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Sample records for service reforms model

  1. Management of reforming of housing-and-communal services

    Skripnik, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The international experience of reforming of housing and communal services is considered. The main scientific and methodical approaches of system transformation of the housing sphere are analyzed in the article. The main models of reforming are pointed out, interaction of participants of structural change process from the point of view of their commercial and social importance is characterized, advantages and shortcomings are revealed, model elements of the reform transformations from the point of view of the formation of investment appeal, competitiveness, energy efficiency and social importance of the carried-out actions are allocated.

  2. Decentralising Curriculum Reform: The Link Teacher Model of In-Service Training.

    Wildy, Helen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a (Western Australian) case study of the link teacher model, a decentralized, "train the trainer" approach to inservice education. Discusses the model's perceived effectiveness, the link teachers' role, central authority support, and new experimentation opportunities. Combining centralized syllabus change with decentralized…

  3. Integration Processes on Civil Service Reform in the Eurasian Space

    George A. Borshevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article was studied the process of reforming the institute of civil service in the countries of the Eurasian space (e.g. Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The integration of national systems of public administration and, in particular, the civil service, is an important factor contributing to the implementation of the centripetal tendencies in the post-Soviet space. The research methodology is based on a combination of comparative legal analysis, historical retrospective method, normalization and scaling, structural-functional and system analysis. A comparison of the legal models of public service was made in research. The author puts forward the hypothesis that it is presence the relationship between the quantitative changes (for example, number of employees of civil service and the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators (e.g. number of employed in the economy. In this regard were observed common trends. On materials of the statistical surveys were considered quantitative changes in national systems of civil service. The study of the socio-demographic characteristics of the public service (gender, age, profession allowed to formulate conclusions about the general and specific trends in the reform of the civil service of the analyzed countries. A number of values were first calculated by the author. The work is intended to become the basis for a broad international research on the development of civil service, which is the central mechanism for implementation the integration in the post-Soviet space.

  4. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  5. Railway Reform in Germany: Restructuring, Service Contracts, and Infrastructure Charges

    Peter, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the reform process in the German railway sector. We take a look at the process and the outcome of the reform and compare it with the theoretical findings. The regionalisation of the regional rail passenger services is of a special importance to us. We scrutinise the contracts for the provision of these services and try to find interrelations between the different contract elements. A further emphasis is placed on the influence of the European Commission on the reform process. We an...

  6. Legislating Civil Service Reform: The Homeland Security Act of 2002

    Brook, Douglas A; King, Cynthia L; Anderson, David; Bahr, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    .... It includes a review of the recent history of civil service reform, a chronology of the major events leading up to passage of the legislation, and a detailed examination of the rhetorical framing...

  7. Civil Service Reform in Ghana: A Case Study of Contemporary ...

    Civil Service Reform in Ghana: A Case Study of Contemporary Reform Problems in Africa. Joseph R.A Ayee. Abstract. (A. J. of Political Science: 2001 6(1): 1-41). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v6i1.27319 · AJOL African ...

  8. Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia.

    Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a

  9. Computer Modeling of Platinum Reforming Reactors | Momoh ...

    This paper, instead of using a theoretical approach has considered a computer model as means of assessing the reformate composition for three-stage fixed bed reactors in platforming unit. This is done by identifying many possible hydrocarbon transformation reactions that are peculiar to the process unit, identify the ...

  10. Outcomes of a Freedom of Choice Reform in Community Mental Health Day Center Services.

    Eklund, Mona; Markström, Urban

    2015-11-01

    A freedom-of-choice reform within mental health day center services was evaluated. The reform aimed to (1) facilitate users' change between units and (2) increase the availability of service providers. Seventy-eight users responded to questionnaires about the reform, empowerment, social network, engagement and satisfaction and were followed-up after 15 months. Fifty-four percent knew about the reform. A majority stated the reform meant nothing to them; ~25 % had a negative and ~20 % a positive opinion. Satisfaction with the services had decreased after 15 months. Empowerment decreased for a more intensively followed subgroup. No positive consequences of the reform could thus be discerned.

  11. Financing reform and structural change in the health services industry.

    Higgins, C W; Phillips, B U

    1986-08-01

    This paper reviews the major trends in financing reform, emphasizing their impact on those characteristics of the market for health services that economists have viewed as monopolistic, and discusses the implications of structural change for the allied health professions. Hopefully, by understanding the fundamental forces of change and responding to uncertainty with flexibility and imagination, the allied health professions can capitalize on the opportunities afforded by structural change. Overall, these trends should result in the long-term outlook for use of allied health services to increase at an average annual rate of 9% to 10%. Allied health professionals may also witness an increase in independent practice opportunities. Finally, redistribution of jobs will likely occur in favor of outpatient facilities, home health agencies, and nontraditional settings. This in turn will have an impact on allied health education, which will need to adapt to these types of reforms.

  12. Reforming Dutch substance abuse treatment services.

    Schippers, Gerard M; Schramade, Mark; Walburg, Jan A

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch substance abuse treatment system is in the middle of a major reorganization. The goal is to improve outcomes by redesigning all major primary treatment processes and by implementing a system of regular monitoring and feedback of clinical outcome data. The new program includes implementing standardized psychosocial behavior-oriented treatment modalities and a stepped-care patient placement algorithm in a core-shell organizational model. This article outlines the new program and presents its objectives, developmental stages, and current status.

  13. On residents’ satisfaction with community health services after health care system reform in Shanghai, China, 2011

    Li Zhijian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care system reform is a major issue in many countries and therefore how to evaluate the effects of changes is incredibly important. This study measured residents’ satisfaction with community health care service in Shanghai, China, and aimed to evaluate the effect of recent health care system reform. Methods Face-to-face interviews were performed with a stratified random sample of 2212 residents of the Shanghai residents using structured questionnaires. In addition, 972 valid responses were retrieved from internet contact. Controlling for sex, age, income and education, the study used logistic regression modeling to analyze factors associated with satisfaction and to explain the factors that affect the residents’ satisfaction. Results Comparing current attitudes with those held at the initial implementation of the reform in this investigation, four dimensions of health care were analyzed: 1 the health insurance system; 2 essential drugs; 3 basic clinical services; and 4 public health services. Satisfaction across all dimensions improved since the reform was initiated, but differences of satisfaction level were found among most dimensions and groups. Residents currently expressed greater satisfaction with clinical service (average score=3.79, with 5 being most satisfied and the public health/preventive services (average score=3.62; but less satisfied with the provision of essential drugs (average score=3.20 and health insurance schemes (average score=3.23. The disadvantaged groups (the elderly, the retired, those with only an elementary education, those with lower incomes had overall poorer satisfaction levels on these four aspects of health care (P Conclusion The respondents showed more satisfaction with the clinical services (average score=3.79 and public health services/interventions (average score=3.79; and less satisfaction with the health insurance system (average score=3.23 and the essential drug system

  14. On residents' satisfaction with community health services after health care system reform in Shanghai, China, 2011.

    Li, Zhijian; Hou, Jiale; Lu, Lin; Tang, Shenglan; Ma, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Health care system reform is a major issue in many countries and therefore how to evaluate the effects of changes is incredibly important. This study measured residents' satisfaction with community health care service in Shanghai, China, and aimed to evaluate the effect of recent health care system reform. Face-to-face interviews were performed with a stratified random sample of 2212 residents of the Shanghai residents using structured questionnaires. In addition, 972 valid responses were retrieved from internet contact. Controlling for sex, age, income and education, the study used logistic regression modeling to analyze factors associated with satisfaction and to explain the factors that affect the residents' satisfaction. Comparing current attitudes with those held at the initial implementation of the reform in this investigation, four dimensions of health care were analyzed: 1) the health insurance system; 2) essential drugs; 3) basic clinical services; and 4) public health services. Satisfaction across all dimensions improved since the reform was initiated, but differences of satisfaction level were found among most dimensions and groups. Residents currently expressed greater satisfaction with clinical service (average score=3.79, with 5 being most satisfied) and the public health/preventive services (average score=3.62); but less satisfied with the provision of essential drugs (average score=3.20) and health insurance schemes (average score=3.23). The disadvantaged groups (the elderly, the retired, those with only an elementary education, those with lower incomes) had overall poorer satisfaction levels on these four aspects of health care (Phealth services/interventions (average score=3.79); and less satisfaction with the health insurance system (average score=3.23) and the essential drug system (average score=3.20). Disadvantaged groups showed lower satisfaction levels overall relative to non-disadvantaged groups.

  15. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  16. Service modelling

    Steen, M.W.A.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Lankhorst, M.M.; Jonkers, H.; Zoet, M.; Engelsman, W.; Versendaal, J.; Proper, H.A.; Debije, L.; Gaaloul, K.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of enterprise services involves making design decisions at different levels, ranging from strategic to infrastructural choices, and concerning many different aspects, ranging from customer interaction to information registration concerns. In order to support an agile development

  17. The Implementation of Civil Service Reforms in Tanzania, 1991-2000

    Lukumai, Emmanuel C.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis deals with civil service reforms implemented in Tanzania in between 1991-2000. It aims at assessing whether the reforms achieved the intended objectives of “smaller, affordable, well compensated, efficient and effective performing civil service” (Caulfield, 2004: 233). To this end, the discussion starts by explaining the overall move for reform globally and then narrows its scope and deals with assessing the factors that led to achievement or failure of the process in the T...

  18. An Alternative Theoretical Model for Economic Reforms in Africa ...

    This paper offers an alternative model for economic reforms in Africa. It proposes that Africa can still get on the pathway of sustained economic growth if economic reforms can focus on a key variable, namely, the price of non-tradables. Prices of non-tradables are generally less in Africa than in advanced economies, and the ...

  19. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  20. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies

    Cockcroft, Anne; Milne, Deborah; Oelofsen, Marietjie; Karim, Enamul; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evide...

  1. Prospect Theory and Public Service Outcomes: When do Citizen Prefer Risky Reforms to Reforms with Certain Outcomes?

    Bækgaard, Martin

    Prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky 1979; Tversky and Kahneman 1992) has been widely acknowledged in the social sciences as a potential frame for understanding how people deal with uncertainty. Yet, little is known about whether key expectations from prospect theory also hold in a complex public...... service setting with outcomes in multiple dimensions. In this paper I draw on prospect theory to examine under what conditions citizens prefer uncertain – but potentially advantageous – reforms to reforms with more certain outcomes. Using a population based survey experiment with participation of 1......,395 Danish citizens I find support for some of the expectations derived from prospect theory while the evidence is in outright opposition to the expectations in other instances. Most notably, I find that that citizens are more willing to take risks if reforms are associated with gains than...

  2. International experience of the civil service performance and possible ways of its application in Ukraine in terms of administration reform

    Y. Y. Kizilov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the most countries the deep modernization and reforming of civil service were launched in 70­80 years of the past century and now these processes have given good results. Therefore, it will be useful to adopt a foreign experience on reforming and civil service performance with the aim to determine effective components of civil service performance in Ukraine. The analysis shows that the process of the civil service reforming and development, improving of the performing process are characterized in the world practice as the continental and Anglo­Saxon models, but despite of this most countries have a mixed model of civil service. For modernization of the civil service and approximation to the most preferable type of management in Europe were developed different models, which named «new public administration». In the article the international experience of France, Germany, Great Britain, USA, Japan and other countries on civil service performance in terms of administrative reform was analyzed. It was founded that experience of these countries is very valuable for the development of civil service institute in Ukraine, in particular civil service performance, because these countries made an economic progress and ensured sustainable development. The generalization of the international experience on civil service performance allowed to systemize the development of civil service performance institute in the democratic countries, namely: development of the reform programme and civil service modernization and adoption of new legislation on civil service; optimization and creation new organizational entities in the civil service system; existing of the special institutes of the civil service management; gradual staff reduction of state apparatus; creation of the institute of senior leadership; application of the management methods by the example of private sector; staff rotation; existing of ethic code; ensuring of lifelong education for civil

  3. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  4. Service Modeling for Service Engineering

    Shimomura, Yoshiki; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    Intensification of service and knowledge contents within product life cycles is considered crucial for dematerialization, in particular, to design optimal product-service systems from the viewpoint of environmentally conscious design and manufacturing in advanced post industrial societies. In addition to the environmental limitations, we are facing social limitations which include limitations of markets to accept increasing numbers of mass-produced artifacts and such environmental and social limitations are restraining economic growth. To attack and remove these problems, we need to reconsider the current mass production paradigm and to make products have more added values largely from knowledge and service contents to compensate volume reduction under the concept of dematerialization. Namely, dematerialization of products needs to enrich service contents. However, service was mainly discussed within marketing and has been mostly neglected within traditional engineering. Therefore, we need new engineering methods to look at services, rather than just functions, called "Service Engineering." To establish service engineering, this paper proposes a modeling technique of service.

  5. 英国国民卫生服务制度(NHS)的结构性改革与治理模式%Study on structural reform and governance models of National Health Service in UK

    王小万; 陈丽萍; 刘丽杭

    2017-01-01

    基于英国NHS在管理体制与机制上所实施的结构性改革措施,从完善法律、建立问责机制、完善财务管理和经营模式4个维度,系统阐述了NHS的结构性改革与治理模式的特点;作为一种"公共利益公司",NHS所属公立医院基于公私伙伴关系的原则,在坚持公益性的前提下,引入企业经营行为组建了信托基金医疗联合体,并根据NHS的核心原则,免费医疗、需求导向、可负担性等,基于购买合同向辖区患者或居民提供医疗保健服务.随着相关改革措施的逐步实施,NHS信托基金医疗联合体的法人地位和自主决策权得到明显提升,能真正做到对自身的发展负责;同时,随着对提供者行为的规范,以及医疗服务市场竞争与规制机制的完善,也极大的促进了医疗机构之间的有序竞争和医疗服务供给的多元化发展.%Based on the structural reform approaches of management system and mechanism implemented by the British NHS, this paper systematically introduced governance models and characteristics of NHS Foundation Trusts(FTs)from the four dimensions:perfecting the laws,establishing accountability framework,improving finan-cial management,and operational governance business model.As a public benefit corporation, on the basis of the principle of public-private partnerships(Public-Private-Partnership, PPP), NHS foundation trusts currently intro-duces a number of entrepreneurial practices under the premise of public welfare attribute, and provide goods and services according to entrustment contract and core NHS principles-free medical care,demand-oriented,affordability and so on.With these reform measures being implemented,the legal status and independent decision-making power of NHS Trust Fund Medical Consortium will be remarkably improved,so as the Foundation Trusts will be much more"on their own"and take complete responsibility for ensuring that they are successful.At the same time, with the norms of

  6. Developing an ‘integrated health system’: the reform of health and social services in Quebec

    Levine, David

    2008-01-01

    The Quebec health care system, founded in 1970 as a public, single payer, state run system had by 2004 reached a turning point. Rising costs, working in silos, difficulty accessing physicians, increased waiting time for diagnostic imaging and surgical intervention led policy makers and politicians to propose a new model for the organisation and delivery of care. Based on populational responsibility and the clear distinction between a community primary care and specialised services a new model was proposed to develop integrated health networks. The 7.2 million population of Quebec was divided into 95 territories. 95 Health and social service centres were created by merging a community hospital, rehab centre, long-term care centres, home care and primary care services into a single institution with a new CEO and board of directors. These new networks received the mandate to manage the health and well being of their population, to manage the utilisation of services by their population and to manage all primary care services on their territory. The implementation of a chronic care model, the development of primary care multidisciplinary teams, empowering the population and performance management, are the key elements of Montreal's vision in implementing the Reform. After three years of operation the results are promising.

  7. Health system reform in rural China: voices of healthworkers and service-users.

    Zhou, Xu Dong; Li, Lu; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-09-01

    Like many other countries China is undergoing major health system reforms, with the aim of providing universal health coverage, and addressing problems of low efficiency and inequity. The first phase of the reforms has focused on strengthening primary care and improving health insurance coverage and benefits. The aim of the study was to explore the impacts of these reforms on healthworkers and service-users at township level, which has been the major target of the first phase of the reforms. From January to March 2013 we interviewed eight health officials, 80 township healthworkers and 80 service-users in eight counties in Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces, representing rich and poor provinces respectively. Thematic analysis identified key themes around the impacts of the health reforms. We found that some elements of the reforms may actually be undermining primary care. While the new health insurance system was popular among service-users, it was criticised for contributing to fast-growing medical costs, and for an imbalance of benefits between outpatient and inpatient services. Salary reform has guaranteed healthworkers' income, but greatly reduced their incentives. The essential drug list removed perverse incentives to overprescribe, but led to falls in income for healthworkers, and loss of autonomy for doctors. Serious problems with drug procurement also emerged. The unintended consequences have included a brain drain of experienced healthworkers from township hospitals, and patients have flowed to county hospitals at greater cost. In conclusion, in the short term resources must be found to ensure rural healthworkers feel appropriately remunerated and have more clinical autonomy, measures for containment of the medical costs must be taken, and drug procurement must show increased transparency and accountability. More importantly the study shows that all countries undergoing health reforms should elicit the views of stakeholders, including service-users, to avoid

  8. The Challenges of the Civil Service Reform in Ethiopia: Initial ...

    The paper concludes by arguing that the reform measures must be contextualised and executed incrementally by identifying priority areas, while taking into consideration capacity to implement the measures proposed. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) Vol. XVII No. 1 January 2001, pp. 79-102 ...

  9. Determination of optimal reformer temperature in a reformed methanol fuel cell system using ANFIS models and numerical optimization methods

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    In this work a method for choosing the optimal reformer temperature for a reformed methanol fuel cell system is presented based on a case study of a H3 350 module produced by Serenergy A/S. The method is based on ANFIS models of the dependence of the reformer output gas composition on the reformer...... temperature and fuel flow, and the dependence of the fuel cell voltage on the fuel cell temperature, current and anode supply gas CO content. These models are combined to give a matrix of system efficiencies at different fuel cell currents and reformer temperatures. This matrix is then used to find...... the reformer temperature which gives the highest efficiency for each fuel cell current. The average of this optimal efficiency curve is 32.11% and the average efficiency achieved using the standard constant temperature is 30.64% an increase of 1.47 percentage points. The gain in efficiency is 4 percentage...

  10. Change of government: one more big bang health care reform in England's National Health Service.

    Hunter, David J

    2011-01-01

    Once again the National Health Service (NHS) in England is undergoing major reform, following the election of a new coalition government keen to reduce the role of the state and cut back on big government. The NHS has been undergoing continuous reform since the 1980s. Yet, despite the significant transaction costs incurred, there is no evidence that the claimed benefits have been achieved. Many of the same problems endure. The reforms follow the direction of change laid down by the last Conservative government in the early 1990s, which the recent Labour government did not overturn despite a commitment to do so. Indeed, under Labour, the NHS was subjected to further market-style changes that have paved the way for the latest round of reform. The article considers the appeal of big bang reform, questions its purpose and value, and critically appraises the nature and extent of the proposed changes in this latest round of reform. It warns that the NHS in its current form may not survive the changes, as they open the way to privatization and a weakening of its public service ethos.

  11. [The main directions of reforming the service of medical statistics in Ukraine].

    Golubchykov, Mykhailo V; Orlova, Nataliia M; Bielikova, Inna V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of new methods of information support of managerial decision-making should ensure of the effective health system reform and create conditions for improving the quality of operational management, reasonable planning of medical care and increasing the efficiency of the use of system resources. Reforming of Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine should be considered only in the context of the reform of the entire health system. The aim: This work is an analysis of the current situation and justification of the main directions of reforming of Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine. Material and methods: In the work is used a range of methods: content analysis, bibliosemantic, systematic approach. The information base of the research became: WHO strategic and program documents, data of the Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Review: The Medical Statistics Service of Ukraine has a completed and effective structure, headed by the State Institution "Medical Statistics Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine." This institution reports on behalf of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine to the State Statistical Service of Ukraine, the WHO European Office and other international organizations. An analysis of the current situation showed that to achieve this goal it is necessary: to improve the system of statistical indicators for an adequate assessment of the performance of health institutions, including in the economic aspect; creation of a developed medical and statistical base of administrative territories; change of existing technologies for the formation of information resources; strengthening the material-technical base of the structural units of Medical Statistics Service; improvement of the system of training and retraining of personnel for the service of medical statistics; development of international cooperation in the field of methodology and practice of medical statistics, implementation of internationally

  12. Integrated specialty service readiness in health reform: connections in haemophilia comprehensive care.

    Pritchard, A M; Page, D

    2008-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified primary healthcare reform as a global priority whereby innovative practice changes are directed at improving health. This transformation to health reform in haemophilia service requires clarification of comprehensive care to reflect the WHO definition of health and key elements of primary healthcare reform. While comprehensive care supports effective healthcare delivery, comprehensive care must also be regarded beyond immediate patient management to reflect the broader system purpose in the care continuum with institutions, community agencies and government. Furthermore, health reform may be facilitated through integrated service delivery (ISD). ISD in specialty haemophilia care has the potential to reduce repetition of assessments, enhance care plan communication between providers and families, provide 24-h access to care, improve information availability regarding care quality and outcomes, consolidate access for multiple healthcare encounters and facilitate family self-efficacy and autonomy [1]. Three core aspects of ISD have been distinguished: clinical integration, information management and technology and vertical integration in local communities [2]. Selected examples taken from Canadian haemophilia comprehensive care illustrate how practice innovations are bridged with a broader system level approach and may support initiatives in other contexts. These innovations are thought to indicate readiness regarding ISD. Reflecting on the existing capacity of haemophilia comprehensive care teams will assist providers to connect and direct their existing strengths towards ISD and health reform.

  13. Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the

  14. Service Delivery with More Districts in Uganda : Fiscal Challenges and Opportunities for Reforms

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Ugandan decentralization efforts of the 1990s represented an unusually authentic and powerful local government reform, compared to similar efforts pursued in many other low-income countries. However, over time the changing interests of the central agencies, dissatisfaction with service outcomes, and the overall dynamics of the country's governance resulted in the adoption of a number of re...

  15. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  16. Using Service Scenarios to Model Business Services

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate the notion of service scenarios. A service is work done by a service executor in interaction with a service consumer. A service scenario is a model of a service system and the roles that are played by the actors participating and interacting...... during the execution of a service. The model represents the roles and the interactions between the participants. Service scenarios can be used to model specific services and roles played by human beings and IT systems in the execution of services. The use of service scenarios is demonstrated by means...... of a case study in a public library. The case study indicates that service systems should be understood as socio-technical systems in which service executors and service consumers co-create value in mutual interaction with each other and with a set of shared resources....

  17. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    advanced to support market reforms and an industry view of the actual strategic actions undertaken by important utilities. Legislative changes will be reviewed for different countries with a discussion on the assessment procedures for these reforms. A detailed example of the reform process in the Finnish electricity market is presented. The investment issue will emerge as an interesting challenge to focus on, due to its importance for the market. The second approach is more analytical and develops on the market equilibria that could result from the new structure. A dynamic model of investment for the electricity market is built and applied to the Finnish market. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Development and validation of a CFD-based steam reformer model

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Dahlqvist, Mathis; Saksager, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Steam reforming of liquid biofuels (ethanol, bio-diesel etc.) represents a sustainable source of hydrogen for micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production as well as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). In relation to the design of the steam reforming reactor several parameter are important including...... for expensive prototypes. This paper presents an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics based model of a steam reformer. The model was implemented in the commercial CFD code Fluent through the User Defined Functions interface. The model accounts for the flue gas flow as well as the reformate flow including...... a detailed mechanism for the reforming reactions. Heat exchange between the flue gas and reformate streams through the reformer reactor walls was also included as a conjugate heat transfer process.  From a review of published models for the catalytic steam reforming of ethanol and preliminary predictions...

  19. Mathematical model of the reformer sponge iron cycle

    Fraser, S.; Hacker, V.; Evers, B.; Hierzer, J.; Besenhard, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Reformer Sponge Iron Cycle (RESC), an innovative hydrogen production process based on redox reactions of iron ore pellets is presented. In the oxidation stage of the RESC, hydrogen is produced by blowing steam over hot iron pellets, hence oxidizing the iron. In the reduction stage, synthesis gas coming from a reformer mixed with a fraction of recycled off-gas is used to reduce the iron oxide pellets (wuestite and/or magnetite) back into iron again. A mathematical model of the complete RESC was developed and verified with experimental data. The model is based on calculations of the equilibrium gas concentrations for reformer and Sponge Iron Reactor (SIR). The current model computes mass fluxes, molar fluxes, partial pressures and variations of the respective throughout the complete cycle. The recycle rate, determining the fraction of SIR off-gas recycled and added to the input gas stream was subsequently optimized in order to maximize the amount of iron oxide reduced for a certain input gas flow. (author)

  20. 75 FR 67060 - Universal Service Reform Mobility Fund

    2010-11-01

    ... rulemaking. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communication Commission proposes the creation of a new... U.S. Postal Service Express Mail and Priority Mail) must be sent to 9300 East Hampton Drive, Capitol... techniques or other forms of information technology. In addition, pursuant to the Small Business Paperwork...

  1. Traditional Payment Models in Radiology: Historical Context for Ongoing Reform.

    Silva, Ezequiel; McGinty, Geraldine B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The passage of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) replaces the sustainable growth rate with a payment system based on quality and alternative payment model participation. The general structure of payment under MACRA is included in the statute, but the rules and regulations defining its implementation are yet to be formalized. It is imperative that the radiology profession inform policymakers on their role in health care under MACRA. This will require a detailed understanding of prior legislative and nonlegislative actions that helped shape MACRA. To that end, the authors provide a detailed historical context for payment reform, focusing on the payment quality initiatives and alternative payment model demonstrations that helped provide the foundation of future MACRA-driven payment reform. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multisite Case Study of Florida's Millennium High School Reform Model

    Carol A. Mullen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study should have immediate utility for the United States and beyond its borders. School-to-work approaches to comprehensive reform are increasingly expected of schools while legislative funding for this purpose gets pulled back. This multisite case study launches the first analysis of the New Millennium High School (NMHS model in Florida. This improvement program relies upon exemplary leadership for preparing students for postsecondary education

  3. Mathematical model of the reformer sponge iron cycle

    Fraser, S.; Hacker, V.; Evers, B.; Hierzer, J.; Besenhard, J.O. [Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria). Inst. for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials Christian Doppler Pilot-Lab. for Fuel Cell Systems

    2003-07-01

    An innovative hydrogen production process called the Reformer Sponge Iron Cycle (RESC), based on redox reactions of iron ore pellets, was mathematically modeled. The hydrogen is produced by blowing steam over hot iron pellets in the oxidation stage, resulting in the oxidation of the iron. Synthesis gas coming from a reformer mixed with a fraction of recycled off-gas was used to reduce the iron oxide pellets (wuestite and-or magnetite) in the reduction stage, leading once more to iron . Once the mathematical model was developed, it was verified utilizing experimental data. Based on calculations of the equilibrium gas concentrations for reformer and sponge iron reactor (SIR), the model computes mass fluxes, molar fluxes, partial pressures, and variations of them throughout the complete cycle. The recycle rate, which determines the fraction of SIR off-gas recycled and added to the input gas stream, was optimized to maximize the amount of iron oxide reduced for a certain input gas flow. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a

  5. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Mauricio Toyama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru

  6. 2D heat and mass transfer modeling of methane steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact reformer

    Ni Meng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A heat and mass transfer model is developed for a compact reformer. ► Hydrogen production from methane steam reforming is simulated. ► Increasing temperature greatly increases the reaction rates at the inlet. ► Temperature in the downstream is increased at higher rate of heat supply. ► Larger permeability enhances gas flow and reaction rates in the catalyst layer. - Abstract: Compact reformers (CRs) are promising devices for efficient fuel processing. In CRs, a thin solid plate is sandwiched between two catalyst layers to enable efficient heat transfer from combustion duct to the reforming duct for fuel processing. In this study, a 2D heat and mass transfer model is developed to investigate the fundamental transport phenomenon and chemical reaction kinetics in a CR for hydrogen production by methane steam reforming (MSR). Both MSR reaction and water gas shift reaction (WGSR) are considered in the numerical model. Parametric simulations are performed to examine the effects of various structural/operating parameters, such as pore size, permeability, gas velocity, temperature, and rate of heat supply on the reformer performance. It is found that the reaction rates of MSR and WGSR are the highest at the inlet but decrease significantly along the reformer. Increasing the operating temperature raises the reaction rates at the inlet but shows very small influence in the downstream. For comparison, increasing the rate of heat supply raises the reaction rates in the downstream due to increased temperature. A high gas velocity and permeability facilitates gas transport in the porous structure thus enhances reaction rates in the downstream of the reformer.

  7. An Analysis of Missile Systems Cost Growth and Implementation of Acquisition Reform Initiatives Using a Hybrid Adjusted Cost Growth Model

    Abate, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    ...) data with a hybrid adjusted cost growth (ACG) model. In addition, an analysis of acquisition reform initiatives during the treatment period was conducted to determine if reform efforts impacted missile system cost growth. A pre-reform...

  8. Quasi-Markets and Service Delivery Flexibility Following a Decade of Employment Assistance Reform in Australia

    Considine, Mark; Lewis, Jenny; O’Sullivan, S

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, we were witnessing major changes in frontline social service delivery across the OECD and this was theorised as the emergence of a post-Fordist welfare state. Changes in public management thinking, known as New Public Management (NPM), informed this shift, as did public choice theory. A ...... of flexibility so often identified as a desirable outcome of reform. Rather, agencies adopted more conservative practices over time in response to more detailed external regulation and more exacting internal business methods....

  9. Greek mental health reform: views and perceptions of professionals and service users.

    Loukidou, E; Mastroyiannakis, A; Power, T; Craig, T; Thornicroft, G; Bouras, N

    2013-01-01

    The Greek mental health system has been undergoing radical reforms for over the past twenty years. In congruence with trends and practices in other European countries, Greek mental health reforms were designed to develop a community-based mental health service system. The implementation of an extensive transformation became possible through the "Psychargos" program, a national strategic and operational plan, which was developed by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. The Psychargos program was jointly funded by the European Union by 75% of the cost over a period of 5 years and the Greek State. After the period of 5 years, the entire cost of the new services became the responsibility of the Greek National Budget. Over the years the Psychargos program became almost synonymous with the deinstitutionalisation of long term psychiatric patients with the development of a wide range of community mental health services. The Psychargos program ended in December 2009. This article presents the views of service providers and service users as part an ex-post evaluation of the Psychargos program carried out in 2010. Data derived for this part of the evaluation are from the application of the qualitative method of focus groups. The outcomes of the study identified several positive and noteworthy achievements by the reforms of the Greek mental health system as well as weaknesses. There was considerable similarity of the views expressed by both focus groups. In addition the service users' focus group emphasized more issues related to improving their mental health wellbeing and living a satisfying, hopeful, and contributing life.

  10. Greek Exit from the Crisis—A Pressing and Much-Needed Public Service Reform

    Demetrios Argyriades

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Greece is in a deep crisis; the worst in all of Europe and the worst experienced in 45 years. Greece is no stranger to crises, but most have been exogenous: the Second World War and the Cold War, for instance. Sadly, unlike these crises, the present one is home-made. The wounds that it has caused are largely self-inflicted. It is especially difficult to fathom the logic of strikes by public service unions—repeated, relentless and militant. They paralyzed the country, drove investors and tourists away and added to the burdens that the economy and the people have had to bear. These strikes, and some public servants’ attitudes in the face of the crisis itself, brought into sharp relief the serious capacity deficit in the Greek administrative system, which has been at the root of the problem the country is currently facing. This statement begs the question: how can that be? What, after 30 years of public service reform, presumed to modernize and help the country approximate the standards embedded in the Common European Administrative Space? The paper will suggest that the reforms of the 1980s were only superficially reforms to improve the effectiveness and quality of the Service. Like parallel changes in higher education, the principal objective was harnessing officialdom, and as many voters as possible, to the chariot of PASOK—the political party established by Andreas Papandreou—which effectively governed the country for most of the period in question. The lesson from this experience may be none other, in fact, than clear convincing proof that partisan concerns and institution-building seldom make a good combination. For Greece, in light of the crisis, effective integration in the EU remains a daunting challenge. It calls for bold reforms, but these must be undertaken with institution-building, the country’s general interest, and long term needs in mind.

  11. [Psychiatric care act of Ukraine and issues concerning reformation of the mental health protection service].

    Moskalenko, V F; Gorban', E N; Tabachnikov, S I; Syropiatov, O G; Shtengelov, V V

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed of the conception and content of a new Psychiatric Care Act by making a comparison with data from published literature and the present-day status of the mental health protection service. The main features of the crisis of psychiatry in Ukraine are characterized together with possible ways of resolving it. Main trends in reformation of the psychiatric service are identified that are to be secured by relevant acts of departmental and interdepartmental character based on law. Priority is emphasized to defence of the patients' rights and liberties together with a need for a guarantee of a highly skilled medical care to be provided for mental patients.

  12. Effect of primary health care reforms in Turkey on health service utilization and user satisfaction.

    Hone, Thomas; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Millett, Christopher; Başara, Berrak; Akdağ, Recep; Atun, Rifat

    2017-02-01

    Strengthening primary health care (PHC) is considered a priority for efficient and responsive health systems, but empirical evidence from low- and middle-income countries is limited. The stepwise introduction of family medicine across all 81 provinces of Turkey (a middle-income country) between 2005 and 2010, aimed at PHC strengthening, presents a natural experiment for assessing the effect of family medicine on health service utilization and user satisfaction.The effect of health system reforms, that introduced family medicine, on utilization was assessed using longitudinal, province-level data for 12 years and multivariate regression models adjusting for supply-side variables, demographics, socio-economic development and underlying yearly trends. User satisfaction with primary and secondary care services was explored using data from annual Life Satisfaction Surveys. Trends in preferred first point of contact (primary vs secondary, public vs. private), reason for choice and health services issues, were described and stratified by patient characteristics, provider type, and rural/urban settings.Between 2002 and 2013, the average number of PHC consultations increased from 1.75 to 2.83 per person per year. In multivariate models, family medicine introduction was associated with an increase of 0.37 PHC consultations per person (P < 0.001), and slower annual growth in PHC and secondary care consultations. Following family medicine introduction, the growth of PHC and secondary care consultations per person was 0.08 and 0.30, respectively, a year. PHC increased as preferred provider by 9.5% over 7 years with the reasons of proximity and service satisfaction, which increased by 14.9% and 11.8%, respectively. Reporting of poor facility hygiene, difficulty getting an appointment, poor physician behaviour and high costs of health care all declined (P < 0.001) in PHC settings, but remained higher among urban, low-income and working-age populations. © The Author 2016

  13. Exploring the Impact of Reform Mathematics on Entry-Level Pre-Service Primary Teachers Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairead; Carroll, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This study reports entry-level mathematics attitudes of pre-service primary teachers entering an initial teacher education (ITE) program one decade apart. Attitudes of 360 pre-service primary teachers were compared to 419 pre-service teachers entering the same college of education almost one decade later. The latter experienced reform school…

  14. Operations management and reform combining with the principles of public service of the university sports venue

    Keyi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low utilization rate of opening-use, backward management and unreasonable configurations, university sports venue cannot produce some economic benefits, which makes the operating expenses in college stadiums extremely tense. Even sometimes it comes to the precarious situation. Therefore, there should be an operations management reform for college sports venue. Firstly, the article analyzes the current situation of stadium operations management. Secondly, with the actual experience of the authors, this essay discussed on how to strengthen the operation and management of modem college sports venues and reform, which includes the way enhancing the training about modem operational management knowledge of college stadiums, strengthening the diversified operation of college stadiums, highlighting the "people-oriented" in college sports venue design concepts and vigorously developing the training services about stylistic aspects of youth and, etc.,

  15. Economic reform in Europe: integrating and liberalizing the market for services

    Newbery, David M.

