of emergy analysis and sustainability indicators based on scrutiny of two typical settlements (one pre- and one post-reform. The results reveal that housing reform policy stimulated better planning and construction, thereby improving built environmental quality, mixed functional land use, and residential livability. The pre-reform work-unit settlements are comparatively denser in per capita area but have less mixed land use. Housing reform has spatially changed the work–housing balance and increased commuting travel demand. However, short commuting distances in pre-reform settlements will not always decrease overall motor vehicle usage. Integrating non-commuting transport with local mixed land-use functional planning is a necessary foundation for sustainable urban design. Functional planning should provide convenient facilities and infrastructure, green space, and a suitable household density, and allow for short travel distances; these characteristics are all present in the post-reform settlement.

  14. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  15. Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, José L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldán; Chittka, Lars

    2005-08-01

    When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.

  16. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente G. Berg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera.

  17. Pheromone mating disruption offers selective management options for key pests

    OpenAIRE

    Welter, Stephen C.; Pickel, Carolyn; Millar, Jocelyn; Cave, Frances; Van Steenwyk, Robert A.; Dunley, John

    2005-01-01

    The direct management of insect pests using pheromones for mating disruption, or “attract and kill” approaches, can provide excellent suppression of key lepidopteran pests in agriculture. Important successes to date include codling moth in pome fruit, oriental fruit moth in peaches and nectarines, tomato pinworm in vegetables, pink bollworm in cotton and omnivorous leafroller in vineyards. Large-scale implementation projects have yielded significant reductions in pesticide use while maintaini...

  18. Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzgall, Peter; Kirsch, Philipp; Cork, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using species-specific behavior-modifying chemicals for the management of noxious insects in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, stored products, and for insect vectors of diseases has been a driving ambition through five decades of pheromone research. Hundreds of pheromones and other semiochemicals have been discovered that are used to monitor the presence and abundance of insects and to protect plants and animals against insects. The estimated annual production of lures for monitoring and mass trapping is on the order of tens of millions, covering at least 10 million hectares. Insect populations are controlled by air permeation and attract-and-kill techniques on at least 1 million hectares. Here, we review the most important and widespread practical applications. Pheromones are increasingly efficient at low population densities, they do not adversely affect natural enemies, and they can, therefore, bring about a long-term reduction in insect populations that cannot be accomplished with conventional insecticides. A changing climate with higher growing season temperatures and altered rainfall patterns makes control of native and invasive insects an increasingly urgent challenge. Intensified insecticide use will not provide a solution, but pheromones and other semiochemicals instead can be implemented for sustainable area-wide management and will thus improve food security for a growing population. Given the scale of the challenges we face to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the time is right to intensify goal-oriented interdisciplinary research on semiochemicals, involving chemists, entomologists, and plant protection experts, in order to provide the urgently needed, and cost-effective technical solutions for sustainable insect management worldwide.

  19. Of pheromones and kairomones: what receptors mediate innate emotional responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enzymatic oxidations of alcohols in biosynthesis of bumblebee pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Bártová, Adéla

    2016-01-01

    Secretion of cephalic labial gland of Buff-tailed bumblebee males (Bombus terrestris) contains a mixture of terpene alcohols, aliphatic alcohols, esters and alkanes with small amount of aldehydes potentially biosynthetized of (S)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol and geranylcitronellol (major alcoholic compounds). This secretion acts as a marking and luring pheromone during patrolling. This study is focused on oxidation of terpene alcohols using enzymes of cephalic labial gland of a bumblebee. In vitro inc...

  1. Biofilm growth alters regulation of conjugation by a bacterial pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura; Barnes, Aaron; Dunny, Gary; Chatterjee, Anushree; Hu, Wei-Shou; Yarwood, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Conjugation is an important mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, enhancing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In clinical settings, biofilms are likely locations for antibiotic resistance transfer events involving nosocomial pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis. Here we demonstrate that growth in biofilms alters the induction of conjugation by a sex pheromone in E. faecalis. Mathematical modeling suggested that a higher plasmid copy number in biofilm cells would enhance a switch-like behavior in the pheromone response of donor cells with a delayed, but increased response to the mating signal. Alterations in plasmid copy number, and a bimodal response to induction of conjugation in populations of plasmid-containing donor cells were both observed in biofilms, consistent with the predictions of the model. The pheromone system may have evolved such that donor cells in biofilms are only induced to transfer when they are in extremely close proximity to potential recipients in the biofilm community. These results may have important implications for development of chemotherapeutic agents to block resistance transfer and treat biofilm-related clinical infections. PMID:21843206

  2. Natural Transformation of Oral Streptococci by Use of Synthetic Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Khan, Rabia; Åmdal, Heidi A; Morrison, Donald A; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2017-01-01

    The discovery that Streptococcus pneumoniae uses a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to induce competence for natural transformation, and that other species of the mitis and the anginosus streptococcal groups use a similar system, has expanded the tools to explore gene function and regulatory pathways in streptococci. Two other classes of pheromones have been discovered since then, comprising the bacteriocin-inducing peptide class found in Streptococcus mutans (also named CSP, although different from the former) and the SigX-inducing peptides (XIP), in the mutans, salivarius, bovis, and pyogenes groups of streptococci. The three classes of peptide pheromones can be ordered from peptide synthesis services at affordable prices, and used in transformation assays to obtain competent cultures consistently at levels usually higher than those achieved during spontaneous competence. In this chapter, we present protocols for natural transformation of oral streptococci that are based on the use of synthetic pheromones, with examples of conditions optimized for transformation of S. mutans and Streptococcus mitis.

  3. Aphid sex pheromones: from discovery to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A

    2003-03-01

    This review charts the progress made with aphid sex pheromone chemistry, from initial identification of cyclopentanoid nepetalactones, for example (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone (1). and (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (2). to commercial production from a renewable non-food crop, the catmint, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae). The availability of aphid sex pheromone components is now facilitating the development of new aphid pest control strategies, incorporating the use of other semiochemicals, particularly in the manipulation of populations of aphid parasitoids and aphid predators such as lacewings, which can utilise the nepetalactones and closely related molecules to locate their hosts and prey. This is the first example of a plant resource being developed as a feedstock for the production of a commercially valuable insect pheromone. The development of a plant-based production route highlights the tremendous potential that higher plants offer as cheap and renewable resources for the production of insect semiochemicals, through the wide array of secondary metabolites that they can generate.

  4. Ratiometric Decoding of Pheromones for a Biomimetic Infochemical Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfen Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthetic infochemical communication is an emerging scientific field employing molecular compounds for information transmission, labelling, and biochemical interfacing; having potential application in diverse areas ranging from pest management to group coordination of swarming robots. Our communication system comprises a chemoemitter module that encodes information by producing volatile pheromone components and a chemoreceiver module that decodes the transmitted ratiometric information via polymer-coated piezoelectric Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator (SAWR sensors. The inspiration for such a system is based on the pheromone-based communication between insects. Ten features are extracted from the SAWR sensor response and analysed using multi-variate classification techniques, i.e., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN, and Multilayer Perception Neural Network (MLPNN methods, and an optimal feature subset is identified. A combination of steady state and transient features of the sensor signals showed superior performances with LDA and MLPNN. Although MLPNN gave excellent results reaching 100% recognition rate at 400 s, over all time stations PNN gave the best performance based on an expanded data-set with adjacent neighbours. In this case, 100% of the pheromone mixtures were successfully identified just 200 s after they were first injected into the wind tunnel. We believe that this approach can be used for future chemical communication employing simple mixtures of airborne molecules.

  5. Sexual selection drives the evolution of antiaphrodisiac pheromones in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Catalina; Schulz, Stefan; Yildizhan, Selma; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2011-10-01

    Competition for mates has resulted in sophisticated mechanisms of male control over female reproduction. Antiaphrodisiacs are pheromones transferred from males to females during mating that reduce attractiveness of females to subsequent courting males. Antiaphrodisiacs generally help unreceptive females reduce male harassment. However, lack of control over pheromone release by females and male control over the amount transferred provides males an opportunity to use antiaphrodisiacs to delay remating by females that have returned to a receptive state. We propose a model for the evolution of antiaphrodisiacs under the influence of intrasexual selection, and determine whether changes in this signal in 11 species of Heliconius butterflies are consistent with two predictions of the model. First, we find that as predicted, male-contributed chemical mixtures are complex and highly variable across species, with limited phylogenetic signal. Second, differences in rates of evolution in pheromone composition between two major clades of Heliconius are as expected: the clade with a greater potential for male-male competition (polyandrous) shows a faster rate of divergence than the one with typically monoandrous mating system. Taken together, our results provide evidence that for females, antiaphrodisiacs can be both honest signals of receptivity (helping reduce harassment) and chastity belts (a male-imposed reduction in remating). © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Advances In very high resolution satellite imagery analysis for Monitoring human settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The high rate of urbanization, political conflicts and ensuing internal displacement of population, and increased poverty in the 20th century has resulted in rapid increase of informal settlements. These unplanned, unauthorized, and/or unstructured homes, known as informal settlements, shantytowns, barrios, or slums, pose several challenges to the nations, as these settlements are often located in most hazardous regions and lack basic services. Though several World Bank and United Nations sponsored studies stress the importance of poverty maps in designing better policies and interventions, mapping slums of the world is a daunting and challenging task. In this paper, we summarize our ongoing research on settlement mapping through the utilization of Very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery. Most existing approaches used to classify VHR images are single instance (or pixel-based) learning algorithms, which are inadequate for analyzing VHR imagery, as single pixels do not contain sufficient contextual information (see Figure 1). However, much needed spatial contextual information can be captured via feature extraction and/or through newer machine learning algorithms in order to extract complex spatial patterns that distinguish informal settlements from formal ones. In recent years, we made significant progress in advancing the state of art in both directions. This paper summarizes these results.

  7. MOBILE GIS: A TOOL FOR INFORMAL SETTLEMENT OCCUPANCY AUDIT TO IMPROVE INTEGRATED HUMAN SETTLEMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN EKURHULENI, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Mokoena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Upgrading and relocating people in informal settlements requires consistent commitment, good strategies and systems so as to improve the lives of those who live in them. In South Africa, in order to allocate subsidised housing to beneficiaries of an informal settlement, beneficiary administration needs to be completed to determine the number of people who qualify for a subsidised house. Conventional methods of occupancy audits are often unreliable, cumbersome and non-spatial. Accordingly, this study proposes the use of mobile GIS to conduct these audits to provide up-to-date, accurate, comprehensive and real-time data so as to facilitate the development of integrated human settlements. An occupancy audit was subsequently completed for one of the communities in the Ekurhuleni municipality, Gauteng province, using web-based mobile GIS as a solution to providing smart information through evidence based decision making. Fieldworkers accessed the off-line capturing module on a mobile device recording GPS coordinates, socio-economic information and photographs. The results of this audit indicated that only 56.86% of the households residing within the community could potentially benefit from receiving a subsidised house. Integrated residential development, which includes fully and partially subsidised housing, serviced stands and some fully bonded housing opportunities, would then be key to adequately providing access to suitable housing options within a project in a post-colonial South Africa, creating new post-1994 neighbourhoods, in line with policy. The use of mobile GIS therefore needs to be extended to other informal settlement upgrading projects in South Africa.

  8. Biological challenges of true space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.; Mankins, Willa M.; Walter, Helen

    2018-05-01

    "Space Settlements" - i.e., permanent human communities beyond Earth's biosphere - have been discussed within the space advocacy community since the 1970s. Now, with the end of the International Space Station (ISS) program fast approaching (planned for 2024-2025) and the advent of low cost Earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation in the near future, the concept is coming once more into mainstream. Considerable attention has been focused on various issues associated with the engineering and human health considerations of space settlement such as artificial gravity and radiation shielding. However, relatively little attention has been given to the biological implications of a self-sufficient space settlement. Three fundamental questions are explored in this paper: (1) what are the biological "foundations" of truly self-sufficient space settlements in the foreseeable future, (2) what is the minimum scale for such self-sustaining human settlements, and (3) what are the integrated biologically-driven system requirements for such settlements? The paper examines briefly the implications of the answers to these questions in relevant potential settings (including free space, the Moon and Mars). Finally, this paper suggests relevant directions for future research and development in order for such space settlements to become viable in the future.

  9. The process of negotiating settlements at FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The conventional regulatory litigation process is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. This paper explains the settlement process, illustrating with the 12 section 4 rate cases brought by pipelines from 2008 and 2009. The paper also discusses and illustrates why parties prefer settlement to litigation, what difference it makes, which cases tend to settle, what might account for the increasing frequency of settlements over time, the recent phenomenon of pre-filing settlements and the recent settlement of section 5 cases brought by FERC. In contrast to many other regulatory jurisdictions, FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. They make an initial analysis 3 months after a pipeline files for a tariff rate increase. Thereafter, the regulatory aim is to bring the parties into agreement, not to determine an outcome and impose it upon them. This is a different role for the regulatory body than was previously apparent. - Highlights: ► About 90% of FERC rate cases are settled, not litigated. ► FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. ► Conventional regulation is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. ► The paper also discusses which cases settle and what difference it makes.

  10. Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture. PMID:22162755

  11. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L; Nielsen, Shaun J; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture.

  12. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...

  13. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Pickavance, Lucy; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa; Beynon, Robert J.; Hurst, Jane L.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20), a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for 7 days to male urine containing at least 0.5 μg/μl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over 7 days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While 7 days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially-relevant context. PMID

  14. Recent development in insect pheromone research, in particular in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.; Persoons, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of recent pheromone work carried out in the Netherlands on Lepidoptera, cockroaches, pharaoh's ants and termites, special emphasis being given to isolation and identification aspects. The sex pheromones of three leaf roller moths (Tortricidae) have been isolated, identified and

  15. Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods: an evolutionary ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; van Baalen, E-J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms, robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones

  16. Assessment of pheromone production and response in fission yeast by a halo test of induced sporulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Willer, M; Kjaerulff, S

    1994-01-01

    is assessed as an iodine-positive halo of sporulation surrounding the pheromone source, and the width of the halo is related to the amount of pheromone being produced. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to monitor the low amount of M-factor produced by an M mam1 strain, and its sensitivity towards P...

  17. A volatile trail Pheromone of the Leaf-Cutting Ant, Atta Texana

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. H. Tumlinson; John C. Moser; R. M. Silverstein; R. G. Brownlee; J. M. Ruth

    1972-01-01

    The major volatile trail-marking pheromone of the Texas leaf-cutting Ant, Atta texana, was isolated, identified as methyl 4-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate, and synthesized. The synthesized pheromone elicited strong trail-following response from workers in the laboratory and field.

  18. Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian cong...

  19. Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Roman, Roman; Sagili, Ramesh R.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important to social insects for the allocation of its working members into coordinated suites of behaviors. We tested effects of long-term treatment with brood pheromone on suites of honey bee brood rearing and foraging behaviors. Pheromone-treated colonies reared significantly greater brood areas and more adults than controls, while amounts of stored pollen and honey remained statistically similar. Brood pheromone increased the number of pollen foragers and the pollen load weights they returned. It appeared that the pheromone-induced increase in pollen intake was directly canalized into more brood rearing. A two-way pheromone priming effect was observed, such that some workers from the same age cohorts showed an increased and extended capacity to rear larvae, while others were recruited at significantly younger ages into pollen-specific foraging. Brood pheromone affected suites of nursing and foraging behaviors allocating worker and pollen resources associated with an important fitness trait, colony growth.

  20. Range of Attraction of Pheromone Lures and Dispersal Behavior of Cerambycid Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Dunn; J. Hough-Goldstein; L. M. Hanks; J. G. Millar; V. D' Amico

    2016-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) can locate suitable hosts and mates by sensing pheromones and plant volatiles. Many cerambycid pheromone components have been identified and are now produced synthetically for trap lures. The range over which these lures attract cerambycids within a forest, and the tendency for cerambycids to move out of a forest in...

  1. Geometric isomers of sex pheromone components do not affect attractancy of Conopomorpha cramerella in cocoa plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, has previously been identified as a blend of (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates and the corresponding alcohols. These pheromone components have been synthesized with modification of the existing method and relative at...

  2. Investigating a novel pathway by which pheromone-based mating disruption may protect crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption has been a successful, relatively new technology that growers use to reduce key insect populations. Mating disruption systems function by sending out false plumes of the insect sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempting egg...

  3. Structure elucidation of some insect pheromones : a contribution to the development of selective pest control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of pheromones is one of the methods currently being investigated intensively as an alternative method of insect control. The various ways in which pheromones might be used in insect control programmes are briefly discussed in Chapter 1.

    Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of the

  4. Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods : An evolutionary ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B; van Baalen, EJA; Dicke, M; Vet, LEM

    2005-01-01

    Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms. robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones

  5. Sex pheromones and reproductive isolation in four european small ermine moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfstedt, C; van der Pers, J N

    1985-05-01

    Reproductive isolation among four sympatric small ermine moths (Yponomeuta) is analyzed in terms of niches in the sexual communication channel. Potential pheromone components were identified from pheromone gland secretions ofY. evonymellus,Y. cagnagellus,Y. padelius, andY. vigintipunctatus by gas chromatography with flame ionization and electroantennographic detection and tested for behavioral activity in the field. The species were found to share (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14: OAc) in combination with varying proportions of theE isomer as primary sex pheromone components.Y. cagnagellus differs from the rest of the species by having only a small amount (1.5%) ofE isomer relative toZ isomer in its pheromone. The closely relatedY. padelius has a three-component pheromone including large amounts (ca. 400%) of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) in addition toZ11-14: OAc (100%) andE11-14: OAc (34%).Z11-16: OAc appears to reduce trap catches ofY. evonymellus andY. vigintipunctatus when added to the pheromone. Although these species are the two most distantly related European small ermine moths, they seem to share the same sex pheromone, i.e.,Z11-14∶OAc (+20%E) and (Z)-11-tetradecenol. Our interpretation is that this might have been the sex pheromone of the ancestor of today'sYponomeuta species.