    2001-01-01

    The European Union faces challenges in reforming the Gas and Electricity Directives to implement the single market in electricity and gas. The paper argues that there is unfinished business in the areas of regulation, restructuring, encouraging proper risk management through contracting, and designing markets and regulation to ensure effective and sustainable competition in the services supplied over the networks. Regulators often lack critical information and appropriate power to act. Restructuring is problematic, requiring forceful competition authorities with a clear agenda to achieve desirable structural reforms. A key issue is striking the right balance between complete liberalisation and ensuring adequate capacity and investment. Finally, proactive competition policies will be necessary to resist the powerful forces for vertical and horizontal integration visible in the Union. (Author)

  16. Fee-for-service will remain a feature of major payment reforms, requiring more changes in Medicare physician payment.

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2012-09-01

    Many health policy analysts envision provider payment reforms currently under development as replacements for the traditional fee-for-service payment system. Reforms include per episode bundled payment and elements of capitation, such as global payments or accountable care organizations. But even if these approaches succeed and are widely adopted, the core method of payment to many physicians for the services they provide is likely to remain fee-for-service. It is therefore critical to address the current shortcomings in the Medicare physician fee schedule, because it will affect physician incentives and will continue to play an important role in determining the payment amounts under payment reform. This article reviews how the current payment system developed and is applied, and it highlights areas that require careful review and modification to ensure the success of broader payment reform.

  17. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies

    Cockcroft Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evidence-based discussions with local service managers and professional bodies. Methods Some 1866 government health workers in facilities serving the household survey clusters completed a questionnaire about their views, experience, and problems as workers. Field teams discussed the findings from the household and health workers' surveys with local health service managers in five upazilas (administrative sub-districts and with the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA and Bangladesh Nurses Association (BNA. Results Nearly one half of the health workers (45% reported difficulties fulfilling their duties, especially doctors, women, and younger workers. They cited inadequate supplies and infrastructure, bad behaviour of patients, and administrative problems. Many, especially doctors (74%, considered they were badly treated as employees. Nearly all said lack of medicines in government facilities was due to inadequate supply, not improved during the HPSP. Two thirds of doctors and nurses complained of bad behaviour of patients. A quarter of respondents thought quality of service had improved as a result of the HPSP. Local service managers and the BMA and BNA accepted patients had negative views and experiences, blaming inadequate resources, high patient loads, and patients' unrealistic expectations. They said doctors and nurses were demotivated by poor working conditions, unfair treatment, and lack of career progression; private and unqualified practitioners sought to

  18. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies.

    Cockcroft, Anne; Milne, Deborah; Oelofsen, Marietjie; Karim, Enamul; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evidence-based discussions with local service managers and professional bodies. Some 1866 government health workers in facilities serving the household survey clusters completed a questionnaire about their views, experience, and problems as workers. Field teams discussed the findings from the household and health workers' surveys with local health service managers in five upazilas (administrative sub-districts) and with the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA) and Bangladesh Nurses Association (BNA). Nearly one half of the health workers (45%) reported difficulties fulfilling their duties, especially doctors, women, and younger workers. They cited inadequate supplies and infrastructure, bad behaviour of patients, and administrative problems. Many, especially doctors (74%), considered they were badly treated as employees. Nearly all said lack of medicines in government facilities was due to inadequate supply, not improved during the HPSP. Two thirds of doctors and nurses complained of bad behaviour of patients. A quarter of respondents thought quality of service had improved as a result of the HPSP.Local service managers and the BMA and BNA accepted patients had negative views and experiences, blaming inadequate resources, high patient loads, and patients' unrealistic expectations. They said doctors and nurses were demotivated by poor working conditions, unfair treatment, and lack of career progression; private and unqualified practitioners sought to please patients instead of giving medically

  19. Experimental characterization and modeling of an ethanol steam reformer

    Mandø, Matthias; Bovo, Mirko; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the characterization of an ethanol reforming system for a high temperature PEM fuel cell system. High temperature PEM fuel cells are well suited for operation on reformate gas due to the superior CO tolerance compared with low temperature PEM. Steam reforming of liquid biofuels...

  20. The Asian Development Model and Mining Reforms in Indonesia

    John McLaren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide accounting, marketing, management, finance and legal professionals who are engaged with emerging economies with an introduction to the ‘Asian Development Model’ and to use the mining reforms in Indonesia as an example of the Model in operation. This will assist those professionals in recognising the challenges faced by businesses in Australia and New Zealand when governments in South East Asian countries attempt to ‘catch up’ to the developed world and at the same time attempt to spread the benefits of the development to their people. The paper argues that there is an Asian Development Model and that the Indonesian mining reforms, in particular the requirement over time for 51 percent Indonesian Government ownership and the ban on the export of unprocessed resources, represent an attempt by the Indonesian State to speed up industrialisation in their country and to spread more of the benefits from mining to ordinary citizens in the recently democratised and politically decentralised country. In attempting to show strength however, the Indonesian state is exposing some weakness. The impact on jobs, revenue and production has been adverse although Foreign Direct Investment has increased. This latter may be because it is foreign multinational mining companies who are better placed than local mining enterprises to build smelters. The success of developing mining might be at the expense of local capital. In other words state intervention does not always produce all of the desired outcomes. It is not a panacea.

  1. Why public health services? Experiences from profit-driven health care reforms in Sweden.

    Dahlgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Market-oriented health care reforms have been implemented in the tax-financed Swedish health care system from 1990 to 2013. The first phase of these reforms was the introduction of new public management systems, where public health centers and public hospitals were to act as private firms in an internal health care market. A second phase saw an increase of tax-financed private for-profit providers. A third phase can now be envisaged with increased private financing of essential health services. The main evidence-based effects of these markets and profit-driven reforms can be summarized as follows: efficiency is typically reduced but rarely increased; profit and tax evasion are a drain on resources for health care; geographical and social inequities are widened while the number of tax-financed providers increases; patients with major multi-health problems are often given lower priority than patients with minor health problems; opportunities to control the quality of care are reduced; tax-financed private for-profit providers facilitate increased private financing; and market forces and commercial interests undermine the power of democratic institutions. Policy options to promote further development of a nonprofit health care system are highlighted.

  2. Reducing Health Services for Refugees Through Reforms to the Interim Federal Health Program

    Andrew C. Stevenson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1957 the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP has provided temporary health care coverage to refugees and refugee claimants, but in 2012 the Conservative government reformed the IFHP, reducing, or eliminating access to health services for these groups. The government framed the changes around fairness and safety, stating that it would save tax payers $100 million over five years, reduce incentive for migrants with unfounded refugee claims from coming to Canada, protect public health and safety, and defend the integrity of the immigration system. With a Conservative majority, the reform was easily implemented despite a lack of evidence supporting these claims. In 2014, the Federal Court rejected the government's notion of fairness and safety, ruling that the cuts were cruel and unusual treatment of an already vulnerable population. The government appealed this ruling but, in 2016, the Liberals took power and restored funding to the IFHP to pre-2012 levels. Ad hoc evaluations predicted inequitable and adverse impacts on refugees, negative impacts on health, and increased costs to refugees, provincial governments, and health providers. Overall the threats and weaknesses of this reform clearly outweighed the few and unconvincing opportunities and strengths of the program, leading to its demise.

  3. The Civil Service Reform in the Context of Sustainable Development. A Comparison between Romania and Italy

    Bogdan BERCEANU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the public administration system from most of the EU countries suffered many transformations in order to achieve the objectives proposed by the European Union, such as sustainable development. The civil service represented and still is a very important key factor for a success reformation of the administrative system, because it represents the main resource of the system. The analysis underlines the introduction of the public manager in the Romanian civil service hierarchy and the introduction of the concept dirigenza pubblica, a type of public management, in the Italian public administration. Moreover, we will present the introduction of the dirigente pubblico, public manager, in the Italian civil service system.

  4. Lumping procedure for a kinetic model of catalytic naphtha reforming

    H. M. Arani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A lumping procedure is developed for obtaining kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of catalytic naphtha reforming. All kinetic and deactivation parameters are estimated from industrial data and thermodynamic parameters are calculated from derived mathematical expressions. The proposed model contains 17 lumps that include the C6 to C8+ hydrocarbon range and 15 reaction pathways. Hougen-Watson Langmuir-Hinshelwood type reaction rate expressions are used for kinetic simulation of catalytic reactions. The kinetic parameters are benchmarked with several sets of plant data and estimated by the SQP optimization method. After calculation of deactivation and kinetic parameters, plant data are compared with model predictions and only minor deviations between experimental and calculated data are generally observed.

  5. Dutch National Security Reform Under Review : Sufficient Checks and Balances in the Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017?

    Quirine Eijkman; Nico van Eijk; Robert van Schaik

    2018-01-01

    In May 2018, the new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 (Wet op de Inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten, Wiv) will enter into force. It replaces the previous 2002 Act and incorporates many reforms to the information gathering powers of the two intelligence and security services as

  6. Dynamic modeling of a three-stage low-temperature ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Garcia, Vanesa M; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo; Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A low-temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for the production of hydrogen has been designed aiming the feed of a fuel cell for an autonomous low-scale power production unit. The reformer comprises three stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen over SnO{sub 2} followed by acetaldehyde steam reforming over Co(Fe)/ZnO catalyst and water gas shift reaction. Kinetic data have been obtained under different experimental conditions and a dynamic model has been developed for a tubular reformer loaded with catalytic monoliths for the production of the hydrogen required to feed a 1 kW PEMFC. (author)

  7. Modelling and Optimization of Reforming Systems for use in PEM Fuel Cell

    Berry, Melissa; Korsgaard, Anders Risum; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2004-01-01

    Three different reforming methods for the conversion of natural gas to hydrogen are studied and compared: Steam Reforming (SR), Auto-thermal Reforming (ATR), and Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPOX). Thermodynamic and kinetic models are developed for the reforming reactors as well as the subsequent...... reactors needed for CO removal to make the synthesis gas suitable for use in a PEM fuel cell. The systems are optimized to minimize the total volume, and must supply adequate hydrogen to a fuel cell with a 100kW load. The resultant system efficiencies are calculated. The CPOX system is the smallest...

  8. Gender equity and health sector reform in Colombia: mixed state-market model yields mixed results.

    Ewig, Christina; Bello, Amparo Hernández

    2009-03-01

    In 1993, Colombia carried out a sweeping health reform that sought to dramatically increase health insurance coverage and reduce state involvement in health provision by creating a unitary state-supervised health system in which private entities are the main insurers and health service providers. Using a quantitative comparison of household survey data and an analysis of the content of the reforms, we evaluate the effects of Colombia's health reforms on gender equity. We find that several aspects of these reforms hold promise for greater gender equity, such as the resulting increase in women's health insurance coverage. However, the reforms have not achieved gender equity due to the persistence of fees which discriminate against women and the introduction of a two-tier health system in which women heads of household and the poor are concentrated in a lower quality health system.

  9. Steam Reforming of Bio-oil Model Compounds

    Trane, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst.......The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst....

  10. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in investigating......Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesting...

  11. Reforming health service delivery at district level in Ghana: the perspective of a district medical officer.

    Agyepong, I A

    1999-03-01

    Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face the problem of organizing health service delivery in a manner that provides adequate quality and coverage of health care to their populations against a background of economic recession and limited resources. In response to these challenges, different governments, including that of Ghana, have been considering or are in the process of implementing varying degrees of reform in the health sector. This paper examines aspects of health services delivery, and trends in utilization and coverage, using routine data over time in the Dangme West district of the Greater Accra region of Ghana, from the perspective of a district health manager. Specific interventions through which health services delivery and utilization at district level could be improved are suggested. Suggestions include raising awareness among care providers and health managers that increased resource availability is only a success in so far as it leads to improvements in coverage, utilization and quality; and developing indicators of performance which assess and reward use of resources at the local level to improve coverage, utilization and quality. Also needed are more flexibility in Central Government regulations for resource allocation and use; integration of service delivery at district level with more decentralized planning to make services better responsive to local needs; changes in basic and inservice training strategies; and exploration of how the public and private sectors can effectively collaborate to achieve maximum coverage and quality of care within available resources.

  12. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  13. Twitter and the health reforms in the English National Health Service.

    King, Dominic; Ramirez-Cano, Daniel; Greaves, Felix; Vlaev, Ivo; Beales, Steve; Darzi, Ara

    2013-05-01

    Social media (for example Facebook and YouTube) uses online and mobile technologies to allow individuals to participate in, comment on and create user-generated content. Twitter is a widely used social media platform that lets users post short publicly available text-based messages called tweets that other users can respond to. Alongside traditional media outlets, Twitter has been a focus for discussions about the controversial and radical reforms to the National Health Service (NHS) in England that were recently passed into law by the current coalition Government. Looking at over 120,000 tweets made about the health reforms, we have investigated whether any insights can be obtained about the role of Twitter in informing, debating and influencing opinion in a specific area of health policy. In particular we have looked at how the sentiment of tweets changed with the passage of the Health and Social Care Bill through Parliament, and how this compared to conventional opinion polls taken over the same time period. We examine which users appeared to have the most influence in the 'Twittersphere' and suggest how a widely used metric of academic impact - the H-index - could be applied to measure context-dependent influence on Twitter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocational teachers taking the lead: VET teachers and the career services for teachers reform in Sweden

    Daniel Alvunger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 the Swedish government launched a reform on career services for teachers that introduced first-teachers as a new category of teachers. Since this reform still is in the process of being rolled out, we know fairly little of its impact, especially concerning VET teachers that are appointed first-teachers. This paper explores and analyses two cases of VET first-teachers with focus on the implications on educational leadership practices in their work with school improvement where 'distributed leadership' is used as a lens for understanding the characteristic features of leader-ship practices. The results show that the VET first-teachers consider themselves to represent an important educational leadership being process leaders for creating a culture built on mutual trust, turning the focus of school improvement from a 'top-down' perspective to change 'from below'. They become 'brokers' and a link between school management and their colleagues, even if there are some difficulties. Moreover they visualise different practices and foster a new awareness - concerning e.g. assessment and the relationship between school and work-place - that seem to influence collegial discourse.

  15. Increasing Weldability of Service-Aged Reformer Tubes by Partial Solution Annealing

    Mostafaei, M.; Shamanian, M.; Purmohamad, H.; Amini, M.

    2016-04-01

    A dissimilar joint of 25Cr-35Ni/30Cr-48Ni (HP/HV) heat-resistant steels was evaluated. The investigations indicated that the as-cast HP alloy contained M7C3, M23C6, and NbC carbides and HV alloy with 5 wt.% tungsten, contained M23C6 and M6C carbides embedded in an austenitic matrix. After 8 years of ex-service aging at 1050 °C, the ductility of HP/HV reformer tubes was decreased dramatically, and thus, the repair welding of the aged HP/HV dissimilar joint was at a risk. In order to repair the aged reformer tubes and increase weldability properties, a new partial solution annealing treatment was designed. Mechanical testing results showed that partial solution annealing at 1200 °C for 6 h increased the elongation and toughness of the aged HP and HV alloys drastically. Also, a mechanism for constitutional liquation cracking in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the HP/HV dissimilar joint was proposed. In the HAZ of the aged HP/HV welded joint, the cracks around the locally melted carbides were initiated and propagated during carbides solidification at the cooling cycle of welding associated with the decrease in the ductility of the aged HP and HV alloys. In addition, Varestraint weldability test showed that the susceptibility to hot cracking was decreased with partial solution annealing.

  16. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Pariyo, George W; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Rahman, Mohammed Hafizur; Peterson, Stefan; Bishai, David M; Lucas, Henry; Peters, David H

    2009-11-12

    Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider targeting subsidies to the poor and

  17. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Bishai David M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Methods Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. Results The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94. The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67. The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92, and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48. The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Conclusion Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy

  18. The duopoly policy in the Brazilian model of telecommunications reform

    César Mattos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important characteristics of the Brazilian Model of Telecommunications Reform (BMTR was the adoption of a duopoly policy, constraining the entry of new players in the wire segment in the transitional phase until free competition in 2002. This policy was also used in the reform experience of the United Kingdom in telecommunications in the 80's. The theoretical explanations behind this kind of policy are not strong enough to justify the duopoly policy in telecommunications. The most plausible idea rests on the prominent role conferred to privatization revenues in the design of the reform as a means of helping the efforts to consolidate price stabilization in the country. We introduce a model with the trade-offs between competition, duplication of fixed costs and privatization revenues. Despite the importance of fixed costs in the objective function of the regulator, we show that the privatization revenue target is the aspect, which justifies the imposition of entry constraints. The British experience shows that the sacrifice of this kind of policy regarding efficiency in the long run can be substantial.Uma das características mais importantes do Modelo Brasileiro de Reforma das Telecomunicações foi a adoção de uma política de duopólio, restringindo a entrada de novas empresas no segmento de telefonia fixa durante a fase de transição até a livre concorrência a ser adotada a partir de 2002. Essa política foi também utilizada na experiência de reforma das telecomunicações ocorrida no Reino Unido na década de 80. As explicações teóricas para justificar a adoção deste tipo de política não são satisfatórias o suficiente para justificar a política de duopólio como prescrição de política nas telecomunicações. A idéia mais plausível se baseia no papel proeminente conferido às receitas de privatização no desenho da reforma como forma de auxiliar os esforços de consolidação da estabilização de preços no

  19. Back to the market: yet more reform of the National Health Service.

    Lewis, Richard; Gillam, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Yet more reform of the National Health Service in England has been announced by the Department of Health. In opposition, the Labour Party criticized the creation of an "internal market" for health care by the Conservative government, but five years into the Blair administration, market incentives are to be reinvigorated and the private sector is to be embraced in ways not seen hitherto. New guidance signals the introduction of competitive contracting using cost-per-case currencies, more choice for patients in where they will receive hospital treatment, and the freeing of NHS care providers from the direct political control of ministers. It is intended that the monopolistic features of the NHS in England should give way to greater pluralism, in particular through contracts with privately owned health care organizations. However, there is little evidence to suggest that these policies will be effective, and a number of practical problems may obstruct implementation.

  20. Research on service strategy of electricity selling company under the reform of electricity market

    Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun

    2017-10-01

    The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.

  1. Society of Gynecologic Oncology Future of Physician Payment Reform Task Force report: The Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model (ECAP).

    Ko, Emily M; Havrilesky, Laura J; Alvarez, Ronald D; Zivanovic, Oliver; Boyd, Leslie R; Jewell, Elizabeth L; Timmins, Patrick F; Gibb, Randall S; Jhingran, Anuja; Cohn, David E; Dowdy, Sean C; Powell, Matthew A; Chalas, Eva; Huang, Yongmei; Rathbun, Jill; Wright, Jason D

    2018-05-01

    Health care in the United States is in the midst of a significant transformation from a "fee for service" to a "fee for value" based model. The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 has only accelerated this transition. Anticipating these reforms, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology developed the Future of Physician Payment Reform Task Force (PPRTF) in 2015 to develop strategies to ensure fair value based reimbursement policies for gynecologic cancer care. The PPRTF elected as a first task to develop an Alternative Payment Model for thesurgical management of low risk endometrial cancer. The history, rationale, and conceptual framework for the development of an Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model are described in this white paper, as well as directions forfuture efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A staged service innovation model

    Song, L.Z.; Song, Michael; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the new product development (NPD) literature, service quality literature (SERVQUAL), and empirically grounded research with 53 service innovation decision makers, we develop a staged service innovation model (SIM) for decision makers. We tested the model using empirical data from 329

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of the power plant based on the SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane

    Ivanov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical model based on the thermodynamic modeling of gaseous mixtures is developed for SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane. Macroscopic porous-electrode theory, including non-linear kinetics and gas-phase diffusion, is used to calculate the reforming reaction and the concentration polarization. Provided the data concerning properties and costs of materials the model is fit for wide range of parametric analysis of thermodynamic cycles including SOFC

  4. The politics of prosecution service reform in new presidential democracies: The South Korea and Russia cases in comparative perspective

    Sun-Woo Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why large-scale reform of a civil-law prosecution system will be abandoned, fail, or succeed in exceptional cases, focusing on the strategic interaction between an incumbent president and prosecutors, through a comparative analysis of the South Korea and Russia cases. A civil-law prosecution system could hardly be reformed, although there were several attempts to correct the politicization of the prosecution service, in new presidential democracies. An incumbent president sometimes considers major reform against the prosecutors, but he or she tends to abandon it and seek to form alliance with them, expecting short-term political benefits under intense political competition. Moreover, although a president strongly pushes for large-scale prosecution service reform, he or she also cannot easily achieve this goal, since the prosecutors' willful initiation of criminal proceedings will cause his or her momentum to decline. Indeed, only Putin exceptionally succeeded in major reform of the prosecution system under weak political competition, among South Korean and Russian Presidents after democratization.

  5. The Communicative Dimension and Security in Asia-Pacific: A communicative-viewing proposal for reform of the Japanese Intelligence Services

    Juan L. López-Aranguren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The postwar development of the Intelligence Services in Japan has been based on two contrasting models: the centralized model of the USA and the collegiality of UK, neither of which has been fully developed. This has led to clashes of institutional competencies and poor anticipation of threats towards national security. This problem of opposing models has been partially overcome through two dimensions: externally through the cooperation with the US Intelligence Service under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security; and internally though the pre-eminence in the national sphere of the Department of Public Safety. However, the emergence of a new global communicative dimension requires that a communicative-viewing remodeling of this dual model is necessary due to the increasing capacity of the individual actors to determine the dynamics of international events. This article examines these challenges for the Intelligence Services of Japan and proposes a reform based on this new global communicative dimension.

  6. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Xiaoming Sun

    Full Text Available The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China.A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model.We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM. The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance.It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  7. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  8. Income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services in Finland after a major subsidization reform.

    Raittio, Eero; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Aromaa, Arpo; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2015-06-01

    In Finland, a major oral healthcare reform (OHCR), implemented during 2001-2002, opened the public dental services (PDS) and extended subsidies for private dental services to entire adult population. Before the reform, adults born earlier than 1956 were not entitled to use PDS nor did they receive any reimbursements for their private dental costs. We aimed to examine changes in the income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services among the adult Finns after the reform. Representative data from Finnish adults born in 1970 or earlier were gathered from three identical postal surveys concerning the use of dental services and subjective perceptions of oral health. Those surveys were conducted before the OHCR in 2001 (n = 1907) and after the OHCR in 2004 (n = 1629) and 2007 (n = 1509). We used concentration index and its decomposition to analyse income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services and factors associated with them. Results showed that pro-rich inequality and inequity in the overall use of dental services narrowed from 2001 to 2004. However, between 2004 and 2007, pro-rich inequality and inequity widened, so it returned to a rather similar level in 2007 as it had been in 2001. Most of the pro-rich inequality and inequity were related to regular dental visiting habit and income level. While there was pro-poor inequality and inequity in the use of PDS, there was pro-rich inequality and inequity in the use of private dental services throughout the study years. It seems that income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services narrowed only temporarily after the reform. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Basing care reforms on evidence: the Kenya health sector costing model.

    Flessa, Steffen; Moeller, Michael; Ensor, Tim; Hornetz, Klaus

    2011-05-27

    The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health care costs proportionally. Instead

  10. Basing care reforms on evidence: The Kenya health sector costing model

    2011-01-01

    Background The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Methods Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. Results The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health

  11. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  12. Change management in an environment of ongoing primary health care system reform: A case study of Australian primary health care services.

    Javanparast, Sara; Maddern, Janny; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Lawless, Angela; Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2018-01-01

    Globally, health reforms continue to be high on the health policy agenda to respond to the increasing health care costs and managing the emerging complex health conditions. Many countries have emphasised PHC to prevent high cost of hospital care and improve population health and equity. The existing tension in PHC philosophies and complexity of PHC setting make the implementation and management of these changes more difficult. This paper presents an Australian case study of PHC restructuring and how these changes have been managed from the viewpoint of practitioners and middle managers. As part of a 5-year project, we interviewed PHC practitioners and managers of services in 7 Australian PHC services. Our findings revealed a policy shift away from the principles of comprehensive PHC including health promotion and action on social determinants of health to one-to-one disease management during the course of study. Analysis of the process of change shows that overall, rapid, and top-down radical reforms of policies and directions were the main characteristic of changes with minimal communication with practitioners and service managers. The study showed that services with community-controlled model of governance had more autonomy to use an emergent model of change and to maintain their comprehensive PHC services. Change is an inevitable feature of PHC systems continually trying to respond to health care demand and cost pressures. The implementation of change in complex settings such as PHC requires appropriate change management strategies to ensure that the proposed reforms are understood, accepted, and implemented successfully. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Development of a basic numerical model of an isooctane catalytic autothermal reformer for an automobile

    Li, V.C.L.; Harrison, S.; Oosthuizen, P.; Peppley, B.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A numerical study of the performance of an isooctane catalytic autothermal reformer for a fuel cell automobile has been undertaken. The prototype reformer considered in this study, which is a tubular reformer with three annular sections, was designed and built at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). The flow within the reformer was assumed to be steady. The different chemical reactions, along with the reaction rate constants, that take place over the autothermal reforming catalyst (a ceria-based platinum catalyst), were obtained through the analysis and regression of the experimental results from the literature. By neglecting the radial gradients in the concentrations and the velocities of the various species in the flow and in the temperature of the reformer, a one-dimensional numerical model, based on the molar flow rate differential equations and energy equation, was developed to simulate the composition and temperature profiles along the length of the catalyst bed. The results obtained from the numerical model were verified against published results. Numerical results were obtained for a range of total inlet flow rates, different inlet temperatures of the fuel mixture and different oxygen concentrations in feed air at the inlet of the reformer. (author)

  15. A Concise Analysis of Argentina’s Post-Junta Reform of Its Major Security Services

    2006-12-01

    Carlos Menem (1989–99), respectively a radical and a Peronist, implemented civil-military reform of the security forces. Initially, the reforms...purging the ranks, while Menem used indirect methods, while pointing to the on-going economic crisis to legitimize continuation of his reforms. In all...Politics 35, no. 1 (October 2002): 1. 93 Ibid., 2 94 David Pion-Berlin, 110. 39 civilian government, whereas Menem took advantage of the general

  16. Implementation of Integrated Service Networks under the Quebec Mental Health Reform: Facilitators and Barriers associated with Different Territorial Profiles.

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Vallée, Catherine; Aubé, Denise; Farand, Lambert

    2017-03-10

    This study evaluates implementation of the Quebec Mental Health Reform (2005-2015), which promoted the development of integrated service networks, in 11 local service networks organized into four territorial groups according to socio-demographic characteristics and mental health services offered. Data were collected from documents concerning networks; structured questionnaires completed by 90 managers and by 16 respondent-psychiatrists; and semi-structured interviews with 102 network stakeholders. Factors associated with implementation and integration were organized according to: 1) reform characteristics; 2) implementation context; 3) organizational characteristics; and 4) integration strategies. While local networks were in a process of development and expansion, none were fully integrated at the time of the study. Facilitators and barriers to implementation and integration were primarily associated with organizational characteristics. Integration was best achieved in larger networks including a general hospital with a psychiatric department, followed by networks with a psychiatric hospital. Formalized integration strategies such as service agreements, liaison officers, and joint training reduced some barriers to implementation in networks experiencing less favourable conditions. Strategies for the implementation of healthcare reform and integrated service networks should include sustained support and training in best-practices, adequate performance indicators and resources, formalized integration strategies to improve network coordination and suitable initiatives to promote staff retention.

  17. Carving an administrative model for uniosun: a needed reform ...

    ... community, to the pursuit of the aims and objectives of University education and the objective of setting up Osun State University would facilitate the realization of these aims and objective. The study examined the methods of reforming and modifying college administration in Osun State University for improved productivity.

  18. [PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN REFORMING OF UKRAINIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM USING THE EXAMPLE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL SERVICE].

    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2014-01-01

    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  19. The Active Subjects of Welfare Reform: a Street-Level Comparison of Employment Services in Australia and Denmark

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the similarities and differences between Denmark and Australia in adopting welfare reform activation measures in the field of employment services. In Australia and Denmark the discourse of welfare reform centres the 'activation' of citizens through 'mutual obligation' type requirements. Through various forms of case management, unemployed individuals are encouraged to act upon themselves in creating the right set of ethical dispositions congruent with 'active citizenship'. At the same time any resistance to heightened conditionality on the part of the unemployed person is dealt with through a range of coercive and disciplinary techniques. A comparative case study between these two countries allows us to consider how similar ideas, discourse and principles are shaping policy implementation in countries that have very different welfare state trajectories and institutional arrangements for the delivery of social welfare generally and employment services specifically. And in research terms, a comparison between a Nordic welfare state and an Anglo-Saxon welfare state provides an opportunity to critically examine the utility of 'welfare regime' type analyses and the neo-liberal convergence thesis in comparative welfare research. On the basis of empirical analysis, the article concludes that a single focus on abstract typologies or political ideologies is not very helpful in getting the measure of welfare reform (or any other major policy development for that matter. At the 'street-level' of policy practice there is considerably more ambiguity, incoherence and contradiction than is suggested by linear accounts of welfare reform.

  20. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  1. Models of Public Service Provision

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care......, schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness....

  2. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  3. Modelling and optimization of reforming systems for use in PEM fuel cell systems

    Berry, M.; Korsgaard, A.R.; Nielsen, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Three different reforming methods for the conversion of natural gas to hydrogen are studied and compared: Steam Reforming (SR), Auto-thermal Reforming (ATR), and Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPOX). Thermodynamic and kinetic models are developed for the reforming reactors as well as the subsequent reactors needed for CO removal to make the synthesis gas suitable for use in a PEM fuel cell. The systems are optimized to minimize the total volume, and must supply adequate hydrogen to a fuel cell with a 100kW load. The resultant system efficiencies are calculated. The CPOX system is the smallest and exhibits a comparable efficiency to the SR system. The SR system had the best relation between efficiency and volume increase. Optimal temperature profiles within each reactor were found. It was shown that temperature control can significantly reduce reactor volume and increase conversion capabilities. (author)

  4. The monopolistic integrated model and health care reform: the Swedish experience.

    Anell, A

    1996-07-01

    This article reviews recent reforms geared to creating internal markets in the Swedish health-care sector. The main purpose is to describe driving forces behind reforms, and to analyse the limitations of reforms oriented towards internal markets within a monopolistic integrated health-care model. The principal part of the article is devoted to a discussion of incentives within Swedish county councils, and of how these incentives have influenced reforms in the direction of more choices for consumers and a separation between purchasers and providers. It is argued that the current incentives, in combination with criticism against county council activities in the early 1990's, account for the present inconsistencies as regards reforms. Furthermore, the article maintains that a weak form of separation between purchasers and providers will lead to distorted incentives, restricting innovative behaviour and structural change. In conclusion, the process of reforming the Swedish monopolistic integrated health-care model in the direction of some form of internal market is said to rest on shaky ground.

  5. System model development for a methanol reformed 5 kW high temperature PEM fuel cell system

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the system performance when reforming methanol in an oil heated reformer system for a 5 kW fuel cell system. A dynamic model of the system is created and evaluated. The system is divided into 4 separate components. These components are the fuel cell, reformer, burner...... and evaporator, which are connected by two separate oil circuits, one with a burner and reformer and one with a fuel cell and evaporator. Experiments were made on the reformer and measured oil and bed temperatures are presented in multiple working points. The system is examined at loads from 0 to 5000 W electric...

  6. What did the public think of health services reform in Bangladesh? Three national community-based surveys 1999–2003

    Hossain Md Zakir

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supported by development partners, the Government of Bangladesh carried out a comprehensive reform of health services in Bangladesh between 1998 and 2003, intended to make services more responsive to public needs: the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP. They commissioned a series of surveys of the public, as part of evaluation of the HPSP. This article uses the survey findings to examine the changes in public opinions, use and experience of health services in the period of the HPSP. Methods We carried out three household surveys (1999, 2000 and 2003 of a stratified random sample of 217 rural sites and 30 urban sites. Each site comprised 100–120 contiguous households. Each survey included interviews with 25,000 household respondents and managers of health facilities serving the sites, and gender-stratified focus groups in each site. We measured: household ratings of government health services; reported use of services in the preceding month; unmet need for health care; user reports of waiting times, payments, explanations of condition, availability of prescribed medicines, and satisfaction with service providers. Results Public rating of government health services as "good" fell from 37% to 10% and the proportion using government treatment services fell from 13% to 10%. Unmet need increased from 3% to 9% of households. The proportion of visits to government facilities fell from 17% to 13%, while the proportion to unqualified practitioners rose from 52% to 60%. Satisfaction with service providers' behaviour dropped from 66% to 56%. Users were more satisfied when waiting time was shorter, prescribed medicines were available, and they received explanations of their condition. Conclusion Services have retracted despite increased investment and the public now prefer unqualified practitioners over government services. Public opinion of government health services has deteriorated and the reforms have not specifically

  7. Thermal modeling of radiation and convection sections of primary reformer of ammonia plant

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Baheri, Ehsan

    2007-01-01

    The primary reformer is basically a furnace containing burners and tubes packed with supported nickel catalyst. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Accordingly, selection of primary reformer operating parameters has an important influence on reduction of operating costs and increasing the reactor performance (conversion efficiency). In this paper, the radiation and convection sections of primary reformer are investigated. The effects of key parameters on reformer performance are studied and the related developed software program is presented. The stirred-reactor furnace model which was used to simulate the radiation section of primary reformer was found to make substantially correct predictions of the overall heat transfer process in the furnace. Comparison of the numerical data obtained from the simulation program with the measured data collected from primary reformer of Razi petrochemical plant showed a mean difference of 0.23% in estimating produced hydrogen mole fraction, as well as 1.7% and 7.25% in computing the outlet temperature of process fluids and induced draft fan (ID) speed, respectively

  8. A Concise Analysis of Argentina's Post-Junta Reform of Its Major Security Services

    Kitt, John J

    2006-01-01

    .... The implementation of appropriate security-sector reform by transitional governments in areas of regional instability, such as Iraq, Argentina, and El Salvador, is an issue of considerable concern...

  9. Modeling and dynamics of an autothermal JP5 fuel reformer for marine fuel cell applications

    Tsourapas, Vasilis; Sun, Jing; Nickens, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic model of an integrated autothermal reformer (ATR) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) system and model-based evaluation of its dynamic characteristics are presented. The ATR reforms JP5 fuel into a hydrogen rich flow. The hydrogen is extracted from the reformate flow by a separator membrane (SEP), then supplied to the PEM FC for power generation. A catalytic burner (CB) and a turbine are also incorporated to recuperate energy from the remaining SEP flow that would otherwise be wasted. A dynamic model of this system, based on the ideal gas law and energy balance principles, is developed and used to explore the effects of the operating setpoint selection of the SEP on the overall system efficiency. The analysis reveals that a trade-off exists between the SEP efficiency and the overall system efficiency. Finally the open loop system simulation results are presented and conclusions are drawn on the SEP operation

  10. Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets

    Gratwick, Katharine Nawaal; Eberhard, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Following earlier reforms in the power sectors of industrialized countries and emerging markets (e.g. Chile), developing countries were encouraged to unbundle their electricity industries and to introduce competition and private sector participation. This paper highlights the developments that led to how power sector reform came to be defined as a standard model and theoretical framework in its own right, and how the model was used prescriptively in many developing countries. However, we also show that, after more than 15 years of reform efforts, this new industry model has not fully taken root in most developing countries. Finally, we identify and characterize the emergence of new hybrid power markets, which pose fresh performance and investment challenges

  11. Thermal Modeling and Management of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating with Internally Reformed Methane

    Wu, Yiyang; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng; Ni, Meng

    2018-06-01

    A detailed three-dimensional mechanistic model of a large-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) unit running on partially pre-reformed methane is developed. The model considers the coupling effects of chemical and electrochemical reactions, mass transport, momentum and heat transfer in the SOFC unit. After model validation, parametric simulations are conducted to investigate how the methane pre-reforming ratio affects the transport and electrochemistry of the SOFC unit. It is found that the methane steam reforming reaction has a "smoothing effect", which can achieve more uniform distributions of gas compositions, current density and temperature among the cell plane. In the case of 1500 W/m2 power density output, adding 20% methane absorbs 50% of internal heat production inside the cell, reduces the maximum temperature difference inside the cell from 70 K to 22 K and reduces the cathode air supply by 75%, compared to the condition of completely pre-reforming of methane. Under specific operating conditions, the pre-reforming ratio of methane has an optimal range for obtaining a good temperature distribution and good cell performance.