  6. Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Marko V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

  7. Gross or Net Settlement? What Type of Securities Settlement System Works Best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The securities markets are going through material structural changes. Some best practices have been identified in order to deliver safety and efficient securities settlement systems. The paper investigates when gross settlement works better than the net solution. We highlight that, due to the new trends in securities markets characteristics, the safetyness criteria might deliver indifference between using gross or net settlement. The efficiency criterion is the one that makes the difference. We build a model and develop some scenarios in order to assess what type of settlement (gross or net works best.

  8. Responses to Pheromones in a Complex Odor World: Sensory Processing and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Deisig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects communicating with pheromones, be it sex- or aggregation pheromones, are confronted with an olfactory environment rich in a diversity of volatile organic compounds of which plants are the main releaser. Certain of these volatiles can represent behaviorally relevant information, such as indications about host- or non-host plants; others will provide essentially a rich odor background out of which the behaviorally relevant information needs to be extracted. In an attempt to disentangle mechanisms of pheromone communication in a rich olfactory environment, which might underlie interactions between intraspecific signals and a background, we will summarize recent literature on pheromone/plant volatile interactions. Starting from molecular mechanisms, describing the peripheral detection and central nervous integration of pheromone-plant volatile mixtures, we will end with behavioral output in response to such mixtures and its plasticity.

  9. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on the urban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being deve-loped and degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. In the periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open land-scape integrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisation and recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processes of reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i. e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance among contradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation of production and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensive degraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is being urbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, and the city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditions in the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development are being sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban dis-tricts, be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  10. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  11. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mos

    Full Text Available Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (90% than a natural biofilm (∼25%. The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%. Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture.

  12. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner pheromone reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.

  13. First Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  14. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérénice Fassotte

    Full Text Available To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analyses revealed that (--β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%, with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle.

  15. Informal settlements and a relational view of health in Nairobi, Kenya: sanitation, gender and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Karanja, Irene

    2016-06-01

    On an urban planet, slums or informal settlements present an increasing challenge for health promotion. The living conditions in complex informal settlements interact with how people navigate through their daily lives and political institutions to shape health inequities. In this article, we suggest that only a relational place-based characterization of informal settlements can accurately capture the forces contributing to existing urban health inequities and inform appropriate and effective health promotion interventions. We explore our relational framework using household survey, spatial mapping and qualitative focus group data gathered in partnership with residents and non-governmental organizations in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. All data interpretation included participation with local residents and organizations. We focus on the inter-relationships between inadequate sanitation and disease, social, economic and human rights for women and girls, who we show are most vulnerable from poor slum infrastructure. We suggest that this collaborative process results in co-produced insights about the meanings and relationships between infrastructure, security, resilience and health. We conclude that complex informal settlements require relational and context-specific data gathering and analyses to understand the multiple determinants of health and to inform appropriate and effective healthy city interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Are queen ants inhibited by their own pheromone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, L.; Leroy, C.; Jørgensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    . Communication in social insects is predominantly chemical, and the mechanisms regulating processes such as reproductive division of labor are becoming increasingly well understood. Recently, a queen cuticular hydrocarbon (3-MeC31) that inhibits worker reproduction and aggression was isolated in the ant Lasius...... niger. Here, we find that this pheromone also has a weak negative effect on queen productivity and oogenesis. Because 3-MeC31 is present on both queens and their brood, we suggest that it is used by ants of both castes to adjust their fecundity to the amount of developing brood and the presence of other...

  17. Regulation of glycoprotein synthesis in yeast by mating pheromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, W.

    1984-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycosylated proteins amount to less than 2% of the cell protein. Two intensively studied examples of yeast glycoproteins are the external cell wall - associated invertase and the vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. Recently, it was shown that the mating pheromone, alpha factor, specifically and strongly inhibits the synthesis of N-glycosylated proteins in haploid a cells, whereas O-glycosylated proteins are not affected. In this paper, the pathways of glycoprotein biosynthesis are summarized briefly, and evidence is presented that mating pheomones have a regulatory function in glycoprotein synthesis

  18. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  19. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Higbee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  20. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Larsen, Thomas E

    2014-07-22

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  1. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  2. The sensory neurone membrane protein SNMP1 contributes to the sensitivity of a pheromone detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregitzer, P; Greschista, M; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2014-12-01

    Male moths detect female-released sex pheromones with extraordinary sensitivity. The remarkable sensory ability is based on a cooperative interplay of pheromone binding proteins in the lymph of hair-like sensilla trichodea and pheromone receptors in the dendrites of sensory neurones. Here we examined whether in Heliothis virescens the so-called 'sensory neurone membrane protein 1' (SNMP1) may contribute to responsiveness to the pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). By means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization we demonstrated that SNMP1 is in fact present in cells expressing the Z11-16:Ald receptor HR13 and the dendrites of sensory neurones. To assess a possible function of SNMP1 we monitored the responsiveness of cell lines that expressed HR13 alone or the combination SNMP1/HR13 to stimulation with Z11-16:Ald by calcium imaging. It was found that SNMP1/HR13 cells were 1000-fold more sensitive to pheromone stimulation compared with HR13 cells. In contrast, cells that expressed HR13 and the non-neuronal SNMP2-type showed no change in pheromone sensitivity. Overall, our reconstitution experiments demonstrate that the presence of SNMP1 significantly increases the HR13-based responsiveness of cells to Z11-16:Ald, suggesting that SNMP1 also contributes to the response of the antennal neurones and thus to the remarkable sensitivity of the pheromone detection system. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Gamma radiation effect on production of four pheromonal components of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.R.; Epsky, N.D.; Dueben, B.D.; Guzman, A.; Andrade, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical method enabling the collection and gas chromatographic analysis of delta-1-pyrroline that is released from calling males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was developed. Using this procedure along with previously reported methods for the analyses of geranyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, and E,E-alpha-farnesene, we compared pheromone production among fruit-reared, factory-reared fertile, and factory-reared sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies in Guatemala. There were no significant differences in pheromone production (ng per male per hour) from 0600 to 1400 hours. In collections made from 1400 to 1700 hours, however, factory-reared fertile males produced significantly more of the three major terpene components (geranyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, E,E-alpha-farnesene), whereas the factory-reared sterile males produced significantly more of the four-component blend (the three terpenes plus delta-1-pyrroline) than fruit-reared males. Sterile males produced a significantly higher percentage of ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, based on the four component pheromone blend, during the 1000- to 1400-hour collections. Thus, the primary difference in pheromone production among the tested flies was that the fruit-reared males produced pheromone over a shorter time during the day. Gamma radiation did not affect adversely the amount of total pheromone produced but did affect component ratios in the pheromone blend

  4. Natural variation in dauer pheromone production and sensing supports intraspecific competition in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M; Yim, Joshua J; Mayer, Melanie G; Markov, Gabriel V; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-07

    Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1-10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genes involved in sex pheromone discrimination in Drosophila melanogaster and their background-dependent effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Houot

    Full Text Available Mate choice is based on the comparison of the sensory quality of potential mating partners, and sex pheromones play an important role in this process. In Drosophila melanogaster, contact pheromones differ between male and female in their content and in their effects on male courtship, both inhibitory and stimulatory. To investigate the genetic basis of sex pheromone discrimination, we experimentally selected males showing either a higher or lower ability to discriminate sex pheromones over 20 generations. This experimental selection was carried out in parallel on two different genetic backgrounds: wild-type and desat1 mutant, in which parental males showed high and low sex pheromone discrimination ability respectively. Male perception of male and female pheromones was separately affected during the process of selection. A comparison of transcriptomic activity between high and low discrimination lines revealed genes not only that varied according to the starting genetic background, but varied reciprocally. Mutants in two of these genes, Shaker and quick-to-court, were capable of producing similar effects on discrimination on their own, in some instances mimicking the selected lines, in others not. This suggests that discrimination of sex pheromones depends on genes whose activity is sensitive to genetic context and provides a rare, genetically defined example of the phenomenon known as "allele flips," in which interactions have reciprocal effects on different genetic backgrounds.

  6. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  7. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo ePregitzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe, we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC, where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that, plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization.

  9. Do asexual morphs of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, utilise the aphid sex pheromone? Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of M. persicae virginoparae to (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone and its effect on aphid performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Grandon, G Mandela; Woodcock, Christine M; Poppy, Guy M

    2013-08-01

    The aphid sex pheromone component (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone is considered to be a potential tool for enhancing biological control of aphids. Studies have confirmed its potential to attract parasitoids, increase parasitism rates in the field and also alter the spatial distribution of parasitoids. An important aspect that has been overlooked is the impact that the introduction of nepetalactone may have on aphid populations already present in field or glasshouse environments. The most prevalent pest aphid populations in glasshouse and field environments are the asexual morphs, which are capable of exponential growth if populations are not controlled. The short-term implications of the sex pheromone on asexual aphids were observed through their behavioural response. Using Y-tube olfactometry, it is shown that virginoparae of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, are repelled by high concentrations of nepetalactone. Long-term effects of the pheromone which may span the aphid's life, or even generations, were assessed via mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm). Electroantennography also demonstrated that asexual female aphids are able to detect aphid sex pheromone components. To our knowledge, this is the first time it has been reported that M. persicae virginoparae are able to detect aphid sex pheromone components or that their behavioural response and/or performance has been studied. The implications of these results and their significance in understanding semiochemical communication are discussed.

  10. Identification of Sex Pheromones and Sex Pheromone Mimics for Two North American Click Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the Genus Cardiophorus Esch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jacqueline M; Collignon, R Maxwell; Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2018-04-01

    To date, all known or suspected pheromones of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) have been identified solely from species native to Europe and Asia; reports of identifications from North American species dating from the 1970s have since proven to be incorrect. While conducting bioassays of pheromones of a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), we serendipitously discovered that males of Cardiophorus tenebrosus L. and Cardiophorus edwardsi Horn were specifically attracted to the cerambycid pheromone fuscumol acetate, (E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-yl acetate, suggesting that this compound might also be a sex pheromone for the two Cardiophorus species. Further field bioassays and electrophysiological assays with the enantiomers of fuscumol acetate determined that males were specifically attracted by the (R)-enantiomer. However, subsequent analyses of extracts of volatiles from female C. tenebrosus and C. edwardsi showed that the females actually produced a different compound, which was identified as (3R,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-6,10-dodecadienoic acid methyl ester (methyl (3R,6E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate). In field trials, both the racemate and the (R)-enantiomer of the pheromone attracted similar numbers of male beetles, suggesting that the (S)-enantiomer was not interfering with responses to the insect-produced (R)-enantiomer. This report constitutes the first conclusive identification of sex pheromones for any North American click beetle species. Possible reasons for the strong and specific attraction of males to fuscumol acetate, which is markedly different in structure to the actual pheromone, are discussed.

  11. A list of and some comments about the trail pheromones of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Xim; van Oudenhove, Louise; Bernstein, Carlos; Boulay, Raphaël R

    2014-08-01

    Ants use many different chemical compounds to communicate with their nestmates. Foraging success depends on how efficiently ants communicate the presence of food and thus recruit workers to exploit the food resource. Trail pheromones, produced by different exocrine glands, are a key part of ant foraging strategies. By combing through the literature, we compiled a list of the identity and glandular origin of the chemical compounds found in the trail pheromones of 75 different ant species. Of the 168 compounds identified, more than 40% are amines. In the subfamily Myrmicinae, trail pheromones are mostly produced in the venom gland, while in the subfamily Formicinae, they come from the rectal gland.

  12. Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, José M C; Cuervo, Patricia; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2013-03-07

    Molecules involved in pheromone biosynthesis may represent alternative targets for insect population control. This may be particularly useful in managing the reproduction of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in Latin America. Besides the chemical identity of the major components of the L. longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential. In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to explore the pheromone gland and adjacent abdominal tergites in order to obtain substantial general sequence information. We used a laboratory-reared L. longipalpis (one spot, 9-Methyl GermacreneB) population, captured in Lapinha Cave, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil for this analysis. From a total of 3,547 cDNA clones, 2,502 high quality sequences from the pheromone gland and adjacent tissues were obtained and assembled into 1,387 contigs. Through blast searches of public databases, a group of transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in the production of terpenoid precursors were identified in the 4th abdominal tergite, the segment containing the pheromone gland. Among them, protein-coding transcripts for four enzymes of the mevalonate pathway such as 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate descarboxylase, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase were identified. Moreover, transcripts coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase and NADP+ dependent farnesol dehydrogenase were also found in the same tergite. Additionally, genes potentially involved in pheromone transportation were identified from the three abdominal tergites analyzed. This study constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in the tissue containing the L. longipalpis pheromone gland as well as the

  13. Ready for a fight? The physiological effects of detecting an opponent's pheromone cues prior to a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L

    2015-10-01

    Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  15. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  16. Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set represents urban land use and consolidation of informal settlements for the years 1982, 1992, 1998, and...

  17. Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, S.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous

  18. Evidence for sex pheromones and inbreeding avoidance in select North America yellowjacket species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the roles of sex pheromones in mate-finding behavior of social wasps (Vespidae). Working with the aerial yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria (Fabricius), baldfaced hornet, D. maculata (L.), western yellowjacket, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), southern yellowjacket, V. squam...

  19. Change in sex pheromone expression by nutritional shift in male cockroaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Shearman, Melanie; Rapkin, James

    2017-01-01

    vs. carbohydrates) in male Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches on consumption, final lipid reserves, and sex pheromone levels subsequent to completing sexual maturation on a specific diet, at high and low concentration of dietary nutrients. Consumption, lipid reserves, and sex pheromone levels were highly...... affected by dietary nutrient composition with higher values on carbohydrate-biased diet, and males had significantly higher and lower levels of consumption, lipid reserves, and sex pheromones when shifted to a carbohydrate-biased and a protein-biased diet, respectively, compared with males maintained...... on either initial diet throughout the experiment. Males shifted to a carbohydrate-biased diet at high nutrient concentration fully recouped their sex pheromone levels, attaining levels that were not significantly lower than those in males maintained on carbohydrate-biased diet at high nutrient concentration...

  20. Pigment-dispersing factor modulates pheromone production in clock cells that influence mating in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupp, Joshua J.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Wong, Amy; Choi, Charles; Nitabach, Michael N.; Levine, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cues contribute to the circadian entrainment of physiological and behavioral rhythms. These cues supplement the influence of daily and seasonal cycles in light and temperature. In Drosophila, the social environment modulates circadian mechanisms that regulate sex pheromone production and

  1. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Dias, Denise B Dos Santos; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Jones, Théresa M

    2016-11-14

    In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  2. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  3. A trail pheromone component of the ant Mayriella overbecki Viehmeyer (Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, E.; Hölldobler, B.; Bestmann, H.-J.

    The myrmicine ant Mayriella overbecki lays recruitment trails during foraging and nest emigrations. The trail pheromone originates from the poison gland. From ten identified components of the poison gland secretions only methyl 6-methylsalicylate 1 elicited trail following behavior.

  4. Packet-Forwarding Algorithm in DTN Based on the Pheromone of Destination Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pheromone can be used for target tracking and, consequently, for packet forwarding to the destination node in delay-tolerant networking. In this study, an initiative community model is proposed by simulating pheromone production and diffusion, which contains all of the nodes that can receive the core node pheromone. We can set the distance of the edge node to the core to be less than five hops by establishing the appropriate spread coefficient ω . Packet forwarding is then converted into the process of tracing the pheromone of the destination node. A set of simulation results shows that the proposed initiative community model can effectively increase the delivery ratio and reduce delay when the community structure is relatively stable.

  5. Are synthetic pheromone captures predictive of parasitoid densities as a kairomonal attracted tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan Bayoumy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of White Peach scale (WPS, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti and San José scale (SJS, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae adult males and their attracted parasitoids were monitored using pheromone and sticky tape traps in an orchard of Budapest, Hungary, during 2010. In this study, we tried answer on the question raised whether synthetic commercial pheromones of WSP or SJS could work as a kairomonal stimulant and positively attract higher numbers of the specialized parasitoids. Although pheromone traps attracted a wide range of parasitoid species, most of them were accidentally. However, the parasitoid Thomsonisca amathus (Walker (Hymenoptera: E ncyrtidae and the parasitoid Encarsia perniciosi (Tower (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae significantly respond to the sex pheromones of WPS and SJS, respectively, suggesting that they may play an important role in host location.

  6. Tracking of Fluid-Advected Odor Plumes: Strategies Inspired by Insect Orientation to Pheromone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Wei

    2002-01-01

    .... These strategies are inspired by the maneuvers of moths flying upwind along a pheromone plume. Although moth maneuvers are well documented, the mechanisms underlying sensory perception and navigation are not fully understood...

  7. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina N. Spiegel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  8. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.R.; Wright, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  9. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alzamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases. Keywords: Informal settlements, Physical, Features, Urban, Kampung, Jakarta, Indonesia

  10. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  11. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  12. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  13. Pheromonal Control of Dealation and Oogenesis in Virgin Queen Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David J. C.; Blum, Murray S.

    1981-04-01

    In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, sexually mature virgin females are prevented from shedding their wings and becoming functional egg layers by the presence of the mated queen. Experimental data suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a relatively nonvolatile primer pheromone (or pheromones) produced by the mated queen and distributed by the workers. Target ants are both virgin queens and workers.

  14. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Hazaa, M.A.; Abd El-Rahman, H.A.; Hussein, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  15. [Affecting factors on capture efficacy of sex pheromone traps for Cydia pomonella L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Wan-Xue; Zhang, Gui-Fen; Wan, Fang-Hao; Xu, Hong-Fu; Pu, Chong-Jian

    2010-03-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae) is the most serious pest of orchards, and one of the most important quarantine pests in China. This paper studied the effects of the color, shape, placement location, lure color, and lure number of sex pheromone traps on the capture efficacy for C. pomonella L. male moth. It was found that the capture efficacy of white and green traps was two times higher than that of blue trap (P pomonella by using its sex pheromones.

  16. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  17. Nonadecadienone, a new termite trail-following pheromone identified in Glossotermes oculatus (Serritermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Krasulová, Jana; Jiroš, Pavel; Žáček, Petr; Kalinová, Blanka; Dolejšová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef; Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves; Lacey, Michael J; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2012-01-01

    Within the multitude of chemical signals used by termites, the trail marking by means of pheromones is ubiquitous. Chemistry and biology of the trail-following communication have been described in more than 60 species from all families except for the Neotropical Serritermitidae. The chemical ecology of Serritermitidae is of special interest not only as a missing piece of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of isopteran pheromones but also because it may contribute to the debate on the phylogenetic position of this family, which is still unresolved. Therefore, we aimed in this study to identify the trail-following pheromone of the serritermitid Glossotermes oculatus. Based on a combined approach of analytical chemistry, electrophysiology, and behavioral bioassays, we propose (10Z,13Z)-nonadeca-10,13-dien-2-one to be the trail-following pheromone of G. oculatus, secreted by the sternal gland of pseudergates. Thus, we report on a new termite trail-following pheromone of an unexpected chemical structure, a ketone with 19 carbons, contrasting with unsaturated alcohols containing 12 carbons as trail-following pheromones in other advanced termite families. In addition to this unique trail-following pheromone, we also describe the sternal gland in pseudergates as an organ of unusual shape, size, and structure when compared with other isopteran species. These results underline the peculiarity of the family Serritermitidae and prompt our interest in the chemistry of pheromones in the other genus of the family, Serritermes. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Wang, Huiyong; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers’ perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication. Previous studies indicate that male signaling with the mating pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) may exploit a nonsexual attraction to juvenile-released 3kPZS that guides migration into productive rearing habitat. Here, we infer the distribution of male signaling with 3kPZS using a phylogenetic comparison comprising six of ten genera and two of three families. Our results indicate that only P. marinus and Ichthyomyzon castaneus release 3kPZS at high rates. Olfactory and behavioral assays with P. marinus, I. castaneus and a subset of three other species that do not use 3kPZS as a sexual signal indicate that male signaling might drive the evolution of female adaptations to detect 3kPZS with specific olfactory mechanisms and respond to 3kPZS with targeted attraction relevant during mate search. We postulate that 3kPZS communication evolved independently in I. castaneus and P. marinus, but cannot eliminate the alternative that other species lost 3kPZS communication. Regardless, our results represent a rare macroevolutionary investigation of a vertebrate pheromone and insight into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying pheromone communication.

  19. Synthetic Co-Attractants of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasni, Narjes; Pinier, Centina; Imed, Cheraief; Ouhichi, Monêem; Couzi, Philippe; Chermiti, Brahim; Frérot, Brigitte; Saïd, Imen; Rochat, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory and field investigations to identify and evaluate plant co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon are reported. Volatiles emitted by freshly cut palm core and palm core with feeding males, were collected, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluated in olfactometers alone or combined with synthetic pheromone. A collection of palm odor without male effluvia was attractive alone and enhanced attraction to synthetic pheromone in an olfactometer similar to that to a collection of palm odor emitted with feeding males and containing natural pheromone. Behavioral responses to collections of palm volatiles were correlated to the amount of volatiles material in them. Enhancement of the attractiveness of the pheromone was not correlated to chemicals specific to beetle feeding. The chemicals common to the active collections extracts were benzoate esters, mostly ethyl benzoate, anisole derivatives and sesquiterpenes. Blends of the most abundant components of the extracts were evaluated for enhancement of the attractiveness of pheromone (1 μg) in olfactometers at 1 or 10 μg doses. The mixtures were further evaluated by field trapping in Tunisia at 3-10 mg/day using reference (6 mg/day) or experimental pheromone formulations. A mixture of ethyl benzoate, 4-methylanisole and farnesol (1:1:1 w/w at 6.5 mg/day) enhanced captures in pheromone baited traps in 2014 and 2015 and this mixture was as active as the natural palm bait. The practical prospect of the result for the management for O. agamemnon, and other palm beetles is discussed.

  20. 75 FR 21987 - Penalty Settlement Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... assessed under the Mine Act. DATES: The interim rule takes effect on May 27, 2010. The Commission will... proceedings, except for discrimination proceedings arising under section 105(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. 815... unlimited appearance previously filed with the Commission. The content of orders approving settlement will...

  1. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 785.17 Section 785.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785.17...

  2. Ekistics, the Science of Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxiadis, Constantinos A.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the science of ekistics for systematic analysis of historical, contemporary, and proposed human settlements varying from individual to Ecumenopolis size. Five principles are described as applicable to all cities and applied to growing urban developments. Isolation of Dimensions and Elimination of Alternatives (IDEA method) is proposed for…

  3. Habitat: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Understanding at School, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A discussion about the first intergovernmental United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, May 31-June 11, 1976, covers housing problems and solutions in Botswana and Nicaragua, what Unesco is doing about habitat, and what the associated schools are doing about habitat. (ND)

  4. Designing a New Human Settlement Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, E. W.

    ASCILOS, an acronym for a symbiotic community in the land of the Sioux, is a new land settlement pattern designed by the Center for Community Organization and Area Development (CENCOAD), sponsored by Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. ASCILOS covers a 60-mile radius around Sioux Falls. ASCILOS, based on symbiosis in nature, assumes that…

  5. Broeset - carbon neutral settlements in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gansmo, Helen Joesok

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In order to achieve the Norwegian Government's goal of making Norway a carbon neutral nation within 2030 we must be able to construct local carbon neutral settlements within a few years. In Trondheim the local authorities selected the area Broeset to be developed as 'a sustainable neighbourhood'. 'Sustainable' is defined in a holistic way, including low energy demand and healthy materials as well as social and economic issues such as low cost housing for vulnerable groups. The municipality is in charge of the planning process of Broeset in cooperation with governmental institutions and an interdisciplinary group of researchers at NTNU and SINTEF. Planning and designing a carbon neutral settlement is not only a matter of innovative technology and material and energy development and use, but includes for instance lifestyle, housing patterns, transportation and leisure-related travel for the residents. The aim is to make Broeset a neighbourhood where residents can live, work, shop, go to school and find meaningful leisure activities in settlements which enable people to lower their 'carbon footprint'. This paper will address how the planners try to meet the desires of diverse future residents as well as getting renewable energy and sustainable solutions integrated into the area. What socio-technical actors and solutions are regarded as (un)controversial in the process? And what mediating actors do/could contribute in building alliances towards planning, building and living in carbon neutral settlements? (Author)

  6. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  7. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...

  8. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  9. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE... damages under this part at any time, provided that the settlement is adequate in the judgment of the trustees to satisfy the goal of OPA and is fair, reasonable, and in the public interest, with particular...

  10. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Infrastructure Provision and Classification of Rural Settlements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study classifies the selected rural settlements on the basis of available infrastructure .To achieve this aim, 22 rural settlements were randomly selected. The cluster analysis was applied on the data in order to group the rural settlements on the basis of their infrastructure profiles. Thus the hierarchical method of cluster ...

  12. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  13. 22 CFR 1423.11 - Settlement or adjustment of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Settlement or adjustment of issues. 1423.11... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.11 Settlement or adjustment of issues. general settlement policy (a... shall decline to issue a complaint. The charging party may obtain a review of the Regional Director's...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the instructions...

  15. 29 CFR 4043.68 - Bankruptcy or similar settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bankruptcy or similar settlement. 4043.68 Section 4043.68... Bankruptcy or similar settlement. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a bankruptcy or similar settlement, as described in § 4043.35(a), and the notice shall include the...

  16. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minx, Jan; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Creutzig, Felix; Feng, Kuishuang; Förster, Michael; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO2 emissions. Consumption-based CO2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure only

  17. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minx, Jan; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Creutzig, Felix; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Förster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO 2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO 2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO 2 emissions. Consumption-based CO 2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO 2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure

  18. Settlement and Collapse of Gypseous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. H. Al-Obaidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The work in this research presents an experimental, theoretical and field study in order to investigate the settlement of Gypseous soils and the effect of water percolation on co llapsibility of this soil. In this research, more than five sites where chosen to extract the gypseous soil samples with different gypsum content;  the  sites  located  in  different  regions  in  Salah  Aldeen  Governorate.  In  order  to  estimate  the settlement and collapse of gypseous soils, field tests consist of standard penetration test for depths (1m to 5m for each site and plate load test were conducted in dry and soaked cases.The results show that the settlement of gypseous soils in dry condition is less than the same soils that have  low  values  of  gypsum  in  its  formation,  the  settlement  value  of  lightly  gypseous  soils  can  be evaluated from the basic equations depending on data of SPT. In soaking case with short term flooding, gypseous soils shows compressible  and they are sufficiently reliable soil base, while in the case of long term flooding settlement develops due to dissolution of salts and  gypsum. The  magnitude  and  the  rate  of  the  settlement  depend  on  initial  gypsum  content,  relative amount of leached salts, the mineralogy and type of soil and soil properties and acting load. The standard penetration test does not use in calculating the settlement for the soils that have gypsum in its formation in soaking condition.

  19. Case study: The application of geographic information systems to "Settlement potential along railway lines" in the research project "Settlement along regional railway - the Murgtal example", Universit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović-Matić Darinka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of urban and regional planning is experiencing some fundamental changes that are having impacts on the use of computer-based models in planning practice and education. One of the key changes is the use of powerful, cheap and easy to use GIS software and hardware. This has led to the creation of more extensive spatially referenced datasets, making GIS an essential tool for some planners and management tasks such as land monitoring, code enforcement and permit tracking. This paper shows an example of the use of GIS in the context of the research project "Settlement along Regional Railway lines-The Murgtal Example", University of Karlsruhe. With the use of GIS the potential of settlement areas for building in radius of 500 m from existing and planned tramp stops are calculated and are shown on the Internet.

  20. Small-molecule pheromones and hormones controlling nematode development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A

    2017-05-17

    The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years. This Perspective will focus on small-molecule pheromones and hormones that influence developmental events in the nematode life cycle (ascarosides, dafachronic acids, and nemamides), will cover more recent work regarding the biosynthesis of these signals, and will explore how the discovery of these signals is transforming our understanding of nematode development and physiology.

  1. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...... had no detectable effect on the transfer kinetics observed for the tetracycline resistance encoding plasmid pCF10. In MUCUS, presence of the same pheromone significantly increased the transfer efficiency observed during the first 2 h of conjugation, while the effect was less pronounced later...... in the experiment. We suggest that due to differences in diffusion rates and medium-binding of the pheromones, the effect of the synthetic cCF10 was immediately dominated by the effect of pheromones produced by the recipient E. faecalis strain in broth, while this happened later in mucus....

  2. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  3. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on scent gland development and pheromone production in Spodoptera Littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) is one of the important pests of cotton and many other crops in egypt. Several methods have been tried for its control. Among these, the sterile insect technique and the application of sex attractant pheromones appeared to be promissing in an integrated programme for the control of this and other serious insect pests. The high doses of gamma radiation required in such technique may affect some physiological and biological aspects of the insect as well; specially its reproductive potential. This effect may disturb the intraspecific communication between males and females by adversely affecting pheromone glands and hence pheromone production (Stimman et al., 1972; abdu et al., 1985 and El - Degwi, 1990). Insect sex pheromones are chemical substances secreted by either sex to attract the other sex and get them together for copulation. Trials to seek some of the factors that can prevent such communication in the cotton leaf worm may be of importance in its integrated control programme. This stimulated the present study to investigate the effect of gamma radiation doses on sex pheromone gland and pheromone production in this economically important insect pest.8 tabs., 14 figs., 92 refs

  5. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-04

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.

  6. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, W. S.; Parra-Pedrazzoli, A. L.; Kaissling, K.-E.; Morgan, T. I.; Zalom, F. G.; Pesak, D. J.; Dundulis, E. A.; Burks, C. S.; Higbee, B. S.

    2005-03-01

    Using molecular- and sensory physiology-based approaches, three novel natural products, a simple ester, and a behavioral antagonist have been identified from the pheromone gland of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In addition to the previously identified (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal, the pheromone blend is composed of (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene, (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene, ethyl palmitate, ethyl-(Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienoate, and (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate. The C23 and C25 pentaenes are not only novel sex pheromones, but also new natural products. In field tests, catches of A. transitella males in traps baited with the full mixture of pheromones were as high as those in traps with virgin females, whereas control and traps baited only with the previously known constituent did not capture any moths at all. The navel orangeworm sex pheromone is also an attractant for the meal moth, Pyralis farinalis L. (Pyralidae), but (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate is a behavioral antagonist. The new pheromone blend may be highly effective in mating disruption and monitoring programs.

  7. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  8. The neuropeptide tachykinin is essential for pheromone detection in a gustatory neural circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shruti; Chua, Jia Yi; Tan, Kah Junn; Calvert, Meredith E K; Weng, Ruifen; Ng, Wan Chin; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y

    2015-06-17

    Gustatory pheromones play an essential role in shaping the behavior of many organisms. However, little is known about the processing of taste pheromones in higher order brain centers. Here, we describe a male-specific gustatory circuit in Drosophila that underlies the detection of the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone (3R,11Z,19Z)-3-acetoxy-11,19-octacosadien-1-ol (CH503). Using behavioral analysis, genetic manipulation, and live calcium imaging, we show that Gr68a-expressing neurons on the forelegs of male flies exhibit a sexually dimorphic physiological response to the pheromone and relay information to the central brain via peptidergic neurons. The release of tachykinin from 8 to 10 cells within the subesophageal zone is required for the pheromone-triggered courtship suppression. Taken together, this work describes a neuropeptide-modulated central brain circuit that underlies the programmed behavioral response to a gustatory sex pheromone. These results will allow further examination of the molecular basis by which innate behaviors are modulated by gustatory cues and physiological state.

  9. Male sex pheromone components in Heliconius butterflies released by the androconia affect female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Darragh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific pheromones are known to play an important role in butterfly courtship, and may influence both individual reproductive success and reproductive isolation between species. Extensive ecological, behavioural and genetic studies of Heliconius butterflies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of speciation. Male pheromones, although long suspected to play an important role, have received relatively little attention in this genus. Here, we combine morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene. First, we identify putative androconia that are specialized brush-like scales that lie within the shiny grey region of the male hindwing. We then describe putative male sex pheromone compounds, which are largely confined to the androconial region of the hindwing of mature males, but are absent in immature males and females. Finally, behavioural choice experiments reveal that females of H. melpomene, H. erato and H. timareta strongly discriminate against conspecific males which have their androconial region experimentally blocked. As well as demonstrating the importance of chemical signalling for female mate choice in Heliconius butterflies, the results describe structures involved in release of the pheromone and a list of potential male sex pheromone compounds.

  10. Ligand specificity of pheromone-binding proteins of the processionary moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixas, J; Prestwich, G D; Guerrero, A

    1995-12-01

    Photoaffinity labeling of proteins extracted from sensory hairs and antennal branches of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa with a tritium-labeled diazoacetate analogue of the sex pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate revealed a 15-kDa pheromone-binding protein in male moth sensory hairs (SH-15). A different 15-kDa protein in male antennal branches (B-15) was not photolabeled. All extracts except male sensory hairs showed a photolabeled 20-kDa protein; a photolabeled male 30-kDa protein in the branches (B-30) was also observed. The 20-kDa proteins in the sensory hairs (SH-20) and branches (B-20) showed differing affinities for the photoaffinity analogues; moreover, SH-15 exhibits higher affinity for the natural pheromone, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, than for its alcohol metabolite and other analogues in competitive displacement experiments. The affinity shown by the pheromone-binding protein for the metabolic product suggests that the alcohol may be also transported by the binding protein. Interestingly, a shift in labeling from SH-15 to SH-20 was produced in the presence of an excess of the natural pheromone, its alcohol and other analogues. The binding showed little discrimination among structurally similar analogues of the pheromone, while saturated and aromatic molecules showed little affinity for the proteins of either sensory hairs or antennal branches.

  11. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control.

  12. The search for human pheromones: the lost decades and the necessity of returning to first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tristram D

    2015-04-07

    As humans are mammals, it is possible, perhaps even probable, that we have pheromones. However, there is no robust bioassay-led evidence for the widely published claims that four steroid molecules are human pheromones: androstenone, androstenol, androstadienone and estratetraenol. In the absence of sound reasons to test the molecules, positive results in studies need to be treated with scepticism as these are highly likely to be false positives. Common problems include small sample sizes, an overestimate of effect size (as no effect can be expected), positive publication bias and lack of replication. Instead, if we are to find human pheromones, we need to treat ourselves as if we were a newly discovered mammal, and use the rigorous methods already proven successful in pheromone research on other species. Establishing a pheromone relies on demonstration of an odour-mediated behavioural or physiological response, identification and synthesis of the bioactive molecule(s), followed by bioassay confirmation of activity. Likely sources include our sebaceous glands. Comparison of secretions from adult and pre-pubertal humans may highlight potential molecules involved in sexual behaviour. One of the most promising human pheromone leads is a nipple secretion from the areola glands produced by all lactating mothers, which stimulates suckling by any baby not just their own. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Pheromone communication and the mushroom body of the ant, Camponotus obscuripes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Mizunami, Makoto

    2005-11-01

    Communication by means of pheromones plays predominant roles in colony integration by social insects. However, almost nothing is known about pheromone processing in the brains of social insects. In this study, we successfully applied intracellular recording and staining techniques to anatomically and physiologically characterize brain neurons of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. We identified 42 protocerebral neurons that responded to undecane and/or formic acid, components of alarm pheromones that evoke attraction or evasive behavior, respectively. Notably, 30 (71%) of these neurons were efferent (output) or feedback neurons of the mushroom body, and many of these exhibited different responses to formic acid and undecane. Eight of the remaining 12 neurons had arborizations in the lateral and/or medial protocerebrum, which receive terminations of efferent neurons of the mushroom body and from which premotor descending neurons originate. The remaining four neurons were bilateral neurons that connect lateral accessory lobes or dorsal protocerebrums of both hemispheres. We suggest that the mushroom body of the ant participates in the processing of alarm pheromones. Seventeen (40%) of 42 neurons exhibited responses to nonpheromonal odors, indicating that the pheromonal and nonpheromonal signals are not fully segregated when they are processed in the protocerebrum. This may be related to modulatory functions of alarm pheromones, i.e., they change alertness of the ant and change responses to a variety of sensory stimuli.