  12. Comprehensive School Reform Models: A Study Guide for Comparing CSR Models (and How Well They Meet Minnesota's Learning Standards).

    St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri; Jacob, Stacy; Cekic, Osman; Kupersmith, Leigh; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma

    A growing number of schools are exploring the prospect of applying for funding to implement a Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model. But the process of selecting a CSR model can be complicated because it frequently involves self-study and a review of models to determine which models best meet the needs of the school. This study guide is intended…

  13. Electricity market reforms : institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling (Finland)

    Pineau, P.-O.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1990s, there was a definite trend to reform the electric power industry from the way in which it operated a century ago. The reform does not try to totally remove regulation. Rather, the basic objective is to limit central and governmental control over the industry so that free competition can be encouraged at all possible levels. This thesis tried to understand the status of deregulatory reforms and reviews how different countries and large utilities have reacted to the trend. Electricity is particular in that it is a non-storable basic good that is centrally produced. Compared to other industries such as the airline or telecommunication industry, this special nature creates barriers in the restructuring of power markets. An issue that is emerging with deregulation is that national energy policy goals no longer determine the behaviour of utilities. This will impact on how investments will be coordinated in the new market. A major factor to keep in mind is the competition level sought by these reforms. It is not yet known to which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets. The oligopolistic structure of the market may even prevent such an outcome. It is important to examine the investment dynamics in such a context. This was the primary theme of the thesis. The two complementary approaches used included an example of an institution and its economic arguments that support market reform. A detailed example of the reform process in the electricity market in Finland was presented. The second approach was more analytical and was based on the market equilibria that may occur as a result of market reform. A dynamic model of investment for the power market was again applied to the electricity market in Finland

  14. Electricity market reforms : institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling (Finland)

    Pineau, P.-O.

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there was a definite trend to reform the electric power industry from the way in which it operated a century ago. The reform does not try to totally remove regulation. Rather, the basic objective is to limit central and governmental control over the industry so that free competition can be encouraged at all possible levels. This thesis tried to understand the status of deregulatory reforms and reviews how different countries and large utilities have reacted to the trend. Electricity is particular in that it is a non-storable basic good that is centrally produced. Compared to other industries such as the airline or telecommunication industry, this special nature creates barriers in the restructuring of power markets. An issue that is emerging with deregulation is that national energy policy goals no longer determine the behaviour of utilities. This will impact on how investments will be coordinated in the new market. A major factor to keep in mind is the competition level sought by these reforms. It is not yet known to which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets. The oligopolistic structure of the market may even prevent such an outcome. It is important to examine the investment dynamics in such a context. This was the primary theme of the thesis. The two complementary approaches used included an example of an institution and its economic arguments that support market reform. A detailed example of the reform process in the electricity market in Finland was presented. The second approach was more analytical and was based on the market equilibria that may occur as a result of market reform. A dynamic model of investment for the power market was again applied to the electricity market in Finland.

  15. Use of catalytic reforming to aid natural gas HCCI combustion in engines: experimental and modelling results of open-loop fuel reforming

    Peucheret, S.; Wyszynski, M.L.; Lehrle, R.S. [Future Power Systems Group, Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Golunski, S. [Johnson Matthey, Technology Centre, Blount' s Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Xu, H. [Jaguar Land Rover Research, Jaguar Land Rover W/2/021, Abbey Road, Coventry CV3 4LF (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process to deliver drastically reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and improved fuel economy from internal combustion engines is well known. The process is, however, difficult to initiate and control, especially when methane or natural gas are used as fuel. To aid the HCCI combustion of natural gas, hydrogen addition has been successfully used in this study. This hydrogen can be obtained from on-line reforming of natural gas. Methane reforming is achieved here by reaction with engine exhaust gas and air in a small scale monolith catalytic reactor. The benchmark quantity of H{sub 2} required to enhance the feasibility and engine load range of HCCI combustion is 10%. For low temperature engine exhaust gas, typical for HCCI engine operating conditions, experiments show that additional air is needed to produce this quantity. Experimental results from an open-loop fuel exhaust gas reforming system are compared with two different models of basic thermodynamic equilibria calculations. At the low reactor inlet temperatures needed for the HCCI application (approx. 400 deg C) the simplified three-reaction thermodynamic equilibrium model is in broad agreement with experimental results, while for medium (550-650 deg C) inlet temperature reforming with extra air added, the high hydrogen yields predicted from the multi-component equilibrium model are difficult to achieve in a practical reformer. (author)

  16. Gas composition modeling in a reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system using adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method for modeling the gas composition in a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system. The method is based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy-Inference-Systems which are trained on experimental data. The developed models are of the H2, CO2, CO and CH3OH mass flows of the reformed gas. The ANFIS......, or fuel cell diagnostics systems....

  17. Effects of the 2003 CAP Reform on Investments of Dutch Dairy Farms Simulations with a Household Production Model

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a non-separable household production model capable of analyzing the effects of the 2003 CAP reform, and especially EU farm payments, on individual Dutch dairy farms. Model results show that the 2003 CAP reform farm payments do not fully compensate the income loss caused by the

  18. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Hydrogen Production Process from Glycerol using Steam Reforming

    Park, Jeongpil; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae-Ok; Shin, Dongil; Lee, Seunghwan; Moon, Dong Ju

    2014-01-01

    For improved sustainability of the biorefinery industry, biorefinery-byproduct glycerol is being investigated as an alternate source for hydrogen production. This research designs and optimizes a hydrogen-production process for small hydrogen stations using steam reforming of purified glycerol as the main reaction, replacing existing processes relying on steam methane reforming. Modeling, simulation and optimization using a commercial process simulator are performed for the proposed hydrogen production process from glycerol. The mixture of glycerol and steam are used for making syngas in the reforming process. Then hydrogen are produced from carbon monoxide and steam through the water-gas shift reaction. Finally, hydrogen is separated from carbon dioxide using PSA. This study shows higher yield than former U.S.. DOE and Linde studies. Economic evaluations are performed for optimal planning of constructing domestic hydrogen energy infrastructure based on the proposed glycerol-based hydrogen station

  19. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  20. An evaluation of systemic reforms of public hospitals: the Sanming model in China.

    Fu, Hongqiao; Li, Ling; Li, Mingqiang; Yang, Chunyu; Hsiao, William

    2017-10-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been searching for effective strategies to reform their inefficient and wasteful public hospitals. Recently, China developed a model of systemic reforms called the Sanming model to address the inefficiency and waste at public hospitals. In this article, we explain and evaluate how the Sanming model reformed its 22 public hospitals in 2013 by simultaneously restructuring the hospital governance structure, altering the payment system to hospitals, and realigning physicians' incentives. By employing the difference-in-difference (DID) method and using the hospital-level data from 187 public hospitals in Fujian province, we find that the Sanming model has reduced medical costs significantly without measurably sacrificing clinical quality and productive efficiency. The systemic reform, on average, has reduced the medical care cost per outpatient visit and per inpatient admission by 6.1% (P-value = 0.0445) and 15.4% (P-value transformation of public hospitals, where the governance structure, payment system and physician compensation methods are aligned, are crucial to improving their performance; it holds critical lessons for China and other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Modeling and parametric simulations of solid oxide fuel cells with methane carbon dioxide reforming

    Ni, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A 2D model is developed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). ► CH 4 reforming by CO 2 (MCDR) is included. ► SOFC with MCDR shows comparable performance with methane steam reforming SOFC. ► Increasing CO electrochemical oxidation greatly enhances the SOFC performance. ► Effects of potential and temperature on SOFC performance are also discussed. - Abstract: A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fed with CO 2 and CH 4 mixture. The electrochemical oxidations of both CO and H 2 are included. Important chemical reactions are considered in the model, including methane carbon dioxide reforming (MCDR), reversible water gas shift reaction (WGSR), and methane steam reforming (MSR). It’s found that at a CH 4 /CO 2 molar ratio of 50/50, MCDR and reversible WGSR significantly influence the cell performance while MSR is negligibly small. The performance of SOFC fed with CO 2 /CH 4 mixture is comparable to SOFC running on CH 4 /H 2 O mixtures. The electric output of SOFC can be enhanced by operating the cell at a low operating potential or at a high temperature. In addition, the development of anode catalyst with high activity towards CO electrochemical oxidation is important for SOFC performance enhancement. The model can serve as a useful tool for optimization of the SOFC system running on CH 4 /CO 2 mixtures

  2. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  3. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon

    Studies were conducted with acetic acid (HAc) as model oxygenate for the design of active and stable catalysts for steam reforming of bio-oil. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation technique. The Pt/ZrO2 catalysts showed high activities at initial time on stream, but lost its activity

  4. Modeling and simulation of an isothermal reactor for methanol steam reforming

    Raphael Menechini Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to growing electricity demand, cheap renewable energy sources are needed. Fuel cells are an interesting alternative for generating electricity since they use hydrogen as their main fuel and release only water and heat to the environment. Although fuel cells show great flexibility in size and operating temperature (some models even operate at low temperatures, the technology has the drawback for hydrogen transportation and storage. However, hydrogen may be produced from methanol steam reforming obtained from renewable sources such as biomass. The use of methanol as raw material in hydrogen production process by steam reforming is highly interesting owing to the fact that alcohol has the best hydrogen carbon-1 ratio (4:1 and may be processed at low temperatures and atmospheric pressures. They are features which are desirable for its use in autonomous fuel cells. Current research develops a mathematical model of an isothermal methanol steam reforming reactor and validates it against experimental data from the literature. The mathematical model was solved numerically by MATLAB® and the comparison of its predictions for different experimental conditions indicated that the developed model and the methodology for its numerical solution were adequate. Further, a preliminary analysis was undertaken on methanol steam reforming reactor project for autonomous fuel cell.

  5. Implementing Marzano's Model: The Reality of Educational Leadership and School Reform

    Keaveny, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…

  6. Creating a Comprehensive School Reform Model: The Talent Development High School with Career Academies.

    Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.; Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for comprehensive reforms in school organization, curriculum and instruction, and professional development to address the problems of large urban high schools. Describes the Talent Development High School with Career Academies model being developed to meet the needs of such schools. (SLD)

  7. Private participation in China's wastewater service under the constraint of charge rate reform.

    Zhong, L.; Wang, X.; Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    China is moving towards a market-based economic system, which includes the water sector. The state is emphasizing tariff reform of the water sector, which is a necessary step in the transition to a market economy, and also an important step for China's wastewater management. With the gradual

  8. Exploring Massachusetts Health Care Reform Impact on Fee-for-Service-Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment Providers.

    Fields, Dail; Pruett, Jana; Roman, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is forecast to increase the demand for and utilization of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Massachusetts implemented health reforms similar to the ACA in 2006-2007 that included expanding coverage for SUD treatment. This study explored the impact of Massachusetts health reforms from 2007 to 2010 on SUD treatment providers in Massachusetts, who relied on fee-for-service billings for more than 50% of their revenue. The changes across treatment facilities located in Massachusetts were compared to changes in other similar fee-for-service-funded SUD treatment providers in Northeast states bordering Massachusetts and in all other states across the US. From 2007-2010, the percentage changes for Massachusetts based providers were significantly different from the changes among providers located in the rest of the US for admissions, outpatient census, average weeks of outpatient treatment, residential/in-patient census, detoxification census, length of average inpatient and outpatient stays, and provision of medication-assisted treatment. Contrary to previous studies of publicly funded treatment providers, the results of this exploratory study of providers dependent on fee-for-service revenues were consistent with some predictions for the overall effects of the ACA.

  9. Chemical looping reforming in packed-bed reactors : modelling, experimental validation and large-scale reactor design

    Spallina, V.; Marinello, B.; Gallucci, F.; Romano, M.C.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    This paper addresses the experimental demonstration and model validation of chemical looping reforming in dynamically operated packed-bed reactors for the production of H2 or CH3OH with integrated CO2 capture. This process is a combination of auto-thermal and steam methane reforming and is carried

  10. Identifying perceptions of academic reform in pharmacy using a four-frame organizational change model.

    Bajis, Dalia; Chaar, Betty; Basheti, Iman A; Moles, Rebekah

    2017-11-10

    In an ever-changing environment, pharmacy education is in the race to catch up and excel to produce competent pharmacists. Examining academic institutions, including schools of pharmacy, their internal systems and framework, it seems appropriate to view these institutions using multiple lenses. Bolman and Deal conceptualized a method to examine organizations using four constructs (structural, human resource, political, and symbolic). The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), with deep-rooted pharmacy education and practice was the setting for this research. To explore factors affecting academic reform in undergraduate pharmacy education in the EMR from stakeholders' and students' perspectives; and to apply Bolman and Deal's four-frame organizational change model to explore how these issues might be viewed. A multiple-method approach was employed and involved collecting, analyzing and integrating qualitative semi-structured interview data with open-ended questions in a survey. Cross-sector stakeholder sample from various EMR countries was recruited and interviewed. Final year pharmacy students from one school of pharmacy in Jordan were surveyed. Emergent themes were indicative that academic reform was addressed by all frames of the Bolman and Deal model. Structural and political frames received substantial weighing pointing to the importance of curricular reform, collaboration and leadership. A need for skillful and role-model teaching academic staff was highlighted, and in harmony with the human resource frame. Issues within the symbolic frame were readily apparent in the data and spanned the other three frames in relation to heritage, customs and cultural barriers. Issues pertinent to academic reform in pharmacy were presented. Viewing change in pharmacy schools from multiple perspectives highlighted the need for structural changes to pharmacy programs, human resource management, political will, leadership, and collaboration. The importance of understanding cultural

  11. The evaluator as technical assistant: A model for systemic reform support

    Century, Jeanne Rose

    This study explored evaluation of systemic reform. Specifically, it focused on the evaluation of a systemic effort to improve K-8 science, mathematics and technology education. The evaluation was of particular interest because it used both technical assistance and evaluation strategies. Through studying the combination of these roles, this investigation set out to increase understanding of potentially new evaluator roles, distinguish important characteristics of the evaluator/project participant relationship, and identify how these roles and characteristics contribute to effective evaluation of systemic science education reform. This qualitative study used interview, document analysis, and participant observation as methods of data collection. Interviews were conducted with project leaders, project participants, and evaluators and focused on the evaluation strategies and process, the use of the evaluation, and technical assistance. Documents analyzed included transcripts of evaluation team meetings and reports, memoranda and other print materials generated by the project leaders and the evaluators. Data analysis consisted of analytic and interpretive procedures consistent with the qualitative data collected and entailed a combined process of coding transcripts of interviews and meetings, field notes, and other documents; analyzing and organizing findings; writing of reflective and analytic memos; and designing and diagramming conceptual relationships. The data analysis resulted in the development of the Multi-Function Model for Systemic Reform Support. This model organizes systemic reform support into three functions: evaluation, technical assistance, and a third, named here as "systemic perspective." These functions work together to support the project's educational goals as well as a larger goal--building capacity in project participants. This model can now serve as an informed starting point or "blueprint" for strategically supporting systemic reform.

  12. EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AND TEACHERS’ WORKING CONDITIONS: EMOTIONS EXPERIENCED BY AN IN-SERVICE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER

    Neide Nunes RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the relation among educational reforms and teachers’ work, and emotions. This study was conducted with a public school English teacher, in Minas Gerais. The aim was to verify the role that contextual factors play in the production of emotions, and detect the emotions that influence her practice with students, colleagues, and school managers. The theoretical framework was based on studies about educational reforms and teachers’ work (AUGUSTO, 2005; HYPOLITO; VIEIRA; PIZZI, 2009; DUARTE; AUGUSTO, [s.d.], the relationship between emotions and the process of teaching and learning languages (HARGREAVES, 2000; ZEMBYLAS, 2002, 2003; ARAGÃO, 2008; DAY; QING, 2009; SHUTZ; ZEMBYLAS, 2009; COWIE, 2011; RIBEIRO, 2012. We used a semistructured questionnaire and a narrative interview as data collection instruments. The analysis has pointed out poor work condition, crowded classrooms, poor physical and technological structures, strict school curriculum, students’ indiscipline, and the institution pessimistic atmosphere as frustrating, stressful, and de-motivating factors. These results indicate the need to create alternative ways of school workplaces organization, and to modify the way people interact in schools. They also suggest the need of educators to participate in the design and implementation of educational reforms.

  13. Entering the Era of Third Generation Services: A Comparative Study of Reforms in Social and Health Care Services

    Laitinen, Ilpo; Stenvall, Jari

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses what kinds of organisational and change processes take place when shifting to customer-oriented service concept, here called "third generation services". Our interest lies in the learning process that produces the development of services in cities and regions in new ways and how to develop services in practice so…

  14. Hyaluronate acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Zhang Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhang, Qin Liu, Ning Yang, Xuegang Zhang Department of Gynecology, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study aimed to explore whether hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC could prevent adhesion formation and reformation. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each and subjected to different treatments during the first and second surgery. The control group was treated with isotonic sodium chloride, the ORC group was treated with ORC (1.5×1 cm, and the medical sodium hyaluronate (MSH group was treated with 1% MSH (0.5 mL. At 2 weeks after the first surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (1.90±0.99 and the ORC group (1.40±0.97 were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.00±0.82 (P=0.005. Similarly, 2 weeks after the second surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (2.00±0.82 and the ORC group (1.50±1.27 were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.50±0.53 (P=0.001. In addition, body weights in the MSH group and the ORC group did not change significantly, whereas the control group showed a consistent decrease in body weight during the experiment. Histological examination revealed that inflammatory infiltration was involved in both adhesion formation and reformation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid and ORC were both efficient in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat model. Keywords: hyaluronic acid, oxidized regenerated cellulose, adhesion formation, adhesion reformation, rat model 

  15. Environmental Fiscal Reform and the Double Dividend: Evidence from a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model

    Jaume Freire-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An environmental fiscal reform (EFR represents a transition of a taxation system toward one based in environmental taxation, rather than on taxation of capital, labor, or consumption. It differs from an environmental tax reform (ETR in that an EFR also includes a reform of subsidies which counteract environmental policy. This research details different ways in which an EFR is not only possible but also a good option that provides economic and environmental benefits. We have developed a detailed dynamic CGE model examining 101 industries and commodities in Spain, with an energy and an environmental extension comprising 31 pollutant emissions, in order to simulate the economic and environmental effects of an EFR. The reform focuses on 39 industries related to the energy, water, transport and waste sectors. We simulate an increase in taxes and a reduction on subsidies for these industries and at the same time we use new revenues to reduce labor, capital and consumption taxes. All revenue recycling options provide both economic and environmental benefits, suggesting that the “double dividend” hypothesis can be achieved. After three to four years after implementing an EFR, GDP is higher than the base case, hydrocarbons consumption declines and all analyzed pollutants show a reduction.

  16. Organization And Financing Models Of Health Service In Selected Countries

    Branimir Marković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The introductory part of the work gives a short theoretical presentation regarding possible financing models of health services in the world. In the applicative part of the work we shall present the basic practical models of financing health services in the countries that are the leaders of classic methods of health services financing, e. g. the USA, Great Britain, Germany and Croatia. Working out the applicative part of the work we gave the greatest significance to analysis of some macroeconomic indicators in health services (tendency of total health consumption in relation to GDP, average consumption per insured person etc., to structure analysis of health insurance and just to the scheme of health service organization and financing. We presume that each model of health service financing contains certain limitations that can cause problem (weak organization, increase of expenses etc.. This is the reason why we, in the applicative part of the work, paid a special attention to analysis of financial difficulties in the health sector and pointed to the needs and possibilities of solving them through possible reform measures. The end part of the work aims to point out to advantages and disadvantages of individual financing sources through the comparison method (budgetary – taxes or social health insurance – contributions.

  17. Formal Modeling of Service Session Management

    Le, V.M.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; de Goede, Leo; Almeroth, Kevin C.; Hasan, Masum

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept to apply modeling tools to Multi-Provider Telematics Service Management. The service architecture is based on the framework called “Open Service Components” which serves as building blocks to compose end-to-end telematics services in terms of service components offered

  18. Service business model framework and the service innovation scope

    van der Aa, W.; van der Rhee, B.; Victorino, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for service business models. We build on three streams of research. The first stream is the service management and marketing literature that focuses on the specific challenges of managing a service business. The second stream consists of research on e-business

  19. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. The models are underpinned by a two-dimensional geometric property (lateral cover; L) used to characterise the three-dimensional aerodynamic roughness (sheltered area or wakes) of the Earth's surface and calibrate the momentum it extracts from the wind. We reveal a fundamental weakness in L and demonstrate that values are an order of magnitude too small and significant aerodynamic interactions between roughness elements and their sheltered areas have been omitted, particularly under sparse surface roughness. We describe a solution which develops published work to establish a relation between sheltered area and the proportion of shadow over a given area; the inverse of direct beam directional hemispherical reflectance (black sky albedo; BSA). We show direct relations between shadow and wind tunnel measurements and thereby provide direct calibrations of key aerodynamic properties. Estimation of the aerodynamic parameters from albedo enables wind erosion assessments over areas, across platforms from the field to airborne and readily available satellite data. Our new approach demonstrated redundancy in existing wind erosion models and thereby reduced model complexity and improved fidelity. We found that the use of albedo enabled an adequate description of aerodynamic sheltering to characterise fluid dynamics and predict sediment transport without the use of a drag partition scheme (Rt) or threshold friction velocity (u∗t). We applied the calibrations to produce global maps of aerodynamic properties which showed very similar spatial patterns to each other and confirmed the redundancy in the traditional parameters of wind erosion modelling. We evaluated temporal patterns of predicted horizontal mass flux at locations across Australia which revealed variation between land cover types that would not

  20. Effect of Bundled Payments and Health Care Reform as Alternative Payment Models in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Clinical Review.

    Siddiqi, Ahmed; White, Peter B; Mistry, Jaydev B; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Nace, James; Mont, Michael A; Delanois, Ronald E

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to control rising healthcare costs, healthcare reforms have developed initiatives to evaluate the efficacy of alternative payment models (APMs) for Medicare reimbursements. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center (CMMSIC) introduced the voluntary Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) model experiment as a means to curtail Medicare cost by allotting a fixed payment for an episode of care. The purpose of this review is to (1) summarize the preliminary clinical results of the BPCI and (2) discuss how it has led to other healthcare reforms and alternative payment models. A literature search was performed using PubMed and the CMMSIC to explore different APMs and clinical results after implementation. All studies that were not in English or unrelated to the topic were excluded. Preliminary results of bundled payment models have shown reduced costs in total joint arthroplasty largely by reducing hospital length of stay, decreasing readmission rates, as well as reducing the number of patients sent to in-patient rehabilitation facilities. In order to refine episode of care bundles, CMMSIC has also developed other initiatives such as the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) pathway and Surgical Hip and Femur Fracture (SHFFT). Despite the unknown future of the Affordable Care Act, BPCI, and CJR, preliminary results of alternative models have shown promise to reduce costs and improve quality of care. Moving into the future, surgeon control of the BPCI and CJR bundle should be investigated to further improve patient care and maximize financial compensation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System approach

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Ehmsen, Mikkel Præstholm; Andersen, John

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the experimental study and modelling of a methanol reformer system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The analyzed system is a fully integrated HTPEM fuel cell system with a DC/DC control output able to be used as e.g. a mobile battery...... charger. The advantages of using a HTPEM methanol reformer is that the high quality waste heat can be used as a system heat input to heat and evaporate the input methanol/water mixture which afterwards is catalytically converted into a hydrogen rich gas usable in the high CO tolerant HTPEM fuel cells....... Creating a fuel cell system able to use a well known and easily distributable liquid fuel such as methanol is a good choice in some applications such as range extenders for electric vehicles as an alternative to compressed hydrogen. This work presents a control strategy called Current Correction...

  2. 77 FR 48453 - Connect America Fund; High-Cost Universal Service Support; Universal Service Reform-Mobility Fund

    2012-08-14

    ... constitutes corporate welfare, as the average annual net income of such carriers purportedly demonstrates that... preferences here. Blooston cites the Universal Service principle of competitive neutrality, which it...

  3. The service dominant business model : a service focused conceptualization

    Lüftenegger, E.R.; Comuzzi, M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Weisleder, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing approaches on business model tools are constrained by the goods dominant way of doing business. Nowadays, the shift from goods based approaches towards a service dominant strategy requires novel business model tools specially focused for service business. In this report we present the

  4. Steam reforming of different biomass tar model compounds over Ni/Al_2O_3 catalysts

    Artetxe, Maite; Alvarez, Jon; Nahil, Mohamad A.; Olazar, Martin; Williams, Paul T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Order of reactivity: anisole > furfural > indene > phenol > toluene > methyl naphthalene. • Higher coke deposition for oxygenates (1.5–2.8%) than for aromatics (0.5–0.8%). • Amorphous coke is deposited for oxygenates and filamentous carbon for aromatics. • Ni content of 20 wt.% shows the higher conversion (90%) and H_2 potential (63%). - Abstract: This work focuses on the removal of the tar derived from biomass gasification by catalytic steam reforming on Ni/Al_2O_3 catalysts. Different tar model compounds (phenol, toluene, methyl naphthalene, indene, anisole and furfural) were individually steam reformed (after dissolving each one in methanol), as well as a mixture of all of them, at 700 °C under a steam/carbon (S/C) ratio of 3 and 60 min on stream. The highest conversions and H_2 potential were attained for anisole and furfural, while methyl naphthalene presented the lowest reactivity. Nevertheless, the higher reactivity of oxygenates compared to aromatic hydrocarbons promoted carbon deposition on the catalyst (in the 1.5–2.8 wt.% range). When the concentration of methanol is decreased in the feedstock and that of toluene or anisole is increased, the selectivity to CO is favoured in the gaseous products, thus increasing coke deposition on the catalyst and decreasing catalyst activity for the steam reforming reaction. Moreover, an increase in Ni loading in the catalyst from 5 to 20% enhances carbon conversion and H_2 formation in the steam reforming of a mixture of all the model compounds studied, but these values decrease for a Ni content of 40%. Coke formation also increased by increasing Ni loading, attaining its maximum value for 40% Ni (6.5 wt.%).

  5. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  6. Service systems concepts, modeling, and programming

    Cardoso, Jorge; Poels, Geert

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the internal workings of service systems. The authors propose a lightweight semantic model for an effective representation to capture the essence of service systems. Key topics include modeling frameworks, service descriptions and linked data, creating service instances, tool support, and applications in enterprises.Previous books on service system modeling and various streams of scientific developments used an external perspective to describe how systems can be integrated. This brief introduces the concept of white-box service system modeling as an approach to mo

  7. Dynamic Modeling of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell System using Empirical Data and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Models

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic MATLAB Simulink model of a H3-350 Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) stand-alone battery charger produced by Serenergy is developed on the basis of theoretical and empirical methods. The advantage of RMFC systems is that they use liquid methanol as a fuel instead of gaseous...... of the reforming process are implemented. Models of the cooling flow of the blowers for the fuel cell and the burner which supplies process heat for the reformer are made. The two blowers have a common exhaust, which means that the two blowers influence each other’s output. The models take this into account using...... an empirical approach. Fin efficiency models for the cooling effect of the air are also developed using empirical methods. A fuel cell model is also implemented based on a standard model which is adapted to fit the measured performance of the H3-350 module. All the individual parts of the model are verified...

  8. Dynamic Modeling of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell System using Empirical Data and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Models

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic MATLAB Simulink model of a H3-350 Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) stand-alone battery charger produced by Serenergy is developed on the basis of theoretical and empirical methods. The advantage of RMFC systems is that they use liquid methanol as a fuel instead of gaseous...... of the reforming process are implemented. Models of the cooling flow of the blowers for the fuel cell and the burner which supplies process heat for the reformer are made. The two blowers have a common exhaust, which means that the two blowers influence each other’s output. The models take this into account using...... an empirical approach. Fin efficiency models for the cooling effect of the air are also developed using empirical methods. A fuel cell model is also implemented based on a standard model which is adapted to fit the measured performance of the H3-350 module. All the individual parts of the model are verified...

  9. Modeling and control of the output current of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic Matlab SIMULINK model of the relationship between the fuel cell current set point of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system and the output current of the system is developed. The model contains an estimated fuel cell model, based on a polarization curve and assumed first order...... dynamics, as well as a battery model based on an equivalent circuit model and a balance of plant power consumption model. The models are tuned with experimental data and verified using a verification data set. The model is used to develop an output current controller which can control the charge current...... of the battery. The controller is a PI controller with feedforward and anti-windup. The performance of the controller is tested and verified on the physical system....

  10. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    Williams, J.H.; Ghanadan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model, reform processes and outcomes have often failed to meet expectations. Drawing on an extensive literature review and case studies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe, this paper describes common features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions. Comparison with the sector-focused policy goals of deregulation in OECD countries highlights the importance of national fiscal crises, macroeconomic reforms, and persuasion by multilateral lenders in shaping non-OECD reforms. It also makes clear reform's dependence on attracting foreign capital, and consequent vulnerability to volatile international financial conditions. Case studies of Bolivia, Ghana, India, Poland, and Thailand illustrate reform's diverse pathways and problems in different settings. A broad range of non-OECD reform experiences indicates that disappointing results have often resulted from a narrow focus on finance and cost recovery, inflexibly applied. The paper concludes that improving reform will require emphasizing a broader set of objectives, including service provision, public benefits, effective regulation, and social/political legitimacy. Above all, reforms must be based on realistic assessments of national needs and capabilities. (author)

  11. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  12. Community participation in health service reform: the development of an innovative remote Aboriginal primary health-care service.

    Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John; Wakerman, John; Carroll, Vicki; Carter, Maureen; O'Brien, Tim; Erlank, Carol; Mansour, Rafik; Smith, Bec

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the reorientation of a remote primary health-care service, in the Kimberley region of Australia, its impact on access to services and the factors instrumental in bringing about change. A unique community-initiated health service partnership was developed between a community-controlled Aboriginal health organisation, a government hospital and a population health unit, in order to overcome the challenges of delivering primary health care to a dispersed, highly disadvantaged Aboriginal population in a very remote area. The shared goals and clear delineation of responsibilities achieved through the partnership reoriented an essentially acute hospital-based service to a prevention-focussed comprehensive primary health-care service, with a focus on systematic screening for chronic disease, interdisciplinary follow up, health promotion, community advocacy and primary prevention. This formal partnership enabled the primary health-care service to meet the major challenges of providing a sustainable, prevention-focussed service in a very remote and socially disadvantaged area.

  13. Education Reform in Hong Kong: The ``Through-Road'' Model and its Societal Consequences

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Although Hong Kong's education system has long been criticized as lacking in creativity and over-emphasising rote learning, on the whole it has served Hong Kong well in the past years, breeding outstanding business, academic and political leaders who continue to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge. The traditional elite schools have played a crucial role in the process. The education reform, which is still on-going, aims to overhaul the entire system by introducing the "through-road" model. To accomplish this, some mechanisms need to be changed. J.P. Farrell's concepts of equality and equity, C.W. Mills' concept of elitism, and P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman's concepts of cultural and social capital will be applied to analyse the consequences of the reform. The paper argues that the education reform may be well-intentioned in eliminating some elements of inequality and inequity in education, but that this comes at the expense of Hong Kong's cultural and social capital and leads to the development of new forms of inequality.

  14. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropologists are concerned with every aspect of the culture they are investigating. One of the five main branches of anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, concerns itself with studying the relationship between behavior and culture. This paper explores the concept that changing the behavior of our culture - its beliefs and values - towards science is at the heart of science education reform. There are five institutions that socio-cultural anthropologists use to study the social organization of cultures: the educational system is only one of them. Its function - across all cultures - is to serve as a mechanism for implementing change in cultural beliefs and values. As leaders of science education reform, the Alabama model contends that we must stop the struggle with our purpose and get on with the business of leading culture change through an integrated stakeholder systems approach. This model stresses the need for the interaction of agencies other than education - including government, industry, the media and our health communities to operate in an integrated and systemic fashion to address the issues of living among a technically literate society. Twenty-five years of science education reform needs being voiced and programs being developed has not produced the desired results from within the educational system. This is too limited a focus to affect any real cultural change. It is when we acknowledge that students spend only an average of 12 percent of their life time in schools, that we can begin to ask ourselves what are our students learning the other 88 percent of their time - from their peers, their parents and the media - and what should we be doing to address this cultural crisis in these other arenas in addition to the educational system? The Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition (AMSTEC) is a non-profit 501c(3) organization operating in the state of Alabama to provide leadership in improving mathematics, science, and technology

  15. Hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qin; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Xuegang

    2016-01-01

    Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study aimed to explore whether hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) could prevent adhesion formation and reformation. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each) and subjected to different treatments during the first and second surgery. The control group was treated with isotonic sodium chloride, the ORC group was treated with ORC (1.5×1 cm), and the medical sodium hyaluronate (MSH) group was treated with 1% MSH (0.5 mL). At 2 weeks after the first surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (1.90±0.99) and the ORC group (1.40±0.97) were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.00±0.82) (P=0.005). Similarly, 2 weeks after the second surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (2.00±0.82) and the ORC group (1.50±1.27) were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.50±0.53) (P=0.001). In addition, body weights in the MSH group and the ORC group did not change significantly, whereas the control group showed a consistent decrease in body weight during the experiment. Histological examination revealed that inflammatory infiltration was involved in both adhesion formation and reformation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid and ORC were both efficient in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat model. PMID:27822014

  16. Autothermal reforming of palm empty fruit bunch bio-oil: thermodynamic modelling

    Lifita N. Tande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on thermodynamic analysis of the autothermal reforming of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB bio-oil for the production of hydrogen and syngas. PEFB bio-oil composition was simulated using bio-oil surrogates generated from a mixture of acetic acid, phenol, levoglucosan, palmitic acid and furfural. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the hydrogen and syngas yields were not sensitive to actual bio-oil composition, but were determined by a good match of molar elemental composition between real bio-oil and surrogate mixture. The maximum hydrogen yield obtained under constant reaction enthalpy and pressure was about 12 wt% at S/C = 1 and increased to about 18 wt% at S/C = 4; both yields occurring at equivalence ratio Φ of 0.31. The possibility of generating syngas with varying H2 and CO content using autothermal reforming was analysed and application of this process to fuel cells and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is discussed. Using a novel simple modelling methodology, reaction mechanisms were proposed which were able to account for equilibrium product distribution. It was evident that different combinations of reactions could be used to obtain the same equilibrium product concentrations. One proposed reaction mechanism, referred to as the ‘partial oxidation based mechanism’ involved the partial oxidation reaction of the bio-oil to produce hydrogen, with the extent of steam reforming and water gas shift reactions varying depending on the amount of oxygen used. Another proposed mechanism, referred to as the ‘complete oxidation based mechanism’ was represented by thermal decomposition of about 30% of bio-oil and hydrogen production obtained by decomposition, steam reforming, water gas shift and carbon gasification reactions. The importance of these mechanisms in assisting in the eventual choice of catalyst to be used in a real ATR of PEFB bio-oil process was discussed.