  14. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell

  15. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments

  16. The Effect of Trail Pheromone and Path Confinement on Learning of Complex Routes in the Ant Lasius niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer J Czaczkes

    Full Text Available Route learning is key to the survival of many central place foragers, such as bees and many ants. For ants which lay pheromone trails, the presence of a trail may act as an important source of information about whether an error has been made. The presence of trail pheromone has been demonstrated to support route learning, and the effect of pheromones on route choice have been reported to persist even after the pheromones have been removed. This could be explained in two ways: the pheromone may constrain the ants onto the correct route, thus preventing errors and aiding learning. Alternatively, the pheromones may act as a 'reassurance', signalling that the learner is on the right path and that learning the path is worthwhile. Here, we disentangle pheromone presence from route confinement in order to test these hypotheses, using the ant Lasius niger as a model. Unexpectedly, we did not find any evidence that pheromones support route learning. Indeed, there was no evidence that ants confined to the correct route learned at all. Thus, while we cannot support the 'reassurance' hypothesis, we can rule out the 'confinement' hypothesis. Other findings, such as a reduction in pheromone deposition in the presence of trail pheromones, are remarkably consistent with previous experiments. As previously reported, ants which make errors on their outward journey upregulate pheromone deposition on their return. Surprisingly, ants which would go on to make an error down-regulate pheromone deposition on their outward journey, hinting at a capacity for ants to gauge the quality of their own memories.

  17. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    OpenAIRE

    Ingmar Weiss; Joachim Ruther; Johannes Stökl

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the invest...

  18. Transduction for Pheromones in the Main Olfactory Epithelium Is Mediated by the Ca2+-Activated Channel TRPM5

    OpenAIRE

    López, Fabián; Delgado, Ricardo; López, Roberto; Bacigalupo, Juan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the main olfactory epithelium contains a subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to pheromones. One candidate subpopulation expresses the calcium activated cation channel TRPM5 (transient receptor potential channel M5). Using GFP driven by the TRPM5 promoter in mice, we show that this subpopulation responds to putative pheromones, urine, and major histocompatibility complex peptides, but not to regular odors or a pheromone detected by other species...

  19. Genes involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis of Ephestia cautella, an important food storage pest, are determined by transcriptome sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2015-07-18

    Background Insects use pheromones, chemical signals that underlie all animal behaviors, for communication and for attracting mates. Synthetic pheromones are widely used in pest control strategies because they are environmentally safe. The production of insect pheromones in transgenic plants, which could be more economical and effective in producing isomerically pure compounds, has recently been successfully demonstrated. This research requires information regarding the pheromone biosynthetic pathways and the characterization of pheromone biosynthetic enzymes (PBEs). We used Illumina sequencing to characterize the pheromone gland (PG) transcriptome of the Pyralid moth, Ephestia cautella, a destructive storage pest, to reveal putative candidate genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis, release, transport and degradation. Results We isolated the E. cautella pheromone compound as (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and the major pheromone precursors 16:acyl, 14:acyl, E14-16:acyl, E12-14:acyl and Z9,E12-14:acyl. Based on the abundance of precursors, two possible pheromone biosynthetic pathways are proposed. Both pathways initiate from C16:acyl-CoA, with one involving ∆14 and ∆9 desaturation to generate Z9,E12-14:acyl, and the other involving the chain shortening of C16:acyl-CoA to C14:acyl-CoA, followed by ∆12 and ∆9 desaturation to generate Z9,E12-14:acyl-CoA. Then, a final reduction and acetylation generates Z9,E12-14:OAc. Illumina sequencing yielded 83,792 transcripts, and we obtained a PG transcriptome of ~49.5 Mb. A total of 191 PBE transcripts, which included pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, fatty acid transport proteins, acetyl-CoA carboxylases, fatty acid synthases, desaturases, β-oxidation enzymes, fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) and fatty acetyltransferases (FATs), were selected from the dataset. A comparison of the E. cautella transcriptome data with three other Lepidoptera PG datasets revealed that 45 % of the sequences were shared

  20. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  1. Evolution of Two Receptors detecting the Same Pheromone Compound in Crop Pest Moths of the Genus Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur ede Fouchier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In moths, mate finding strongly rely on the detection of sex pheromones by pheromone receptors. Any modification in the functional properties of these receptors can have a drastic impact on reproduction. In the course of characterizing candidate pheromone receptors in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis, we expressed them in Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and stimulated them with a large panel of moth pheromone compounds. We found that two pheromone receptors detect (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc, a minor component of the female pheromone blend. Whereas SlitOR6 is highly specific to this component, SlitOR13 is less sensitive and not strictly specific as it also detects (Z9-14:OAc, another minor component of the sex pheromone. Interestingly, SlitOR13 expression is restricted to the distal part of male antennae, where we could identify a novel functional class of pheromone-sensitive neurons whose response spectrum matches that of SlitOR13. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera pheromone receptors, we built an evolutionary scenario in which four different paralogous lineages emerged through gene duplications. The ability to bind (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc appeared independently within three of these lineages, and an analysis of selective pressures revealed sites under positive selection that could have played a role in the emergence of functional properties of OR6 and OR13 in Spodoptera species.

  2. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weliton D Silva

    Full Text Available We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard, a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  3. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  4. Characterization and anti-settlement aspects of surface micro-structures from Cancer pagurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T; Regan, F; McGuinness, K; Connor, N E O’

    2014-01-01

    Tuning surface and material properties to inhibit or prevent settlement and attachment of microorganisms is of interest for applications such as antifouling technologies. Here, optimization of nano- and microscale structures on immersed surfaces can be utilized to improve cell removal while reducing adhesion strength and the likelihood of initial cellular attachment. Engineered surfaces capable of controlling cellular behaviour under natural conditions are challenging to design due to the diversity of attaching cell types in environments such as marine waters, where many variations in cell shape, size and adhesion strategy exist. Nevertheless, understanding interactions between a cell and a potential substrate for adhesion, including topographically driven settlement cues, offers a route to designing surfaces capable of controlling cell settlement. Biomimetic design of artificial surfaces, based upon microscale features from natural surfaces, can be utilized as model surfaces to understand cell–surface interactions. The microscale surface features of the carapace from the crustacean Cancer pagurus has been previously found to influence the rate of attachment of particular organisms when compared to smooth controls. However, the nature of microscale topographic features from C. pagurus have not been examined in sufficient detail to allow design of biomimetic surfaces. In this work, the spatial distribution, chemical composition, size and shape descriptors of microscale surface features from C. pagurus are characterized in detail for the first time. Additionally, the influence of topography from C. pagurus on the settlement of marine diatoms is examined under field conditions. (paper)

  5. THE PATTERNS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PERI-URBAN SETTLEMENT IN EAST UNGARAN DISTRICT, SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrina Sri Arta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available East Ungaran District is a peri-urban area arising from the urban-rural interaction between Semarang City and Semarang Regency. Interaction of these two regions is supported with the accessibility that is characterized by high commuting flows. The impact of this interaction is mix of urban and rural characteristics in East Ungaran District. This conditions will also affect land use in East Ungaran District, such as housing, economic facilities, and residential infrastructure. The increase of unplanned settlements has the potential to lead to inefficient land use, particularly in residential infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to examine patterns and characteristics of settlements in the East Ungaran District in 2015. This research uses descriptive quantitative with a spatial approach using remote sensing techniques. The results show that there are two types of settlement patterns in East Ungaran District, i.e, clustered pattern and random pattern. The characteristics of settlements are medium up to the good socio-economic condition (such as high income, good education, certificate ownership, permanent construction of housing, and good health and good condition in infrastructure (determined by road conditions, sources of clean water, waste disposal systems, and sanitary systems. © 2015 GJGP UNDIP. All rights reserved.

  6. METHODOLOGY RELATED TO ESTIMATION OF INVESTMENT APPEAL OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Voshev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for production activity vary considerably from region to region, from area to area, from settlement to settlement. In this connection, investors are challenged to choose an optimum site for a new enterprise. To make the decision, investors follow such references as: investment potential and risk level; their interrelation determines investment appeal of a country, region, area, city or rural settlement. At present Russia faces a problem of «black boxes» represented by a lot of rural settlements. No effective and suitable techniques of quantitative estimation of investment potential, rural settlement risks and systems to make the given information accessible for potential investors exist until now.

  7. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    Mating behaviour in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor , is mediated by several pheromones, including the female-produced 4-methylnonanol (4-MNol). Mating causes a decline in the titre of 4-MNol. The overall goal of this study was to determine the biochemical mechanism(s) responsible for this decline: i.e., whether the decline was due to an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and/or a stimulation of pheromone degradation; whether the decline was caused by the physical effect of mating or was due to the transfer of a factor from the male; and to conduct a preliminary investigation of the regulatory and signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of 4-MNol production. In vitro radioassays for 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation were developed and used to compare the levels of 4-MNol biosynthesis and degradation in virgin and mated females. Mating caused an inhibition of 4-MNol biosynthesis within 2 hours, but did not affect the rate of pheromone degradation. Decapitation of virgin females caused an inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis and did not prevent the inhibitory effect of mating. The inhibitory effect of mating was mimicked in females that were artificially inseminated with male reproductive tract homogenates (MRTH), but not in females similarly "inseminated" with water, saline, or air. Furthermore, 4-MNol biosynthesis could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of MRTH. These findings indicate that the male transferred one or more pheromonostatic factor(s) to the female during copulation that acted directly on the pheromone-producing tissue (the ovaries). In order to investigate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis after mating, the role of calcium was determined by modulating the level of calcium (using a calcium chelator, an ionophore, and calcium). However, due to the precipitation of calcium with the phosphate present in the buffer solution, we were unable to determine the role of calcium in the

  8. Population Ageing in Rural Settlements in the Republic of Croatia

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    Ivo Nejašmić

    2016-08-01

    necessary, on the basis of scientifically reasoned, comprehensive and interdisciplinary spatial planning, to “choose” the settlements with the most favourable characteristics (location, economic and demographic with the aim to become local hubs of settlement network. These should be settlements that can relatively quickly develop central functions (with the support of the wider community, of course and thus meet the basic needs of the population of the surrounding villages. The Croatian settlement structure is missing just such rural centres with around 200 inhabitants (and the current ones are unevenly distributed. In this way the difficulties arising from excessive dispersion of settlements would be minimized and enabled a better quality of life. This is one of the general development measures preventing a complete depopulation of large rural areas. Among the measures to lessen the effects of population ageing, and to improve the age structure respectively, encouraging fertility is in the first place in the population policy domain. Focused on the total population, this measure would have a certain effect even in those villages that have (bioreproductive base at least at the general population level. These are generally larger villages, located along the major roads and with good accessibility to major urban centres. The implementation of incentive population policy (pro-birth and immigration variants alike will have to come to the forefront of national interests. Then we will be able to talk about a possible demographic recovery (of part of the Croatian rural area with more optimism.

  9. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  10. Dynamics of settlements within Balyhorod commune through the use of GIS techniques

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    Іhor Kozak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to analyze the dynamics of settlements from the 2nd half of the 18th century to 2nd half of 20th century in Balyhorod commune (in Polish “Baligród”, in Lesko district, Podkarpackie voivodeship in Eastern Poland. Balyhorod commune was analyzed in terms of the changes of settlements, applying maps together with published historical data for the analysis of changes in its structure. Firstly, the tactical map of «WIG-Military Institute of Geography» was applied. Secondly, maps from the «WMS-Web Map Service, Geoportal» were analyzed. Changes in the number of villages and households population dynamics for Greek Catholics, Latins and Jews for the year 1785 were evaluated applying ArcGIS 10.3 program. Ukrainian ones were evaluated using ArcGIS 10.3 program in comparison with the number of Poles and Jews for the year 1939. Ethnic and religious composition from the 2nd half of the 18th century to 2nd half of 20th century and the character of settlements distribution in Balyhorod commune was evaluated based on the study of spatial distribution of settlements with the use of Spatial Statistics (Spatial Autocorrelation Global Moran's test, Standard Deviational Ellipse and Mean Centre. In 1785 there were 74,01% of Greek Catholics and in 1939 there were 77,98% of Ukrainians in Balyhorod commune. There was confirmed a similar configuration of Standard Deviation Ellipse and Mean Center for Greek Catholics who were Ukrainians for the year 1785 and Ukrainians for the year 1939 in Balyhorod commune. The scale and results of such changes are essential for future research, mainly in terms of the change of traditional village system infrastructure and culture.

  11. Madrid principles of Nagorno-Karabakh settlement

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    K K Babayan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of this work presents the analysis of the basic document and the legal framework of the peace settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on the modern stage - «Madrid or Basic principles», presented to the sides of the negotiations at the OSCE ministerial conference in the Spanish capital Madrid in November 2007. The both side’s statements, international mediators and institutes form a legal background of the vector and the framework of the negotiation process. There are the fundamental differences and contradictions in the approaches of the sides of the negotiations to the «Basic principles» of the settlement in this article. The work contains a comparison of the various items and elements of the Madrid document both in relation to each other, and to the principles of international law.

  12. Research on the Starokuybyshevskoye Fortified Settlement

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    Gubaydullin Ayrat M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Starokuybyshevskoye (Old-Kuybyshev fortified settlement is situated on the bank of the Bezdna river, 200 m to the northeast of Bolgar city. The site is being considerably eroded by the waters of the river and the Kuibyshev water reservoir. Currently it is situated on an island, under threat of complete destruction. In this regard, in 1946, 1987 and 1996, conservation and rescue excavations were conducted on the site. The detailed results of the 1996 studies are offered in the article. The ruins of an above-ground dwelling with an oven and three household pits were excavated. The ceramic assemblage of these structures has obvious features of the pre-Mongol Bulgar culture. In general, the findings make it possible to conclude that the settlement had existed only in the 11th through to the 13th century and that its collapse was associated with the Mongol invasion.

  13. The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis.

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    Caroline M Nieberding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH, hexadecanal (16:Ald and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol, and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant

  14. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

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    Kenji Matsuura

    Full Text Available Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP, which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence

  15. Disposable Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-Coated Fused Silica Optical Fibers for Sampling Pheromones of Moths.

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    Rik Lievers

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the sex pheromone composition in female moths has been analyzed by different methods, ranging from volatile collections to gland extractions, which all have some disadvantage: volatile collections can generally only be conducted on (small groups of females to detect the minor pheromone compounds, whereas gland extractions are destructive. Direct-contact SPME overcomes some of these disadvantages, but is expensive, the SPME fiber coating can be damaged due to repeated usage, and samples need to be analyzed relatively quickly after sampling. In this study, we assessed the suitability of cheap and disposable fused silica optical fibers coated with 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS by sampling the pheromone of two noctuid moths, Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa. By rubbing the disposable PDMS fibers over the pheromone glands of females that had called for at least 15 minutes and subsequently extracting the PDMS fibers in hexane, we collected all known pheromone compounds, and we found a strong positive correlation for most pheromone compounds between the disposable PDMS fiber rubs and the corresponding gland extracts of the same females. When comparing this method to volatile collections and the corresponding gland extracts, we generally found comparable percentages between the three techniques, with some differences that likely stem from the chemical properties of the individual pheromone compounds. Hexane extraction of cheap, disposable, PDMS coated fused silica optical fibers allows for sampling large quantities of individual females in a short time, eliminates the need for immediate sample analysis, and enables to use the same sample for multiple chemical analyses.

  16. Historic Settlement in the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-28

    SETTLEMENT IN THE UPPER TOMBIGBEE VALLEY ITT By LJU i8 James F. Doster LA- and David C. Weaver dhA dout hc onaproe 82 07 16 063 frPublic relgoise cmd *We...10 1/2 yds plain wht. Bobnut I ps. Black crape $2.50 2.50 2 2/- 2.63 18 doz. buttons 29 1/2, (ea) 5.31 24 yds Bobnut Lace 2 8¢ 1.92 5 pr. Ladies kid

  17. Enabling Persistent Peace After Negotiated Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Fates and the Duration of the Peace,” Conflict Management and Peace Science 26, no. 4 (September 2009): 348. 11 change , a settlement can become...insurgents. However, it is very important to note when a government should negotiate with terrorists and insurgents. Professionals in negotiations ...THE ENEMY ARE IMPORTANT FACTORS TO AVOID THE RECURRENCE OF WAR On August 26, 2016, negotiators from the Colombian Government and the FARC announced

  18. Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J

    2004-04-01

    The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

  19. GC x GC/TOF MS technique - A new tool in identification of insect pheromones: Analysis of the persimmon bark borer sex pheromone gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka; Jiroš, Pavel; Žďárek, Jan; Wen, X.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 11 (2005), s. 843 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /40./. 18.11.2005-20.11.2005, Nymburk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex pheromone * persimmon bark borer * two-dimensional (GC x GC) system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. GCxGC/TOF MS technique - A new tool in identification of insect pheromones: Analysis of the persimmon bark borer sex pheromone gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka; Jiroš, Pavel; Žďárek, Jan; Wen, X.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2006), s. 542-547 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GCxGC/TOFMS * GC-EAD * pheromone identification Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.810, year: 2006

  1. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  2. Groundwater Quality and the Settlements Condition in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Cholil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehend the factors which influence on the juvenile water, it needs paying attention to the rocks permeability, the thickness of the aeration zone, the type of the material composition and the depth of the ground water. The grade of the ground water quality, both ground water in general and juvenile water in the urban, is dependent upon the natural physical, man made physical, and the condition of the local inhabitant besides the another factors. The influence grade of the factors are undersirable yet because among of them there are cross-linkages. The linkage of the ground water quality condition, besides another factor, inconfirmed by the inhabitant and the settelement. The aspect of the man made physical, both sanitation condition and the population density with their activity effect i.e. sewage by product, should fully determine the ground water quality. There is a closed connection between the juvenile water quality and the settlement condition, mainly, in the case is the domestic sewage disposal. It is estimated that the unit of settlement associates with the grade of the juvenile water quality. Some of the variabilities which are desirable to sustain the settlement condition and constitutes the influence variability i.e. the density of the population and buildings, and the condition of the drainage system for sewage.

  3. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  4. An evaluation of sampling methodology for assessing settlement of temperate fish in seagrass meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. CATALAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All demersal fish with planktonic larvae settle at some point early in life, generally around the transformation from larvae to juveniles or soon after. Sampling pre-settlement or very young, settled fish is challenging due to spatial concretions within the habitat and the pulsed, rapid nature of the settlement process. There is a lack of robust methods that enable this sampling, but information on the settlement, that represents a mortality bottleneck, is crucial for the follow-up of populations for fisheries and conservation purposes. An empirical evaluation of sampling methods has not been conducted in temperate habitats. Here, we compare six different sampling methods to collect pre- and post-settlement stages of fish to determine the best combination of techniques to utilise in Posidonia oceanica, an endemic Mediterranean seagrass that provides a key nursery habitat for coastal fish. We considered three types of pelagic nets (bongo net, neuston net and ring net, two types of light-traps (Quatrefoil and Ecocean CARE® to sample pre-settled stages and a low-impact epibenthic trawl for recent settlers. Our results show a significantly different size-spectrum for each method, with a continuous range of sizes from 2 mm to 200 mm. The smallest sizes were collected by the bongo net, followed by the ring net, the neuston net, the Quatrefoil, the Ecocean and finally the epibenthic trawl. Our results suggest that an appropriate strategy for collecting and estimating the abundance of key littoral fish species around settlement size is the combination of the Ecocean light trap and the epibenthic trawl.

  5. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  6. Sublethal Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Calling Behavior and Pheromone Production of Tortricid Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Gemeno, César

    2017-09-01

    In moths, sexual behavior combines female sex pheromone production and calling behavior. The normal functioning of these periodic events requires an intact nervous system. Neurotoxic insecticide residues in the agroecosystem could impact the normal functioning of pheromone communication through alteration of the nervous system. In this study we assess whether sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid, that competitively modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the dendrite, affect pheromone production and calling behavior in adults of three economically important tortricid moth pests; Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Thiacloprid significantly reduced the amount of calling in C. pomonella females at LC 0.001 (a lethal concentration that kills only 1 in 10 5 individuals), and altered its calling period at LC 1 , and in both cases the effect was dose-dependent. In the other two species the effect was similar but started at higher LCs, and the effect was relatively small in L. botrana. Pheromone production was altered only in C. pomonella, with a reduction of the major compound, codlemone, and one minor component, starting at LC 10 . Since sex pheromones and neonicotinoids are used together in the management of these three species, our results could have implications regarding the interaction between these two pest control methods.

  7. Mixtures of Two Bile Alcohol Sulfates Function as a Proximity Pheromone in Sea Lamprey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory O Brant

    Full Text Available Unique mixtures of pheromone components are commonly identified in insects, and have been shown to increase attractiveness towards conspecifics when reconstructed at the natural ratio released by the signaler. In previous field studies of pheromones that attract female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L., putative components of the male-released mating pheromone included the newly described bile alcohol 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DkPES and the well characterized 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS. Here, we show chemical evidence that unequivocally confirms the elucidated structure of DkPES, electrophysiological evidence that each component is independently detected by the olfactory epithelium, and behavioral evidence that mature female sea lamprey prefer artificial nests activated with a mixture that reconstructs the male-released component ratio of 30:1 (3kPZS:DkPES, molar:molar. In addition, we characterize search behavior (sinuosity of swim paths of females approaching ratio treatment sources. These results suggest unique pheromone ratios may underlie reproductive isolating mechanisms in vertebrates, as well as provide utility in pheromone-integrated control of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes.

  8. Structure of a bacterial quorum-sensing transcription factor complexed with pheromone and DNA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Pappas, T.; Brace, J.; Miller, P.; Oulmassov, T.; Molyneaux, J.; Anderson, J.; Bashkin, J.; Winans, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Cornell Univ.; Monsanto Co.

    2002-06-27

    Many proteobacteria are able to monitor their population densities through the release of pheromones known as N-acylhomoserine lactones. At high population densities, these pheromones elicit diverse responses that include bioluminescence, biofilm formation, production of antimicrobials, DNA exchange, pathogenesis and symbiosis1. Many of these regulatory systems require a pheromone-dependent transcription factor similar to the LuxR protein of Vibrio fischeri. Here we present the structure of a LuxR-type protein. TraR of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was solved at 1.66 A as a complex with the pheromone N-3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (OOHL) and its TraR DNA-binding site. The amino-terminal domain of TraR is an {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich that binds OOHL, whereas the carboxy-terminal domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The TraR dimer displays a two-fold symmetry axis in each domain; however, these two axes of symmetry are at an approximately 90 degree angle, resulting in a pronounced overall asymmetry of the complex. The pheromone lies fully embedded within the protein with virtually no solvent contact, and makes numerous hydrophobic contacts with the protein as well as four hydrogen bonds: three direct and one water-mediated.

  9. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  10. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  11. Synthetic pheromones as a management technique - dispensers reduce Linepithema humile activity in a commercial vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian L; Bell, Vaughn A; Suckling, David M; Lester, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Invasive ants, such as the Argentine ant, have often been reported to facilitate honeydew-producing hemipteran pests such as mealybugs, which can be vectors of plant pathogens. Synthetic pheromones may offer a target-specific method to control such ants and consequently lower the abundance of honeydew-producing pests. Here we report the results of a trial to suppress Argentine ants in grapevines using ant pheromone dispensers. Compared with untreated controls, we observed a significant drop in Argentine ant activity on the ground, irrespective of whether pheromone dispensers were placed at ground level, within the canopy or in both locations. Ant counts in the canopy confirmed that Argentine ant abundance was reduced under the influence of the pheromone dispenser placed at ground level compared with untreated controls. However, placing dispensers only in the canopy did not reduce the numbers of ants within the canopy compared with untreated controls. Our results showed that pheromone dispensers can significantly reduce Argentine ant foraging in grapevines if they are positioned appropriately. This technique could potentially reduce the abundance of associated mealybugs and potentially attendant virus vectoring areawide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Multiphasic On/Off Pheromone Signalling in Moths as Neural Correlates of a Search Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Chaffiol, Antoine; Voges, Nicole; Gu, Yuqiao; Anton, Sylvia; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses. PMID:23613816

  13. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  14. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  15. Sex pheromone of browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.): synthesis and field deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrimian, Ashot; Lance, David R; Schwarz, Meier; Leonhardt, Barbara A; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-04-09

    The browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.), is native to Eurasia, where periodic outbreaks result in defoliation of forest, shade, and ornamental trees. In addition to the damage caused by defoliation, human contact with larval urticating hairs often results in severe dermatitis. Hence, tools for monitoring and controlling the moth populations are desirable. The female-produced sex pheromone of the browntail moth was identified previously, but the synthesis had not been published. This paper reports the synthesis of the pheromone of the browntail moth, (7Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosatetraenyl isobutyrate, using in a key step a Wittig olefination of (6Z)-13-(tetrahydo-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)tridecenal. Field trapping studies were conducted with rubber septa and string formulations of the pheromone and included dose-response, pheromone purity, and dispenser-aging trials. It was found that traps baited with 250 microg of pheromone of 91-94% isomeric purity (main impurity presumably being the 13E isomer) on rubber septa are suitable for monitoring moth populations during the entire flight season.

  16. Multimodal stimulation of Colorado potato beetle reveals modulation of pheromone response by yellow light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order multimodal processing and behavioral output. Here we report experiments to determine decisions made by Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in response to isolated stimuli and multimodal combinations of signals on a locomotion compensator. Our results show that in complete darkness and in the absence of other stimuli, pheromonal stimulation increases attraction behavior of CPB as measured in oriented displacement and walking speed. However, orientation to the pheromone is abolished when presented with the alternative stimulation of a low intensity yellow light in a dark environment. The ability of the pheromone to stimulate these diurnal beetles in the dark in the absence of other stimuli is an unexpected but interesting observation. The predominance of the phototactic response over that to pheromone when low intensity lights were offered as choices seems to confirm the diurnal nature of the insect. The biological significance of the response to pheromone in the dark is unclear. The phototactic response will play a key role in elucidating multimodal stimulation in the host-finding process of CPB, and perhaps other insects. Such information might be exploited in the design of applications to attract and trap CPB for survey or control purposes and other insect pests using similar orientation mechanisms.

  17. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  18. Drosophila Food-Associated Pheromones: Effect of Experience, Genotype and Antibiotics on Larval Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Thibert

    Full Text Available Animals ubiquitously use chemical signals to communicate many aspects of their social life. These chemical signals often consist of environmental cues mixed with species-specific signals-pheromones-emitted by conspecifics. During their life, insects can use pheromones to aggregate, disperse, choose a mate, or find the most suitable food source on which to lay eggs. Before pupariation, larvae of several Drosophila species migrate to food sources depending on their composition and the presence of pheromones. Some pheromones derive from microbiota gut activity and these food-associated cues can enhance larval attraction or repulsion. To explore the mechanisms underlying the preference (attraction/repulsion to these cues and clarify their effect, we manipulated factors potentially involved in larval response. In particular, we found that the (i early exposure to conspecifics, (ii genotype, and (iii antibiotic treatment changed D. melanogaster larval behavior. Generally, larvae-tested either individually or in groups-strongly avoided food processed by other larvae. Compared to previous reports on larval attractive pheromones, our data suggest that such attractive effects are largely masked by food-associated compounds eliciting larval aversion. The antagonistic effect of attractive vs. aversive compounds could modulate larval choice of a pupariation site and impact the dispersion of individuals in nature.

  19. Individuality and Transgenerational Inheritance of Social Dominance and Sex Pheromones in Isogenic Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Shi, Yao-Long; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-06-01

    Phenotypic variation and its epigenetic regulations within the inbred isogenic mice have long intrigued biologists. Here, we used inbred C57BL/6 mice to examine the individual differences and the inheritance of social dominance and male pheromones, expecting to create a model for studying the underlying epigenetic mechanisms for the evolution of these traits. We used a repeated male-male contest paradigm to form stable dominance-submission relationships between paired males and make superior or inferior quality manifest. Females showed olfactory preferences for the urine of dominant males to that of subordinate opponents. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed that dominance-related or superior quality related pheromones were actually exaggerated male pheromone components (e.g., E-β-farnesene, hexadecanol, and 1-hexadecanol acetate) of preputial gland origin. Although the socially naïve sons of both dominant and subordinate males elicited the same female attraction when reaching adulthood, the former could dominated over the latter during undergoing the male-male competition and then gained more attraction of females. Our results demonstrated that social dominance or superior quality and the related pheromones were heritable and could be expressed through the interaction between aggression-related epigenotypes and male-male contests. It suggested that the evolution of sexually selected traits could be epigenetically determined and promoted through female mate choice. The epigenetic mechanisms driving the individual differences in behavior and male pheromones deserve further studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

  1. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Martinez

    Full Text Available Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  2. Blends of pheromones, with and without host plant volatiles, can attract multiple species of Cerambycid beetles simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.M. Hanks; J.A. Mongold-Diers; T.H. Atkinson; M.K. Fierke; M.D. Ginzel; E.E. Graham; T.M. Poland; A.B. Richards; M.L. Richardson; J.G.. Millar

    2018-01-01

    Pheromone components of cerambycid beetles are often conserved, with a given compound serving as a pheromone component for multiple related species, including species native to different continents. Consequently, a single synthesized compound may attract multiple species to a trap simultaneously. Furthermore, our previous research in east-central Illinois had...

  3. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  4. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  5. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  6. Assessing the global warming potential of human settlement expansion in a mesic temperate landscape from 2005 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, Andrew B; Hutyra, Lucy R; Trlica, Andrew; Olofsson, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    Expansion of human settlements is an important driver of global environmental change that causes land use and land cover change (LULCC) and alters the biophysical nature of the landscape and climate. We use the state of Massachusetts, United States (U.S.) to present a novel approach to quantifying the effects of projected expansion of human settlements on the biophysical nature of the landscape. We integrate nationally available datasets with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios model to model albedo and C storage and uptake by forests and vegetation within human settlements. Our results indicate a 4.4 to 14% decline in forest cover and a 35 to 40% increase in developed land between 2005 and 2050, with large spatial variability. LULCC is projected to reduce rates of forest C sequestration, but our results suggest that vegetation within human settlements has the potential to offset a substantial proportion of the decline in the forest C sink and may comprise up to 35% of the terrestrial C sink by 2050. Changes in albedo and terrestrial C fluxes are expected to result in a global warming potential (GWP) of +0.13 Mg CO2-C-equivalence ha(-1)year(-1) under the baseline trajectory, which is equivalent to 17% of the projected increase in fossil fuel emissions. Changes in terrestrial C fluxes are generally the most important driver of the increase in GWP, but albedo change becomes an increasingly important component where housing densities are higher. Expansion of human settlements is the new face of LULCC and our results indicate that when quantifying the biophysical response it is essential to consider C uptake by vegetation within human settlements and the spatial variability in the influence of C fluxes and albedo on changes in GWP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations in Obesity Rates between US Counties: Impacts of Activity Access, Food Environments, and Settlement Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2017-09-07

    There is much ongoing research about the effect of the urban environment as compared with individual behaviour on growing obesity levels, including food environment, settlement patterns (e.g., sprawl, walkability, commuting patterns), and activity access. This paper considers obesity variations between US counties, and delineates the main dimensions of geographic variation in obesity between counties: by urban-rural status, by region, by area poverty status, and by majority ethnic group. Available measures of activity access, food environment, and settlement patterns are then assessed in terms of how far they can account for geographic variation. A county level regression analysis uses a Bayesian methodology that controls for spatial correlation in unmeasured area risk factors. It is found that environmental measures do play a significant role in explaining geographic contrasts in obesity.

  8. A Simulation Framework for Exploring Socioecological Dynamics and Sustainability of Settlement Systems Under Stress in Ancient Mesopotamia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, J. H.; Altaweel, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    The presentation will describe an object-oriented, agent-based simulation framework being used to help answer longstanding questions regarding the development trajectories and sustainability of ancient Mesopotamian settlement systems. This multidisciplinary, multi-model framework supports explicit, fine-scale representations of the dynamics of key natural processes such as crop growth, hydrology, and weather, operating concurrently with social processes such as kinship-driven behaviors, farming and herding practices, social stratification, and economic and political activities carried out by social agents that represent individual persons, households, and larger-scale organizations. The framework has allowed us to explore the inherently coupled dynamics of modeled settlements and landscapes that are undergoing diverse social and environmental stresses, both acute and chronic, across multi-generational time spans. The simulation framework was originally used to address single-settlement scenarios, but has recently been extended to begin to address settlement system sustainability issues at sub-regional to regional scale, by introducing a number of new dynamic mechanisms, such as the activities of nomadic communities, that manifest themselves at these larger spatial scales. The framework is flexible and scalable and has broad applicability. It has, for example, recently been adapted to address agroeconomic sustainability of settlement systems in modern rural Thailand, testing the resilience and vulnerability of settled landscapes in the face of such perturbations as large-scale political interventions, global economic shifts, and climate change.

  9. Custom synthesis of isotope-labelled Apis mellifera Pheromone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conanan, Aida P.; Cortes, Nicole Marie A.; Daguno, Cristel Lyn R.; Templonuevo, Jose Angelo A.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the optimum conditions for the synthesis of the isotope-labelled isopentyl acetate. Isopentyl acetate is widely used as a raw material in industries, in syntheses, and is utilized as a sex attractant (pheromone) by the bee species, Apis mellifera. The isotope labelling of isopentyl acetate will allow tracking of the fate and movement of the isopentyl acetate in the environment, in chemical transformations, and in biological systems. Esterification by alcoholysis of acetic acid was optimized for the preparation of Carbon-14( 14 C)-labelled isopentyl acetate from 14 C-labelled acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol. The different conditions studied were: (1) The effects of acid catalysis and/or reflux on the incorporation and retention of the isotope label on the product. The efficiency of label incorporation and retention was determined through the beta radioactivity of Carbon 14 in each of the synthetic constructs. Determination of the beta radioactivity concentration of 14 C in the isopentyl acetate product was done using low level liquid scintillation spectrometry. Each of the synthetic products was mixed with Ultima Gold scintillation cocktail in a low potassium glass scintillation vial, and analysed in a low-level Wallac 1414 scintillation counter. The application of catalysis without reflux resulted in the highest yield (35%). The same condition also resulted in the highest abundance of carbon isotope label with 2.40 Bequerels per cubic centimetre, Bq/cc (measurement unit for radioactivity). (author)

  10. Olfaction and Pheromones: Uncanonical Sensory Influences and Bulbar Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vargas-Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rodent main and accessory olfactory systems (AOS are considered functionally and anatomically segregated information-processing pathways. Each system is devoted to the detection of volatile odorants and pheromones, respectively. However, a growing number of evidences supports a cooperative interaction between them. For instance, at least four non-canonical receptor families (i.e., different from olfactory and vomeronasal receptor families have been recently discovered. These atypical receptor families are expressed in the sensory organs of the nasal cavity and furnish parallel processing-pathways that detect specific stimuli and mediate specific behaviors as well. Aside from the receptor and functional diversity of these sensory modalities, they converge into a poorly understood bulbar area at the intersection of the main- main olfactory bulb (MOB and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB that has been termed olfactory limbus (OL. Given the intimate association the OL with specialized glomeruli (i.e., necklace and modified glomeruli receiving uncanonical sensory afferences and its interactions with the MOB and AOB, the possibility that OL is a site of non-olfactory and atypical vomeronasal sensory decoding is discussed.