  17. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the H...

  18. Modeling of the service taxi

    R. M. Bezborodnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimization business processes are ongoing challenges of modernity. Based on the study of business processes to anticipate and avoid many problems in the work of companies linked primarily with an increased level of costs, the low quality of the performed works and manufactured products, excessive run time functions. Application of simulation tool for business processes allows at the stage of planning to assess various indicators of the effectiveness of processes to identify the best sequence of functions, determine resource costs to calculate personnel workload, thereby facilitating timely adoption of the correct administrative decisions. The article deals with the modeling of the business process “Order processing” taxi service Heat the city of Orenburg. Based on the methodology of modeling Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN built functional diagram of the business process (with freely distributed software product Bizagi Modeler, given the resources used, the costs of their use, built calendar schedules. Next, the operation was carried out simulations with different process input data: the number of incoming applications, the number of controllers and advertising budget. It is shown that the efficiency of the business process will contribute to the increase in the total number of dispatchers up to 6 people, as well as increasing advertising costs doubled. As a result of the decisions taken is expected to increase the net income of the company to 76 794 RUR and the average salary of the staff (in particular taxi drivers to 42 281 RUR, dispatchers and 22 799 RUR, as well as reducing the duration of processing a single order up to 31 minutes.

  19. Newspaper advertising by health maintenance organizations during the reform of healthcare services in Israel.

    Reuveni, H; Shvarts, S; Meyer, J; Elhayany, A; Greenberg, D

    2001-06-01

    On 1 January 1995 a new mandatory National Health Insurance Law was enacted in Israel. The new law fostered competition among the four major Israeli healthcare providers (HMOs or sick funds) already operating in the market due to the possibility that an unlimited number of patients and the relative budget share would shift among the HMOs. This led them to launch advertising campaigns to attract new members. To examine newspaper advertising activities during the early stages of healthcare market reform in Israel. Advertising efforts were reviewed during a study period of 24 months (July 1994 to June 1996). Advertisements were analyzed in terms of marketing strategy, costs and quality of information. During the study period 412 newspaper advertisements were collected. The total advertising costs by all HMOs was approximately US$4 million in 1996 prices. Differences were found in marketing strategy, relative advertising costs, contents and priorities among the HMOs. The content of HMOs' newspaper advertising was consistent with their marketing strategy. The messages met the criteria of persuasive advertising in that they cultivated interest in the HMOs but did not provide meaningful information about them. Future developments in this area should include consensus guidelines for advertising activities of HMOs in Israel, instruction concerning the content of messages, and standardization of criteria to report on HMO performance.

  20. Modeling and simulation of a packed bed reactor for hydrogen by methanol steam reforming

    Aboudheir, A.; Idem, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The performance of a catalytic packed bed tubular reactor for hydrogen production depends on mass transport characteristics and temperature distribution in the reactor. To accurately predict this performance, a rigorous numerical model has been developed based on coupled mass, energy, and momentum balance equations in cylindrical coordinates. This comprehensive model takes into account the variations of the concentration and temperature in both the axial and radial directions as well as the pressure drop along the packed reactor. Also, experimental measurements for hydrogen production were collected using a manganese-promoted co-precipitated Cu-Al catalyst for methanol-steam reforming in a micro-reactor having 10 mm i.d. and 460 mm overall length. The operating temperature ranged from 443 to 523 K and the space-time ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 kg cat h/kmol CH3OH. The simulation results were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data over the various operating conditions. This confirms the validity of both the numerical model of this work and our previous published kinetics models for this reaction system. In addition, the model formulation is applicable to handle reactions, not only for the microreactor presented in this work, but also, for other laboratory size and industrial scale processes for hydrogen production by hydrocarbon reformation. (author)

  1. On the Path to SunShot. Utility Regulatory and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Net-energy metering (NEM) has helped drive the rapid growth of distributed PV (DPV) but has raised concerns about electricity cost shifts, utility financial losses, and inefficient resource allocation. These concerns have motivated real and proposed reforms to utility regulatory and business models. This report explores the challenges and opportunities associated with such reforms in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. Most of the reforms to date address NEM concerns by reducing the benefits provided to DPV customers and thus constraining DPV deployment. Eliminating NEM nationwide, by compensating exports of PV electricity at wholesale rather than retail rates, could cut cumulative DPV deployment by 20% in 2050 compared with a continuation of current policies. This would slow the PV cost reductions that arise from larger scale and market certainty. It could also thwart achievement of the SunShot deployment goals even if the initiative's cost targets are achieved. This undesirable prospect is stimulating the development of alternative reform strategies that address concerns about distributed PV compensation without inordinately harming PV economics and growth. These alternatives fall into the categories of facilitating higher-value DPV deployment, broadening customer access to solar, and aligning utility profits and earnings with DPV. Specific strategies include utility ownership and financing of DPV, community solar, distribution network operators, services-driven utilities, performance-based incentives, enhanced utility system planning, pricing structures that incentivize high-value DPV configurations, and decoupling and other ratemaking reforms that reduce regulatory lag. These approaches represent near- and long-term solutions for preserving the legacy of the SunShot Initiative.

  2. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period.

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.

  3. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  4. Service models and realization of differentiated services networks

    Elizondo, Antonio J.; Garcia Osma, Maria L.; Einsiedler, Hans J.; Roth, Rudolf; Smirnov, Michael I.; Bartoli, Maurizio; Castelli, Paolo; Varga, Balazs; Krampell, Magnus

    2001-07-01

    Internet Service Providers need to offer Quality of Service (QoS) to fulfil the requirements of applications of their customers. Moreover, in a competitive market environment costs must be low. The selected service model must be effective and low in complexity, but it should still provide high quality and service differentiation, that the current Internet is not yet capable to support. The Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Architecture has been proposed for enabling a range of different Classes of Service (CoS). In the EURESCOM project P1006 several European service providers co-operated to examine various aspects involved in the introduction of service differentiation using the DiffServ approach. The project explored a set of service models for Expedited Forwarding (EF) and Assured Forwarding (AF) and identified requirements for network nodes. Besides, we addressed also measurement issues, charging and accounting issues. Special attention has been devoted to requirements of elastic traffic that adapts its sending rate to congestion state and available bandwidth. QoS mechanisms must prove Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) friendliness. TCP performance degrades under multiple losses. Since RED based queue management may still cause multiple discards, a modified marking scheme called Capped Leaky Bucket is proposed to improve the performance of elastic applications.

  5. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights from Food Service Directors

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to…

  6. Reform in the dental services area in Romania – objective necessity or second option

    Cristian UŢĂ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article herein deals with a topic of current interest, not only because the latest economic and social phenomena within the context of globalized crisis in the world, but also from the perspective of the evolution and specific processes in the medical area in Romania. The writer accomplishes a journey into the various medical systems in national economies, by analyzing the features of each type of system and the opportunity for a ‘capitalist’ vision related to the healthcare services in general. The dental medical services share a series of characteristics that help them be better defined from the point of view of provider-customer relation. Thus, it becomes evident that, for Romania, the process initiated in 2006 meaning liberalization of practicing the dental doctor profession represents a natural way of developing the market specific to such services. From this perspective, this issue targets the mentalities level only – to impose quality standards on the market and to witness the offer-demand balance, both deriving from the specific nature itself of the dental services. The involvement of the authorities at Health Department into developing a health insurance policy in the dental field and the support of the private initiative in the underserved areas are the main targets of the ‘reform’.

  7. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  8. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  9. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  10. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  11. Contracting for Reform: The Challenges of Procuring Security Training and Advisory Services in Fragile Environments

    2014-04-30

    reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204...USA, Deputy Director of Contracting, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The Efficacy of the Government’s Use of Past Performance Information: An... remuneration that we’re paying them. (author interview). Selecting the right people is an investment in quality and success, but this mindset was absent. The

  12. Service creation: a model-based approach

    Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach to support service creation. In this approach, services are assumed to be created from (available) software components. The creation process may involve multiple design steps in which the requested service is repeatedly decomposed into more detailed

  13. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  14. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights From Food Service Directors.

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to gain insight into successful implementation strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with FSDs (N = 9) from high schools that had achieved HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) status. Qualitative interview data were team coded in Atlas.ti v7 and analyzed with principles of constant comparative analysis. FSDs reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and its potential impacts, as well as improved fruit and vegetable consumption, despite initial challenges with plate waste, procurement of whole grain-rich products, and fast paced sodium targets. Implementation was described as complex, ongoing processes; with time and in-service trainings, student acceptance to these changes improved. These findings are directly relevant to future reauthorization of the Child Nutrition Act and to revisions to the implementation time line for the federal school meal standards related to sodium, whole grains, and flavored milk. Insights into FSDs' strategies suggest that more time and targeted technical assistance at federal, state, and local levels is warranted. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  15. Various Transport Phenomena and Modeling in a Methane Reformer Duct for PEMFCs

    Jinliang Yuan; Fuan Ren; Jinliang Yuan; Bengt Sunden

    2006-01-01

    There are various physical processes (such as mass, heat and momentum transport) integrated with catalytic chemical reactions in a methane steam reforming duct. It is often found that endothermic and exothermic reactions in the ducts are strongly coupled by heat transfer from adjacent catalytic combustion ducts. In this paper, a three-dimensional calculation method is developed to simulate and analyze steam reforming of methane, and the effects on various transport processes in a steam reforming duct. The reformer conditions such as mass balances associated with the reforming reactions and gas permeation to/from the porous catalyst layer are applied in the analysis. The predicted results are presented and discussed for a composite duct consisting of a porous catalyst reaction area, the gas flow duct and solid layers. Parametric studies are conducted and the results show that the variables, such as fuel reformer temperatures and catalyst loadings, have significant effects on the transport processes and reformer performance. (authors)

  16. Power sector reform in Maharashtra, India

    Totare, Ninad P.; Pandit, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    In early 1990 the power sector in India required an initial set of reforms due to the scarcity of financial resources and its deteriorating technical and commercial efficiency. The Indian power sector is now going through a second stage of reforms in which restructuring of electric supply utilities has taken place. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) initiated reforms in 2005 by dividing the state electricity board into four separate companies. In this paper, the situations that led to the reform of the MSEB and the scope of the work required for an action plan initiated by the state electricity distribution company in the context of the proposed Key Performance Index are discussed. The post-reform status of the distribution company is analyzed with selected key parameters. The study also analyzes the electricity supply model implemented and the effect of a multi-year tariff plan as one of the key milestones of the tariff structure. The various new projects implemented by the distribution company to improve consumer services and the reform experiences of the other states are discussed, along with the future scope of the present reform process. (author)

  17. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the urgency of now: building a recovery-oriented, community mental health service in china.

    Tse, Samson; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yueqin; Zhu, Shimin

    2013-07-01

    For the first time in history, China has a mental health legal framework. People in China can now expect a better life and more accessible, better-quality health care services for their loved ones. Development of a community mental health service (CMHS) is at a crossroads. In this new column on mental health reforms in Asia, the authors review the current state of the CMHS in China and propose four strategic directions for future development: building on the strengths of the "686 Project," the 2004 initiative that launched China's mental health reform; improving professional skills of the mental health workforce, especially for a recovery approach; empowering families and caregivers to support individuals with severe mental illness; and using information and communications technology to promote self-help and reduce the stigma associated with psychiatric disorders.

  18. Funding models for outreach ophthalmology services.

    Turner, Angus W; Mulholland, Will; Taylor, Hugh R

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to describe funding models used and compare the effects of funding models for remuneration on clinical activity and cost-effectiveness in outreach eye services in Australia. Cross-sectional case study based in remote outreach ophthalmology services in Australia. Key stake-holders from eye services in nine outreach regions participated in the study. Semistructured interviews were conducted to perform a qualitative assessment of outreach eye services' funding mechanisms. Records of clinical activity were used to statistically compare funding models. Workforce availability (supply of ophthalmologists), costs of services, clinical activity (surgery and clinic consultation rates) and waiting times. The supply of ophthalmologists (full-time equivalence) to all remote regions was below the national average (up to 19 times lower). Cataract surgery rates were also below national averages (up to 10 times lower). Fee-for-service funding significantly increased clinical activity. There were also trends to shorter waiting times and lower costs per attendance. For outreach ophthalmology services, the funding model used for clinician reimbursement may influence the efficiency and costs of the services. Fee-for-service funding models, safety-net funding options or differential funding/incentives need further exploration to ensure isolated disadvantaged areas prone to poor patient attendance are not neglected. In order for outreach eye health services to be sustainable, remuneration rates need to be comparable to those for urban practice. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform

    Martin Heipertz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on European economic and social models. It provides a comparative assessment of fiscal and regulatory policies in 17 industrialised countries (the EU15, US and Japan and presents the records of these countries in attaining key economic and social objectives. Social and economic systems that feature efficient public sectors and flexible market structures tend to experience reasonably sustainable public finances, high economic growth, education standards and employment, and well-functioning markets. Anglo-Saxon countries broadly fit this mould, albeit, seemingly, at some cost of income equality. A more pronounced emphasis on welfare state policies and the corresponding relatively high levels of public spending bring benefit to income distribution in the Nordic countries while the resulting inefficiencies in their economies are counterbalanced by flexibility in labour and particularly product markets. Also, a number of reform-minded European countries have improved their fiscal and regulatory policies while significantly enhancing the functioning of markets, fiscal sustainability and economic performance. This was generally attained without jeopardising social objectives. On the other hand, those continental and Mediterranean countries that maintain market inefficiencies and at the same time sustain expensive and inefficient welfare states generally suffer from low growth and employment and less well-functioning markets and face serious risks to their economies’ fiscal sustainability. The findings of this note support calls for the comprehensive reform of fiscal policies, as well as of product and labour markets.

  20. The Chiasmus of Design: Paradoxical Outcomes in the e-Government Reform of UK Children's Services

    Wastell, David; White, Sue; Broadhurst, Karen

    This paper describes a detailed ethnographic study of the design problems of a major national IT system in the UK- The Integrated Children’s System (ICS). The implementation of the ICS has disrupted social work practice and engendered growing professional resistance, prompting a fundamental review of its design. Marshall McLuhan’s concept of chiasmus is a central feature of our analysis of the vicissitudes of ICS. Chiasmus refers to the tendency of any system, when pushed too far, to produce unintended contradictory effects, and is an intrinsic feature of the behaviour of complex, socio-technical systems. The dysfunctions of the ICS provide a pertinent, large-scale example. The ICS constitutes an attempt, via technological means, to re-organize child welfare services in the UK. Whilst aimed at improving child safety, the ICS has had the opposite effect of increasing the potential for error. This chiasmus has been exposed through the multi-site ethnography reported here, which shows how rigidly designed processes, enforced by IT systems, force social work professionals into unsafe investigative and recording practices which increase the risk of errors. The paper ends by proposing an alternative approach to design, based on socio-technical precepts, emphasizing the principles of minimum critical specification, user-centeredness and local autonomy.

  1. Service provision in the wake of a new funding model for community pharmacy.

    Smith, Alesha J; Scahill, Shane L; Harrison, Jeff; Carroll, Tilley; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2018-05-02

    Recently, New Zealand has taken a system wide approach providing the biggest reform to New Zealand community pharmacy for 70 years with the aim of providing more clinically orientated patient centred services through a new funding model. The aim of this study was to understand the types of services offered in New Zealand community pharmacies since introduction of the new funding model, what the barriers are to providing these services. A survey of all community pharmacies were undertaken between August, 2014 and February, 2015. Basic descriptive statistics were completed and group comparisons were made using the chi squared test with significance set at p funding attached. Costs and staff availability are the most common barriers to undertake services, more predominantly in patient centred services. This study was the first to provide an evaluation of service provision in response to a new funding model for New Zealand Community Pharmacies. A broad range of services are being undertaken in New Zealand community pharmacies including patient-centred services. A number of barriers to service provision were identified. This study provides a baseline for the current levels of service provision upon which future studies can compare to and evaluate any changes in service provision with differing funding models going forward.

  2. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  3. A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a knowledge-based strategic management of services model, with a view to emphasise an approach to gaining competitive advantage through knowledge, people and networking. The long-term evolution of the service organization is associated with the way in which the strategic management is practised.

  4. International Digital Elevation Model Service (IDEMS): A Revived IAG Service

    Kelly, K. M.; Hirt, C., , Dr; Kuhn, M.; Barzaghi, R.

    2017-12-01

    A newly developed International Digital Elevation Model Service (IDEMS) is now available under the umbrella of the International Gravity Field Service of the International Association of Geodesy. Hosted and operated by Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) (http://www.esri.com/), the new IDEMS website is available at: https://idems.maps.arcgis.com/home/index.html. IDEMS provides a focus for distribution of data and information about various digital elevation models, including spherical-harmonic models of Earth's global topography and lunar and planetary DEM. Related datasets, such as representation of inland water within DEMs, and relevant software which are available in the public domain are also provided. Currently, IDEMS serves as repository of links to providers of global terrain and bathymetry, terrain related Earth models and datasets such as digital elevation data services managed and maintained by Esri (Terrain and TopoBathy), Bedmap2-Ice thickness and subglacial topographic model of Antarctica and Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation ICESat/GLAS Data, as well as planetary terrain data provided by PDS Geosciences Node at Washington University, St. Louis. These services provide online access to a collection of multi-resolution and multi-source elevation and bathymetry data, including metadata and source information. In addition to IDEMS current holdings of terrestrial and planetary DEMs, some topography related products IDEMS may include in future are: dynamic ocean topography, 3D crustal density models, Earth's dynamic topography, etc. IDEMS may also consider terrain related products such as quality assessments, global terrain corrections, global height anomaly-to-geoid height corrections and other geodesy-relevant studies and products. IDEMS encourages contributions to the site from the geodetic community in any of the product types listed above. Please contact the authors if you would like to contribute or recommend content you think appropriate for

  5. A Model for Rural School Consolidation: Making Sense of the Inevitable Result of School Reform.

    Cummins, Craig; Chance, Edward W.; Steinhoff, Carl

    Passage in 1989 of Oklahoma's education reform bill, H.B. 1017, provided encouragement and financial rewards for use of consolidation as a reform strategy, but this approach is often met with anxiety and hostility from stakeholders. In an effort to identify strategies that facilitate consolidation, semistructured interviews were conducted with the…

  6. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  7. Developing a Steady-state Kinetic Model for Industrial Scale Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process

    Seif Mohaddecy, R.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for high octane gasoline as a transportation fuel, the catalytic naphtha reformer has become one of the most important processes in petroleum refineries. In this research, the steady-state modelling of a catalytic fixed-bed naphtha reforming process to predict the momentous output variables was studied. These variables were octane number, yield, hydrogen purity, and temperature of all reforming reactors. To do such a task, an industrial scale semi-regenerative catalytic naphtha reforming unit was studied and modelled. In addition, to evaluate the developed model, the predicted variables i.e. outlet temperatures of reactors, research octane number, yield of gasoline and hydrogen purity were compared against actual data. The results showed that there is a close mapping between the actual and predicted variables, and the mean relative absolute deviation of the mentioned process variables were 0.38 %, 0.52 %, 0.54 %, 0.32 %, 4.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively.

  8. French gas industry in transition: breach in the public service model

    Finon, D.

    2001-08-01

    France is generally viewed as the European country that most vigorously resists the pressure to liberalize its national gas markets. The moderate reform which has resulted from the transcription of the European gas directive was voted in 2002 after much delay. The main reason is the robustness of the French public service-model which has shaped the gas industry organisation in the same way as most of the network industries. To explain the institutional stability of the French gas industry, this document analyses its institutional trajectory shaped by the public service model and its strong institutional path dependency, marked by the resistance to change. The central hypothesis of the analysis is that, as long as this model demonstrates economic and social efficiency in the development of gas supply in relation to public services obligation and in the control of the import dependence risk in the gas sector, no reform can be brought about by endogenous factors. The analysis of the French gas industry transition consists of four sections. After a survey of its historical development, the author presents its organisation and regulation under the public service model and its performances in terms of social and economic efficiency. In the third section, the minimalist reform for transcribing the European Directive in the French law is presented, in order to identify its potential effects in terms of competition development and public service erosion. Finally, in the fourth section, the industrial policy option to preserve the existence of a French mono-energy company and its consequences in terms of strategic adaptation are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Energy modeling issues in quick service restaurants

    Smith, V.A.; Johnson, K.F.

    1997-03-01

    The complexity of monitoring and modeling the energy performance of food-service facilities was discussed. Usually, less than one third of the energy consumed in a commercial food-service facility is used by equipment and systems typically modeled in building simulation software such as DOE-2. Algorithms have not yet been developed to handle independent makeup air units and the kitchen and dining room HVAC systems. The energy used by food process equipment and water heating is based on customer-volume and operation-hours. Monitoring projects have been undertaken to provide detailed energy use profiles of individual appliances and whole restaurants. Some technical issues that are unique to food-service modeling in current versions of DOE-2.1E software in the context of quick service restaurants, such as difficulties in modelling internal heat gains of hooded cooking appliances and walk-in refrigeration, and system and zone limitations on tracking energy consumption, were discussed. 1 fig.

  10. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  11. A web service for service composition to aid geospatial modelers

    Bigagli, L.; Santoro, M.; Roncella, R.; Mazzetti, P.

    2012-04-01

    The identification of appropriate mechanisms for process reuse, chaining and composition is considered a key enabler for the effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. In the Earth and Space Sciences, such a facility could primarily enable integrated and interoperable modeling, for what several approaches have been proposed and developed, over the last years. In fact, GEOSS is specifically tasked with the development of the so-called "Model Web". At increasing levels of abstraction and generalization, the initial stove-pipe software tools have evolved to community-wide modeling frameworks, to Component-Based Architecture solution, and, more recently, started to embrace Service-Oriented Architectures technologies, such as the OGC WPS specification and the WS-* stack of W3C standards for service composition. However, so far, the level of abstraction seems too low for implementing the Model Web vision, and far too complex technological aspects must still be addressed by both providers and users, resulting in limited usability and, eventually, difficult uptake. As by the recent ICT trend of resource virtualization, it has been suggested that users in need of a particular processing capability, required by a given modeling workflow, may benefit from outsourcing the composition activities into an external first-class service, according to the Composition as a Service (CaaS) approach. A CaaS system provides the necessary interoperability service framework for adaptation, reuse and complementation of existing processing resources (including models and geospatial services in general) in the form of executable workflows. This work introduces the architecture of a CaaS system, as a distributed information system for creating, validating, editing, storing, publishing, and executing geospatial workflows. This way, the users can be freed from the need of a composition infrastructure and

  12. Modeling Medical Services with Mobile Health Applications

    Zhenfei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile health technology (m-Health provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services. As the bridge between doctors and patients, mobile health applications enable patients to communicate with doctors through their smartphones, which is becoming more and more popular among people. To evaluate the influence of m-Health applications on the medical service market, we propose a medical service equilibrium model. The model can balance the supply of doctors and demand of patients and reflect possible options for both doctors and patients with or without m-Health applications in the medical service market. In the meantime, we analyze the behavior of patients and the activities of doctors to minimize patients’ full costs of healthcare and doctors’ futility. Then, we provide a resolution algorithm through mathematical reasoning. Lastly, based on artificially generated dataset, experiments are conducted to evaluate the medical services of m-Health applications.

  13. Client/consultant model services agreement

    International Federation of Consulting Engineers

    2006-01-01

    The terms of the Client Consultant Model Services agreement (The White Book) have been prepared by the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils (FIDIC) and are recommended for general use for the purposes of pre-investment and feasibility studies, designs and administration of construction and project management, where proposals for such services are invited on an international basis. They are equally adaptable for domestic agreements. - See more at: http://fidic.org/books/clientconsultant-model-services-agreement-4th-ed-2006-white-book#sthash.3Uxy5qT3.dpuf

  14. Operating cost model for local service airlines

    Anderson, J. L.; Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Several mathematical models now exist which determine the operating economics for a United States trunk airline. These models are valuable in assessing the impact of new aircraft into an airline's fleet. The use of a trunk airline cost model for the local service airline does not result in representative operating costs. A new model is presented which is representative of the operating conditions and resultant costs for the local service airline. The calculated annual direct and indirect operating costs for two multiequipment airlines are compared with their actual operating experience.

  15. Healthcare reform: the role of coordinated critical care.

    Cerra, F B

    1993-03-01

    To evaluate and editorialize the evolving role of the discipline of critical care as a healthcare delivery system in the process of healthcare reform. The sources included material from the Federal Office of Management and Budget, Health Care Financing Review, President Bush's Office, Association of American Medical Colleges, and publications of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Data were selected that the author felt was relevant to the healthcare reform process and its implications for the discipline of critical care. The data were extracted by the author to illustrate the forces behind healthcare reform, the implications for the practice of critical care, and role of critical care as a coordinated (managed) care system in the process of healthcare reform. Healthcare reform has been initiated because of a number of considerations that arise in evaluating the current healthcare delivery system: access, financing, cost, dissatisfactions with the mechanisms of delivery, and political issues. The reform process will occur with or without the involvement of critical care practitioners. Reforms may greatly alter the delivery of critical care services, education, training, and research in critical care. Critical care has evolved into a healthcare delivery system that provides services to patients who need and request them and provides these services in a coordinated (managed) care model. Critical care practitioners must become involved in the healthcare reform process, and critical care services that are effective must be preserved, as must the education, training, and research programs. Critical care as a healthcare delivery system utilizing a coordinated (managed) care model has the potential to provide services to all patients who need them and to deliver them in a manner that is cost effective and recognized as providing added value.

  16. Modeling of the service taxi

    R. M. Bezborodnikova

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and optimization business processes are ongoing challenges of modernity. Based on the study of business processes to anticipate and avoid many problems in the work of companies linked primarily with an increased level of costs, the low quality of the performed works and manufactured products, excessive run time functions. Application of simulation tool for business processes allows at the stage of planning to assess various indicators of the effectiveness of processes to identify the...

  17. Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality

    Benbernou, Salima; Brandic, Ivona; Cappiello, Cinzia; Carro, Manuel; Comuzzi, Marco; Kertész, Attila; Kritikos, Kyriakos; Parkin, Michael; Pernici, Barbara; Plebani, Pierluigi

    In this chapter the research problems of specifying and negotiating QoS and its corresponding quality documents are analyzed. For this reason, this chapter is separated into two main sections, Section 6.1 and 6.2, with each dedicated to one of the two problems, i.e., QoS specification and negotiation, respectively. Each section has a similar structure: they first introduce the problem and then, in the remaining subsections, review related work. Finally, the chapter ends with Section 6.3, which identifies research gaps and presents potential research challenges in QoS modelling, specification and negotiation.

  18. Hypersonic - Model Analysis as a Service

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Hypersonic is a Cloud-based tool that proposes a new approach to the deployment of model analysis facilities. It is implemented as a RESTful Web service API o_ering analysis features such as model clone detection. This approach allows the migration of resource intensive analysis algorithms from...

  19. Institutional innovation and public extension services' provision: the case of Marche Regional Administration Reform in central Italy

    Pascucci, S.; Magistris, de T.

    2011-01-01

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of

  20. Numerical 3D Model for Thermal Integration of 20W Methanol Reformer

    Blackwell, N. E; Palo, D. R

    2006-01-01

    ....8 cm 20W methanol reformer for Future Force Warrior and Future Combat Systems. Fuel cell technology development is being pursued around the world to provide electric power in many potential applications in the military and commercial sector...

  1. Product with service, technology with business model

    Sakao, Tomohiko; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product/Service-S...... promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers....

  2. Performance modeling of network data services

    Haynes, R.A.; Pierson, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Networks at major computational organizations are becoming increasingly complex. The introduction of large massively parallel computers and supercomputers with gigabyte memories are requiring greater and greater bandwidth for network data transfers to widely dispersed clients. For networks to provide adequate data transfer services to high performance computers and remote users connected to them, the networking components must be optimized from a combination of internal and external performance criteria. This paper describes research done at Sandia National Laboratories to model network data services and to visualize the flow of data from source to sink when using the data services.

  3. Function Model for Community Health Service Information

    Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong

    In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.

  4. Social Security Reform

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  5. Service Learning In Physics: The Consultant Model

    Guerra, David

    2005-04-01

    Each year thousands of students across the country and across the academic disciplines participate in service learning. Unfortunately, with no clear model for integrating community service into the physics curriculum, there are very few physics students engaged in service learning. To overcome this shortfall, a consultant based service-learning program has been developed and successfully implemented at Saint Anselm College (SAC). As consultants, students in upper level physics courses apply their problem solving skills in the service of others. Most recently, SAC students provided technical and managerial support to a group from Girl's Inc., a national empowerment program for girls in high-risk, underserved areas, who were participating in the national FIRST Lego League Robotics competition. In their role as consultants the SAC students provided technical information through brainstorming sessions and helped the girls stay on task with project management techniques, like milestone charting. This consultant model of service-learning, provides technical support to groups that may not have a great deal of resources and gives physics students a way to improve their interpersonal skills, test their technical expertise, and better define the marketable skill set they are developing through the physics curriculum.

  6. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  7. A simple simulation model as a tool to assess alternative health care provider payment reform options in Vietnam.

    Cashin, Cheryl; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Shain, Ryan; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam is currently considering a revision of its 2008 Health Insurance Law, including the regulation of provider payment methods. This study uses a simple spreadsheet-based, micro-simulation model to analyse the potential impacts of different provider payment reform scenarios on resource allocation across health care providers in three provinces in Vietnam, as well as on the total expenditure of the provincial branches of the public health insurance agency (Provincial Social Security [PSS]). The results show that currently more than 50% of PSS spending is concentrated at the provincial level with less than half at the district level. There is also a high degree of financial risk on district hospitals with the current fund-holding arrangement. Results of the simulation model show that several alternative scenarios for provider payment reform could improve the current payment system by reducing the high financial risk currently borne by district hospitals without dramatically shifting the current level and distribution of PSS expenditure. The results of the simulation analysis provided an empirical basis for health policy-makers in Vietnam to assess different provider payment reform options and make decisions about new models to support health system objectives.

  8. "Economic growth and the reform of the judicial system of Bulgaria in the period 2000-2015 (vision for a new measurement model)"

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2015-01-01

    The publication proposes a concept for new model for evaluation of the “reform of the judicial system”, different from those applied by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund where the economic growth rate of each country is measured. Their models, based on performance indicators, examine the “reform of the judicial system” as constant and floating in time, evaluated in certain periods of time. This fact obstructs the identification of the relative legislative miscarriages of ever...

  9. Modeling for Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    Guswa, A. J.; Brauman, K. A.; Ghile, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Ecosystem services are those values provided to human society by the structure and processes of ecosystems and landscapes. Water-related services include the transformation of precipitation impulses into supplies of water for hydropower, irrigation, and industrial and municipal uses, the retention and removal of applied nutrients and pollutants, flood-damage mitigation, recreation, and the provision of cultural and aesthetic values. Incorporation of changes to the value of these services in land-use planning and decision making requires identification of the relevant services, engagement of stakeholders, knowledge of how land-use changes impact water quality, quantity, and timing, and mechanisms for putting value on the hydrologic and biogeochemical changes. We present three examples that highlight the characteristics, challenges, and opportunities associated with prototypical decisions that incorporate ecosystem services values: scenario analysis, payment for ecosystem services, and optimal spatial planning. Through these examples, we emphasize the challenges of data availability, model resolution and complexity, and attribution of value. We also provide some suggestions for ways forward.

  10. Environmental Models as a Service: Enabling Interoperability ...

    Achieving interoperability in environmental modeling has evolved as software technology has progressed. The recent rise of cloud computing and proliferation of web services initiated a new stage for creating interoperable systems. Scientific programmers increasingly take advantage of streamlined deployment processes and affordable cloud access to move algorithms and data to the web for discoverability and consumption. In these deployments, environmental models can become available to end users through RESTful web services and consistent application program interfaces (APIs) that consume, manipulate, and store modeling data. RESTful modeling APIs also promote discoverability and guide usability through self-documentation. Embracing the RESTful paradigm allows models to be accessible via a web standard, and the resulting endpoints are platform- and implementation-agnostic while simultaneously presenting significant computational capabilities for spatial and temporal scaling. RESTful APIs present data in a simple verb-noun web request interface: the verb dictates how a resource is consumed using HTTP methods (e.g., GET, POST, and PUT) and the noun represents the URL reference of the resource on which the verb will act. The RESTful API can self-document in both the HTTP response and an interactive web page using the Open API standard. This lets models function as an interoperable service that promotes sharing, documentation, and discoverability. Here, we discuss the

  11. Modelling and analysing interoperability in service compositions using COSMO

    Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2008-01-01

    A service composition process typically involves multiple service models. These models may represent the composite and composed services from distinct perspectives, e.g. to model the role of some system that is involved in a service, and at distinct abstraction levels, e.g. to model the goal,

  12. AN INFORMATION SERVICE MODEL FOR REMOTE SENSING EMERGENCY SERVICES

    Z. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method on the semantic access environment, which can solve the problem about how to identify the correct natural disaster emergency knowledge and return to the demanders. The study data is natural disaster knowledge text set. Firstly, based on the remote sensing emergency knowledge database, we utilize the sematic network to extract the key words in the input documents dataset. Then, using the semantic analysis based on words segmentation and PLSA, to establish the sematic access environment to identify the requirement of users and match the emergency knowledge in the database. Finally, the user preference model was established, which could help the system to return the corresponding information to the different users. The results indicate that semantic analysis can dispose the natural disaster knowledge effectively, which will realize diversified information service, enhance the precision of information retrieval and satisfy the requirement of users.

  13. Telecom Reform

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  14. Modeling Road Traffic Using Service Center

    HARAGOS, I.-M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport systems have an essential role in modern society because they facilitate access to natural resources and they stimulate trade. Current studies aimed at improving transport networks by developing new methods for optimization. Because of the increase in the global number of cars, one of the most common problems facing the transport network is congestion. By creating traffic models and simulate them, we can avoid this problem and find appropriate solutions. In this paper we propose a new method for modeling traffic. This method considers road intersections as being service centers. A service center represents a set consisting of a queue followed by one or multiple servers. This model was used to simulate real situations in an urban traffic area. Based on this simulation, we have successfully determined the optimal functioning and we have computed the performance measures.

  15. Modelling OAIS Compliance for Disaggregated Preservation Services

    Gareth Knight

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The reference model for the Open Archival Information System (OAIS is well established in the research community as a method of modelling the functions of a digital repository and as a basis in which to frame digital curation and preservation issues. In reference to the 5th anniversary review of the OAIS, it is timely to consider how it may be interpreted by an institutional repository. The paper examines methods of sharing essential functions and requirements of an OAIS between two or more institutions, outlining the practical considerations of outsourcing. It also details the approach taken by the SHERPA DP Project to introduce a disaggregated service model for institutional repositories that wish to implement preservation services.

  16. Public and private hospital services reform using data envelopment analysis to measure technical, scale, allocative, and cost efficiencies.