  11. Tilapia male urinary pheromone stimulates female reproductive axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Mar; Almeida, Olinda G; Canário, Adelino V M; Hubbard, Peter C

    2014-01-15

    Mozambique tilapia males congregate in leks where they establish dominance hierarchies and attract females to spawn in sandy pits. Dominant males store more urine than subordinates and the pattern of urination and the high sensitivity of females to male urine suggest chemical signalling via the urine. Here we show that pre-ovulated and post-spawn females when exposed to dominant male urine increased significantly, in less than 1h, the release rate of the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one which is maintained elevated for at least 6h. This indicates a pheromonal role for male urine in the synchronisation of spawning. Furthermore, we show that the lack of affinity of 17,20βP to sex steroid binding globulin explains, at least partly, its rapid release and lack of detection in the blood. Thus tilapia urine involvement in several communication processes confirms that cichlids have evolved a sophisticated chemical signalling system together with their complex visual, acoustic and behavioural displays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breaking new ground in mapping human settlements from space - The Global Urban Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Thomas; Heldens, Wieke; Hirner, Andreas; Keil, Manfred; Marconcini, Mattia; Roth, Achim; Zeidler, Julian; Dech, Stefan; Strano, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Today, approximately 7.2 billion people inhabit the Earth and by 2050 this number will have risen to around nine billion, of which about 70% will be living in cities. The population growth and the related global urbanization pose one of the major challenges to a sustainable future. Hence, it is essential to understand drivers, dynamics, and impacts of the human settlements development. A key component in this context is the availability of an up-to-date and spatially consistent map of the location and distribution of human settlements. It is here that the Global Urban Footprint (GUF) raster map can make a valuable contribution. The new global GUF binary settlement mask shows a so far unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.4″ (∼ 12m) that provides - for the first time - a complete picture of the entirety of urban and rural settlements. The GUF has been derived by means of a fully automated processing framework - the Urban Footprint Processor (UFP) - that was used to analyze a global coverage of more than 180,000 TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X radar images with 3 m ground resolution collected in 2011-2012. The UFP consists of five main technical modules for data management, feature extraction, unsupervised classification, mosaicking and post-editing. Various quality assessment studies to determine the absolute GUF accuracy based on ground truth data on the one hand and the relative accuracies compared to established settlements maps on the other hand, clearly indicate the added value of the new global GUF layer, in particular with respect to the representation of rural settlement patterns. The Kappa coefficient of agreement compared to absolute ground truth data, for instance, shows GUF accuracies which are frequently twice as high as those of established low resolution maps. Generally, the GUF layer achieves an overall absolute accuracy of about 85%, with observed minima around 65% and maxima around 98%. The GUF will be provided open and free for any scientific use in

  13. Differential gene expression at coral settlement and metamorphosis--a subtractive hybridization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Hayward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A successful metamorphosis from a planktonic larva to a settled polyp, which under favorable conditions will establish a future colony, is critical for the survival of corals. However, in contrast to the situation in other animals, e.g., frogs and insects, little is known about the molecular basis of coral metamorphosis. We have begun to redress this situation with previous microarray studies, but there is still a great deal to learn. In the present paper we have utilized a different technology, subtractive hybridization, to characterize genes differentially expressed across this developmental transition and to compare the success of this method to microarray. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH was used to identify two pools of transcripts from the coral, Acropora millepora. One is enriched for transcripts expressed at higher levels at the pre-settlement stage, and the other for transcripts expressed at higher levels at the post-settlement stage. Virtual northern blots were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the subtractive hybridization technique. Both pools contain transcripts coding for proteins in various functional classes but transcriptional regulatory proteins were represented more frequently in the post-settlement pool. Approximately 18% of the transcripts showed no significant similarity to any other sequence on the public databases. Transcripts of particular interest were further characterized by in situ hybridization, which showed that many are regulated spatially as well as temporally. Notably, many transcripts exhibit axially restricted expression patterns that correlate with the pool from which they were isolated. Several transcripts are expressed in patterns consistent with a role in calcification. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized over 200 transcripts that are differentially expressed between the planula larva and post-settlement polyp of the coral, Acropora millepora

  14. Litigation and the Timing of Settlement: Evidence from Commercial Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Grajzl; Katarina Zajc

    2015-01-01

    Although an overwhelming proportion of all legal disputes end in settlement, the determinants of the timing of settlement remain empirically underexplored. We draw on a novel dataset on the duration of commercial disputes in Slovenia to study how the timing of settlement is shaped by the stages and features of the litigation process. Using competing risk regression analysis, we find that events such as court-annexed mediation and the first court session, which enable the disputing parties to ...

  15. Blok laif : an ethnography of a Mosbi settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Hukula, Fiona Sonia Karejo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about urban sociality in the context of an urban settlement in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. I explore issues of urban life through everyday stories of settlers who reside in a settlement (also known as a blok) at Nine Mile, Port Moresby. I present settlers’ ideas of work and money through their income generating efforts as well as their perception about giving. This thesis explores settlement notions of the forms that relatedness takes through everyday inte...

  16. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  17. Genome-wide identification of pheromone-targeted transcrption in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue-Franzen, Y.; Kjærulff, S.; Holmberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Fission yeast cells undergo sexual differentiation in response to nitrogen starvation. In this process haploid M and P cells first mate to form diploid zygotes, which then enter meiosis and sporulate. Prior to mating, M and P cells communicate with diffusible mating pheromones that act......Background Fission yeast cells undergo sexual differentiation in response to nitrogen starvation. In this process haploid M and P cells first mate to form diploid zygotes, which then enter meiosis and sporulate. Prior to mating, M and P cells communicate with diffusible mating pheromones...... transcription factor is responsible for the majority of pheromone-induced transcription. Finally, most cell-type specific genes now appear to be identified in fission yeast....

  18. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species

  20. The Researches on Cycle-Changeable Generation Settlement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Jun; LONG, Suyan; LV, Jianhu

    2018-03-01

    Through the analysis of the business characteristics and problems of price adjustment, a cycle-changeable generation settlement method is proposed to support any time cycle settlement, and put forward a complete set of solutions, including the creation of settlement tasks, time power dismantle, generating fixed cycle of electricity, net energy split. At the same time, the overall design flow of cycle-changeable settlement is given. This method supports multiple price adjustments during the month, and also is an effective solution to the cost reduction of month-after price adjustment.

  1. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manseau, Nicole C

    2008-01-01

    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  2. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  3. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  4. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study...... of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  5. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Four Stereoisomers of the Sex Pheromone of the Western Corn Rootworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Feng Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A convergent synthesis of four stereoisomers of the sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm (8-methyldecan-2-yl propionate, 1 from commercially available chiral starting materials is reported. The key step was Julia–Kocienski olefination between chiral BT-sulfone and chiral aldehyde. This synthetic route provided the four stereoisomers of 1 in 24–29% total yield via a six-step sequence. The simple scale-up strategy provides a new way to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of the sex pheromone.

  6. Queen pheromones in Temnothorax ants: control or honest signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroiss Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The division of reproductive labor among group members in insect societies is regulated by "queen pheromones". However, it remains controversial whether these are manipulative, i.e., actively suppress worker reproduction, or honestly signal the fertility status of the queen to which workers react in their own interest by refraining from laying eggs. Manipulative queen control is thought to lead to an evolutionary arms race between queens and workers, resulting in complex queen bouquets that diverge strongly among different populations and species. In contrast, honest signals would evolve more slowly and might therefore differ less strongly within and among species. Results We aimed at determining the tempo of the evolution of queen signals in two ways. First, we investigated whether queens of Temnothorax ants are capable of controlling egg laying by workers of their own, closely, and distantly related species. Second, we compared the species- and caste-specific patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are assumed to convey information on reproductive status. In mixed-species colonies, queens were not able to fully suppress egg-laying and male production by workers of unrelated species, while workers did not reproduce under the influence of a queen from their own species. Furthermore, the chemical profiles differed more strongly among queens of different species than among the respective workers. Conclusions Our results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbons associated with fecundity are not fully conserved in evolution and evolve slightly faster than worker-specific components in the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons. While this higher rate of evolution might reflect an arms race between queens and workers, the observation that workers still respond to the presence of a queen from another species support the honest signal hypothesis. Future studies need to examine alternative explanations for a higher rate of evolution of queen

  7. Male-produced pheromone of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R; Young, Kevin; Welshons, Dewayne O; Margaryan, Armenak; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

    2006-10-01

    Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis showed that male antennae of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister, the most common lacewing species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, consistently responded to two compounds in thoracic extracts of conspecific males: 1-tridecene and (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial. These compounds were not detected in extracts of the abdominal cuticle, and no other antennally active compounds were found in the abdominal samples. In field-trapping experiments, traps baited with iridodial significantly attracted large numbers of C. nigricornis males (both western and eastern forms) during summer and early fall, plus a few individuals of conspecific females only in early fall. Iridodial also attracted males of the goldeneyed lacewing, C. oculata Say, and, to a lesser extent, C. coloradensis Banks males. Methyl salicylate (MS), reported as an attractant for both sexes of C. nigricornis and C. oculata, was inactive by itself at the concentration tested in our study, but in a few instances slightly enhanced the responses of Chrysopa spp. to iridodial. However, MS alone and its binary blend with iridodial seemed to attract the hoverfly, Metasyrphus americanus (Weidemann). 2-Phenylethanol, a reported attractant for another lacewing, Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch) [=carnea (Say)], did not capture any lacewings. Our assays indicated that the lacewing pheromone, iridodial, loaded onto either rubber septa or as a binary blend with MS in polyethylene bags could last at least 5 wk in the field during the summer season. Based on this study, a new attractant system for green lacewings is being developed for both domestic and international markets.

  8. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the rural area in Progo river basin consists 56 sub districts (34 sub districts part of Jawa Tengah Province, and 22 sub districts part of Yogyakarta Special Region. The whole sub districts are such as unit analysis, and research method is based on secondary data analysis. Several data consist Districts Region in Figure 1997 and 2003 (Temanggung, Magelang, Kulon Progo, Sleman and Bantul such as secondary data analysis. Data analysis employs of frequency and cross tabulation, statistics of regression and test. Result of the research shows that population growth of the rural areas in Progo river basin are about 0.72% annum; or the household growth about 3.15% annum as long as five years (1996-2003. Spatial distribution of the population growth in the upper part of the Progo river basin is higher than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The number proportion of farmer in every sub district area in this river basin have increased from 69.95% in 1997 to 70.81% in the year of 2003. It means that work opportunities broadening are still sluggish. However, the number proportion of farmers in the upper part of the Progo river basin is lower than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The rates of settlement land areas changes (0.32 ha/annum as long as five years (1997-2003 is not as fast as the rates of agricultural land areas changes (0.47 ha/annum. Spatial land settlement areas changes in the lower (6.1 ha/annum and middle parts (2.4 ha/annum faster than

  9. 77 FR 13137 - Draft Policy on Consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Claims Settlement Act Corporations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior ACTION: Notice of... draft policy on consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. DATES: Submit... consultation policy also applies to corporations established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act...

  10. 76 FR 76437 - Notice of Lodging of a Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... of Lodging of a Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement between the debtors and the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter ``Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement...

  11. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Overview and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei N. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck. Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following, invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to disrupt mate finding, has been successfully implemented in oriental fruit moth control. Reservoir-style dispensers made of polyethylene tubes, which release pheromone throughout the full growing season, are the current industry standard. Although reasonably effective, they require labor-intensive hand application. Recently, a new formulation, paraffin wax, which maximizes competition between point sources of synthetic pheromone and feral females for males, was shown to have high disruption performance. As this formulation is highly effective, inexpensive, and easy to produce, further study and development are advisable. Increased understanding of the principles of mating disruption will aid in the design of more effective dispensers. Continued research is needed to meet grower concerns with regard to risk, efficacy, and cost and to identify other semiochemicals that can be applied to this delivery system. Greater knowledge of the integration of different biological control methods is therefore essential.

  12. Alternative splicing produces two transcripts encoding female-biased pheromone subfamily receptors in the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F Garczynski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors are key sensors of environmental odors and members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily are thought to play important roles in mate finding by recognizing sex pheromones. Much research has been done to identify putative pheromone receptors in lepidopteran males, but little attention has been given to female counterparts. In this study, degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed against a conserved amino acid region in the C-terminus of lepidopteran pheromone receptors were used in 3’ RACE reactions to identify candidate pheromone receptors expressed in the antennae of female navel orangeworm. Two near full-length transcripts of 1469 nt and 1302 nt encoding the complete open reading frames for proteins of 446 and 425 amino acids, respectively, were identified. Based on BLAST homology and phylogenetic analyses, the putative proteins encoded by these transcripts are members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily. Characterization of these transcripts indicates that they are alternatively spliced products of a single gene. Tissue expression studies indicate that the transcripts are female-biased with detection mainly in female antennae. To the best of our knowledge, these transcripts represent the first detection of alternatively spliced female-biased members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily.

  13. Re: The Search for Human Pheromones: The Lost Decades and the Necessity of Returning to First Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Pheromones are chemical signals that have evolved for communication with other members of the same species. We do not know yet if humans have pheromones. Over the last 45 years, some scientists have claimed that a number of molecules are human pheromones, but these claims have little scientific validity. The first chemical identification of a pheromone, the silk moth’s female sex pheromone (bombykol, achieved by the German chemist Adolf Butenandt and after this finding, four steroid molecules have been described as human pheromones: androstenone, androstenol, androstadienone and estratetraenol. The possibility of human pheromones has been downplayed in part because in the past, it has been assumed erroneously that we have a poor sense of smell. Humans have a “main olfactory system” but they do not have a functional vomeronasal organ (or “second nose”; Jacobson’s organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals. It lies close to the vomer and nasal bones. In the near future, researches will be focused on identification and synthesis of these bioactive molecule(s, followed by bioassay techniques, again. Especially, comparison of secretions from adult and pre-pubertal humans may highlight potential molecules involved in sexual behaviour. Further search will benefit from the techniques developed by olfactory researchers including those who have worked on the steroids previously.

  14. 5 CFR 178.207 - Claims settlement jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims settlement jurisdiction. 178.207 Section 178.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Claims settlement jurisdiction. (a) District of Columbia and Government corporations. Claims for unpaid...

  15. 28 CFR 43.3 - Settlement and waiver of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and waiver of claims. 43.3 Section 43.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RECOVERY OF COST OF HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CARE AND TREATMENT FURNISHED BY THE UNITED STATES § 43.3 Settlement and waiver of claims. (a) The...

  16. Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on Poverty Reduction: The Case of Dar es Salaam City. ... Properties found in these areas are sound or improvable. ... Key words: regularisation, formalisation, land tenure, property rights, unplanned/informal settlements, poverty reduction, Dar es Salaam ...

  17. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal (Short...

  18. 29 CFR 102.51 - Settlement or adjustment of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement or adjustment of issues. 102.51 Section 102.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... Before the Board § 102.51 Settlement or adjustment of issues. At any stage of a proceeding prior to...

  19. Settlement pattern and survival of a shell-infesting sabellid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tested whether abalone diet influences larval settlement success of the shell-dwelling sabellid polychaete Terebrasabella heterouncinata and their survival over the first 96h after settlement on host abalone. Shell area preferences of the sabellid were also investigated. Abalone diet (fresh kelp, Ecklonia maxima or ...

  20. 31 CFR 50.82 - Advance approval of settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of action for property damage, personal injury, or death, asserted by a third-party or parties... INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.82 Advance approval of settlements... advance approval any proposed agreement to settle or compromise any Federal cause of action for property...

  1. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification... accounting rate modification, filed pursuant to § 64.1001, that includes a settlement rate that is at or... behavior that is harmful to U.S. customers. Carriers and other parties filing complaints must support their...

  2. Building resilient human settlements in a climate of change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this chapter is to 1) note the impacts of climate change on human settlements and vice versa, and 2) propose design and institutional strategies to improve the resilience of human settlements to withstand these impacts...

  3. Resilience and social costs: centralised towns vs. distributed settlements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    In government reports and political debates in Greenland it is often stated, that the divided settlement in general and especially the settlements are too costly, and that the outlying districts in general do not contribute sufficiently to the national economy. This presumption is used as an argu...

  4. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  5. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... other assessments or charges on the real property; (14) Rendering of services by a real estate agent or... Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X); Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) to the Bureau...

  6. 47 CFR 3.11 - Location of settlement operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Eligibility § 3.11 Location of settlement operation. (a) Within the United States. A certified accounting authority maintaining all settlement operations, as well as associated documentation, within the United States will be...

  7. The effect of gregariousness in cyprid settlement assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, R.M.; Overbeke, J.C.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Biersteker, R.; Thomason, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro settlement assay using cyprids of Balanus, amphitrite is an important tool in basic and applied research. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of gregariousness within these assays, and to determine the interaction between gregariousness and container size, and settlement

  8. 29 CFR 4043.35 - Bankruptcy or similar settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bankruptcy or similar settlement. 4043.35 Section 4043.35....35 Bankruptcy or similar settlement. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for a plan when any member of the plan's controlled group— (1) Commences a bankruptcy case (under the Bankruptcy Code...

  9. 48 CFR 6302.31 - Settlement (Rule 31).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement (Rule 31). 6302.31 Section 6302.31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.31 Settlement (Rule 31). A dispute may be settled at any time...

  10. Engineering approach to model and compute electric power markets settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, J.; Petrov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Back-office accounting settlement activities are an important part of market operations in Independent System Operator (ISO) organizations. A potential way to measure ISO market design correctness is to analyze how well market price signals create incentives or penalties for creating an efficient market to achieve market design goals. Market settlement rules are an important tool for implementing price signals which are fed back to participants via the settlement activities of the ISO. ISO's are currently faced with the challenge of high volumes of data resulting from the increasing size of markets and ever-changing market designs, as well as the growing complexity of wholesale energy settlement business rules. This paper analyzed the problem and presented a practical engineering solution using an approach based on mathematical formulation and modeling of large scale calculations. The paper also presented critical comments on various differences in settlement design approaches to electrical power market design, as well as further areas of development. The paper provided a brief introduction to the wholesale energy market settlement systems and discussed problem formulation. An actual settlement implementation framework and discussion of the results and conclusions were also presented. It was concluded that a proper engineering approach to this domain can yield satisfying results by formalizing wholesale energy settlements. Significant improvements were observed in the initial preparation phase, scoping and effort estimation, implementation and testing. 5 refs., 2 figs

  11. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant.Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants.SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  12. Glandular sources of pheromones used to control host workers (Apis mellifera scutellata) by socially parasitic workers of Apis mellifera capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Yusuf, Abdullahi A

    2017-10-01

    Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days. The results showed that A. m. capensis invasive clones used both mandibular and tergal gland secretions to achieve reproductive dominance and suppress ovarian activation in their A. m. scutellata host workers. The reproductively dominant workers (false queens) produced more queen-like pheromones and inhibited ovarian activation in subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. These results show that tergal gland pheromones working in synergy with pheromones from other glands allow individual workers (false queens) to establish reproductive dominance within these social groups and to act in a manner similar to that of queens. Thus suggesting that, the evolution of reproductively dominant individuals (queens or false queens) and subordinate individuals (workers) in social insects like the honey bee is the result of a complex interplay of pheromonal signals from different exocrine glands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  14. The development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to informal settlements around Daveyton on the East Rand, 1970-1999

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. The purpose of the study is to analyse the development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to the role of the Government in the improvement of informal settlement conditions around Daveyton, especially at the Etwatwa informal settlement. Research has shown that there is common experience in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America in as far as the development of squatter settlements or informal settlements are concerned. This st...

  15. Sex Pheromone of the Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, with an Unusual Cyclobutane Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

    2016-11-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, the distribution of which was formerly limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions, recently invaded many countries in various regions including Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. More recently, P. solenopsis was newly recorded in Japan and is currently an emerging pest of agricultural crops. In this study, we determined the structure of a sex pheromone of P. solenopsis in order to develop an effective lure for monitoring this pest. From volatiles emitted by virgin adult females, we isolated a compound attractive to males. By means of coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified this as (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclobutyl)methyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate. This compound was synthesized and shown to be attractive to male P. solenopsis. Analysis by gas chromatography using an enantioselective stationary phase and polarimetry analyses of the natural pheromone and synthetic enantiomers showed the natural compound to be the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. This compound is an ester of maconelliol, which has an unusual cyclobutane structure found in sex pheromones of other mealybug species, and senecioic acid, also found in the pheromones of other mealybug species. However, this is the first example of the ester of maconelliol and senecioic acid as a natural product.

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes dauer pheromone biosynthesis to dispose of toxic peroxisomal fatty acids for cellular homoeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenorhabditis elegans secretes a dauer pheromone or daumone composed of ascarylose and a fatty acid side chain, perception of which enables worms to gauge depletion of food or a high worm population density. As a result, worms enter the dauer state, a specific developmental stage capable of surviv...

  17. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  18. The role of desaturases in the biosynthesis of marking pheromones in bumblebee males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Vogel, H.; Matoušková, Petra; Prchalová, Darina; Žáček, Petr; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Šebesta, Petr; Svatoš, Aleš; Jahn, Ullrich; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2013), s. 724-731 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * bumblebee * Hymenoptera * pheromone * RNA-seq * functional expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2013

  19. Pheromone-Induced Olfactory Memory in Newborn Rabbits: Involvement of Consolidation and Reconsolidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Languille, Solene; Schaal, Benoist; Hars, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Mammary pheromone (MP)-induced odor memory is a new model of appetitive memory functioning early in a mammal, the newborn rabbit. Some properties of this associative memory are analyzed by the use of anisomycin as an amnesic agent. Long-term memory (LTM) was impaired by anisomycin delivered immediately, but not 4 h after either acquisition or…

  20. Aphid alarm pheromone as a cue for ants to locate aphid partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J Verheggen

    Full Text Available The mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural enemies. While aphid predators and parasitoids actively forage for oviposition sites by using aphid semiochemicals, scouts of aphid-tending ant species would also benefit from locating honeydew resources by orienting toward aphid pheromone sources. The present study aims to provide additional information on the use of Aphis fabae alarm pheromone, i.e. (E-β-farnesene (EβF, by ant scouts. The perception and behavioral impact of EβF on Lasius niger were investigated using electroantennography and two bio-assays measuring their attraction and orientation towards aphid semiochemicals. Pronounced electrical depolarizations were observed from L. niger scout antennae to stimulations of A. fabae alarm pheromone, while other sesquiterpenes elicited weak or no responses. L. niger scouts were significantly attracted toward EβF in a four-arm olfactometer, as well as in an two-choice bioassay. These laboratory results suggest for the first time that low amounts of aphid alarm pheromone can be used by L. niger scouts as a cue indicating the presence of aphid colonies and could therefore mediate the aphid-ant partnership in the field.

  1. Coincidence of pheromone and plant odor leads to sensory plasticity in the heliothine olfactory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ian

    Full Text Available Male moths possess a highly specialized olfactory system comprised of two segregated sub-arrangements dedicated to processing information about plant odors and pheromones, respectively. Communication between these two sub-systems has been described at the peripheral level, but relatively little is known about putative interactions at subsequent synaptic relays. The male moth faces the challenge of seeking out the conspecific female in a highly dynamic odor world. The female-produced pheromone blend, which is a limited resource serving as guidance for the male, will reach his antennae in intermittent pockets of odor filaments mixed with volatiles from various plants. In the present study we performed calcium imaging for measuring odor-evoked responses in the uni-glomerular antennal-lobe projection neurons (analog to mitral cells in the vertebrate olfactory bulb of Helicoverpa armigera. In order to investigate putative interactions between the two sub-systems tuned to plant volatiles and pheromones, respectively, we performed repeated stimulations with a selection of biologically relevant odors. We found that paired stimulation with a plant odor and the pheromone led to suppressed responses in both sub-systems as compared to those evoked during initial stimulation including application of each odor stimulus alone. The fact that the suppression persisted also after pairing, indicates the existence of a Hebbian-like plasticity in the primary olfactory center established by temporal pairing of the two odor stimulation categories.

  2. Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones: A plasmid and enterococcal odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Clewell, Don B

    2011-01-01

    This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  3. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  4. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  5. Identification and field and laboratory tests of the sex pheromone of Cerconota anonella Sepp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pires, E. V.; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Serra, M. S. J.; da Silva, R. C. C.; dos Santos, D. C.; Campos, R. S.; Santana, A. E. G.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, 1/2 (2016), s. 72-80 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Annona fruit borer * GC x GC-TOFMS * GC-EAD * sex pheromone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  6. Manipulation of insect behavior with Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology (SPLAT®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenor Mafra-Neto; Frédérique M. de Lame; Christopher J. Fettig; A. Steven Munson; Thomas M. Perring; Lukasz L. Stelinski; Lyndsie Stoltman; Leandro E.J. Mafra; Rafael Borges; Roger I. Vargas

    2013-01-01

    SPLAT® (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology) emulsion is a unique controlled-release technology that can be adapted to dispense and protect a wide variety of compounds from degradation, including semiochemicals, pesticides, and phagostimulants, in diverse environments. ISCA Technologies, Inc., in collaboration with colleagues in academia, government,...

  7. Pheromone evolution and sexual behavior in Drosophila are shaped by male sensory exploitation of other males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soon Hwee; Shankar, Shruti; Shikichi, Yasumasa; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y

    2014-02-25

    Animals exhibit a spectacular array of traits to attract mates. Understanding the evolutionary origins of sexual features and preferences is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, and the mechanisms remain highly controversial. In some species, females choose mates based on direct benefits conferred by the male to the female and her offspring. Thus, female preferences are thought to originate and coevolve with male traits. In contrast, sensory exploitation occurs when expression of a male trait takes advantage of preexisting sensory biases in females. Here, we document in Drosophila a previously unidentified example of sensory exploitation of males by other males through the use of the sex pheromone CH503. We use mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and behavioral analysis to demonstrate that an antiaphrodisiac produced by males of the melanogaster subgroup also is effective in distant Drosophila relatives that do not express the pheromone. We further show that species that produce the pheromone have become less sensitive to the compound, illustrating that sensory adaptation occurs after sensory exploitation. Our findings provide a mechanism for the origin of a sex pheromone and show that sensory exploitation changes male sexual behavior over evolutionary time.

  8. Reinvestigation of Cactoblastis Captorum (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) sex pheromone for improved attractiveness and greater specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) is recognized as an invasive species in the Caribbean, United States, and Mexico with potential to adversely impact native cactus population. Prior work using hexane extracts of sex glands showed that the sex pheromone of this species has 54% of (Z, E) -9.12 tetradecadi...

  9. Identification of the Trail-Following Pheromone of the Pest Termite Amitermes evuncifer (Isoptera: Termitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotoklo, E. A.; Sillam-Dusses, David; Kétoh, G.; Sémon, E.; Robert, A.; Bordereau, Ch.; Glitho, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2010), s. 579-588 ISSN 0361-6525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dodecatrienol * neocembrene * multicomponent pheromone * termites Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  10. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  11. The ras1 function of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mediates pheromone-induced transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Davey, William John; Egel, R

    1992-01-01

    transcription of mat1-Pm in response to M factor. Furthermore, an activated ras1val17 mutant exhibits a stronger induction of the mat1-Pm transcript. However, transcription still depends on nitrogen deprivation as well as on the presence of pheromone, showing that activation of the Ras1 protein alone does...

  12. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  13. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldhoff Pamela W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF, respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component.

  14. Multi-species pheromone-based mating disruption: Moth birth control in cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a proven method of pest control, but in cranberries, tailoring this technology to modern production practices has been difficult. Using the wax carrier, SPLAT, we have overcome many of these difficulties and now have three years of data suggesting that mating dis...

  15. Stylopsal: The First Identified Female-produced Sex Pheromone of Strepsiptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvačka, Josef; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Straka, J.; Černá, K.; Šebesta, Petr; Tomčala, Aleš; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jahn, Ullrich; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 12 (2012), s. 1483-1491 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1466 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : strepsiptera * stylops * sex pheromone * aldehyde * trimethyldodecanal * fat body Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  16. Disruption Of Secondary Attraction Of The Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, By Pheromones Of Two Sympatric Spcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; J. H. Borden

    1998-01-01

    Capture of spruce beetles, Dendroctonus rufipennis, in multiple-funnel traps baited with frontalin and -pinene was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of synthetic (+)-exo- and (+)-endo-brevicomin, aggregation pheromones of the sympatric species Dryocoetes affaber. (+)-endo-...

  17. Age-dependent attractivity of males’ sexual pheromones in Bombus terrestris (L.) [Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coppée, Audrey; Mathy, T.; Cammaerts, M.; Verheggen, F. J.; Terzo, M.; Iserbyt, S.; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2011), s. 75-82 ISSN 0937-7409 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bombus terrestris * sexual pheromones * age-dependent variation * behavioural tests Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2011

  18. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  19. Intraspecific variation in female sex pheromone of the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duménil, C.; Judd, G.J.R.; Bosch, D.; Baldessari, M.; Gemeno, C.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the

  20. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J R; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-09-26

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  1. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  2. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  3. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  4. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  5. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  6. Attractant pheromone of the neotropical species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood)(Heteroptera: Alydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood), is adapted to various leguminous crops, and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce...

  7. Simultaneously hermaphroditic shrimp use lipophilic cuticular hydrocarbons as contact sex pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Successful mating is essentially a consequence of making the right choices at the correct time. Animals use specific strategies to gain information about a potential mate, which is then applied to decision-making processes. Amongst the many informative signals, odor cues such as sex pheromones play important ecological roles in coordinating mating behavior, enabling mate and kin recognition, qualifying mate choice, and preventing gene exchange among individuals from different populations and species. Despite overwhelming behavioral evidence, the chemical identity of most cues used in aquatic organisms remains unknown and their impact and omnipresence have not been fully recognized. In many crustaceans, including lobsters and shrimps, reproduction happens through a cascade of events ranging from initial attraction to formation of a mating pair eventually leading to mating. We examined the hypothesis that contact pheromones on the female body surface of the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata boggessi are of lipophilic nature, and resemble insect cuticular hydrocarbon contact cues. Via chemical analyses and behavioural assays, we show that newly molted euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp contain a bouquet of odor compounds. Of these, (Z-9-octadecenamide is the key odor with hexadecanamide and methyl linoleate enhancing the bioactivity of the pheromone blend. Our results show that in aquatic systems lipophilic, cuticular hydrocarbon contact sex pheromones exist; this raises questions on how hydrocarbon contact signals evolved and how widespread these are in the marine environment.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1153 - Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1153 Lepidopteran pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a... similar synthetic compounds, designated by an unbranched aliphatic chain (between 9 and 18 carbons) ending... rate not to exceed 150 grams active ingredient/acre/year in accordance with good agricultural practices...

  9. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

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    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  10. Identification of a sex attractant pheromone for male winterform pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Millar, Jocelyn G; Horton, David R; Landolt, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, uses a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females to isolate and identify the pheromone. Post-diapause females produced significantly more of the cuticular hydrocarbon, 13-methylheptacosane, than post-diapause males and diapausing females. In olfactometer assays, conspecific males were attracted to synthetic racemic 13-methylheptacosane, whereas females were not, indicating that the behavioral response to this chemical is sex-specific. Furthermore, 13-methylheptacosane was as attractive to males as a cuticular extract of females, suggesting that this chemical was largely responsible for the female attractiveness. A field study showed that males but not females were attracted to 13-methylheptacosane, confirming the olfactometer results. This study provides evidence that 13-methylheptacosane is a sex attractant pheromone for C. pyricola winterform males. This is the first identification of a sex pheromone in the Psylloidea. Our results open the path to developing monitoring tools and possibly new strategies for integrated pest management of this insect.

  11. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  12. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera

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    Elodie Urlacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  13. Pheromones in sex and reproduction: Do they have a role in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are found throughout the living world and are a primal form of communication. These chemical messengers are transported outside the body and have a direct developmental effect on hormone levels and/or behaviour. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones in sex and reproduction. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and the Scopus engine. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations, were; olfaction; sex; pheromones; libido; behaviour; reproduction; humans; and smell. Although there are studies to support this phenomenon, they are weak because they were not controlled; others have proposed that human olfactory communication is able to perceive certain pheromones that may play a role in behavioural as well as reproductive biology. Unfolding the mysteries of smells and the way they are perceived requires more time and effort as humans are not systems that instinctively fall into a behaviour in response to an odour, they are thinking individuals that exercise judgment and subjected to different motivations.

  14. Transport of methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in the male fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah-Wei Hee, Alvin; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2006-08-01

    Males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) are attracted strongly to and feed compulsively on methyl eugenol (1,2-dimethoxy- 4 -(2-propenyl)benzene), a highly potent male attractant. Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol results in the production of phenylpropanoids 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and (E)-coniferyl alcohol that are sequestered and stored in the rectal gland prior to release as sex pheromonal components during mating at dusk. While these pheromonal components have also been detected in the hemolymph and crop of methyl eugenol-fed males, there is currently little information on the transport of these compounds from the crop to rectal gland in male B. dorsalis. Therefore, using physiological techniques such as parabiosis, rectal gland transplantation and hemolymph transfusion coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we were able to ascertain and confirm the role of the hemolymph in the transport of these sex pheromonal components from the crop to the rectal gland. Further, the temporal profile of these methyl eugenol-derived bioactive compounds in the hemolymph also shows an increase with time post-methyl eugenol-feeding, i.e., 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol attaining maximum amounts 15 min after ME consumption and decreasing thereafter, while for (E)-coniferyl alcohol-the increase and decrease are more gradual. These results further demonstrate the ability of insect hemolymph to transport many diverse forms of bioactive molecules including attractant-derived sex pheromonal components.

  15. Drosophila Food-Associated Pheromones: Effect of Experience, Genotype and Antibiotics on Larval Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Julien; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Animals ubiquitously use chemical signals to communicate many aspects of their social life. These chemical signals often consist of environmental cues mixed with species-specific signals—pheromones—emitted by conspecifics. During their life, insects can use pheromones to aggregate, disperse, choose a mate, or find the most suitable food source on which to lay eggs. Before pupariation, larvae of several Drosophila species migrate to food sources depending on their composition and the presence of pheromones. Some pheromones derive from microbiota gut activity and these food-associated cues can enhance larval attraction or repulsion. To explore the mechanisms underlying the preference (attraction/repulsion) to these cues and clarify their effect, we manipulated factors potentially involved in larval response. In particular, we found that the (i) early exposure to conspecifics, (ii) genotype, and (iii) antibiotic treatment changed D. melanogaster larval behavior. Generally, larvae—tested either individually or in groups—strongly avoided food processed by other larvae. Compared to previous reports on larval attractive pheromones, our data suggest that such attractive effects are largely masked by food-associated compounds eliciting larval aversion. The antagonistic effect of attractive vs. aversive compounds could modulate larval choice of a pupariation site and impact the dispersion of individuals in nature. PMID:26987117

  16. A delta9 desaturase from Bombus lucorum males: Investigation of the biosynthetic pathway of marking pheromones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušková, Petra; Luxová, Anna; Matoušková, J.; Jiroš, Pavel; Svatoš, Aleš; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 15 (2008), s. 2534-2541 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA AV ČR IAA4055403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biosynthesis * bumblebees * desaturase * marking pheromone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  17. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit

  18. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  19. Design and synthesis of bombykol analogues for probing pheromone-binding protein–ligand interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansurova, M.; Klusák, Vojtěch; Nešněrová, P.; Muck, A.; Doubský, J.; Svatoš, Aleš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2009), s. 1069-1076 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bombykol * pheromone * binding protein * nanoLC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2009

  20. Evolution of Gamete Motility Differences I. Relation Between Swimming Speed and Pheromonal Attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rolf F.; Janz, Robert F.; Schilstra, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is made using population genetic models of the evolution of gamete motility differences as a consequence of a pheromonal gametic approach mechanism. A stable swimming speed dimorphism may arise via disruptive selection on swimming speed, resulting from selection favouring a high

  1. Synthesis of insect pheromones belonging to the group of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorieva, Natalia Ya; Tsiklauri, Paata G [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-31

    Stereo- and regiocontrolled methods for the construction of a (Z)-trisubstituted C=C bond and for the regiospecific introduction of a chiral fragment are exemplified in total syntheses of insect pheromones belonging to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  2. Stereoselective total synthesis of some insect pheromones: (±-serricornine and (±-invictolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Pilli

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient (12 steps, 12% overallyield and stereoselective total synthesis of (±-serricornine (1 the sex pheromone of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricornine F is described. The preparation of intermediate 5, which encompasses the proper relative configuration of three contiguous chiral centers of (±-invictolide, (3, is discussed.

  3. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby Schal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml-1, composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (~240 kD and apolipophorin II (~85 kD. Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985 that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues.

  4. Chemical espionage by parasitic wasps : how Trichogramma species exploit moth sex pheromone systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noldus, L.P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions between insects are for a great deal mediated by semiochemicals. For instance, female moths release specific volatile chemicals in order to attract males of the same species. These substances are called sex pheromones. Egg parasitoids use various chemical cues in their search

  5. Competence without a competence pheromone in a natural isolate of Streptococcus infantis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ween, O; Teigen, S; Gaustad, P

    2002-01-01

    C and a two-component regulatory system encoded by comDE. Here we report that a natural isolate of a mitis group streptococcus (Atu-4) is competent for genetic transformation even though it has lost the gene encoding the competence pheromone. In contrast to other strains, induction of competence in Atu-4...