    Sheikhzadeh, Yaghoub; Roudsari, Abdul V; Vahidi, Reza Gholi; Emrouznejad, Ali; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospital systems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures. This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and private hospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approach in order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards. Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33%) had a technical efficiency score of less than 50% (both private), 2 (33%) between 51 and 74% (one private and one public) and the rest (2, 33%) between 75 and 99% (one private and one public). In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it is recommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, or renting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals or other health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists, and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improve remuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural and urban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource pooling and cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health care costs, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases prevention services and facilities in the provincial level.

  17. Effects of Physician Payment Reform on Provision of Home Dialysis

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Study Design Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the US in the three years before and after payment reform. Methods We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with Traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Results Patients with Traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI 0.2%–1.1%; p=0.003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared to patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI 0.5%–1.4%; ppayment model for dialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts. PMID:27355909

  18. Dry (CO_2) reforming of methane over Pt catalysts studied by DFT and kinetic modeling

    Niu, Juntian; Du, Xuesen; Ran, Jingyu; Wang, Ruirui

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CH appears to be the most abundant species on Pt(1 1 1) surface in CH_4 dissociation. • CO_2* + H* → COOH* + * → CO* + OH* is the dominant reaction pathway in CO_2 activation. • Major reaction pathway in CH oxidation: CH* + OH* → CHOH* + * → CHO* + H* → CO* + 2H*. • C* + OH* → COH* + * → CO* + H* is the dominant reaction pathway in C oxidation. - Abstract: Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a well-studied reaction that is of both scientific and industrial importance. In order to design catalysts that minimize the deactivation and improve the selectivity and activity for a high H_2/CO yield, it is necessary to understand the elementary reaction steps involved in activation and conversion of CO_2 and CH_4. In our present work, a microkinetic model based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations is applied to explore the reaction mechanism for methane dry reforming on Pt catalysts. The adsorption energies of the reactants, intermediates and products, and the activation barriers for the elementary reactions involved in the DRM process are calculated over the Pt(1 1 1) surface. In the process of CH_4 direct dissociation, the kinetic results show that CH dissociative adsorption on Pt(1 1 1) surface is the rate-determining step. CH appears to be the most abundant species on the Pt(1 1 1) surface, suggesting that carbon deposition is not easy to form in CH_4 dehydrogenation on Pt(1 1 1) surface. In the process of CO_2 activation, three possible reaction pathways are considered to contribute to the CO_2 decomposition: (I) CO_2* + * → CO* + O*; (II) CO_2* + H* → COOH* + * → CO* + OH*; (III) CO_2* + H* → mono-HCOO* + * → bi-HCOO* + * [CO_2* + H* → bi-HCOO* + *] → CHO* + O*. Path I requires process to overcome the activation barrier of 1.809 eV and the forward reaction is calculated to be strongly endothermic by 1.430 eV. In addition, the kinetic results also indicate this process is not easy to

  19. The College Science Learning Cycle: An Instructional Model for Reformed Teaching

    Withers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Finding the time for developing or locating new class materials is one of the biggest barriers for instructors reforming their teaching approaches. Even instructors who have taken part in training workshops may feel overwhelmed by the task of transforming passive lecture content to engaging learning activities. Learning cycles have been…

  20. Family-centred care delivery: comparing models of primary care service delivery in Ontario.

    Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Cross-sectional study. Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC.

  1. Modeling and simulation of graphene/palladium catalyst reformer for hydrogen generation from waste of IC engine

    Rahman, A.; Aung, K. M.

    2018-01-01

    A small amount of hydrogen made by on-board reformer is added to the normal intake air and gasoline mixture in the vehicle’s engine could improves overall combustion quality by allowing nearly twice as much air for a given amount of fuel introduced into the combustion chamber. This can be justified based on the calorific value of Hydrogen (H2) 141.9 MJ/kg while the gasoline (C6.4H11.8) is 47MJ/kg. Different weight % of Pd and GO uses for the reformer model and has conducted simulation by COMSOL software. The best result found for the composition of catalyst (palladium 30% and graphene 70%). The study shows that reformer yield hydrogen 23% for the exhaust temperature of 600-900°C and 20% for 80-90°C. Pumping hydrogen may boost the fuel atomization and vaporization at engine idle condition, which could enhances the fuel combustion efficiency. Thus, this innovative technology would be able to save fuel about 12% and reduce the emission about 35%.

  2. Las reformas sanitarias y los modelos de gestión Health sector reform and management models

    Ginés González García

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to indicate the direction of progress in management being taken in health sector reforms in Latin America. The piece first discusses the tension between local forces and international neoliberal trends being manifested in the reform in various countries. The article next looks at the distinction between the tools and the management models that are being applied, presenting a taxonomy of three management levels: macromanagement (national health systems, midlevel management (hospitals, insurers, and other such institutions, and micromanagement (clinics. The piece concludes by reflecting on the future of management in the health sector in Latin America, where health systems are overadministered and undermanaged. Their future depends on multiple factors, most of which are outside the health care field itself. Better management of policies, institutions, and patients would be a tremendous tool in directing the future. Management is here to stay, with greater emphasis on either supply--hospitals and physicians--or demand--citizens or clients. For both the public and private sectors, health management is central to health sector reforms in Latin America.

  3. A model for ageing-home-care service process improvement

    Yu, Shu-Yan; Shie, An-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated model to improve service processes in ageing-home-care. According to the literature, existing service processes have potential service failures that affect service quality and efficacy. However, most previous studies have only focused on conceptual model development using New Service Development (NSD) and fail to provide a systematic model to analyse potential service failures and facilitate managers developing solutions to improve the se...

  4. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  5. On the Path to SunShot - Utility Regulatory Business Model Reforms forAddressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    Net-energy metering (NEM) with volumetric retail electricity pricing has enabled rapid proliferation of distributed photovoltaics (DPV) in the United States. However, this transformation is raising concerns about the potential for higher electricity rates and cost-shifting to non-solar customers, reduced utility shareholder profitability, reduced utility earnings opportunities, and inefficient resource allocation. Although DPV deployment in most utility territories remains too low to produce significant impacts, these concerns have motivated real and proposed reforms to utility regulatory and business models, with profound implications for future DPV deployment. This report explores the challenges and opportunities associated with such reforms in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative. As such, the report focuses on a subset of a broader range of reforms underway in the electric utility sector. Drawing on original analysis and existing literature, we analyze the significance of DPV’s financial impacts on utilities and non-solar ratepayers under current NEM rules and rate designs, the projected effects of proposed NEM and rate reforms on DPV deployment, and alternative reforms that could address utility and ratepayer concerns while supporting continued DPV growth. We categorize reforms into one or more of four conceptual strategies. Understanding how specific reforms map onto these general strategies can help decision makers identify and prioritize options for addressing specific DPV concerns that balance stakeholder interests.

  6. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  7. Nine key principles to guide youth mental health: development of service models in New South Wales.

    Howe, Deborah; Batchelor, Samantha; Coates, Dominiek; Cashman, Emma

    2014-05-01

    Historically, the Australian health system has failed to meet the needs of young people with mental health problems and mental illness. In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) Health allocated considerable funds to the reform agenda of mental health services in NSW to address this inadequacy. Children and Young People's Mental Health (CYPMH), a service that provides mental health care for young people aged 12-24 years, with moderate to severe mental health problems, was chosen to establish a prototype Youth Mental Health (YMH) Service Model for NSW. This paper describes nine key principles developed by CYPMH to guide the development of YMH Service Models in NSW. A literature review, numerous stakeholder consultations and consideration of clinical best practice were utilized to inform the development of the key principles. Subsequent to their development, the nine key principles were formally endorsed by the Mental Health Program Council to ensure consistency and monitor the progress of YMH services across NSW. As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service. The nine key principles provide mental health services a framework for how to reorient services to accommodate YMH and provide a high-quality model of care. [Corrections added on 29 November 2013, after first online publication: The last two sentences of the Results section have been replaced with "As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service."]. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. MECHANISTIC KINETIC MODELS FOR STEAM REFORMING OF CONCENTRATED CRUDE ETHANOL ON NI/AL2O3 CATALYST

    O. A. OLAFADEHAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  9. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive crite...

  10. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  11. Effects of physician payment reform on provision of home dialysis.

    Erickson, Kevin F; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004, CMS reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the United States in the 3 years before and the 3 years after payment reform. We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Patients with traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.1%; P = .003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.4%; P home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients living in areas with smaller facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively less lucrative for physicians). The transition from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service payment model for in-center hemodialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts.

  12. The Politics of Organizational Reform: An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Corporate Management on Selected Aspects of the Education Service in English Local Government.

    Housego, Ian E.

    In 1974 local government in England underwent external and internal reform. The external reforms involved changes in governmental structures and functions, while the internal reforms involved the introduction of "corporate management," a concept stressing more centralized administration and fewer local executive bodies. This paper first…

  13. Infrastructures and Necessary Actions Parallel to Reforms of Medical Service Tariffs to Improve Health System Performance in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Alireza Jabbari

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: First, it seems that various issues and aspects related to tariff determination should be considered. Furthermore, some preliminaries should be provided before tariffs' reformation or some actions should be taken in line with that for the success of tariff reformation process. These measures and reformations  are related to the Ministry of Health, insurances, and the government.

  14. Administrative Reform

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  15. Business service modeling for the service-oriented enterprise

    Jayasinghe Arachchig, J.; Weigand, H.; Jeusfeld, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Service-oriented architectures are the upcoming business standard for realizing enterprise information systems, thus creating a need for analysis and design methods that are truly service-oriented. Most research on this topic so far takes a strict software engineering perspective. For a proper

  16. Effect of hyaluronic acid on postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion formation and reformation in the rat model

    Urman, B.; Gomel, V. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-09-01

    The local application of 0.25% or 0.4% HA before the induction of a measured laser injury on the rat uterine horn was associated with a significant reduction (P less than 0.05) in postoperative IP adhesions when compared with the group of animals pretreated with the diluent vehicle PBS or received no pretreatment. However, 0.4% HA, when applied in a similar manner, was ineffective in reducing reformation of adhesions after microsurgical adhesiolysis.

  17. Hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qin; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Xuegang

    2016-01-01

    Yan Zhang, Qin Liu, Ning Yang, Xuegang Zhang Department of Gynecology, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study ai...

  18. Re-reform of Latin American Private Pensions Systems: Argentinian and Chilean Models and Lessons

    Carmelo Mesa-Lago

    2009-01-01

    Between 1981 and 2008, 11 countries in Latin America structurally reformed their defined-benefit, Pay-As-You-Go, public pension systems, partially or totally replacing them with defined contribution, fully funded, privately managed schemes based on individual accounts. Initial failures in design and subsequent performance of the private systems led to partial corrections, but in 2008 two countries implemented far reaching “re-reforms”: Chile maintained and improved its system, whereas Argenti...

  19. Perceived Service Quality models: Are They Still Relevant?

    Polyakova, Olga; Mirza, Mohammed T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of perceived service quality and provides an update to the body of service quality knowledge. It consolidates the pathway of perceived service quality concept, from its emergence to the research model’s development. It also critically reviews service characteristics as prerequisites of perceived service quality conceptualisation. The examination of six perceived service quality models is intended to identify a superior model that could be used by further researc...

  20. Public and Private Hospital Services Reform Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Technical, Scale, Allocative, and Cost Efficiencies

    Ali Emrouznejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospitalsystems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures.Methods: This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and privatehospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approachin order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards.Results: Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33% had a technical efficiency score of lessthan 50% (both private, 2 (33% between 51 and 74% (one private and one public and the rest(2, 33% between 75 and 99% (one private and one public.Conclusion: In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it isrecommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, orrenting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals orother health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists,and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improveremuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural andurban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource poolingand cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health carecosts, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases preventionservices and facilities in the provincial level.

  1. Health insurance coverage and use of family planning services among current and former foster youth: implications of the health care reform law.

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-04-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population.

  2. Health Reform in Mexico City, 2000-2006

    Asa Cristina Laurell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of fully guaranteeing the constitutional right to health protection, Mexico City’s leftist administration (2000-2006 undertook a reform to provide health services to people without insurance. The reform had four components: free medicine and health services; the introduction of a new service model (MAS; the strengthening, expansion, and improvement of services, and legislation to ensure that the city government become guarantor of this constitutional right. The reform resulted in 95% of eligible families being enrolled in free care; expansion of health care infrastructure with the construction of five new health care centers and a 1/3 increase in the number of public hospital beds in impoverished and disadvantaged areas; increased access to and use of health services particularly by the poor and for expensive interventions; and the legal guarantee of the continuity of this policy. The implementation of this new policy was made possible through an 80% budget increase, improvements in efficiency, and a successful fight against corruption. The health impact of the reform was seen in decline of mortality rates in all age groups between 1997 and 2005 (22% for child mortality, 11% for economically active age groups, and 7.9% for retired age groups and by a 16% decline in AIDS related mortality between 2000 and 2005. This reform contrasts with the health care reform promoted by the right wing Federal government in the rest of the country; the latter was based on voluntary health insurance, cost-sharing by families, access to a limited package of services, and gradual enrollment of the population

  3. The IRMIS object model and services API

    Saunders, C.; Dohan, D.A.; Arnold, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    The relational model developed for the Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) toolkit has been successfully used to capture the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system software (EPICS process variables and their definitions). The relational tables are populated by a crawler script that parses each Input/Output Controller (IOC) start-up file when an IOC reboot is detected. User interaction is provided by a Java Swing application that acts as a desktop for viewing the process variable information. Mapping between the display objects and the relational tables was carried out with the Hibernate Object Relational Modeling (ORM) framework. Work is well underway at the APS to extend the relational modeling to include control system hardware. For this work, due in part to the complex user interaction required, the primary application development environment has shifted from the relational database view to the object oriented (Java) perspective. With this approach, the business logic is executed in Java rather than in SQL stored procedures. This paper describes the object model used to represent control system software, hardware, and interconnects in IRMIS. We also describe the services API used to encapsulate the required behaviors for creating and maintaining the complex data. In addition to the core schema and object model, many important concepts in IRMIS are captured by the services API. IRMIS is an ambitious collaborative effort for defining and developing a relational database and associated applications to comprehensively document the large and complex EPICS-based control systems of today's accelerators. The documentation effort includes process variables, control system hardware, and interconnections. The approach could also be used to document all components of the accelerator, including mechanical, vacuum, power supplies, etc. One key aspect of IRMIS is that it is a documentation framework, not a design and development tool. We do not

  4. Modeling of electrochemistry and steam-methane reforming performance for simulating pressurized solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Khaleel, Moe A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the electrochemical and direct internal steam-methane reforming performance of the solid oxide fuel cell when subjected to pressurization. Pressurized operation boosts the Nernst potential and decreases the activation polarization, both of which serve to increase cell voltage and power while lowering the heat load and operating temperature. A model considering the activation polarization in both the fuel and the air electrodes was adopted to address this effect on the electrochemical performance. The pressurized methane conversion kinetics and the increase in equilibrium methane concentration are considered in a new rate expression. The models were then applied in simulations to predict how the distributions of direct internal reforming rate, temperature, and current density are effected within stacks operating at elevated pressure. A generic 10 cm counter-flow stack model was created and used for the simulations of pressurized operation. The predictions showed improved thermal and electrical performance with increased operating pressure. The average and maximum cell temperatures decreased by 3% (20 C) while the cell voltage increased by 9% as the operating pressure was increased from 1 to 10 atm. (author)

  5. The Research Funding Service: a model for expanded library services

    Means, Martha L.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, libraries have provided a modest amount of information about grants and funding opportunities to researchers in need of research funding. Ten years ago, the University of Washington (UW) Health Sciences Libraries and Information Center joined in a cooperative effort with the School of Medicine to develop a complete, library-based grant and funding service for health sciences researchers called the Research Funding Service. The library provided space, access to the library colle...

  6. Cost Calculation Model for Logistics Service Providers

    Zoltán Bokor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exact calculation of logistics costs has become a real challenge in logistics and supply chain management. It is essential to gain reliable and accurate costing information to attain efficient resource allocation within the logistics service provider companies. Traditional costing approaches, however, may not be sufficient to reach this aim in case of complex and heterogeneous logistics service structures. So this paper intends to explore the ways of improving the cost calculation regimes of logistics service providers and show how to adopt the multi-level full cost allocation technique in logistics practice. After determining the methodological framework, a sample cost calculation scheme is developed and tested by using estimated input data. Based on the theoretical findings and the experiences of the pilot project it can be concluded that the improved costing model contributes to making logistics costing more accurate and transparent. Moreover, the relations between costs and performances also become more visible, which enhances the effectiveness of logistics planning and controlling significantly

  7. Improving traffic signal management and operations : a basic service model.

    2009-12-01

    This report provides a guide for achieving a basic service model for traffic signal management and : operations. The basic service model is based on simply stated and defensible operational objectives : that consider the staffing level, expertise and...

  8. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  9. Towards H2-rich gas production from unmixed steam reforming of methane: Thermodynamic modeling

    Lima da Silva, Aline; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the Gibbs energy minimization method is applied to investigate the unmixed steam reforming (USR) of methane to generate hydrogen for fuel cell application. The USR process is an advanced reforming technology that relies on the use of separate air and fuel/steam feeds to create a cyclic process. Under air flow (first half of the cycle), a bed of Ni-based material is oxidized, providing the heat necessary for the steam reforming that occurs subsequently during fuel/steam feed stage (second half of the cycle). In the presence of CaO sorbent, high purity hydrogen can be produced in a single reactor. In the first part of this work, it is demonstrated that thermodynamic predictions are consistent with experimental results from USR isothermal tests under fuel/steam feed. From this, it is also verified that the reacted NiO to CH4 (NiOreacted/CH4) molar ratio is a very important parameter that affects the product gas composition and decreases with time. At the end of fuel/steam flow, the reforming reaction is the most important chemical mechanism, with H2 production reaching ∼75 mol%. On the other hand, at the beginning of fuel/steam feed stage, NiO reduction reactions dominate the equilibrium system, resulting in high CO2 selectivity, negative steam conversion and low concentrations of H2. In the second part of this paper, the effect of NiOreacted/CH4 molar ratio on the product gas composition and enthalpy change during fuel flow is investigated at different temperatures for inlet H2O/CH4 molar ratios in the range of 1.2-4, considering the USR process operated with and without CaO sorbent. During fuel/steam feed stage, the energy demand increases as time passes, because endothermic reforming reaction becomes increasingly important as this stage nears its end. Thus, the duration of the second half of the cycle is limited by the conditions under which auto-thermal operation can be achieved. In absence of CaO, H2 at concentrations of approximately 73 mol% can

  10. 76 FR 50969 - Further Inquiry Into Four Issues in the Universal Service Lifeline/Link Up Reform and...

    2011-08-17

    ... Disabilities: To request materials in accessible formats for people with disabilities (Braille, large print... associated with initiating phone service have fallen, noting that ``the ever-increasing level of automation...

  11. Alternative Payment Models in Radiology: The Legislative and Regulatory Roadmap for Reform.

    Silva, Ezequiel; McGinty, Geraldine B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) replaces the sustainable growth rate with a payment system based on the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and incentives for alternative payment model participation. It is important that radiologists understand the statutory requirements of MACRA. This includes the nature of the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System composite performance score and its impact on payments. The timeline for MACRA implementation is fairly aggressive and includes a robust effort to define episode groups, which include radiologic services. A number of organizations, including the ACR, are commenting on the structure of MACRA-directed initiatives. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. COSMO: a conceptual framework for service modelling and refinement

    Quartel, Dick; Steen, Maarten W.A.; Pokraev, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for service modelling and refinement, called the COSMO (COnceptual Service MOdelling) framework. This framework provides concepts to model and reason about services, and to support operations, such as composition and discovery, which are performed on them

  13. A formal model for classifying trusted Semantic Web Services

    Galizia, Stefania; Gugliotta, Alessio; Pedrinaci, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Web Services (SWS) aim to alleviate Web service limitations, by combining Web service technologies with the potential of Semantic Web. Several open issues have to be tackled yet, in order to enable a safe and efficient Web services selection. One of them is represented by trust. In this paper, we introduce a trust definition and formalize a model for managing trust in SWS. The model approaches the selection of trusted Web services as a classification problem, and it is realized by an...

  14. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  15. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong.

    Yam, Carrie H K; Liu, Su; Huang, Olivia H Y; Yeoh, E K; Griffiths, Sian M

    2011-10-07

    As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not enough to realize the government's policy of

  16. The cloud services innovation platform- enabling service-based environmental modelling using infrastructure-as-a-service cloud computing

    Service oriented architectures allow modelling engines to be hosted over the Internet abstracting physical hardware configuration and software deployments from model users. Many existing environmental models are deployed as desktop applications running on user's personal computers (PCs). Migration ...

  17. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    , for example, the various SSI's statements of "good educational practice." Most SSI's began their initiatives by establishing clear goals for what students should know and be able to do, reflecting the emergence of a national consensus for broad standards for just about every aspect of the educational process. The concerned persons in each SSI--policy-makers, educators, mathematicians, and scientists--have not necessarily reached the same conclusions about what children should learn or even what efforts are needed to put the necessary changes in place, but they are focused on common goals as expressed locally. The recent national dialogues about goals and standards have provided the basis for a remarkably consistent image of what states--at least the SSI states--consider good educational practice. The differences that do occur across states reflect variations in demographics, geography, resources, values, and educational structure. All the states with SSI's, regardless of their primary strategy, have address the professional development of teachers. Collectively, the SSI's reported that professional development services were provided to more than 50,000 teachers during the past year, which is approximately eight percent of the public school teachers in the participating states. The number of teachers participating varied by grade level and subject matter. Some states, for example, reported reaching more than one in every five middle-school mathematics teachers, but only one in every 20 high-school mathematics teachers. Focusing SSI resources on the professional development of classroom teachers implies changing their skill levels, knowledge, and beliefs. Attitudes and perceptions of administrators also changed in the process. The challenge lies in developing a strategy that provides on-going, in-depth professional development that reaches a significant portion of those who teach mathematics and the sciences. Not only must an effective development model(s), be provided

  18. Towards operationalization of business models : Designing service compositions for service-dominant business models

    Suratno, B.; Grefen, P.; Turetken, O.

    2017-01-01

    The new trend of service-dominant business which produces so-called value-in-use as a competitive advantage demands rapidly changing business models and collaboration of organizations in a cross-organizational business network. As information technology nowadays largely contributes to the way of

  19. Model-driven Service Engineering with SoaML

    Elvesæter, Brian; Carrez, Cyril; Mohagheghi, Parastoo; Berre, Arne-Jørgen; Johnsen, Svein G.; Solberg, Arnor

    This chapter presents a model-driven service engineering (MDSE) methodology that uses OMG MDA specifications such as BMM, BPMN and SoaML to identify and specify services within a service-oriented architecture. The methodology takes advantage of business modelling practices and provides a guide to service modelling with SoaML. The presentation is case-driven and illuminated using the telecommunication example. The chapter focuses in particular on the use of the SoaML modelling language as a means for expressing service specifications that are aligned with business models and can be realized in different platform technologies.

  20. Steam reforming of cyclic model compounds of bio-oil over Ni-based catalysts: Product distribution and carbon formation

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) of furfural, 2-methylfuran, and guaiacol have been investigated in the temperature range 400-800°C at a steam to carbon (S/C)-ratio of 5 and oxygen to carbon (O/C)-ratio of 0.2-1.4 over Ni/CeO2-K/MgAl2O4. Carbon oxides and H2 were the major...... products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural, while the by-products were methane, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone. Temperatures of 500°C or above were needed to minimize the formation of by-products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural. Phenolics, like benzenediols and phenol, were produced in high...... yields in the SR of guaiacol and temperatures of 780°C were needed to totally convert guaiacol to carbon oxides and H2.Carbon deposition was observed in the SR of all three model compounds and was most severe for guaiacol followed by furfural and 2-methylfuran. The carbon deposition could be reduced...

  1. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service Oriented Discovery and Analysis

    Bell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Learn the essential tools for developing a sound service-oriented architecture. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service-Oriented Discovery and Analysis introduces a universal, easy-to-use, and nimble SOA modeling language to facilitate the service identification and examination life cycle stage. This business and technological vocabulary will benefit your service development endeavors and foster organizational software asset reuse and consolidation, and reduction of expenditure. Whether you are a developer, business architect, technical architect, modeler, business analyst, team leader, or manager,

  2. "Reforms Looked Really Good on Paper": Rural Food Service Responses to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia; Golembiewski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHKA) required schools to make changes to meals provided to children. Rural school districts have limited resources, with increased obesity rates and local food insecurity. In this study we sought to understand the perceptions of rural food service directors and the barriers to implementing…

  3. A Study of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Sophistication in a Reform-Oriented Calculus Course

    Ritter, Carrie Lineberry

    2015-01-01

    Calls for better preparation of STEM teachers have been prominent in educational communities and among the public for the past several years (e.g. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2007). Some research suggests one way to improve mathematics instruction is to increase elementary pre-service teachers' "mathematical…

  4. Public Service Delivery in Hybrid Organisations : public management reform and horizontalisation as main challenges for public leaders

    Kuitert, L.; Volker, L.

    2016-01-01

    The public sector has been subject to some major movements the last 15 years. In public service delivery a trend called socialisation, leading to the displacement between public and private, is most crucial. A withdrawing government and privatization led to increased collaboration between public and

  5. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  6. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi, E-mail: ysekine@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 65-301, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-13

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C{sub 2} hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO{sub 2}/C{sub fuel} = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  7. The third sector, user involvement and public service reform: a case study in the co-governance of health service provision.

    Martin, Graham P

    2011-01-01

    The ‘modernization’ of British public services seeks to broaden public sector governance networks, bringing the views of third sector organizations, the public and service users (among others) to the design, management and delivery of welfare. Building on previous analyses of the contradictions generated by these roles, this paper draws on longitudinal qualitative research to enunciate the challenges faced by one third-sector organization in facilitating service user influence in a UK National Health Service (NHS) pilot programme, alongside other roles in tension with this advocacy function. The analysis highlights limits in the extent to which lateral governance networks pluralize stakeholder involvement. The ‘framing’ of governance may mean that traditional concerns outweigh the views of new stakeholders such as the third sector and service users. Rather than prioritizing wider stakeholders' views in the design and delivery of public services, placing third sector organizations at the centre of governance networks may do more to co-opt these organizations in reproducing predominant priorities.

  8. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in Brazil after the "psychiatric reform": a public health problem--example from a university service.

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Melzer-Ribeiro, Débora Luciana; Rigonatti, Sérgio Paulo; Cordeiro, Quirino

    2012-09-01

    The Brazilian public health system does not provide electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is limited to a few academic services. National mental health policies are against ECT. Our objectives were to analyze critically the public policies toward ECT and present the current situation using statistics from the Institute of Psychiatry of the University of São Paulo (IPq-HCFMUSP) and summary data from the other 13 ECT services identified in the country. Data regarding ECT treatment at the IPq-HCFMUSP were collected from January 2009 to June 2010 (demographical, number of sessions, and diagnoses). All the data were analyzed using SPSS 19, Epic Info 2000, and Excel. During this period, 331 patients were treated at IPq-HCFMUSP: 221 (67%) were from São Paulo city, 50 (15.2%) from São Paulo's metropolitan area, 39 (11.8%) from São Paulo's countryside, and 20 (6.1%) from other states; 7352 ECT treatments were delivered-63.0% (4629) devoted entirely via the public health system (although not funded by the federal government); the main diagnoses were a mood disorder in 86.4% and schizophrenia in 7.3% of the cases. There is an important lack of public assistance for ECT, affecting mainly the poor and severely ill patients. The university services are overcrowded and cannot handle all the referrals. The authors press for changes in the mental health policies.

  10. Service Coordination Policies and Models: National Status.

    Harbin, Gloria L.; Bruder, M.; Mazzarella, C.; Gabbard, G.; Reynolds, C.

    This report discusses the findings of a study that investigated state coordination of early intervention services for infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities. State Part C coordinators participated in a survey that sought their perceptions of values under girding service coordination, approach to service coordination, policies,…

  11. Measuring the impact of marginal tax rate reform on the revenue base of South Africa using a microsimulation tax model

    Yolande Jordaan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with the revenue and tax efficiency effects of adjustments to marginal tax rates on individual income as an instrument of possible tax reform. The hypothesis is that changes to marginal rates affect not only the revenue base, but also tax efficiency and the optimum level of taxes that supports economic growth. Using an optimal revenue-maximising rate (based on Laffer analysis, the elasticity of taxable income is derived with respect to marginal tax rates for each taxable-income category. These elasticities are then used to quantify the impact of changes in marginal rates on the revenue base and tax efficiency using a microsimulation (MS tax model. In this first paper on the research results, much attention is paid to the structure of the model and the way in which the database has been compiled. The model allows for the dissemination of individual taxpayers by income groups, gender, educational level, age group, etc. Simulations include a scenario with higher marginal rates which is also more progressive (as in the 1998/1999 fiscal year, in which case tax revenue increases but the increase is overshadowed by a more than proportional decrease in tax efficiency as measured by its deadweight loss. On the other hand, a lowering of marginal rates (to bring South Africa’s marginal rates more in line with those of its peers improves tax efficiency but also results in a substantial revenue loss. The estimated optimal individual tax to gross domestic product (GDP ratio in order to maximise economic growth (6.7 per cent shows a strong response to changes in marginal rates, and the results from this research indicate that a lowering of marginal rates would also move the actual ratio closer to its optimum level. Thus, the trade-off between revenue collected and tax efficiency should be carefully monitored when personal income tax reform is being considered.

  12. A Model-Driven Approach for Telecommunications Network Services Definition

    Chiprianov, Vanea; Kermarrec, Yvon; Alff, Patrick D.

    Present day Telecommunications market imposes a short concept-to-market time for service providers. To reduce it, we propose a computer-aided, model-driven, service-specific tool, with support for collaborative work and for checking properties on models. We started by defining a prototype of the Meta-model (MM) of the service domain. Using this prototype, we defined a simple graphical modeling language specific for service designers. We are currently enlarging the MM of the domain using model transformations from Network Abstractions Layers (NALs). In the future, we will investigate approaches to ensure the support for collaborative work and for checking properties on models.

  13. Study the Effect of Value-Added of Services Sector on Forecasting of Electricity Demand in Services Sector due to Price Reform

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy is as one of the important effective factors on economic growth and development. In recent decades, numerous studies in different countries to estimate and forecast electricity demand in different parts of the economy have been made. In this paper, using the method ARDL, estimation and forecasting of electricity demand in the services sector of Iran are determined for the time period from 1983 to 2012. Estimated equations show that the added value of the services sector and a significant positive impact on the demand for electricity in this sector. The price elasticity for services sector is smaller than 1 due to low electricity prices and subsidized electricity. Hence, electricity prices have little impact on the demand for electricity. The results of the estimate represents a long-term relationship between the variables in the services sector. In this paper, based on amendments to the law on subsidies and estimated values, anticipated electricity demand until the end of the fifth development plan was carried out. The results indicate an increase in power consumption in the services sector.

  14. Social inequalities in health care services utilisation after eight years of health care reforms: a cross-sectional study of Estonia, 1999

    Habicht, Jarno; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of

  15. Are We There Yet? Early Years Reform in Queensland: Stakeholder Perspectives on the Introduction of Funded Preschool Programs in Long Day Care Services

    Irvine, Susan; Farrell, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Australian educators are currently engaging with wide-ranging, national early childhood reform that is reshaping Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). The Australian reform agenda reflects many of the early childhood policy directions championed by bodies, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and the United…

  16. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  17. Evaluation Model of Tea Industry Information Service Quality

    Shi , Xiaohui; Chen , Tian’en

    2015-01-01

    International audience; According to characteristics of tea industry information service, this paper have built service quality evaluation index system for tea industry information service quality, R-cluster analysis and multiple regression have been comprehensively used to contribute evaluation model with a high practice and credibility. Proved by the experiment, the evaluation model of information service quality has a good precision, which has guidance significance to a certain extent to e...

  18. Directly observing catalytic intermediates of methane dry reforming (MDR) on model Ni(111) catalyst via in operando surface techniques

    Yuan, Kaidi

    In this work, near ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to trace the in operando catalytic intermediates of methane dry reforming on model Ni(111) catalyst. The following reactive carbon intermediates have been characterized from dissociation of CH4: *CH, *C1 (Ni3C), *Cn (n≥2) and clock-reconstructed Ni2C. They can develop into inert graphene, and the conditions for this transition have been explored. One the other hand, the oxygen intermediates from CO2 dissociation were also studied, which play an important role on restraining graphene growth. Their dynamic coverage decreases with increasing temperature, which is suggested the fundamental mechanism of regional carbon overspill and causes irreversible graphene formation. Therefore, solutions based on Ni-O stabilization were proposed in developing coking resisting catalysts.

  19. Modelling of plasma-based dry reforming: how do uncertainties in the input data affect the calculation results?

    Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Zhang, Quanzhi; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    One of the main issues in plasma chemistry modeling is that the cross sections and rate coefficients are subject to uncertainties, which yields uncertainties in the modeling results and hence hinders the predictive capabilities. In this paper, we reveal the impact of these uncertainties on the model predictions of plasma-based dry reforming in a dielectric barrier discharge. For this purpose, we performed a detailed uncertainty analysis and sensitivity study. 2000 different combinations of rate coefficients, based on the uncertainty from a log-normal distribution, are used to predict the uncertainties in the model output. The uncertainties in the electron density and electron temperature are around 11% and 8% at the maximum of the power deposition for a 70% confidence level. Still, this can have a major effect on the electron impact rates and hence on the calculated conversions of CO2 and CH4, as well as on the selectivities of CO and H2. For the CO2 and CH4 conversion, we obtain uncertainties of 24% and 33%, respectively. For the CO and H2 selectivity, the corresponding uncertainties are 28% and 14%, respectively. We also identify which reactions contribute most to the uncertainty in the model predictions. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of plasma chemistry models, we recommend using only verified rate coefficients, and we point out the need for dedicated verification experiments.

  20. Spatial Data Web Services Pricing Model Infrastructure

    Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Colak, S.; Cankurt, I.; Bakıcı, S.

    2013-08-01

    most important law with related NSDI is the establishment of General Directorate of Geographic Information System under the Ministry of Environment and Urbanism. due to; to do or to have do works and activities with related to the establishment of National Geographic Information Systems (NGIS), usage of NGIS and improvements of NGIS. Outputs of these projects are served to not only public administration but also to Turkish society. Today for example, TAKBIS data (cadastre services) are shared more than 50 institutions by Web services, Tusaga-Aktif system has more than 3800 users who are having real-time GPS data correction, Orthophoto WMS services has been started for two years as a charge of free. Today there is great discussion about data pricing among the institutions. Some of them think that the pricing is storage of the data. Some of them think that the pricing is value of data itself. There is no certain rule about pricing. On this paper firstly, pricing of data storage and later on spatial data pricing models in different countries are investigated to improve institutional understanding in Turkey.

  1. Heavy-traffic limits for polling models with exhaustive service and non-FCFS service orders

    P. Vis (Petra); R. Bekker (Rene); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study cyclic polling models with exhaustive service at each queue under a variety of non-FCFS (first-come-first-served) local service orders, namely last-come-first-served with and without preemption, random-order-of-service, processor sharing, the multi-class priority scheduling with

  2. Transport services quality measurment using SERVQUAL model

    Maksimović Mlađan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality in the world is considered to be the most important phenomenon of our age, with a permanent and irreversible growing trend of its emphasis. Many companies have come to the conclusion that high quality of services can provide them with a potential competitive advantage, leading to superior sales results and profit making. The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of service SERVQUAL dimensions and measure the quality of services in the public transport of passengers. Based on the data obtained by researching the views of public transport users in Kragujevac using the SERVQUAL methodology and statistical analysis based on defined service quality dimensions, this research will show the level of quality of urban transport services in Kragujevac and based on this, make recommendations for improving the quality of service.

  3. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  4. Manager personality, manager service quality orientation, and service climate: test of a model.

    Salvaggio, Amy Nicole; Schneider, Benjamin; Nishii, Lisa H; Mayer, David M; Ramesh, Anuradha; Lyon, Julie S

    2007-11-01

    This article conceptually and empirically explores the relationships among manager personality, manager service quality orientation, and climate for customer service. Data were collected from 1,486 employees and 145 managers in grocery store departments (N = 145) to test the authors' theoretical model. Largely consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that core self-evaluations were positively related to managers' service quality orientation, even after dimensions of the Big Five model of personality were controlled, and that service quality orientation fully mediated the relationship between personality and global service climate. Implications for personality and organizational climate research are discussed. (c) 2007 APA

  5. The College Science Learning Cycle: An Instructional Model for Reformed Teaching.

    Withers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Finding the time for developing or locating new class materials is one of the biggest barriers for instructors reforming their teaching approaches. Even instructors who have taken part in training workshops may feel overwhelmed by the task of transforming passive lecture content to engaging learning activities. Learning cycles have been instrumental in helping K-12 science teachers design effective instruction for decades. This paper introduces the College Science Learning Cycle adapted from the popular Biological Sciences Curriculum Study 5E to help science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty develop course materials to support active, student-centered teaching approaches in their classrooms. The learning cycle is embedded in backward design, a learning outcomes-oriented instructional design approach, and is accompanied by resources and examples to help faculty transform their teaching in a time-efficient manner. © 2016 M. Withers. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. [The reform of primary health care: the economic, care and satisfaction results].

    Durán, J; Jodar, G; Pociello, V; Parellada, N; Martín, A; Pradas, J

    1999-05-15

    To compare the overall effect on the general public before and after the primary care reform, its economic outcome and professional satisfaction, following the model of the European Foundation for Quality Management. A descriptive analysis of results at reformed primary care centres compared with results at non-reformed centres in the same city. The study was conducted at Sant Boi de Llobregat, a town of 77,591 inhabitants in Baix Llobregat county (Barcelona). 32.7% of the population was covered by two reformed centres. The rest was covered by one single non-reformed primary care centre. Clinical audits and data on pharmaceutical prescription quality were used to find attendance. For economic results, the formula of attribution of cost/inhabitant and cost/inhabitant seen, including the costs of labour, structure, referral, further tests and pharmacy, were used. The satisfaction of the outside customer (user) was measured by a population survey. Internal customer satisfaction was measured by a survey of the professionals. Results were compared with those for 1997. The study showed that the reformed primary care sector's results, measured in terms of professional satisfaction, user-outside customer, attendance, economic results and social impact, were better than the non-reformed sector's. Inside and outside customers' satisfaction was higher in the reformed network. The cost per inhabitant in the reformed network was 31,874 pesetas, against 25,177 in the non-reformed network. The cost per inhabitant seen was 34,482 and 44,603, respectively. The reform creates efficient resource management and greater satisfaction of the general public and professionals, when an indicator sensitive to the real use of services is used.

  7. Model-Driven Development of Context-Aware Services

    Andrade Almeida, João; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Jonkers, Henk; Quartel, Dick; Eliassen, Frank; Montresor, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define a model-driven design trajectory for context-aware services consisting of three levels of models with different degrees of abstraction and platform independence. The models at the highest level of platform independence describe the behaviour of a context-aware service and

  8. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  9. BPMN4SOA : A service oriented process modelling language

    Bergstøl, Eivind

    2010-01-01

    Service oriented architectures have become very popular the last few years. The abstraction of computer systems into a service paradigm bring many new solutions, both for cross business processes to aid interoperability and the reuse of existing legacy systems in a new network centric world. In the wake of this, service modelling has become a part of OMGs Model Driven Architecture and new modelling languages that are based on past experience for the new paradigm are emerging. BPMN 2.0 and...

  10. Using UML to Model Web Services for Automatic Composition

    Amal Elgammal; Mohamed El-Sharkawi

    2010-01-01

    There is a great interest paid to the web services paradigm nowadays. One of the most important problems related to the web service paradigm is the automatic composition of web services. Several frameworks have been proposed to achieve this novel goal. The most recent and richest framework (model) is the Colombo model. However, even for experienced developers, working with Colombo formalisms is low-level, very complex and timeconsuming. We propose to use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to mod...

  11. Development of an Innovation Model Based on a Service-Oriented Product Service System (PSS

    Seungkyum Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been many attempts to cope with increasingly-diversified and ever-changing customer needs by combining products and services that are critical components of innovation models. Although not only manufacturers, but also service providers, try to integrate products and services, most of the previous studies on Product Service System (PSS development deal with how to effectively integrate services into products from the product-centric point of view. Services provided by manufacturers’ PSSes, such as delivery services, training services, disposal services, and so on, offer customers ancillary value, whereas products of service providers’ PSSes enrich core value by enhancing the functionality and quality of the service. Thus, designing an effective PSS development process from the service-centric point of view is an important research topic. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to propose a service-oriented PSS development process, which consists of four stages: (1 strategic planning; (2 idea generation and selection; (3 service design; and (4 product development. In the proposed approach, the PSS development project is initiated and led by a service provider from a service-centric point of view. From the perspective of methodology, customer needs are converted into product functions according to Quality Function Deployment (QFD, while Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is employed to prioritize the functions. Additionally, this paper illustrates a service-oriented PSS development that demonstrates the application of the proposed process. The proposed process and illustration are expected to serve as a foundation for research on service-oriented PSS development and as a useful guideline for service providers who are considering the development of a service-oriented PSS.

  12. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  13. Service models for remote healthcare monitoring systems.

    Moorman, Bridget A

    2010-01-01

    These scenarios reflect where the future is heading for remote health monitoring technology and service expectations. Being able to manage a "system of systems" with timely service hand-off over seams of responsibility and system interfaces will become very important for a BMET or clinical engineer. These interfaces will include patient homes, clinician homes, commercial/civilian infrastructure, public utilities, vendor infrastructure as well as internal departmental domains. Concurrently, technology is changing rapidly resulting in newer software delivery modes and hardware appliances as well as infrastructure changes. Those who are able to de-construct the complex systems and identify infrastructure assumptions and seams of servicing responsibility will be able to better understand and communicate the expectations for service of these systems. Moreover, as identified in Case 1, prodigious use of underlying system monitoring tools (managing the "meta-data") could move servicing of these remote systems from a reactive approach to a proactive approach. A prepared healthcare organization will identify their current and proposed future service combination use cases and design service philosophies and expectations for those use cases, while understanding the infrastructure assumptions and seams of responsibility. This is the future of technical service to the healthcare clinicians and patients.

  14. Islamic Banks Service Innovation Quality: Conceptual Model

    Tahreem Noor Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer perspectives and satisfaction level are considered important for analysing the performance of Islamic bank service quality. Sufficient researches has been done to explore customer perception and satisfaction level with Islamic banking service quality, however there is lack of data to compare and find the similarity in understanding the main determinant attributes needed for Islamic banking service quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe and integrate the results of existing wealth of research on service quality in Islamic banks. After weighing up all the views from existing research, common findings, concerns will be discussed. This research did not find much of information or studies indicating toward innovation in Islamic banking service quality. Thus based on review of the literature this paper suggests main key attributes of service for Islamic banks (RIBA Service IQ. This research strongly asserts that sincere motivation, truthful intention, dynamic and practical service innovation of quality approaches can uplift Islamic financial brandDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.3161

  15. A unified modeling framework for service design

    Jayasinghe Arachchig, J.

    2013-01-01

    Service-oriented architectures are the upcoming business standard for realizing enterprise information systems, thus creating a need for analysis and design methods that are truly service-oriented. Most research on this topic so far takes a strict software engineering perspective. Separation of the

  16. Modelos organizacionais e reformas da administração pública Organizational models and public management reforms

    Leonardo Secchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foi elaborado a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica em livros e artigos científicos clássicos ou recentemente publicados na literatura de administração pública na Europa e nos Estados Unidos, e faz uma comparação dos quatro modelos organizacionais e relacionais que vêm inspirando o desenho das estruturas e processos nas recentes reformas da administração pública. Os modelos analisados são o burocrático, a administração pública gerencial, o governo empreendedor e a governança pública. Recentemente, reformas administrativas vêm pregando a substituição progressiva do modelo burocrático weberiano por novos modelos de gestão e de relação do Estado com a sociedade. Este artigo mostra que os novos modelos compartilham características essenciais com o modelo tradicional burocrático e, portanto, não são modelos de ruptura. Também é argumentado que reformas da administração pública transformam-se facilmente em políticas simbólicas, e que políticos e burocratas tentam manipular a percepção do público em relação ao desempenho dos governos. Não são raros os esforços de reforma da administração pública que avançam mais em autopromoção e retórica do que em fatos concretos. Por último, são feitas sugestões para uma agenda de pesquisa àqueles interessados em temas de reformas da administração pública.This article is based on a bibliographical research both in classic and recently published textbooks and in scientific papers in the literature of public administration in Europe and the United States. Its main objective is to compare the four organizational and relational models that have been inspiring the design of structures and processes in recent public management reforms: the bureaucratic model, the new public management, the entrepreneurial government, and public governance. Recently, there has been a progressive shift from the bureaucratic model to these new organizational and

  17. A service-oriented data access control model

    Meng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Pan, Juchen; Song, Song; Bian, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    The development of mobile computing, cloud computing and distributed computing meets the growing individual service needs. Facing with complex application system, it's an urgent problem to ensure real-time, dynamic, and fine-grained data access control. By analyzing common data access control models, on the basis of mandatory access control model, the paper proposes a service-oriented access control model. By regarding system services as subject and data of databases as object, the model defines access levels and access identification of subject and object, and ensures system services securely to access databases.

  18. A governance model for integrated primary/secondary care for the health-reforming first world - results of a systematic review.

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire; Marley, John

    2013-12-20

    Internationally, key health care reform elements rely on improved integration of care between the primary and secondary sectors. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing published literature on elements of current integrated primary/secondary health care. These elements and how they have supported integrated healthcare governance are presented. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Informit Health Collection, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, European Foundation for Primary Care, European Forum for Primary Care, and Europa Sinapse was undertaken for the years 2006-2012. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Papers were assessed by two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria which were published in English, between 2006-2012, studies describing an integrated primary/secondary care model, and had reported outcomes in care quality, efficiency and/or satisfaction. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated the process of integrated governance and service delivery structures, rather than the effectiveness of services. They included case reports and qualitative data analyses addressing policy change, business issues and issues of clinical integration. A thematic synthesis approach organising data according to themes identified ten elements needed for integrated primary/secondary health care governance across a regional setting including: joint planning; integrated information communication technology; change management; shared clinical priorities; incentives; population focus; measurement - using data as a quality improvement tool; continuing professional development supporting joint working; patient/community engagement; and, innovation. All examples of successful primary/secondary care integration reported in the literature have focused on a combination

  19. A governance model for integrated primary/secondary care for the health-reforming first world – results of a systematic review

    2013-01-01

    Background Internationally, key health care reform elements rely on improved integration of care between the primary and secondary sectors. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing published literature on elements of current integrated primary/secondary health care. These elements and how they have supported integrated healthcare governance are presented. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Informit Health Collection, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, European Foundation for Primary Care, European Forum for Primary Care, and Europa Sinapse was undertaken for the years 2006–2012. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Papers were assessed by two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria which were published in English, between 2006–2012, studies describing an integrated primary/secondary care model, and had reported outcomes in care quality, efficiency and/or satisfaction. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated the process of integrated governance and service delivery structures, rather than the effectiveness of services. They included case reports and qualitative data analyses addressing policy change, business issues and issues of clinical integration. A thematic synthesis approach organising data according to themes identified ten elements needed for integrated primary/secondary health care governance across a regional setting including: joint planning; integrated information communication technology; change management; shared clinical priorities; incentives; population focus; measurement – using data as a quality improvement tool; continuing professional development supporting joint working; patient/community engagement; and, innovation. Conclusions All examples of successful primary/secondary care integration reported in

  20. Engaging Students in Mathematical Modeling through Service-Learning

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2014-01-01

    I have included a service-learning project in my mathematical modeling course for the last 6 years. This article describes my experience with service-learning in this course. The article includes a description of the course and the service-learning projects. There is a discussion of how to connect with community partners and identify…

  1. An integrated service excellence model for military test and ...

    The purpose of this article is to introduce an Integrated Service Excellence Model (ISEM) for empowering the leadership core of the capital-intensive military test and evaluation facilities to provide strategic military test and evaluation services and to continuously improve service excellence by ensuring that all activities ...

  2. Efficient Business Service Consumption by Customization with Variability Modelling

    Michael Stollberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of service orientation in industry determines the need for efficient engineering technologies that properly support the whole life cycle of service provision and consumption. A central challenge is adequate support for the efficient employment of komplex services in their individual application context. This becomes particularly important for large-scale enterprise technologies where generic services are designed for reuse in several business scenarios. In this article we complement our work regarding Service Variability Modelling presented in a previous publication. There we presented an approach for the customization of services for individual application contexts by creating simplified variants, based on model-driven variability management. That work presents our revised service variability metamodel, new features of the variability tools and an applicability study, which reveals that substantial improvements on the efficiency of standard business service consumption under both usability and economic aspects can be achieved.

  3. Research on new information service model of the contemporary library

    Xin Pingping; Lu Yan

    2010-01-01

    According to the development of the internet and multimedia technology, the information service models in the contemporary library become both of the traditional and digital information service. The libraries in each country do their best to make the voluminous information and the complex technology be High-integrated in the background management, and also make the front interface be more and more convenient to the users. The essential characteristics of the information service of the contemporary library are all-in-one and humanness. In this article, we will describe several new hot information service models of the contemporary library in detail, such as individualized service, reference service, reference service and strategic information service. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol/polylactic acid films in the prevention of adhesions in the rabbit adhesion formation and reformation sidewall models.

    Rodgers, K; Cohn, D; Hotovely, A; Pines, E; Diamond, M P; diZerega, G

    1998-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of bioresorbable films consisting of various polyethylene glycol 6000 and polylactic acid block copolymers on the formation and reformation of adhesions in rabbit models of adhesion development between the sidewall to the adjacent cecum and bowel. The composition of the different polymers was expressed by the number of monomeric units in the block, namely, ethylene oxide (EO) and lactic acid (LA), respectively. Studies of the efficacy of EO/LA films were conducted in rabbit sidewall adhesion formation studies in the presence and absence of blood and in rabbit adhesion reformation studies. REPEL (Life Medical Sciences, Edison, NJ), a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 manufactured under commercial conditions, was also tested in these animal models. University-based laboratory. New Zealand white rabbits. Placement of films of various EO/LA ratios at the site of injury to the parietal peritoneum. Adhesion formation and reformation. Films of various EO/LA ratios, Seprafilm (Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) and Interceed (Johnson and Johnson Medical, Arlington, TX) placed over an area of excised sidewall at the time of initial injury were highly efficacious in the prevention of adhesion formation. A film of EO/LA ratio 3.7, in contrast with Interceed, was also shown to maintain maximal efficacy in the reduction of adhesion formation in the presence of blood. Further, a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 produced under commercial conditions, REPEL, was highly efficacious in reducing adhesion development in the rabbit models of adhesion and reformation. These studies suggest that bioresorbable EO/LA films reduced adhesion development in rabbit models of adhesion formation and reformation.

  5. Self-Service Banking: Value Creation Models and Information Exchange

    Ragnvald Sannes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that most banks have failed to exploit the potential of self-service banking because they base their service design on an incomplete business model for self-service. A framework for evaluation of self-service banking concepts is developed on the basis of Stabell and Fjeldstad's three value configurations. The value network and the value shop are consistent with self-service banking while the value chain is inappropriate. The impact of the value configurations on information exchange and self-service functionality is discussed, and a framework for design of such services proposed. Current self-service banking practices are compared to the framework, and it is concluded that current practice matches the concept of a value network and not the value shop. However, current practices are only a partial implementation of a value network-based self-service banking concept.

  6. Context aware adaptive security service model

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  7. Remote information service access system based on a client-server-service model

    Konrad, A.M.

    1996-08-06

    A local host computing system, a remote host computing system as connected by a network, and service functionalities: a human interface service functionality, a starter service functionality, and a desired utility service functionality, and a Client-Server-Service (CSS) model is imposed on each service functionality. In one embodiment, this results in nine logical components and three physical components (a local host, a remote host, and an intervening network), where two of the logical components are integrated into one Remote Object Client component, and that Remote Object Client component and the other seven logical components are deployed among the local host and remote host in a manner which eases compatibility and upgrade problems, and provides an illusion to a user that a desired utility service supported on a remote host resides locally on the user`s local host, thereby providing ease of use and minimal software maintenance for users of that remote service. 16 figs.

  8. Models of care and organization of services.

    Markova, Alina; Xiong, Michael; Lester, Jenna; Burnside, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the overall organization of services and delivery of health care in the United States. Health maintenance organization, fee-for-service, preferred provider organizations, and the Veterans Health Administration are discussed, with a focus on structure, outcomes, and areas for improvement. An overview of wait times, malpractice, telemedicine, and the growing population of physician extenders in dermatology is also provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing Service Protection with Model Driven

    Wendpanga , Francis; Biennier , Frédérique; Merle , Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Enterprises are more and more involved in collabo-rative business. This leads to open and outsourcing all or part of their information system (IS) to create collaborative processes by composing business services picked in each partner IS and to take advantage of Cloud computing. Business services outsourcing and their dynamic collaboration context can bring lost of control on IS and new security risks can occur. This leads to inconsistent protec-tion allowing competito...

  10. Organizational models of public administration: a study of some aspects of the reality derived from Ceara State reform

    Maria Lucineide Serpa Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new public management is a much-debated issue in Brazil and in many other countries worldwide. Its origin is historically dated in the 80´s, attributed to State economic and fiscal crises that had reached many countries in that decade and was also a response to State Welfare deterioration. The answer given prescribed a set of policies that proclaimed the application of market principles and private sector logic to the Public Administration. The study has as the objective to analyze the relation between the new public model practices and the modernization and efficiency of the State administration. The specific objectives are concentrated on presenting the models of Public Administration; on identifying reforms carried through in Brazilian Public Administration until the current days; on analyzing managerial practices of the new model applied to state administration. This is an exploratory, qualitative and documentary research. Interviews had been carried out, and then, the study made use of the technique of content analysis. To choose the respondents in the field research, the study considered the criterion of linking the interviewee to the process of modernization of the Public Administration. Thus, managers, former-managers of the main state secretariats involved with modernization of public administration, and researchers who had previously taken part in this process were selected. The contribution of this work results in a better evaluation of the modernization of the state Administration and also of its consequences.

  11. Three-Dimensional Service Value Creation Model Based on Multidisciplinary Framework: Service Value Transition in Flower Tourism and Robotized Music Appreciation Services

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Imahori, Takahiro; Ikawa, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on the process of value creation in the service business and on the shift of service value created in actual service businesses. The analysis is used to demonstrate proposed models for explaining this shift. Service value is successfully created when customers enjoy the benefits of services proposed through a system of service businesses. The model visualizes the shift of service value, focusing on the three axes of width (of the place for service providing/usage in the ...

  12. Social Security Reform and Population Ageing in a Two-Sector Growth Model

    van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy.The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector and

  13. Social security reform and population ageing in a two-sector growth model

    Groezen, Bas van; Meijdam, L.; Verbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the e¤ects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy. The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector. Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector

  14. A contribution to the modelling of steam reformers for natural gas fuelled fuel cell heating systems; Ein Beitrag zur Modellierung von Dampfreformern fuer erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellenheizgeraete

    Nietzsche, Joerg

    2010-10-29

    The author attempted to verify the assumptions and simplifications of common mathematical models of small-scale steam reformers. The emphasis was on the derivation of important model parameters on the basis of easily identifiable catalyst, fluid and reactor characteristics. An easily validated 2D model of a reformer tube is then used for a wide sensitivity analysis and a comparative investigation of various reactor types. [German] Die Motivation dieser Arbeit liegt in der Ueberpruefung der bislang in mathematischen Modellen von kleintechnischen Dampfreformern getroffenen Annahmen und Vereinfachungen, mit speziellem Augenmerk auf die Aufklaerung der Herkunft wichtiger Modellparameter anhand von leicht bestimmbaren Katalysator-, Fluid- und Reaktoreigenschaften. Ein leicht zu validierendes, zweidimensionales Modell eines Reformerrohres soll im Anschluss fuer eine breit angelegte Sensitivitaetsanalyse und eine vergleichende Untersuchung verschiedener Reaktortypen dienen.

  15. Rethinking 'flexibilities' in the international drug control system-Potential, precedents and models for reforms.

    Collins, John

    2017-01-24

    Much international drug policy debate centres on, what policies are permissible under the international drug treaties, whether member states are openly 'breaching' these treaties by changing national regulatory frameworks and shifting priorities away from a 'war on drugs' approach, and what 'flexibility' exists for policy reform and experimentation at national and local levels. Orthodox interpretations hold that the current system is a US-led 'prohibition regime' that was constructed in an extremely repressive and restrictive manner with almost no flexibility for significant national deviations. This paper challenges these orthodox interpretive frameworks and suggests no absolute and clear dichotomy between strict adherence and 'breaches' of the international treaties. This paper uses historical analysis to highlight the flaws in orthodox policy analyses, which assume a uniform interpretation, implementation and set of policy trajectories towards a 'prohibition regime' in the 20th century. It challenges some existing legal interpretations of the treaties through recourse to historical precedents of flexible interpretation and policy prioritisation. It then examines the legal justifications currently being formulated by member states to explain a shift towards policies which, until recently, have been viewed as outside the permissible scope of the conventions. It then examines a functionalist framework for understanding the likely contours of drug diplomacy in the post-UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) 2016 era. The paper highlights that, contrary to current policy discourses, the international control system has always been implemented in a 'flexible' manner. It demonstrates that drug control goals were repeatedly subsumed to security, development, political stability and population welfare imperatives, or what we might now refer to under the umbrella of 'development issues.' The paper further demonstrates that policy prioritisation, inherent treaty

  16. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    Gou, Juanqiong; Shen, Guguan; Chai, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering ...

  17. Service Quality in Distance Education using the Gronroos Model

    Hamid, Fazelina Sahul; Yip, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Demand for distance education programs have been increasing rapidly over the years. As a result, assessment of the quality of distance education programs has become a strategic issue that is very pertinent for program survival. This study uses Gronroos Model for assessing the service quality of the Malaysian distance education institutions. This model is chosen because it takes into account of the service delivery process and also service outcome. Our study confirms the multidimensional natur...

  18. Business model driven service architecture design for enterprise application integration

    Gacitua-Decar, Veronica; Pahl, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, organisations are using a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) as an approach to Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), which is required for the automation of business processes. This paper presents an architecture development process which guides the transition from business models to a service-based software architecture. The process is supported by business reference models and patterns. Firstly, the business process models are enhanced with domain model elements, applicat...

  19. Arbitration Reform

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  20. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  1. The 'reformation' of counselling

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  2. Economic and environmental gains of China's fossil energy subsidies reform: A rebound effect case study with EIMO model

    Hong, Li; Liang, Dong; Di, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption and efficiency emerged as the hottest topic in the context of China's sustainable development. Energy subsidies and “rebound effect” were closely related to this topic while few combinative studies on them with a focus on China. This paper employed a co-thinking approach, focusing on how the energy subsidies reform could mitigate the rebound effect in China, and how to achieve an “economic and environmental gains” that reduced pecuniary spending, improved the distorted energy market and reduced energy consumption simultaneously. Firstly, with price-gap approach we calculated the total energy subsidies scale of China in 2007, which amounted to582.0 billion CNY; then we detected and identified rebound effect of China energy consumption with the features. Furthermore, based on China 2007 monetary input–output table and energy flow analysis, we compiled a hybrid physical energy input and monetary output model (EIMO) to simulate the mitigation effect of subsidies reform. Results showed that removing energy subsidies would decrease ultimate demand of different economy sectors and reduce the accumulatively physical consumption of coal, oil, natural gas and electricity by 17.74, 13.47, 3.64 and 15.82 million tce, respectively. Finally we discussed relevant policy issues on China's energy subsidies reform in depth. - Highlights: ► Analyze the economic and environmental gains of fossil energy subsidies reform in China. ► Energy input and monetary output model was applied for analysis. ► Subsidies reform would help to reduce the rebound effect. ► The benefits of money saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation were achieved

  3. Web Services and Model-Driven Enterprise Information Services. Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Web Services and Model-Driven Enterprise Information Services, WSMDEIS 2005.

    Bevinakoppa, S.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Hammoudi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Web services and Model-driven development are two emerging research fields and have been receiving a lot of attention in the recent years. New approaches on these two areas can bring many benefits to the development of information systems, distribution flexibility, interoperability, maintainability

  4. Clinical Predictive Modeling Development and Deployment through FHIR Web Services.

    Khalilia, Mohammed; Choi, Myung; Henderson, Amelia; Iyengar, Sneha; Braunstein, Mark; Sun, Jimeng

    2015-01-01

    Clinical predictive modeling involves two challenging tasks: model development and model deployment. In this paper we demonstrate a software architecture for developing and deploying clinical predictive models using web services via the Health Level 7 (HL7) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) standard. The services enable model development using electronic health records (EHRs) stored in OMOP CDM databases and model deployment for scoring individual patients through FHIR resources. The MIMIC2 ICU dataset and a synthetic outpatient dataset were transformed into OMOP CDM databases for predictive model development. The resulting predictive models are deployed as FHIR resources, which receive requests of patient information, perform prediction against the deployed predictive model and respond with prediction scores. To assess the practicality of this approach we evaluated the response and prediction time of the FHIR modeling web services. We found the system to be reasonably fast with one second total response time per patient prediction.

  5. Enabling Real-time Water Decision Support Services Using Model as a Service

    Zhao, T.; Minsker, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Salas, F. R.; Maidment, D. R.; David, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Through application of computational methods and an integrated information system, data and river modeling services can help researchers and decision makers more rapidly understand river conditions under alternative scenarios. To enable this capability, workflows (i.e., analysis and model steps) are created and published as Web services delivered through an internet browser, including model inputs, a published workflow service, and visualized outputs. The RAPID model, which is a river routing model developed at University of Texas Austin for parallel computation of river discharge, has been implemented as a workflow and published as a Web application. This allows non-technical users to remotely execute the model and visualize results as a service through a simple Web interface. The model service and Web application has been prototyped in the San Antonio and Guadalupe River Basin in Texas, with input from university and agency partners. In the future, optimization model workflows will be developed to link with the RAPID model workflow to provide real-time water allocation decision support services.

  6. A Diffusion Model for Two-sided Service Systems

    Homma, Koichi; Yano, Koujin; Funabashi, Motohisa

    A diffusion model is proposed for two-sided service systems. ‘Two-sided’ refers to the existence of an economic network effect between two different and interrelated groups, e.g., card holders and merchants in an electronic money service. The service benefit for a member of one side depends on the number and quality of the members on the other side. A mathematical model by J. H. Rohlfs explains the network (or bandwagon) effect of communications services. In Rohlfs' model, only the users' group exists and the model is one-sided. This paper extends Rohlfs' model to a two-sided model. We propose, first, a micro model that explains individual behavior in regard to service subscription of both sides and a computational method that drives the proposed model. Second, we develop macro models with two diffusion-rate variables by simplifying the micro model. As a case study, we apply the models to an electronic money service and discuss the simulation results and actual statistics.

  7. Internal steam reforming in solid oxide fuel cells: Status and opportunities of kinetic studies and their impact on modelling

    Mogensen, David; Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2011-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) systems with internal steam reforming have the potential to become an economically competitive technology for cogeneration power plants, exploiting its significantly higher electrical efficiency compared to existing technologies. Optimal design and operation of such ......Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) systems with internal steam reforming have the potential to become an economically competitive technology for cogeneration power plants, exploiting its significantly higher electrical efficiency compared to existing technologies. Optimal design and operation...

  8. A Model-Driven, Science Data Product Registration Service

    Hardman, S.; Ramirez, P.; Hughes, J. S.; Joyner, R.; Cayanan, M.; Lee, H.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) has undertaken an effort to overhaul the PDS data architecture (including the data model, data structures, data dictionary, etc.) and to deploy an upgraded software system (including data services, distributed data catalog, etc.) that fully embraces the PDS federation as an integrated system while taking advantage of modern innovations in information technology (including networking capabilities, processing speeds, and software breakthroughs). A core component of this new system is the Registry Service that will provide functionality for tracking, auditing, locating, and maintaining artifacts within the system. These artifacts can range from data files and label files, schemas, dictionary definitions for objects and elements, documents, services, etc. This service offers a single reference implementation of the registry capabilities detailed in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Registry Reference Model White Book. The CCSDS Reference Model in turn relies heavily on the Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language (ebXML) standards for registry services and the registry information model, managed by the OASIS consortium. Registries are pervasive components in most information systems. For example, data dictionaries, service registries, LDAP directory services, and even databases provide registry-like services. These all include an account of informational items that are used in large-scale information systems ranging from data values such as names and codes, to vocabularies, services and software components. The problem is that many of these registry-like services were designed with their own data models associated with the specific type of artifact they track. Additionally these services each have their own specific interface for interacting with the service. This Registry Service implements the data model specified in the ebXML Registry Information Model (RIM) specification that supports the various

  9. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  10. Developing religiously-tailored health messages for behavioral change: Introducing the reframe, reprioritize, and reform ("3R") model.

    Padela, Aasim I; Malik, Sana; Vu, Milkie; Quinn, Michael; Peek, Monica

    2018-05-01

    As community health interventions advance from being faith-placed to authentically faith-based, greater discussion is needed about the theory, practice, and ethics of delivering health messages embedded within a religious worldview. While there is much potential to leverage religion to promote health behaviors and improve health outcomes, there is also a risk of co-opting religious teachings for strictly biomedical ends. To describe the development, implementation, and ethical dimensions of a conceptual model for religiously-tailoring health messages. We used data from 6 focus groups and 19 interviews with women aged 40 and older sampled from diverse Muslim community organizations to map out how religious beliefs and values impact mammography-related behavioral, normative and control beliefs. These beliefs were further grouped into those that enhance mammography intention (facilitators) and those that impede intention (barriers). In concert with a multi-disciplinary advisory board, and by drawing upon leading theories of health behavior change, we developed the "3R" model for crafting religiously-tailored health messages. The 3R model addresses barrier beliefs, which are beliefs that negatively impact adopting a health behavior, by (i) reframing the belief within a relevant religious worldview, (ii) reprioritizing the belief by introducing another religious belief that has greater resonance with participants, and (iii) reforming the belief by uncovering logical flaws and/or theological misinterpretations. These approaches were used to create messages for a peer-led, mosque-based, educational intervention designed to improve mammography intention among Muslim women. There are benefits and potential ethical challenges to using religiously tailored messages to promote health behaviors. Our theoretically driven 3R model aids interventionists in crafting messages that address beliefs that hinder healthy behaviors. It is particularly useful in the context of faith

  11. An innovative service process development based on a reference model

    Lorenzo Sanfelice Frazzon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the new service development (NSD process, focusing specifically in a case of a financial service, guided by the following research questions: what are the processes and practices used in the development and design of new financial services? How the results of the financial NSD proposal reflects on the NSD are as a whole? Therefore, the study aims to show and describe a financial service development, conducted at Helpinveste. The paper focuses on the Conceptual Design service (activities: definition of specifications and development of alternative solutions for the service and Service Process Design (Service Representation phases. The methodological procedures are based on the process approach, using a reference model for developing new services. In order to operationalize the model, several techniques for the various stages of the project were used, e.g. QFD and Service Blueprint. Lastly, conclusions report contributions from the reference model application, both theoretical and practical contributions, as well the limitations and further research recommendations.

  12. A Logistic Regression Based Auto Insurance Rate-Making Model Designed for the Insurance Rate Reform

    Zhengmin Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a generalized linear model to determine the claim frequency of auto insurance is a key ingredient in non-life insurance research. Among auto insurance rate-making models, there are very few considering auto types. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a model that takes auto types into account by making an innovative use of the auto burden index. Based on this model and data from a Chinese insurance company, we built a clustering model that classifies auto insurance rates into three risk levels. The claim frequency and the claim costs are fitted to select a better loss distribution. Then the Logistic Regression model is employed to fit the claim frequency, with the auto burden index considered. Three key findings can be concluded from our study. First, more than 80% of the autos with an auto burden index of 20 or higher belong to the highest risk level. Secondly, the claim frequency is better fitted using the Poisson distribution, however the claim cost is better fitted using the Gamma distribution. Lastly, based on the AIC criterion, the claim frequency is more adequately represented by models that consider the auto burden index than those do not. It is believed that insurance policy recommendations that are based on Generalized linear models (GLM can benefit from our findings.

  13. Local Politics and Portfolio Management Models: National Reform Ideas and Local Control

    Bulkley, Katrina E.; Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Amid the growth of charter schools, autonomous schools, and private management organizations, an increasing number of urban districts are moving toward a portfolio management model (PMM). In a PMM, the district central office oversees schools that operate under a variety of governance models. The expansion of PMMs raises questions about local…

  14. Advantages and Challenges of Using Physics Curricula as a Model for Reforming an Undergraduate Biology Course

    Donovan, D. A.; Atkins, L. J.; Salter, I. Y.; Gallagher, D. J.; Kratz, R. F.; Rousseau, J. V.; Nelson, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life…

  15. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  16. Analysis of Private Sector Care Reform Authorities and Savings

    2016-12-01

    coordination, and promotion of health outcomes—in short, it was not a sustainable business model. FFS purchasing remains an element of an overall...primarily focused on the cost (or supply side) of delivering the healthcare services. The reforms examined in this paper (VBP of purchased care) affect ...J. Kerstein. “How do financial incentives affect physicians’ clinical decisions and the financial performance of health maintenance organizations

  17. A Strategy Modelling Technique for Financial Services

    Heinrich, Bernd; Winter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Strategy planning processes often suffer from a lack of conceptual models that can be used to represent business strategies in a structured and standardized form. If natural language is replaced by an at least semi-formal model, the completeness, consistency, and clarity of strategy descriptions can be drastically improved. A strategy modelling technique is proposed that is based on an analysis of modelling requirements, a discussion of related work and a critical analysis of generic approach...

  18. Non-linear model reduction and control of molten carbonate fuel cell systems with internal reforming

    Sheng, Min

    2007-10-12

    Currently, the process design of fuel cells and the development of control strategies is mainly based on heuristic methods. Fuel cell models are often too complex for control purposes, or they are developed for a specific type of fuel cell and valid only in a small range of operation conditions. The application of fuel cell models to controller design is still limited. Furthermore, suitable and simple-to-implement design strategies for fuel cell control remain an open area. There is thus a motivation for simplifying dynamic models for process control applications and for designing suitable control strategies for fuel cells. This is the main objective of this work. As an application example, the 250 kW industrial molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system HotModule by MTU CFC Solutions, Germany is considered. A detailed dynamic two-dimensional spatially distributed cross-flow model of a MCFC from literature is taken as a starting point for the investigation. In Chapter 2, two simplified model versions are derived by incorporating additional physical assumptions. One of the simplified models is extended to a three-dimensional stack model to deal with physical and chemical phenomena in the stack. Simulations of the stack model are performed in Chapter 3 in order to calculate the mass and temperature distributions in the direction perpendicular to the electrode area. The other simplified model forms the basis for a low order reduced model that is derived in Chapter 4. The reduced-order model is constructed by application of the Karhunen-Loeve Galerkin method. The spatial temperature, concentration and potential profiles are approximated by a set of orthogonal time independent spatial basis functions. Problem specific basis functions are generated numerically from simulation data of the detailed reference model. The advantage of this approach is that a small number of basis functions suffices in order to approximate the solution of the detailed model very well. The

  19. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive criteria and effective measurement techniques as the fundamentals of a valuable framework. In this paper, service quality models improvement is described based on three major service quality concepts, the disconfirmation, performance and hierarchical concepts which are developed subsequently. Reviewing various criteria and different measurement techniques such a statistical analysis and multi-criteria decision making assist researchers to have a clear understanding of the development of the evaluation framework in the airline industry. This study aims at promoting reliable frameworks for evaluating airline service quality in different countries and societies due to economic, cultural and social aspects of each society.

  20. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  1. A Collaboration Service Model for a Global Port Cluster

    Keith K.T. Toh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of port clusters to a global city may be viewed from a number of perspectives. The development of port clusters and economies of agglomeration and their contribution to a regional economy is underpinned by information and physical infrastructure that facilitates collaboration between business entities within the cluster. The maturity of technologies providing portals, web and middleware services provides an opportunity to push the boundaries of contemporary service reference models and service catalogues to what the authors propose to be "collaboration services". Servicing port clusters, portal engineers of the future must consider collaboration services to benefit a region. Particularly, service orchestration through a "public user portal" must gain better utilisation of publically owned infrastructure, to share knowledge and collaborate among organisations through information systems.

  2. Improvement of resident perceptions of nurse practitioners after the introduction of a collaborative care model: a benefit of work hour reform?

    Bellini, Lisa M; Shea, Judy A

    2006-01-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) are assuming larger roles in many residency programs as a result of work hour reform, which is creating the potential for collaboration with interns and residents. To assess housestaff perceptions of NPs. We used a 17-item survey before and after the implementation of a collaborative care model in a university-based medicine residency. The majority of residents held favorable attitudes about NPs before the introduction of the collaborative care model. After 1 year, more interns and residents appreciated NPs' clinical judgment (effect size [ES] = .26, p =.02), thought they should be able to order laboratory tests (ES = .23, p = .05) and perform basic procedures (ES = .67, p collaborative care can be an unintended consequence of work hour reform. Educators are encouraged to think about how changes in the curriculum structure can provide opportunities for positive collaborative care experiences.

  3. [Reform of the Law DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. Commentary on the new requirements on quality management systems].

    Eckert, H; Böhmer, K

    2000-09-01

    Since January this year the German translation of the third draft to the reform of the DIN EN ISO 9000 is available. The draft reveals an approximation to the models of Business Excellence. Most important changes are a far stronger customer orientation, orientation on the processes and resource management. The norms DIN EN ISO 9002 and 9003 have been removed, ISO 8402 has been integrated in the reformed DIN EN ISO 9000. Apart from that the compatibility with other management systems has been improved. It was the aim of the reform to improve the applicability for all types of business, products and services.

  4. Peculiarities of designing Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model

    Tadas Limba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpos– the aim ok this paper is to develop a Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model which could ensure the efficient integration of electronic government services in the local self-government level.Methodolog– the following analyses have been carried out in thirkpaper: theoretical-systematic; normative and conceptual comparative analysis of the researcha A method of modeling has also been applied.Finding– the scientific work analyzes the improvement opportunities of the models of electronic government services and their application alternatives in Lithuanian municipalities. The newly developed model of electronic government services that has been designed basng on the principle of integrating online expert consultation is primarily targeted at improvement of inside processes’ changes of an organization. Practicing the application of that model in the local self-government level starting with improvement of inside processes of an organization should help adapt more accurately and efficiently to the changing needs of the society while providing electronic government services, thus establishing a higher public value.Practical implication– the practical novelty of work is reflected not only through the integration opportunities’ assessment of the principle of online expert consultation services into the theoretical models of electronic government services that have already been developed by the scientists, but also on the basis of this principle there has been created a “Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model” in accordance with “E-Diamond” model basis and its practical application realization with the design of “The project of implementing the principle of online expert consultation on the model of electronic government services” for the future investigations.Originalit– the systematic, comparative analysis of the models of electronic government services carried out in the scientific

  5. Model construction of nursing service satisfaction in hospitalized tumor patients.

    Chen, Yongyi; Liu, Jingshi; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Liu, Xiangyu; Tang, Xinhui; Zhou, Yujuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to construct a satisfaction model on nursing service in hospitalized tumor patients. Using questionnaires, data about hospitalized tumor patients' expectation, quality perception and satisfaction of hospital nursing service were obtained. A satisfaction model of nursing service in hospitalized tumor patients was established through empirical study and by structural equation method. This model was suitable for tumor specialized hospital, with reliability and validity. Patient satisfaction was significantly affected by quality perception and patient expectation. Patient satisfaction and patient loyalty was also affected by disease pressure. Hospital brand was positively correlated with patient satisfaction and patient loyalty, negatively correlated with patient complaint. Patient satisfaction was positively correlated with patient loyalty, patient complaints, and quality perception, and negatively correlated with disease pressure and patient expectation. The satisfaction model on nursing service in hospitalized tumor patients fits well. By this model, the quality of hospital nursing care may be improved.

  6. How the Kano model contributes to Kansei engineering in services.

    Hartono, Markus; Chuan, Tan Kay

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies show that products and services hold great appeal if they are attractively designed to elicit emotional feelings from customers. Kansei engineering (KE) has good potential to provide a competitive advantage to those able to read and translate customer affect and emotion in actual product and services. This study introduces an integrative framework of the Kano model and KE, applied to services. The Kano model was used and inserted into KE to exhibit the relationship between service attribute performance and customer emotional response. Essentially, the Kano model categorises service attribute quality into three major groups (must-be [M], one-dimensional [O] and attractive [A]). The findings of a case study that involved 100 tourists who stayed in luxury 4- and 5-star hotels are presented. As a practical matter, this research provides insight on which service attributes deserve more attention with regard to their significant impact on customer emotional needs. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Apart from cognitive evaluation, emotions and hedonism play a big role in service encounters. Through a focus on delighting qualities of service attributes, this research enables service providers and managers to establish the extent to which they prioritise their improvement efforts and to always satisfy their customer emotions beyond expectation.

  7. A conceptual model of nurses' goal orientation, service behavior, and service performance.

    Chien, Chun-Cheng; Chou, Hsin-Kai; Hung, Shuo-Tsung

    2008-01-01

    Based on the conceptual framework known as the "service triangle," the authors constructed a model of nurses' goal orientation, service behavior, and service performance to investigate the antecedents and consequences of the medical service behavior provided by nurses. This cross-sectional study collected data from 127 nurses in six hospitals using a mail-in questionnaire. Analysis of the model revealed that the customer-oriented behavior of nurses had a positive influence on organizational citizenship behavior; and both of these behaviors had a significant positive influence on service performance. The results also indicate that a higher learning goal orientation among nurses was associated with the performance of both observable customer-oriented behavior and organizational-citizenship behavior.

  8. Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program offers a regional model for incremental 'fee for value' payment reform.

    Share, David A; Mason, Margaret H

    2012-09-01

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan partnered with providers across the state to create an innovative, "fee for value" physician incentive program that would deliver high-quality, efficient care. The Physician Group Incentive Program rewards physician organizations-formal groups of physicians and practices that can accept incentive payments on behalf of their members-based on the number of quality and utilization measures they adopt, such as generic drug dispensing rates, and on their performance on these measures across their patient populations. Physicians also receive payments for implementing a range of patient-centered medical home capabilities, such as patient registries, and they receive higher fees for office visits for incorporating these capabilities into routine practice while also improving performance. Taken together, the incentive dollars, fee increases, and care management payments amount to a potential increase in reimbursement of 40 percent or more from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan for practices designated as high-performing patient-centered medical homes. At the same time, we estimate that implementing the patient-centered medical home capabilities was associated with $155 million in lower medical costs in program year 2011 for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan members. We intend to devote a higher percentage of reimbursement over time to communities of caregivers that offer high-value, system-based care, and a lower percentage of reimbursement to individual physicians on a service-specific basis.

  9. A Behavioral Decision Making Modeling Approach Towards Hedging Services

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Egelkraut, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper takes a behavioral approach toward the market for hedging services. A behavioral decision-making model is developed that provides insight into how and why owner-managers decide the way they do regarding hedging services. Insight into those choice processes reveals information needed by

  10. A blueprint for mapping and modelling ecosystem services

    Crossman, N.; Burkhard, B.; Nedkov, S.; Willemen, L.L.J.; Petz, K.; Palomo, I.; Drakou, E.G.; Martín-Lopez, B.; McPhearson, T.; Boyanova, K.; Alkemade, R.; Egoh, B.; Dunbar, M.D.; Maes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The inconsistency in methods to quantify and map ecosystem services challenges the development of robust values of ecosystem services in national accounts and broader policy and natural resource management decision-making. In this paper we develop and test a blueprint to give guidance on modelling

  11. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  12. A Simple Model of Service Trade with Time Zone Differences

    Kikuchi, Toru; Iwasa, Kazumichi

    2008-01-01

    This note proposes a two-country monopolistic competition model of service trade that captures the role of time zone differences as a determinant of trade patterns. It is shown that the utilization of time zone differences induces drastic change in trade patterns: Due to taking advantage of time zone differences, service firms learve larger countries for smaller countries.

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  14. Mapping and modelling ecosystem services for science, policy and practice

    Burkhard, B.; Crossman, N.; Nedkov, S.; Petz, K.; Alkemade, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are a significant research and policy topic and there are many modelling and mapping approaches aimed at understanding the stocks, demands and flows of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scales. The integration of geo-biophysical processes and structure

  15. Ontology Driven Meta-Modeling of Service Oriented Architecture

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... #Department of Computer Applications, National Institute of ... *5Department of Computer Science, Winona State University, MN, USA ..... Further, it has aided in service .... Software: A Research Roadmap”, Workshop on the Future of ... and A. Solberg, “Model-driven service engineering with SoaML”, in.

  16. Service learning in teacher education: an institutional model for an ...

    Interest in service learning is growing at a time of curriculum change in teacher education and institutional change in higher education in South Africa. This raises the question ";What models are available to guide institutions to develop service learning?"; This article outlines Pollack's typology of institutional responses to ...

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    New Pei Yee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bedreactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactionsinvolved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shiftreaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and molefraction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition,the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The modelscan also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactorwith certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.19.21-29

  18. Applying revised gap analysis model in measuring hotel service quality.

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Che; Chien, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Lu, Shu-Chiung; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dong, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    With the number of tourists coming to Taiwan growing by 10-20 % since 2010, the number has increased due to an increasing number of foreign tourists, particularly after deregulation allowed admitting tourist groups, followed later on by foreign individual tourists, from mainland China. The purpose of this study is to propose a revised gap model to evaluate and improve service quality in Taiwanese hotel industry. Thus, service quality could be clearly measured through gap analysis, which was more effective for offering direction in developing and improving service quality. The HOLSERV instrument was used to identify and analyze service gaps from the perceptions of internal and external customers. The sample for this study included three main categories of respondents: tourists, employees, and managers. The results show that five gaps influenced tourists' evaluations of service quality. In particular, the study revealed that Gap 1 (management perceptions vs. customer expectations) and Gap 9 (service provider perceptions of management perceptions vs. service delivery) were more critical than the others in affecting perceived service quality, making service delivery the main area of improvement. This study contributes toward an evaluation of the service quality of the Taiwanese hotel industry from the perspectives of customers, service providers, and managers, which is considerably valuable for hotel managers. It was the aim of this study to explore all of these together in order to better understand the possible gaps in the hotel industry in Taiwan.

  19. Evaluating intersectoral collaboration: a model for assessment by service users

    Bengt Ahgren

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DELTA was launched as a project in 1997 to improve intersectoral collaboration in the rehabilitation field. In 2005 DELTA was transformed into a local association for financial co-ordination between the institutions involved. Based on a study of the DELTA service users, the purpose of this article is to develop and to validate a model that can be used to assess the integration of welfare services from the perspective of the service users. Theory: The foundation of integration is a well functioning structure of integration. Without such structural conditions, it is difficult to develop a process of integration that combines the resources and competences of the collaborating organisations to create services advantageous for the service users. In this way, both the structure and the process will contribute to the outcome of integration. Method: The study was carried out as a retrospective cross-sectional survey during two weeks, including all the current service users of DELTA. The questionnaire contained 32 questions, which were derived from the theoretical framework and research on service users, capturing perceptions of integration structure, process and outcome. Ordinal scales and open questions where used for the assessment. Results: The survey had a response rate of 82% and no serious biases of the results were detected. The study shows that the users of the rehabilitation services perceived the services as well integrated, relevant and adapted to their needs. The assessment model was tested for reliability and validity and a few modifications were suggested. Some key measurement themes were derived from the study. Conclusion: The model developed in this study is an important step towards an assessment of service integration from the perspective of the service users. It needs to be further refined, however, before it can be used in other evaluations of collaboration in the provision of integrated welfare services.

  20. Rethinking Acquisition Reform: Cost-Growth Solutions May Aggravate More Important Problems

    Candreva, Phil

    2008-01-01

    .... Several recent studies have recommended two categories of reforms: capital budgeting reforms seek stability in acquisition accounts, and rational cost model reforms seek to reduce the percentage increase of final cost over budget estimates...

  1. How to Find Optimal National Model of Pension System: the Projection on Russia (Book Review: Barr, N. Pension reform: A short guide [Text] / N. Barr, P. Diamond. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. – 261 p.

    Karen Avakovich Tumanyants

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Find Optimal National Model of Pension System: the Projection on Russia (Book Review: Barr, N. Pension reform: A short guide [Text] / N. Barr, P. Diamond. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. – 261 p.

  2. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter

    2017-01-01

    Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... in public transport research, which sometimes refers to the “Scandinavian model of public transport”. It is not uncommon for conclusions regarding Scandinavian countries to be based on analyses of just one country. Is there actually such a thing as a Scandinavian model of public transport? All around Europe...... the public transport sector is changing, taking public transport governance in various directions. This paper provides an overview of the changes and similarities in public transport governance in Scandinavian countries from the 1970s to 2012, discussing whether it is justifiable to speak of a Scandinavian...

  3. Modelling and assessment of urban flood hazards based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves reformation

    Ghazavi, Reza; Moafi Rabori, Ali; Ahadnejad Reveshty, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Estimate design storm based on rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves is an important parameter for hydrologic planning of urban areas. The main aim of this study was to estimate rainfall intensities of Zanjan city watershed based on overall relationship of rainfall IDF curves and appropriate model of hourly rainfall estimation (Sherman method, Ghahreman and Abkhezr method). Hydrologic and hydraulic impacts of rainfall IDF curves change in flood properties was evaluated via Stormw...

  4. Application of Contemporary Intelligence Models in Terms of Transformation and Security Sector Reform

    Dojcinovski, Metodija; Ackoski, Jugoslav

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the contemporary methods of organizing, establishing and functioning of intelligence systems in a way of offering solutions against security threats and challenges of the 21st century. The effectiveness of implementing the measures and activities depends on the intelligence models, identified as functioning in relation to the structured elements of the represented and realistically created segments, standard operative procedures, security procedures and m...

  5. Data mining approach to model the diagnostic service management.

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Lee, Ae-Kyung; Park, Il-Su

    2006-01-01

    Korea has National Health Insurance Program operated by the government-owned National Health Insurance Corporation, and diagnostic services are provided every two year for the insured and their family members. Developing a customer relationship management (CRM) system using data mining technology would be useful to improve the performance of diagnostic service programs. Under these circumstances, this study developed a model for diagnostic service management taking into account the characteristics of subjects using a data mining approach. This study could be further used to develop an automated CRM system contributing to the increase in the rate of receiving diagnostic services.

  6. A MODEL FOR HIGHER EDUCATION CAMPUS HEALTH SERVICES

    2010-03-17

    Mar 17, 2010 ... generation was used to develop a holistic healthcare model for a higher education campus' health service. It became ... innovative. Health plays a .... conducted will set the tone for the interactive process of holistic healthcare.

  7. Emerging Issues and Models in College Mental Health Services

    Locke, Ben; Wallace, David; Brunner, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the psychological issues facing today's college students, information about students receiving mental health services, and an evidence-based model describing the practice and functions of today's counseling centers.

  8. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  9. Geographic delivery models for radiotherapy services

    Roberts, G.H.; Dunscombe, P.B.; Samant, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The study described here was undertaken to quantify the societal cost of radiotherapy in idealized urban and rural populations and, hence, to generate a measure of impediment to access. The costs of centralized, distributed comprehensive and satellite radiotherapy delivery formats were examined by decomposing them into institutional, productivity and geographical components. Our results indicate that centralized radiotherapy imposes the greatest financial burden on the patient population in both urban and rural scenarios. The financial burden faced by patients who must travel for radiotherapy can be interpreted as one component of the overall impediment to access. With advances in remote-monitoring systems, it is possible to maintain technical quality while enhancing patient access. However, the maintenance of professional competence will remain a challenge with a distributed service-delivery format. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Combat Service Support Model Development: BRASS - TRANSLOG - Army 21

    1984-07-01

    throughout’the system. Transitional problems may address specific hardware and related software , such as the Standard Army Ammunition System ( SAAS ...FILE. 00 Cabat Service Support Model Development .,PASS TRANSLOG -- ARMY 21 0 Contract Number DAAK11-84-D-0004 Task Order #1 DRAFT REPOkT July 1984 D...Armament Systems, Inc. 211 West Bel Air Avenue P.O. Box 158 Aberdeen, MD 21001 8 8 8 2 1 S CORMIT SERVICE SUPPORT MODEL DEVELOPMENT BRASS -- TRANSLOG

  11. Economic growth and the reform of the judicial system of Bulgaria in the period 2000-2015 (vision for a new measurement model). IDEAS Working Paper Series from RePEc N72919, Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, USA

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The publication proposes a concept for new model for evaluation of the “reform of the judicial system”, different from those applied by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund where the economic growth rate of each country is measured. Their models, based on performance indicators, examine the “reform of the judicial system” as constant and floating in time, evaluated in certain periods of time. This fact obstructs the identification of the relative legislative miscarriag...

  12. Project IVOR - Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union

    Biffi, Emanuela; Mulder, Eva; Pemberton, Antony; Santos, Manuela; Valério, Mafalda; Vanfraechem, Inge; van der Vorm, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Project IVOR – Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union (2014-2016) offers an overview of current research into and with victims’ rights and services, identifying lacunas in the knowledge base and offering a model which can serve to connect experience

  13. A Review on Broker Based Cloud Service Model

    Nagarajan Rajganesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing emerged as a utility oriented computing that facilitates resource sharing under pay-as-you-go model. Nowadays, cloud offerings are not limited to range of services and anything can be shared as a service through the Internet. In this work, a detailed literature survey with respect to cloud service discovery and composition has been accounted. A proposed architecture with the inclusion of cloud broker is presented in our work. It focuses the importance of suitable service selection and its ranking towards fulfilling the customer’s service requirements. The proposed cloud broker advocates techniques such as reasoning and decision making capabilities for the improved cloud service selection and composition.

  14. Advantages and challenges of using physics curricula as a model for reforming an undergraduate biology course.

    Donovan, D A; Atkins, L J; Salter, I Y; Gallagher, D J; Kratz, R F; Rousseau, J V; Nelson, G D

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life sciences context. While some approaches were easily adapted, others provided significant challenges. Among these challenges were: representations of energy, introducing definitions, the placement of Scientists' Ideas, and the replicability of data. In modifying the curriculum to address these challenges, we have come to see them as speaking to deeper differences between the disciplines, namely that introductory physics--for example, Newton's laws, magnetism, light--is a science of pairwise interaction, while introductory biology--for example, photosynthesis, evolution, cycling of matter in ecosystems--is a science of linked processes, and we suggest that this is how the two disciplines are presented in introductory classes. We illustrate this tension through an analysis of our adaptations of the physics curriculum for instruction on the cycling of matter and energy; we show that modifications of the physics curriculum to address the biological framework promotes strong gains in student understanding of these topics, as evidenced by analysis of student work.

  15. Experimental investigations and modeling of direct internal reforming of biogases in tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Lanzini, A.; Leone, P.; Pieroni, M.; Santarelli, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129, Torino (Italy); Beretta, D.; Ginocchio, S. [Centro Ricerca e Sviluppo, Edison S.p.a, Via La Pira 2, IT-10028 Trofarello, Torino (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems can be considered as interesting integrated systems in the framework of distributed power generation. In particular, bio-methane and bio-hydrogen produced from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes represent renewable carbon-neutral fuels for high efficiency electrochemical generators. With such non-conventional mixtures fed to the anode of the SOFC, the interest lies in understanding the multi-physics phenomena there occurring and optimizing the geometric and operation parameters of the SOFC, while avoiding operating and fuel conditions that can lead to or accelerate degradation processes. In this study, an anode-supported (Ni-YSZ) tubular SOFC was considered; the tubular geometry enables a relatively easy separation of the air and fuel reactants and it allows one to evaluate the temperature field of the fuel gas inside the tube, which is strictly related to the electrochemical and heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring within the anode volume. The experiments have been designed to analyze the behavior of the cell under different load and fuel utilization (FU) conditions, providing efficiency maps for both fuels. The experimental results were used to validate a multi-physics model of the tubular cell. The model showed to be in good agreement with the experimental data, and was used to study the sensitive of some selected geometrical parameters modification over the cell performances. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Applying Quality Function Deployment Model in Burn Unit Service Improvement.

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Hashemi, Neda; Kharazmi, Erfan; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is one of the most effective quality design tools. This study applies QFD technique to improve the quality of the burn unit services in Ghotbedin Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. First, the patients' expectations of burn unit services and their priorities were determined through Delphi method. Thereafter, burn unit service specifications were determined through Delphi method. Further, the relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and also the relationships between service specifications were determined through an expert group's opinion. Last, the final importance scores of service specifications were calculated through simple additive weighting method. The findings show that burn unit patients have 40 expectations in six different areas. These expectations are in 16 priority levels. Burn units also have 45 service specifications in six different areas. There are four-level relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and four-level relationships between service specifications. The most important burn unit service specifications have been identified in this study. The QFD model developed in the study can be a general guideline for QFD planners and executives.

  17. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.

    2003-01-01

    Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real world....... In contrast, this paper describes holistic concepts and techniques for mobile data modeling that are readily applicable in practice. Focus is on services to be delivered to mobile users, such as route guidance, point-of-interest search, road pricing, parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. While geo...

  18. Modelling ecosystem service flows under uncertainty with stochiastic SPAN

    Johnson, Gary W.; Snapp, Robert R.; Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service models are increasingly in demand for decision making. However, the data required to run these models are often patchy, missing, outdated, or untrustworthy. Further, communication of data and model uncertainty to decision makers is often either absent or unintuitive. In this work, we introduce a systematic approach to addressing both the data gap and the difficulty in communicating uncertainty through a stochastic adaptation of the Service Path Attribution Networks (SPAN) framework. The SPAN formalism assesses ecosystem services through a set of up to 16 maps, which characterize the services in a study area in terms of flow pathways between ecosystems and human beneficiaries. Although the SPAN algorithms were originally defined deterministically, we present them here in a stochastic framework which combines probabilistic input data with a stochastic transport model in order to generate probabilistic spatial outputs. This enables a novel feature among ecosystem service models: the ability to spatially visualize uncertainty in the model results. The stochastic SPAN model can analyze areas where data limitations are prohibitive for deterministic models. Greater uncertainty in the model inputs (including missing data) should lead to greater uncertainty expressed in the model’s output distributions. By using Bayesian belief networks to fill data gaps and expert-provided trust assignments to augment untrustworthy or outdated information, we can account for uncertainty in input data, producing a model that is still able to run and provide information where strictly deterministic models could not. Taken together, these attributes enable more robust and intuitive modelling of ecosystem services under uncertainty.

  19. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  20. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  1. QUALITY SERVICES EVALUATION MODEL BASED ON DEDICATED SOFTWARE TOOL

    ANDREEA CRISTINA IONICĂ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduced a new model, called Service Quality (SQ, which combines QFD and SERVQUAL methods. This model takes from the SERVQUAL method the five dimensions of requirements and three of characteristics and from the QFD method the application methodology. The originality of the SQ model consists in computing a global index that reflects the customers’ requirements accomplishment level by the quality characteristics. In order to prove the viability of the SQ model, there was developed a software tool that was applied for the evaluation of a health care services provider.

  2. Models for Primary Eye Care Services in India

    Vasundhra Misra

    2015-01-01

    In the current situation, an integrated health care system with primary eye care promoted by government of India is apparently the best answer. This model is both cost effective and practical for the prevention and control of blindness among the underprivileged population. Other models functioning with the newer technology of tele-ophthalmology or mobile clinics also add to the positive outcome in providing primary eye care services. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of various models presently functioning in the country with the idea of providing useful inputs for eye care providers and enabling them to identify and adopt an appropriate model for primary eye care services.

  3. Sustainable Business Models through Service Design

    Prendeville, S.M.; Bocken, N.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of growing sustainability challenges, pressure on businesses to decouple environmental impacts from growth is mounting. New sustainable business models can be a systemic driver for change in industry and the wider business innovation literature suggests that strategic design approaches

  4. Quebec mental health services networks: models and implementation

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the transformation of health care systems, the introduction of integrated service networks is considered to be one of the main solutions for enhancing efficiency. In the last few years, a wealth of literature has emerged on the topic of services integration. However, the question of how integrated service networks should be modelled to suit different implementation contexts has barely been touched. To fill that gap, this article presents four models for the organization of mental health integrated networks. Data sources: The proposed models are drawn from three recently published studies on mental health integrated services in the province of Quebec (Canada with the author as principal investigator. Description: Following an explanation of the concept of integrated service network and a description of the Quebec context for mental health networks, the models, applicable in all settings: rural, urban or semi-urban, and metropolitan, and summarized in four figures, are presented. Discussion and conclusion: To apply the models successfully, the necessity of rallying all the actors of a system, from the strategic, tactical and operational levels, according to the type of integration involved: functional/administrative, clinical and physician-system is highlighted. The importance of formalizing activities among organizations and actors in a network and reinforcing the governing mechanisms at the local level is also underlined. Finally, a number of integration strategies and key conditions of success to operationalize integrated service networks are suggested.

  5. A Multilateral Negotiation Model for Cloud Service Market

    Yoo, Dongjin; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Trading cloud services between consumers and providers is a complicated issue of cloud computing. Since a consumer can negotiate with multiple providers to acquire the same service and each provider can receive many requests from multiple consumers, to facilitate the trading of cloud services among multiple consumers and providers, a multilateral negotiation model for cloud market is necessary. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a business model supporting a multilateral price negotiation for trading cloud services. The design of proposed systems for cloud service market includes considering a many-to-many negotiation protocol, and price determining factor from service level feature. Two negotiation strategies are implemented: 1) MDA (Market Driven Agent); and 2) adaptive concession making responding to changes of bargaining position are proposed for cloud service market. Empirical results shows that MDA achieved better performance in some cases that the adaptive concession making strategy, it is noted that unlike the MDA, the adaptive concession making strategy does not assume that an agent has information of the number of competitors (e.g., a consumer agent adopting the adaptive concession making strategy need not know the number of consumer agents competing for the same service).

  6. Revenue-Sharing Contract Models for Logistics Service Supply Chains with Mass Customization Service

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The revenue-sharing contract is one of the most important supply chain coordination contracts; it has been applied in various supply chains. However, studies related to service supply chains with mass customization (MC are lacking. Considering the equity of benefit distribution between the members of service supply chains, in this paper, we designed two revenue-sharing contracts. The first contract for the maximum equity of a single logistics service integrator (LSI and single functional logistics service provider (FLSP in a two-echelon logistics service supply chain was designed by introducing the fair entropy function (“one to one” model. Furthermore, the method is extended to a more complex supply chain, which consists of a single LSI and multiple FLSPs. A new contract was designed not only for considering the equity of an LSI and each FLSP but also for the equity between each FLSP (“one to N” model. The “one to one” model in three-echelon LSSC is also provided. The result exemplifies that, whether in the “one to one” model or “one to N” model, there exists a best interval of customized level when the revenue-sharing coefficient reaches its maximum.

  7. Services in wireless sensor networks modelling and optimisation for the efficient discovery of services

    Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, originally static and single purpose Wireless Sensor Networks have moved towards applications that need support for mobility and multiple purposes. These heterogeneous applications and services demand for a framework which distributes and discovers the various services, so that other pieces of equipment can use them. Markus Becker studies, extends, analytically models, simulates and employs the so called Trickle algorithm in measurements in a Wireless Sensor Network test bed for the service distribution. The obtained results apply to the application of the Trickle algorithm at

  8. Dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming of methane over Pt catalysts studied by DFT and kinetic modeling

    Niu, Juntian [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Du, Xuesen, E-mail: xuesendu@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Ran, Jingyu, E-mail: jyran@189.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Wang, Ruirui [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CH appears to be the most abundant species on Pt(1 1 1) surface in CH{sub 4} dissociation. • CO{sub 2}* + H* → COOH* + * → CO* + OH* is the dominant reaction pathway in CO{sub 2} activation. • Major reaction pathway in CH oxidation: CH* + OH* → CHOH* + * → CHO* + H* → CO* + 2H*. • C* + OH* → COH* + * → CO* + H* is the dominant reaction pathway in C oxidation. - Abstract: Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a well-studied reaction that is of both scientific and industrial importance. In order to design catalysts that minimize the deactivation and improve the selectivity and activity for a high H{sub 2}/CO yield, it is necessary to understand the elementary reaction steps involved in activation and conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In our present work, a microkinetic model based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations is applied to explore the reaction mechanism for methane dry reforming on Pt catalysts. The adsorption energies of the reactants, intermediates and products, and the activation barriers for the elementary reactions involved in the DRM process are calculated over the Pt(1 1 1) surface. In the process of CH{sub 4} direct dissociation, the kinetic results show that CH dissociative adsorption on Pt(1 1 1) surface is the rate-determining step. CH appears to be the most abundant species on the Pt(1 1 1) surface, suggesting that carbon deposition is not easy to form in CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation on Pt(1 1 1) surface. In the process of CO{sub 2} activation, three possible reaction pathways are considered to contribute to the CO{sub 2} decomposition: (I) CO{sub 2}* + * → CO* + O*; (II) CO{sub 2}* + H* → COOH* + * → CO* + OH*; (III) CO{sub 2}* + H* → mono-HCOO* + * → bi-HCOO* + * [CO{sub 2}* + H* → bi-HCOO* + *] → CHO* + O*. Path I requires process to overcome the activation barrier of 1.809 eV and the forward reaction is calculated to be strongly endothermic by 1.430 eV. In

  9. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains…

  10. Model-based analysis of CO2 revalorization for di-methyl ether synthesis driven by solar catalytic reforming

    Luu, Minh Tri; Milani, Dia; Sharma, Manish; Zeaiter, Joseph; Abbas, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar energy applied for synthesis of di-methyl ether via dry methane reforming. • Concentrated solar energy at receiver reaction zone for syngas generation. • H 2 /CO molar ratio of ‘1’ is maintained via two alternative processing routes. • Assessed three days of operation under different insolation levels. • Improvements of 18.7%, 32.2% and 20% for methane, energy and CO 2 emission intensities. - Abstract: The application of solar energy is investigated for the synthesis of di-methyl ether (DME) in a solar irradiated dry methane reformer (DMR). Solar radiations are concentrated onto a receiver and distributed to the reaction zone to provide necessary energy for syngas (CO and H 2 ) generation. In order to maintain a H 2 /CO molar ratio of ‘1’, as required in DME synthesis, the produced syngas is processed via two alternative routes: solar reformer coupled in parallel with a non-solar reformer (SoR-NSoR) and solar reformer integrated with a water-gas shift reactor (SoR-WGS). It is found that steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most suitable methodology when coupled with a solar reformer due to high H 2 content in the SMR syngas. Further performance analysis is conducted by simulating three days of operation under different insolation levels (high, medium and low irradiations). The simulation results showed that the SoR-WGS configuration produces the highest improvements of 18.7%, 32.2% and 20% in terms of methane, energy and CO 2 emission intensity respectively. This enhanced process performance originates from the exothermic nature of the WGS process which helps in controlling the overall syngas composition, whereas the SoR-NSoR requires fossil based thermal energy to drive the NSoR process to similar control targets. This promising improvement of all metrics in SoR-WGS may stimulate in-depth techno-economic feasibility of this unique solar integration for DME and other synthetic fuels production.

  11. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  12. County sports reform path with integration of public service%公共服务整合理念下县域体育体制改革路径探讨

    张玉祥

    2016-01-01

    我国县域体育管理体制在合并与独立之间反复。目前,县域体育行政部门大多已合并。合并后的县域体育工作表现出如下问题:基层体育工作地位降低,不受重视;基层服务经费分割后,效用降低;基层体育组织力量薄弱,无力开展工作;基层体育服务供给单一,软服务缺失。县域体育体制改革应以公共服务整合代替单纯的大部制逻辑。基于公共服务整合理念,县域体育体制改革应与国家战略有机融合,彰显体育的社会功能;积极推进项目整合,满足县域体育发展的资金需求;以政社关系整合为切入点,壮大县域体育社会组织力量;跨界横向整合公共服务产品,软硬服务兼容供给。%County sports management system in China between merger and independent.At present, the county physical cultural administrative departments are already merged.Combined county sports work show the following problems:the combined low status,grassroots sports work values;Com-bined grassroots service funds after segmentation,less effective;Combined sports organizations at the grass-roots level power is weak,unable to work;Combined single grassroots sports service sup-ply,lack of soft services.Service integration reform belongs to effective means of modern administra-tion reform,has to deal with complexity,cross-domain problem caused by the department of man-agement defects;Effectively reduce the departments merger transaction costs;The choice of impro-ving the efficiency of public service supply.County sports system reform should be in the public service integration instead of simply the super-ministries logic.Based on the integration of public service concept,the county sports system reform should be organic combination with the national strategy,and the social function of sports.Actively promote project integration,to meet the capital needs of the development of county sports;ZhengShe relationship

  13. Newspaper reports from the Coroners Court in Ireland are used to reveal the potential complexity and need for reform in forensic toxicology and medicine services.

    Tormey, William P

    2015-05-01

    Newspapers devote regular space to inquests in the public interest. Accuracy in determining the causes of death is important for public health. Expert opinion features prominently in press reports and is an important channel of public education. How expert are the experts and how complex are apparently simple cases? Toxicology cases involving cannabis and stroke, 'junk food' diet, unexplained sudden death, potential drug interactions, allergy during caesarean section, and ecstacy-type drugs are used to illustrate the complexities. A template for reform is suggested to reform the Coroners Laws in Ireland to recognise the complexity of forensic toxicology and medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptual Models of the Individual Public Service Provider

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Pedersen, Lene Holm; Bhatti, Yosef

    are used to gain insight on the motivation of public service providers; namely principal-agent theory, self-determination theory and public service motivation theory. We situate the theoretical discussions in the context of public service providers being transferred to private organizations......Individual public service providers’ motivation can be conceptualized as either extrinsic, autonomous or prosocial, and the question is how we can best theoretically understand this complexity without losing too much coherence and parsimony. Drawing on Allison’s approach (1969), three perspectives...... theoretical – to develop a coherent model of individual public service providers – but the empirical illustration also contributes to our understanding of motivation in the context of public sector outsourcing....

  15. An Explanatory Model of Self-Service on the Internet

    Oliver, Dave; Livermore, Celia Romm; Farag, Neveen Awad

    This chapter describes research that identifies and classifies the dimensions of self-service activity enabled through the Internet. Self-service is effected by organizations providing ways and means whereby customers perform tasks related to the procurement of goods and services. We describe how an instrument used to measure Internet-based self-service was developed, validated and applied. The results from applying the instrument to a large number of Web sites, covering a range of industries, countries and cultures, are analyzed and discussed. The study presents a model in which type of industry, level of technological development, income and cultural factors are proposed as explanatory variables for Web-based self-service. We conclude with an assessment of this program of research’s achievements so far.

  16. Discrete event simulation modelling of patient service management with Arena

    Guseva, Elena; Varfolomeyeva, Tatyana; Efimova, Irina; Movchan, Irina

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation modeling methodology aimed to aid in solving the practical problems of the research and analysing the complex systems. The paper gives the review of a simulation platform sand example of simulation model development with Arena 15.0 (Rockwell Automation).The provided example of the simulation model for the patient service management helps to evaluate the workload of the clinic doctors, determine the number of the general practitioners, surgeons, traumatologists and other specialized doctors required for the patient service and develop recommendations to ensure timely delivery of medical care and improve the efficiency of the clinic operation.

  17. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Model as Servicable Knowledge

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    A project called `Open life matrix' is not only a research activity but also real problem solving as an action research. This concept is realized by large-scale data collection, probabilistic causal structure model construction and information service providing using the model. One concrete outcome of this project is childhood injury prevention activity in new team consist of hospital, government, and many varieties of researchers. The main result from the project is a general methodology to apply probabilistic causal structure models as servicable knowledge for action research. In this paper, the summary of this project and future direction to emphasize action research driven by artificial intelligence technology are discussed.

  18. Achieving health care cost containment through provider payment reform that engages patients and providers.

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2013-05-01

    The best opportunity to pursue cost containment in the next five to ten years is through reforming provider payment to gradually diminish the role of fee-for-service reimbursement. Public and private payers have launched many promising payment reform pilots aimed at blending fee-for-service with payment approaches based on broader units of care, such as an episode or patients' total needs over a period of time, a crucial first step. But meaningful cost containment from payment reform will not be achieved until Medicare and Medicaid establish stronger incentives for providers to contract in this way, with discouragement of nonparticipation increasing over time. In addition, the models need to evolve to engage beneficiaries, perhaps through incentives for patients to enroll in an accountable care organization and to seek care within that organization's network of providers.

  19. Health Care Reform Bureaucracy In The District Merauke In Perspective Agency Theory

    Samel W. Ririhena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reforms are demands to improve services especially health services to the community in Merauke. The purpose of writing is to analyze the theory of agency in order to verify the health care bureaucracy reformas Merauke district which includes reform of the bureaucracy adverse selection and moral hazard. This study used a qualitative approach and data collection is done by using interviews and intervieuw based on interactive model of Milles and Huberman. The results showed that the reform of health care bureaucracy in Merauke not running optimally and the problem of adverse selection and moral hazard is still happening in the agency relationship between the Department of Health and the Health Center.

  20. River City High School Guidance Services: A Conceptual Model.

    American Coll. Testing Program, Iowa City, IA.

    This model describes how the guidance staff at a hypothetical high school communicated the effectiveness of the guidance program to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. A description of the high school is presented, and guidance services and personnel are described. A conceptual model responding to student needs is outlined along with…

  1. Fedora Content Modelling for Improved Services for Research Databases

    Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen; Heller, Alfred; Pedersen, Gert Schmeltz

    A re-implementation of the research database of the Technical University of Denmark, DTU, is based on Fedora. The backbone consists of content models for primary and secondary entities and their relationships, giving flexible and powerful extraction capabilities for interoperability and reporting....... By adopting such an abstract data model, the platform enables new and improved services for researchers, librarians and administrators....

  2. Defining Generic Architecture for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service model

    Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is one of the provisioning models for Clouds as defined in the NIST Clouds definition. Although widely used, current IaaS implementations and solutions doesn’t have common and well defined architecture model. The paper attempts to define a generic architecture for

  3. Application of Service Quality Model in Education Environment

    Ting Ding Hooi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ideas on service quality stem from the West. The massive developments in research in the West are undeniable of their importance. This leads to the generation and development of new ideas. These ideas were subsequently channeled to developing countries. Ideas obtained were then formulated and used by these developing countries in order to obtain better approach in channeling service quality. There are ample to be learnt from the service quality model, SERVQUAL which attain high acceptance in the West. Service quality in the education system is important to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of education. Effective and quality education will be able to offer quality graduates, which will contribute to the development of the nation. This paper will discuss the application of the SERVQUAL model into the education environment.

  4. JP8 Reformation for Combat Vehicles

    2007-08-07

    phase (fuel), and a gas phase (hydrogen) at elevated pressures. • Trickle - bed configuration is difficult to model and scale down—not practical for...gases output from HDS reactor are used to fuel the reformer. Current Technology Status: •Integrated desulfurization/reforming system successfully

  5. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  6. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    Juanqiong Gou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering supply chain. Findings: With the analysis of the characteristics of catering supply chain, we construct the performance evaluation model in order to guarantee the food safety, logistics efficiency, price stability and so on. Practical implications: In order to evolve an efficient and effective service supply chain, it can not only used to own enterprise improvement, but also can be used for selecting different customers, to choose a different model of development. Originality/value: This paper has a new definition of service-oriented catering supply chain. And it offers a model to evaluate the performance of this catering supply chain.

  7. Cultural ecosystem services of mountain regions: Modelling the aesthetic value

    Schirpke, Uta; Timmermann, Florian; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Mountain regions meet an increasing demand for pleasant landscapes, offering many cultural ecosystem services to both their residents and tourists. As a result of global change, land managers and policy makers are faced with changes to this landscape and need efficient evaluation techniques to assess cultural ecosystem services. This study provides a spatially explicit modelling approach to estimating aesthetic landscape values by relating spatial landscape patterns to human perceptions via a...

  8. Service Life and Maintenance Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Recent research in the area of assessment and maintenance of reinforced concrete bridge decks is presented in this paper. Three definitions of service lifetime are introduced and the difficult problem of assessing the service life is discussed. A stochastic modelling of corrosion and corrosion...... cracking is introduced and the site dependency of corrosion is stressed. Finally, a recently developed optimal repair strategy for bridges is briefly explained....

  9. Advancing LGBT Elder Policy and Support Services: The Massachusetts Model.

    Krinsky, Lisa; Cahill, Sean R

    2017-12-01

    The Massachusetts-based LGBT Aging Project has trained elder service providers in affirming and culturally competent care for LGBT older adults, supported development of LGBT-friendly meal programs, and advanced LGBT equality under aging policy. Working across sectors, this innovative model launched the country's first statewide Legislative Commission on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Aging. Advocates are working with policymakers to implement key recommendations, including cultural competency training and data collection in statewide networks of elder services. The LGBT Aging Project's success provides a template for improving services and policy for LGBT older adults throughout the country.

  10. A resource oriented webs service for environmental modeling

    Ferencik, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental modeling is a largely adopted practice in the study of natural phenomena. Environmental models can be difficult to build and use and thus sharing them within the community is an important aspect. The most common approach to share a model is to expose it as a web service. In practice the interaction with this web service is cumbersome due to lack of standardized contract and the complexity of the model being exposed. In this work we investigate the use of a resource oriented approach in exposing environmental models as web services. We view a model as a layered resource build atop the object concept from Object Oriented Programming, augmented with persistence capabilities provided by an embedded object database to keep track of its state and implementing the four basic principles of resource oriented architectures: addressability, statelessness, representation and uniform interface. For implementation we use exclusively open source software: Django framework, dyBase object oriented database and Python programming language. We developed a generic framework of resources structured into a hierarchy of types and consequently extended this typology with recurses specific to the domain of environmental modeling. To test our web service we used cURL, a robust command-line based web client.

  11. A comparison of tools for modeling freshwater ecosystem services.

    Vigerstol, Kari L; Aukema, Juliann E

    2011-10-01

    Interest in ecosystem services has grown tremendously among a wide range of sectors, including government agencies, NGO's and the business community. Ecosystem services entailing freshwater (e.g. flood control, the provision of hydropower, and water supply), as well as carbon storage and sequestration, have received the greatest attention in both scientific and on-the-ground applications. Given the newness of the field and the variety of tools for predicting water-based services, it is difficult to know which tools to use for different questions. There are two types of freshwater-related tools--traditional hydrologic tools and newer ecosystem services tools. Here we review two of the most prominent tools of each type and their possible applications. In particular, we compare the data requirements, ease of use, questions addressed, and interpretability of results among the models. We discuss the strengths, challenges and most appropriate applications of the different models. Traditional hydrological tools provide more detail whereas ecosystem services tools tend to be more accessible to non-experts and can provide a good general picture of these ecosystem services. We also suggest gaps in the modeling toolbox that would provide the greatest advances by improving existing tools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A model for effective planning of SME support services.

    Rakićević, Zoran; Omerbegović-Bijelović, Jasmina; Lečić-Cvetković, Danica

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a model for effective planning of support services for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The idea is to scrutinize and measure the suitability of support services in order to give recommendations for the improvement of a support planning process. We examined the applied support services and matched them with the problems and needs of SMEs, based on the survey conducted in 2013 on a sample of 336 SMEs in Serbia. We defined and analysed the five research questions that refer to support services, their consistency with the SMEs' problems and needs, and the relation between the given support and SMEs' success. The survey results have shown a statistically significant connection between them. Based on this result, we proposed an eight-phase model as a method for the improvement of support service planning for SMEs. This model helps SMEs to plan better their requirements in terms of support; government and administration bodies at all levels and organizations that provide support services to understand better SMEs' problems and needs for support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterogeneous characters modeling of instant message services users' online behavior.

    Cui, Hongyan; Li, Ruibing; Fang, Yajun; Horn, Berthold; Welsch, Roy E

    2018-01-01

    Research on temporal characteristics of human dynamics has attracted much attentions for its contribution to various areas such as communication, medical treatment, finance, etc. Existing studies show that the time intervals between two consecutive events present different non-Poisson characteristics, such as power-law, Pareto, bimodal distribution of power-law, exponential distribution, piecewise power-law, et al. With the occurrences of new services, new types of distributions may arise. In this paper, we study the distributions of the time intervals between two consecutive visits to QQ and WeChat service, the top two popular instant messaging services in China, and present a new finding that when the value of statistical unit T is set to 0.001s, the inter-event time distribution follows a piecewise distribution of exponential and power-law, indicating the heterogeneous character of IM services users' online behavior in different time scales. We infer that the heterogeneous character is related to the communication mechanism of IM and the habits of users. Then we develop a combination model of exponential model and interest model to characterize the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we find that the exponent of the inter-event time distribution of the same service is different in two cities, which is correlated with the popularity of the services. Our research is useful for the application of information diffusion, prediction of economic development of cities, and so on.

  14. Heterogeneous characters modeling of instant message services users' online behavior.

    Hongyan Cui

    Full Text Available Research on temporal characteristics of human dynamics has attracted much attentions for its contribution to various areas such as communication, medical treatment, finance, etc. Existing studies show that the time intervals between two consecutive events present different non-Poisson characteristics, such as power-law, Pareto, bimodal distribution of power-law, exponential distribution, piecewise power-law, et al. With the occurrences of new services, new types of distributions may arise. In this paper, we study the distributions of the time intervals between two consecutive visits to QQ and WeChat service, the top two popular instant messaging services in China, and present a new finding that when the value of statistical unit T is set to 0.001s, the inter-event time distribution follows a piecewise distribution of exponential and power-law, indicating the heterogeneous character of IM services users' online behavior in different time scales. We infer that the heterogeneous character is related to the communication mechanism of IM and the habits of users. Then we develop a combination model of exponential model and interest model to characterize the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we find that the exponent of the inter-event time distribution of the same service is different in two cities, which is correlated with the popularity of the services. Our research is useful for the application of information diffusion, prediction of economic development of cities, and so on.

  15. Heterogeneous characters modeling of instant message services users’ online behavior

    Fang, Yajun; Horn, Berthold

    2018-01-01

    Research on temporal characteristics of human dynamics has attracted much attentions for its contribution to various areas such as communication, medical treatment, finance, etc. Existing studies show that the time intervals between two consecutive events present different non-Poisson characteristics, such as power-law, Pareto, bimodal distribution of power-law, exponential distribution, piecewise power-law, et al. With the occurrences of new services, new types of distributions may arise. In this paper, we study the distributions of the time intervals between two consecutive visits to QQ and WeChat service, the top two popular instant messaging services in China, and present a new finding that when the value of statistical unit T is set to 0.001s, the inter-event time distribution follows a piecewise distribution of exponential and power-law, indicating the heterogeneous character of IM services users’ online behavior in different time scales. We infer that the heterogeneous character is related to the communication mechanism of IM and the habits of users. Then we develop a combination model of exponential model and interest model to characterize the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we find that the exponent of the inter-event time distribution of the same service is different in two cities, which is correlated with the popularity of the services. Our research is useful for the application of information diffusion, prediction of economic development of cities, and so on. PMID:29734327

  16. Constitutional reform as process

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  17. Modelling Customer’s Attitude Towards EGovernment Services

    Mohd Suki, Norazah; T, Ramayah

    2011-01-01

    e-Government structures permits the government to operate in a more transparent and accountable manner of which it increases the power of the individual in relation to that of the government. This paper identifies the factors that determine customer’s attitude towards e-Government services using a theoretical model based on the Technology Acceptance Model. Data relating to the constructs were collected from 200 respondents. The research model was tested using Structural E...

  18. Reforming Organizational Structures

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  19. An agent-based model for energy service companies

    Robinson, Marguerite; Varga, Liz; Allen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An agent-based model for household energy efficiency upgrades is considered. • Energy service companies provide an alternative to traditional utility providers. • Household self-financing is a limiting factor to widespread efficiency upgrading. • Longer term service contracts can lead to reduced household energy costs. • Future energy price increases enable service providers to retain their customer base. - Abstract: The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy accounting for approximately one third of carbon emissions in the United Kingdom. Achieving a sustainable, low-carbon infrastructure necessitates a reduced and more efficient use of domestic energy supplies. Energy service companies offer an alternative to traditional providers, which supply a single utility product to satisfy the unconstrained demand of end users, and have been identified as a potentially important actor in sustainable future economies. An agent-based model is developed to examine the potential of energy service companies to contribute to the large scale upgrading of household energy efficiency, which would ultimately lead to a more sustainable and secure energy infrastructure. The migration of households towards energy service companies is described by an attractiveness array, through which potential customers can evaluate the future benefits, in terms of household energy costs, of changing provider. It is shown that self-financing is a limiting factor to the widespread upgrading of residential energy efficiency. Greater reductions in household energy costs could be achieved by committing to longer term contracts, allowing upgrade costs to be distributed over greater time intervals. A steadily increasing cost of future energy usage lends an element of stability to the market, with energy service companies displaying the ability to retain customers on contract expiration. The model highlights how a greater focus on the provision of energy services, as

  20. Aligning health information technologies with effective service delivery models to improve chronic disease care.

    Bauer, Amy M; Thielke, Stephen M; Katon, Wayne; Unützer, Jürgen; Areán, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare reforms in the United States, including the Affordable Care and HITECH Acts, and the NCQA criteria for the Patient Centered Medical Home have promoted health information technology (HIT) and the integration of general medical and mental health services. These developments, which aim to improve chronic disease care, have largely occurred in parallel, with little attention to the need for coordination. In this article, the fundamental connections between HIT and improvements in chronic disease management are explored. We use the evidence-based collaborative care model as an example, with attention to health literacy improvement for supporting patient engagement in care. A review of the literature was conducted to identify how HIT and collaborative care, an evidence-based model of chronic disease care, support each other. Five key principles of effective collaborative care are outlined: care is patient-centered, evidence-based, measurement-based, population-based, and accountable. The potential role of HIT in implementing each principle is discussed. Key features of the mobile health paradigm are described, including how they can extend evidence-based treatment beyond traditional clinical settings. HIT, and particularly mobile health, can enhance collaborative care interventions, and thus improve the health of individuals and populations when deployed in integrated delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health system reform.

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  2. A review of international pharmacy-based minor ailment services and proposed service design model.

    Aly, Mariyam; García-Cárdenas, Victoria; Williams, Kylie; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2018-01-05

    The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources. To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model. A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed. A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market. Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model. MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of the service. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Satisfaction with Selected Student Services Using SERVQUAL, a Market-Driven Model of Service Quality.

    Ruby, Carl A.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how the use of SERVQUAL, a market-driven assessment model adapted from business, can be used to study student satisfaction with four areas of support services hypothetically related to enrollment management. The sample included 748 students enrolled in general education courses at ten different private institutions. (Contains 27…

  4. In situ NAP-XPS spectroscopy during methane dry reforming on ZrO2/Pt(1 1 1) inverse model catalyst

    Rameshan, C.; Li, H.; Anic, K.; Roiaz, M.; Pramhaas, V.; Rameshan, R.; Blume, R.; Hävecker, M.; Knudsen, J.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Rupprechter, G.

    2018-07-01

    Due to the need of sustainable energy sources, methane dry reforming is a useful reaction for conversion of the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 to synthesis gas (CO  +  H2). Syngas is the basis for a wide range of commodity chemicals and can be utilized for fuel production via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. The current study focuses on spectroscopic investigations of the surface and reaction properties of a ZrO2/Pt inverse model catalyst, i.e. ZrO2 particles (islands) grown on a Pt(1 1 1) single crystal, with emphasis on in situ near ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) during MDR reaction. In comparison to technological systems, model catalysts facilitate characterization of the surface (oxidation) state, surface adsorbates, and the role of the metal-support interface. Using XPS and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy we demonstrated that under reducing conditions (UHV or CH4) the ZrO2 particles transformed to an ultrathin ZrO2 film that started to cover (wet) the Pt surface in an SMSI-like fashion, paralleled by a decrease in surface/interface oxygen. In contrast, (more oxidizing) dry reforming conditions with a 1:1 ratio of CH4 and CO2 were stabilizing the ZrO2 particles on the model catalyst surface (or were even reversing the strong metal support interaction (SMSI) effect), as revealed by in situ XPS. Carbon deposits resulting from CH4 dissociation were easily removed by CO2 or by switching to dry reforming conditions (673–873 K). Thus, at these temperatures the active Pt surface remained free of carbon deposits, also preserving the ZrO2/Pt interface.

  5. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  6. A topic modeling approach for web service annotation

    Leandro Ordóñez-Ante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual implementation of semantic-based mechanisms for service retrieval has been restricted, given the resource-intensive procedure involved in the formal specification of services, which generally comprises associating semantic annotations to their documentation sources. Typically, developer performs such a procedure by hand, requiring specialized knowledge on models for semantic description of services (e.g. OWL-S, WSMO, SAWSDL, as well as formal specifications of knowledge. Thus, this semantic-based service description procedure turns out to be a cumbersome and error-prone task. This paper introduces a proposal for service annotation, based on processing web service documentation for extracting information regarding its offered capabilities. By uncovering the hidden semantic structure of such information through statistical analysis techniques, we are able to associate meaningful annotations to the services operations/resources, while grouping those operations into non-exclusive semantic related categories. This research paper belongs to the TelComp 2.0 project, which Colciencas and University of Cauca founded in cooperation.

  7. Managing the bank service encounter: A conceptual model

    K. K. Govender

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In financial services marketing, especially among banks, there are a limited number of chances to impress the customer, since the services are becoming more automated. Since personal interactions with customers are becoming less numerous, customers are expecting higher quality contacts and more individual treatment. This paper proposes a service encounter management model which may impact on the customers service experience. By matching service employees with customers, the effects of certain human resources strategies may be ascertained through the customers perception of the employee service quality and the overall service quality. Opsomming Daar is 'n beperkte geleenthede om die finansiele dienste klient, veral die in banke, te beindruk, aangesien dienste al meer ge-outomatiseer raak. Seinde persoonlike kontak met kliente al minder word, verwag kliente hoer gehalte kontak en meer individuele behandeling. Hierdie artikel stel 'n bestuursmodel vir diensontmoetings voor wat 'n impak op kliente se dienservarings mag he. Deur dienswerknemers met kliente te verbind kan bepaalde menslike hulpbronstrategie-effekte vasgestel word, deur middel van kliente se persepsie van werknemer-diensgehalte en algemene diensgehalte.

  8. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    Kielmann Tara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sector reforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and health workers' responses to the changes in their working environments by taking a 'realistic evaluation' approach. Methods The study findings were generated by triangulating both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis among policy technocrats, health managers and groups of health providers. Quantitative surveys were conducted with over 700 individual health workers in both Bangladesh and Uganda and supplemented with qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions and key interviews with professional cadres, health managers and key institutions involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the reforms of interest. Results The reforms in both countries affected the workforce through various mechanisms. In Bangladesh, the effects of the unification efforts resulted in a power struggle and general mistrust between the two former workforce tracts, family planning and health. However positive effects of the reforms were felt regarding the changes in payment schemes. Ugandan findings show how the workforce responded to a strong and rapidly implemented system of decentralisation where the power of new local authorities was influenced by resource constraints and nepotism in recruitment. On the other hand, closer ties to local authorities provided the opportunity to gain insight into the operational constraints originating from higher levels that health staff were dealing with. Conclusion Findings from the study suggest that a reform planners should use the proposed dynamic responses model to

  9. An investigation of modelling and design for software service applications.

    Anjum, Maria; Budgen, David

    2017-01-01

    Software services offer the opportunity to use a component-based approach for the design of applications. However, this needs a deeper understanding of how to develop service-based applications in a systematic manner, and of the set of properties that need to be included in the 'design model'. We have used a realistic application to explore systematically how service-based designs can be created and described. We first identified the key properties of an SOA (service oriented architecture) and then undertook a single-case case study to explore its use in the development of a design for a large-scale application in energy engineering, modelling this with existing notations wherever possible. We evaluated the resulting design model using two walkthroughs with both domain and application experts. We were able to successfully develop a design model around the ten properties identified, and to describe it by adapting existing design notations. A component-based approach to designing such systems does appear to be feasible. However, it needs the assistance of a more integrated set of notations for describing the resulting design model.

  10. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  11. Systemic Model for Optimal Regulation in Public Service

    Lucica Matei

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper inscribes within those approaching the issue of public services from the interdisciplinary perspective. Public service development and imposing standards of efficiency and effectiveness, as well as for citizens’ satisfaction bring in front line the systemic modelling and establishing optimal policies for organisation and functioning of public services. The issue under discussion imposes an interface with powerful determinations of social nature. Consequently, the most adequate modelling might be that with a probabilistic and statistic nature. The fundamental idea of this paper, that obviously can be broadly developed, starts with assimilating the way of organisation and functioning of a public service with a waiting thread, to which some hypotheses are associated concerning the order of provision, performance measurement through costs or waiting time in the system etc. We emphasise the openness and dynamics of the public service system, as well as modelling by turning into account the statistic knowledge and researches, and we do not make detailed remarks on the cybernetic characteristics of this system. The optimal adjustment is achieved through analysis on the feedback and its comparison with the current standards or good practices.

  12. Sharing Service Resource Information for Application Integration in a Virtual Enterprise - Modeling the Communication Protocol for Exchanging Service Resource Information

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Akira

    Grid computing and web service technologies enable us to use networked resources in a coordinated manner. An integrated service is made of individual services running on coordinated resources. In order to achieve such coordinated services autonomously, the initiator of a coordinated service needs to know detailed service resource information. This information ranges from static attributes like the IP address of the application server to highly dynamic ones like the CPU load. The most famous wide-area service discovery mechanism based on names is DNS. Its hierarchical tree organization and caching methods take advantage of the static information managed. However, in order to integrate business applications in a virtual enterprise, we need a discovery mechanism to search for the optimal resources based on the given a set of criteria (search keys). In this paper, we propose a communication protocol for exchanging service resource information among wide-area systems. We introduce the concept of the service domain that consists of service providers managed under the same management policy. This concept of the service domain is similar to that for autonomous systems (ASs). In each service domain, the service information provider manages the service resource information of service providers that exist in this service domain. The service resource information provider exchanges this information with other service resource information providers that belong to the different service domains. We also verified the protocol's behavior and effectiveness using a simulation model developed for proposed protocol.

  13. A bipartite fitness model for online music streaming services

    Pongnumkul, Suchit; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an evolution model and an analysis of the behavior of music consumers on online music streaming services. While previous studies have observed power-law degree distributions of usage in online music streaming services, the underlying behavior of users has not been well understood. Users and songs can be described using a bipartite network where an edge exists between a user node and a song node when the user has listened that song. The growth mechanism of bipartite networks has been used to understand the evolution of online bipartite networks Zhang et al. (2013). Existing bipartite models are based on a preferential attachment mechanism László Barabási and Albert (1999) in which the probability that a user listens to a song is proportional to its current popularity. This mechanism does not allow for two types of real world phenomena. First, a newly released song with high quality sometimes quickly gains popularity. Second, the popularity of songs normally decreases as time goes by. Therefore, this paper proposes a new model that is more suitable for online music services by adding fitness and aging functions to the song nodes of the bipartite network proposed by Zhang et al. (2013). Theoretical analyses are performed for the degree distribution of songs. Empirical data from an online streaming service, Last.fm, are used to confirm the degree distribution of the object nodes. Simulation results show improvements from a previous model. Finally, to illustrate the application of the proposed model, a simplified royalty cost model for online music services is used to demonstrate how the changes in the proposed parameters can affect the costs for online music streaming providers. Managerial implications are also discussed.

  14. Innovative care models for high-cost Medicare beneficiaries: delivery system and payment reform to accelerate adoption.

    Davis, Karen; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Samus, Quincy M; Szanton, Sarah; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bandeali, Farhan

    2015-05-01

    About a third of Medicare beneficiaries are covered by Medicare Advantage (MA) plans or accountable care organizations (ACOs). As a result of assuming financial risk for Medicare services and/or being eligible for shared savings, these organizations have an incentive to adopt models of delivering care that contribute to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower cost. This paper identifies innovative care models across the care continuum for high-cost Medicare beneficiaries that MA plans and ACOs could adopt to improve care while potentially achieving savings. It suggests policy changes that would accelerate testing and spread of promising care delivery model innovations. Targeted review of the literature to identify care delivery models focused on high-cost or high-risk Medicare beneficiaries. This paper presents select delivery models for high-risk Medicare beneficiaries across the care continuum that show promise of yielding better care at lower cost that could be considered for adoption by MA plans and ACOs. Common to these models are elements of the Wagner Chronic Care Model, including practice redesign to incorporate a team approach to care, the inclusion of nonmedical personnel, efforts to promote patient engagement, supporting provider education on innovations,and information systems allowing feedback of information to providers. The goal of these models is to slow the progression to long-term care, reduce health risks, and minimize adverse health impacts, all while achieving savings.These models attempt to maintain the ability of high-risk individuals to live in the home or a community-based setting, thereby avoiding costly institutional care. Identifying and implementing promising care delivery models will become increasingly important in launching successful population health initiatives. MA plans and ACOs stand to benefit financially from adopting care delivery models for high-risk Medicare beneficiaries that reduce hospitalization. Spreading

  15. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  16. Modeling impacts of water and fertilizer management on the ecosystem service of rice rotated cropping system in China

    Chen, H.; Yu, C.; Li, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable agricultural intensification demand optimum resource managements of agro-ecosystems. Detailed information on the impacts of water use and nutrient application on agro-ecosystem services including crop yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen (N) loss is the key to guide field managements. In this study, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for rice rotated cropping systems in China. We set varied scenarios of water use in more than 1600 counties, and derived optimal rates of N application for each county in accordance to water use scenarios. Our results suggest that 0.88 ± 0.33 Tg per year (mean ± standard deviation) of synthetic N could be reduced without reducing rice yields, which accounts for 15.7 ± 5.9% of current N application in China. Field managements with shallow flooding and optimal N applications could enhance ecosystem services on a national scale, leading to 34.3% reduction of GHG emissions (CH4, N2O, and CO2), 2.8% reduction of overall N loss (NH3 volatilization, denitrification and N leaching) and 1.7% increase of rice yields, as compared to current management conditions. Among provinces with major rice production, Jiangsu, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Hubei could achieve more than 40% reduction of GHG emissions under appropriate water managements, while Zhejiang, Guangdong, and Fujian could reduce more than 30% N loss with optimal N applications. Our modeling efforts suggest that China is likely to benefit from reforming water and fertilization managements for rice rotated cropping system in terms of sustainable crop yields, GHG emission mitigation and N loss reduction, and the reformation should be prioritized in the above-mentioned provinces. Keywords: water regime, nitrogen fertilization, sustainable management, ecological modeling, DNDC

  17. Transforming Internal Activities of Business Process Models to Services Compositions

    Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Mostefaoui, S.K.; Maamar, Z.; Ferreira Pires, L.; Hammoudi, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Schulz, K.

    As a service composition language, BPEL imposes as constraint that a business process model should consist only of activities for interacting with other business processes. BPEL provides limited support for implementing internal activities, i.e. activities that are performed by a single business

  18. Service-oriented enterprise modelling and analysis: a case study

    Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Jonkers, H.; Lankhorst, M.M.; Steen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to validate the concepts and techniques for service-oriented enterprise architecture modelling, developed in the ArchiMate project (Lankhorst, et al., 2005), we have conducted a number of case studies. This paper describes one of these case studies, conducted at the Dutch Tax and Customs

  19. Model-Driven Development for PDS4 Software and Services

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Algermissen, S. S.; Cayanan, M. D.; Joyner, R. S.; Hardman, S. H.; Padams, J. H.

    2018-04-01

    PDS4 data product labels provide the information necessary for processing the referenced digital object. However, significantly more information is available in the PDS4 Information Model. This additional information is made available for use, by both software and services, to configure, promote resiliency, and improve interoperability.

  20. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    The literature on public service delivery alternatives has to date been highly localized, sector specific and lacking in methodological consistency. This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to ...

  1. An investigation of modelling and design for software service applications

    2017-01-01

    Software services offer the opportunity to use a component-based approach for the design of applications. However, this needs a deeper understanding of how to develop service-based applications in a systematic manner, and of the set of properties that need to be included in the ‘design model’. We have used a realistic application to explore systematically how service-based designs can be created and described. We first identified the key properties of an SOA (service oriented architecture) and then undertook a single-case case study to explore its use in the development of a design for a large-scale application in energy engineering, modelling this with existing notations wherever possible. We evaluated the resulting design model using two walkthroughs with both domain and application experts. We were able to successfully develop a design model around the ten properties identified, and to describe it by adapting existing design notations. A component-based approach to designing such systems does appear to be feasible. However, it needs the assistance of a more integrated set of notations for describing the resulting design model. PMID:28489905

  2. Resilient organizations: matrix model and service line management.

    Westphal, Judith A

    2005-09-01

    Resilient organizations modify structures to meet the demands of the marketplace. The author describes a structure that enables multihospital organizations to innovate and rapidly adapt to changes. Service line management within a matrix model is an evolving organizational structure for complex systems in which nurses are pivotal members.

  3. Defining a 21st Century Air Force (Services) Business Model

    2014-05-10

    activity business model. The benefit of sequestration drives efficiencies. However, the Services, Manpower, and Personnel career field has... benefits of the PPV model is government investment costs are very low. While there are times when the host organization may "chip in" a small amount...with a desired concept or brand. The bulk of the funding (usually 75 percent or more) is provided by the brand operator, franchisee or parent

  4. An u-Service Model Based on a Smart Phone for Urban Computing Environments

    Cho, Yongyun; Yoe, Hyun

    In urban computing environments, all of services should be based on the interaction between humans and environments around them, which frequently and ordinarily in home and office. This paper propose an u-service model based on a smart phone for urban computing environments. The suggested service model includes a context-aware and personalized service scenario development environment that can instantly describe user's u-service demand or situation information with smart devices. To do this, the architecture of the suggested service model consists of a graphical service editing environment for smart devices, an u-service platform, and an infrastructure with sensors and WSN/USN. The graphic editor expresses contexts as execution conditions of a new service through a context model based on ontology. The service platform deals with the service scenario according to contexts. With the suggested service model, an user in urban computing environments can quickly and easily make u-service or new service using smart devices.

  5. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  6. Congestion Prediction Modeling for Quality of Service Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Ga-Won Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is pushing ahead with drastic reforms of modern life for improvement of human welfare. Objects constitute “Information Networks” through smart, self-regulated information gathering that also recognizes and controls current information states in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Information observed from sensor networks in real-time is used to increase quality of life (QoL in various industries and daily life. One of the key challenges of the WSNs is how to achieve lossless data transmission. Although nowadays sensor nodes have enhanced capacities, it is hard to assure lossless and reliable end-to-end data transmission in WSNs due to the unstable wireless links and low hard ware resources to satisfy high quality of service (QoS requirements. We propose a node and path traffic prediction model to predict and minimize the congestion. This solution includes prediction of packet generation due to network congestion from both periodic and event data generation. Simulation using NS-2 and Matlab is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  7. A service model for delivering care closer to home.

    Dodd, Joanna; Taylor, Charlotte Elizabeth; Bunyan, Paul; White, Philippa Mary; Thomas, Siân Myra; Upton, Dominic

    2011-04-01

    Upton Surgery (Worcestershire) has developed a flexible and responsive service model that facilitates multi-agency support for adult patients with complex care needs experiencing an acute health crisis. The purpose of this service is to provide appropriate interventions that avoid unnecessary hospital admissions or, alternatively, provide support to facilitate early discharge from secondary care. Key aspects of this service are the collaborative and proactive identification of patients at risk, rapid creation and deployment of a reactive multi-agency team and follow-up of patients with an appropriate long-term care plan. A small team of dedicated staff (the Complex Care Team) are pivotal to coordinating and delivering this service. Key skills are sophisticated leadership and project management skills, and these have been used sensitively to challenge some traditional roles and boundaries in the interests of providing effective, holistic care for the patient.This is a practical example of early implementation of the principles underlying the Department of Health's (DH) recent Best Practice Guidance, 'Delivering Care Closer to Home' (DH, July 2008) and may provide useful learning points for other general practice surgeries considering implementing similar models. This integrated case management approach has had enthusiastic endorsement from patients and carers. In addition to the enhanced quality of care and experience for the patient, this approach has delivered value for money. Secondary care costs have been reduced by preventing admissions and also by reducing excess bed-days. The savings achieved have justified the ongoing commitment to the service and the staff employed in the Complex Care Team. The success of this service model has been endorsed recently by the 'Customer Care' award by 'Management in Practice'. The Surgery was also awarded the 'Practice of the Year' award for this and a number of other customer-focussed projects.

  8. Conceptual Model As The Tool For Managing Bank Services Quality

    Kornelija Severović

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become basic factor of economic efficiency and basic principle of business activities of successful organizations. Its consequence is revolution on the area of quality that has comprised all kinds of products and services and so the bank services as well. To understand the present and future needs of clients