  6. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  7. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Paciorek

    Full Text Available We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota. Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  8. Mapping archaeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from Potaissa to Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN FODOREAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping archeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from potaissa to Napoca. We aim to analyze and correct several archaeological and historical data regarding some settlements included in an official document, issued by the Ministry of Culture from Romania, entitled the List of Historical Monuments (Lista Monumentelor Istorice / LMI. We focused our attention on the Roman road from Potaissa to Napoca, the main imperial road of Dacia. We described the route of the Roman road and corrected the old information in the list of historical monuments regarding the discoveries within the territory of the village of Aiton. Methodologically, we used data from the old literature, the modern Austro-Hungarian maps from the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, information from regional gazetteers and different journals. We aimed to offer new insights regarding the accurate location of these settlements and to debate upon the spatial relations of these settlements and their position within the landscape of Dacia. At the beginning of the study, we presented the present situation concerning the databases in Romania covering archaeological sites. The second part of our study discusses how the archaeological sites are recorded in the list of historical monuments. Then we offered several case studies This type of methodological approach will be applied in the future for other areas, in order to reconstruct the former landscape of the province of Dacia, as accurately as possible, using digital tools and modern maps. Our contribution also improved the quality of the data sets used for the topographical descriptions of archaeological sites in Romania.

  9. Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Bill S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered

  10. Lobesia botrana IPM: electrospun polyester microfibers serve as biodegradable sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S

    2013-01-01

    Modern insect pest management is faced with an increasingly sophisticated set of requirements. Control agent/dispenser combinations must be at the same time safe, nontoxic, inexpensive, reproducibly efficacious, environmentally compatible, biodegradable, and sustainable, and should be based on renewable resources. The methods employed preferably should be suitable for the growing and tightly controlled organic growing sector as well. All this calls for a level of sophistication and reproducibility previously unknown. Only very few systems can offer this kind of performance, but fortunately can be found in the area of suitable pheromone/dispenser combinations. This report is an attempt to adapt electrospun Ecoflex polyester micro fibers of the Greiner-Wendorff type to the very specific needs of the grape growing industry. Specifically required are "semi-intelligent" dispenser materials. On a weight basis, the electrospun product should achieve as high a proportion as possible of "retainable" sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate of Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) and should release it as uniformly as possible into the surrounding airspace. Using the Doye bioassay, some progress indeed has recently been achieved with electrospun Ecoflex microfibers of 0.5-3.5 microm diameter. They were employed as dispensers for programmed sex pheromone release with an effective mating disruption duration of up to seven weeks. With one microfiber/pheromone treatment, this covers one entire flight period of the trivoltine L. botrana. Mechanical application of this microfiber/pheromone preparation (with the option of automation) is possible. Disruption effects are comparable with those of commercially available dispensers of the Isonet type. Exposed under vineyard conditions, Ecoflex polyester fibers are a spider silk like material which is biodegradable within half a year. Thus, after releasing its pheromone load, it does not need removal, which saves one cultivation step

  11. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  12. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of

  13. Antidumping settlement rumors push prices up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The NUKEM price range jumped sharply last month, ending up at $8.05-$8.70. The market took off amidst reports that price and volume quotas would be part of the antidumping settlement being negotiated by certain CIS republics and the US Department of Commerce. And the republics got no relief from the US Court of International Trade. In an opinion issues September 25, Judge Jane Restani upheld the validity of Commerce's investigation, reinforcing the rising trend in prices. The lower end of the range was established by offers of CIS origin uranium to those utilities that will not be affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. Ten deals were completed on the spot market in September. In all but one, the sellers were intermediaries

  14. Population issues surface at human settlements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the debate about population issues at the UN Conference on Human Settlements, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996. The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements was adopted by world leaders at the conference. Leaders were committed to programs to improve standards of living, the right of citizens to adequate housing, and the mobilization of new financial resources. Dr. Sadik, as Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, stressed that natural increase accounts for 60% of urban population growth. Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, as UN Secretary General, stressed that over 50% of world population would live in urban centers by the year 2000, and almost 75% might do so by 2025. He indicated that all nations are interrelated; the poor and refugees from political conflict from one country travel to safer and richer countries. Dr. Sadik referred to the agreement at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) on stabilizing world population in the shortest time possible. This would require meeting the needs of men and women for health, education, and the power of personal decision making. The most important item was the satisfaction of women's need for reproductive health information and services and women's power to use services. Dr. Sadik urged that women be given the right to hold and inherit property and to obtain credit. It was pointed out that the language of Habitat's plan of action on population and development issues was frequently bracketed; consequently, the plan suffered from a lack of consensus. The debate between countries would end, if the language were not bracketed. Dr. Sadik recommended family planning for developing sustainable and liveable cities.

  15. Religion and settlement as preservers of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A separate ethnic group living in an isolated settlement could preserve ethnic identity even when surrounded by an alien ethnic environment. This is even more likely to happen if the ethnic group in question has a different religious affiliation than the rest, since the religious affiliation and ethnicity were often equated in the area examined. This paper presents a few cases of ethnicity preservation (sometimes its loss, namely: (1 The Sarakačans group (a Greek speaking ancient Balkan population; that is, its lineage Ašana in Goč (nearby Kraljevo; (2 Serbs in White Krajina (Slovenia and Zumberka (Croatia; (3 Serbs from former Montenegro settled in the village of Peroj, in Istria; (4 Catholic Albanians, tribe Klimenti settled in Srem' villages Nikinci, Hrtkovci and Jarak, who declare themselves to be Croatians today; (5 A Serbian population from Montenegro and parts of Herzegovina (various tribes from Ceklina, Bjelopavlić, Riječka nahija, Njeguš, Grahovo and Zubac, from Petlovo Selo, in northeast Serbia (6 Torbeša families, from the group Mijaka, an originally Slav-Islamic population in the Crni Drim area, that immigrated in the 1960's to Izmir, in Turkey; (7. Janjevci, Catholics of a mixed Slavic origin, from Janjevo near Priština; in the past they declared themselves natives of Dubrovnik but lately declared themselves Croatians; (8. Slovak Adventists from Gospođinci, in Srem, who declare themselves to be Serbs; and (9. Slovaks Greco-Catholic, from Kučura, Bačka, who declare themselves as Ruthenians although their native language is Slovakian. In conclusion, the author argues that ethnic identity preservation depends on a lot of factors and circumstances, among which the most important are settlement and religious affiliation. Many of the positive experiences of multilingual, multinational and multireligious tolerances in the area could serve as a model in other potentially troubled multicultural environments.

  16. Sound-Triggered Production of Antiaggregation Pheromone Limits Overcrowding of Dendroctonus valens Attacking Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Xin, Yucui; Xu, Bingbing; Raffa, Kenneth F; Sun, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees. We found that exo-brevicomin was produced by both female and male D. valens, and that this pheromone functioned as an antiaggregating signal. Moreover, beetles feeding in pairs or in masses were more likely than were beetles feeding alone to produce exo-brevicomin, suggesting a potential role of sound by neighboring beetles in stimulating exo-brevicomin production. Sound playback showed that an agreement sound was produced by both sexes when exposed to the aggregation pheromone frontalin and attracts males, and an aggressive sound was produced only by males behaving territorially. These signals triggered the release of exo-brevicomin by both females and males, indicating an interplay of chemical and sonic communication. This study demonstrates that the bark beetle D. valens uses sounds to regulate the production of an antiaggregation pheromone, which may provide new approaches to pest management of this invasive species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo

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    Helmut Hirt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF] is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis. To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo, we established either a CF-producing (CF+ recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF− recipient in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF− recipient. While rescue of the CF− mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro, no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo. This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo. In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF− recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, similar to that previously observed in serum.

  18. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina , it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  20. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  1. A complex set of sex pheromones identified in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Enault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. RESULTS: To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5'-expressed sequence tags (ESTs were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα' and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα' revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α' with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα' and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones.

  2. Modern tendencies in developing net of settlements of municipality Smederevo

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    Tošić Dragutin S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Net of settlements of municipality Smederevo consists of Smederevo city and 26 rural settlements. It is a subsystem of the Belgrade metropolitan region. It has 120,000 inhabitants, and 70,000 of them live in town. From 1960 to 2000 it passes through phase of intensive demographic and functional transformation. Processes of demographic redistribution, deagrarization and urbanization are especially emphasized, caused by polarization influence of Smederevo city. From 1960 to 1980 population was developing by natural and migration components, but in villages occurred emigration of young population and caused increased average of older people and intensive decrease of population growth, which became negative. Demographic growth occurs only in periurban settlements, while stagnation and depopulation are typical for other settlements. Process of functional transformation of settlements is apparent also. Relative single functionality with dominant industry and slow diversification function are characteristic for Smederevo city, while villages are transforming from pure rural to rural-industrial and rural-obliging. It caused their progressive urbanization that is especially expressed in periurban settlements and along main traffic communications. In following period the aim is demographic and functional decentralization of net of settlements, by taking planning measures according to the model of center of villages group.

  3. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  4. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized.

  5. Settlement of Canisters with smectite clay envelopes in deposition holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1986-12-01

    Settlement of canisters containing radioactive waste and being surrounded by dense smectite clay is caused by the stresses and heat induced in the clay. Consolidation by water expulsion of the clay underlying a model canister with 5 cm diameter and 30 cm length would theoretically account for a maximum finite settlement of about 70 my m in a few weeks, while shear-induced creep would yield a settlement of only a few microns in the same time period. These predictions were checked by running a laboratory test in which a dead load of 80 kg was applied to a small cylindrical copper canister embedded in Na bentonite. The settlement, which increased in proportion to log time, turned out to be about 6 my m in the first 2.5 months. After the first loading period at room temperature, heating to 50 degrees C and, after a 4 months long 'room temperature' period, to 70 degrees C took place. This cycling gave strong, instant settlement and upheaval because of the different thermal expansion of the interacting components of the system. After the development of constant temperature conditions in the entire system and completion of the consolidation or expansion that followed from the thermo-mechanical interactions, the settlement proceeded at a rather high rate at 70 degrees C, still following a log time creep law, but with somewhat stronger retardation. At room temperature, i.e. in the post-heating periods, the settlement seemed to cease, on the other hand. The conclusion from the study is that the canister movements under isothermal conditions were in accordance with the log t-type creep settlement that was predicted in theoretical grounds. Pre-heating and low stresses may account for extraordinary retardation of the settlement. (author)

  6. Preliminary laboratory and field trials of a heated pheromone trap for the sandfly lutzomyia logipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Ward

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A heated pheromone trap for the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis was tested in the laboratory using filter paper or plastic vial dispensers. Male pheromone extracted from 8 male tergal glands and absorbed on to filter paper dispensers attracted 82/120 (68.3% of virgin females released in cages. Similarly plastic vial dispensers baited with the extract of 24 males caught 73/120 (61%. In field trials carried out near januária, Minas Gerais, Brazil using the plastic dispensers baited with extracts of 50 male tergal glands only 70 female L. longipalpis were captured. Over 1000 male flies were, however, caught during 6 nights, with greater numbers in the unbaited control traps than in the pheromone baited test traps. It is concluded that at excessive concentrations male L. longipalpis pheromone may act as a repellent to conspecific males.

  7. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  8. Quantifying male and female pheromone-based mate choice in Caenorhabditis nematodes using a novel microfluidic technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Borne

    Full Text Available Pheromone cues are an important component of intersexual communication, particularly in regards to mate choice. Caenorhabditis nematodes predominant rely on pheromone production for mate finding and mate choice. Here we describe a new microfluidic paradigm for studying mate choice in nematodes. Specifically, the Pheromone Arena allows for a constant flow of odorants, including pheromones and other small molecules, to be passed in real time from signaling worms to those making a choice without any physical contact. We validated this microfluidic paradigm by corroborating previous studies in showing that virgin C. remanei and C. elegans males have a strong preference for virgin females over mated ones. Moreover, our results suggest that the strength of attraction is an additive effect of male receptivity and female signal production. We also explicitly examine female choice and find that females are more attracted to virgin males. However, a female's mate choice is strongly dependent on her mating status.

  9. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  10. Palama Settlement: 100 years of serving a neighborhood's needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, P

    1995-11-01

    The founding of Palama Settlement brought to those who might not be able to afford it public health nurses for maternal care and nutrition, well-baby clinics, tuberculosis clinics, medical and dental clinics, and eventually major support of medical needs during and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Palama Settlement celebrates its centennial year with many of its early functions assumed by state and private organizations, but it is prepared to enter the next 100 years of service to the community. Palama was founded by James Arthur Rath with the purpose of serving the community; many people today remember their childhood and Palama Settlement.

  11. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  12. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  13. Identification of lipases involved in PBAN stimulated pheromone production in Bombyx mori using the DGE and RNAi approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengfang Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN is a neurohormone that regulates sex pheromone synthesis in female moths. Bombyx mori is a model organism that has been used to explore the signal transduction pattern of PBAN, which is mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating PBAN-regulated lipolysis that releases the precursor of the sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular components involved in this step. To better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PBAN-stimulated lipolysis of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs, the associated lipase genes involved in PBAN- regulated sex pheromone biosynthesis were identified using digital gene expression (DGE and subsequent RNA interference (RNAi. RESULTS: Three DGE libraries were constructed from pheromone glands (PGs at different developed stages, namely, 72 hours before eclosion (-72 h, new emergence (0 h and 72 h after eclosion (72 h, to investigate the gene expression profiles during PG development. The DGE evaluated over 5.6 million clean tags in each PG sample and revealed numerous genes that were differentially expressed at these stages. Most importantly, seven lipases were found to be richly expressed during the key stage of sex pheromone synthesis and release (new emergence. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed for the first time that four of these seven lipases play important roles in sex pheromone synthesis. CONCLUSION: This study has identified four lipases directly involved in PBAN-stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis, which improve our understanding of the lipases involved in releasing bombykol precursors from triacylglycerols (TAGs within the cytoplasmic LDs.

  14. N-3-Methylbutanoyl-O-methylpropanoyl-L-serine Methyl Ester - Pheromone Component of Western Black Widow Females.

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    Scott, Catherine; McCann, Sean; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Chemical communication is common in spiders but few pheromones have been identified. Female widow spiders in the genus Latrodectus spin webs that disseminate an attractive sex pheromone, and a contact pheromone on the silk elicits courtship behavior by males. The methyl ester of N-3-methylbutanoyl-O-(S)-2-methylbutanoyl-L-serine is a contact pheromone of the Australian redback spider Latrodectus hasselti. We hypothesized that the contact pheromone of congeneric L. hesperus resembles that of L. hasselti. The silk of virgin L. hesperus females was extracted with methanol, and analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) provided evidence for the presence of N-3-methylbutanoyl-O-methylpropanoyl-L-serine methyl ester (MB-MP-S), a lower homologue of the L. hasselti contact pheromone. Behavioral responses of L. hesperus males to test stimuli were assayed on T-shaped rods with the end sections of the horizontal arm enveloped in filter paper. Males spent 40 % longer in contact with paper bearing female silk than with blank paper, and 39 % longer in contact with paper treated with silk extract than with solvent controls. Contact with silk and silk extract induced courtship behavior by 96 % and 80 % of males, respectively, indicating that there was a methanol-soluble courtship-eliciting contact pheromone on the silk. Males responded less strongly to synthetic MB-MP-S than to silk or silk extract. Paper impregnated with synthetic MB-MP-S (10 or 100 μg) induced courtship behavior in 3-16 % of males, and prompted males to stay 10-16 % longer than on control paper. Our data support the conclusion that MB-MP-S is part of a multi-component contact pheromone of L. hesperus.

  15. Sex-linked pheromone receptor genes of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are in tandem arrays.

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    Yuji Yasukochi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly

  16. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

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    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  17. Feromônios de agregação em curculionidae (insecta: coleoptera e sua implicação taxonômica Aggregation pheromone in curculionidae (insecta: coleoptera and their taxonomic implication

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    Bianca Giuliano Ambrogi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pheromones of the weevils has been the most studied and used so far for Coleoptera species. The majority of reported weevil pheromones is produced by males and usually attract both sexes. The identified pheromone compounds are classified in two categories: ten-carbon compounds with terpenoid branching and compounds of various sizes, apparently of fatty-acid origin. These pheromone structural categories are consistent within subfamilies. This review aims to give an overview of the aggregation pheromones identified for Curculionidae pests, describing the relationship of the molecules structural pattern among subfamilies, and propose an identification key based on the structure of the pheromone components.

  18. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider

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    Anna-Lena Cory

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young females with females close to oviposition (old. In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  19. Molecular and Functional Characterization of pheromone binding protein 1 from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck).

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    Zhang, Guohui; Chen, Jian; Yu, Haili; Tian, Xiaoli; Wu, Junxiang

    2018-02-02

    Pheromone binding protein (PBP) is thought primarily to bind and transport the sex pheromone in moths. The accumulated studies suggest that three PBPs were identified in moth species. In Grapholita molesta, the functions of GmolPBP2 and GmolPBP3 have been previously studied. However, the function of GmolPBP1 is still unclear. Furthermore, the Cydia pomonella sex pheromone Codlemone can act as a sex pheromone synergist of G. molesta. In C. pomonella, CpomPBP1 specifically bind the Codlemone. CpomPBP1 displays high identity with GmolPBP1 (70%), indicating that the two PBPs may share a similar 3D structure thus can bind the similar or same ligands. In this study, we explored the molecular and functional characterization of GmolPBP1. GmolPBP1, bearing the typical characteristics of Lepidopteran odorant binding proteins, was closest phylogenetically to CpomPBP1. Binding studies demonstrated that GmolPBP1 exhibited strong binding affinities with (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol and Codlemone. Molecular docking showed that GmolPBP1 has different ligand recognition mechanism for the three ligands. Our results suggest that GmolPBP1 functions as recognizer of (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol of the female sex pheromone blend, and may be the potential transporter of Codlemone, which contributes to the synergism of the pheromone response of G. molesta by Codlemone.

  20. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant.

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    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl α-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer.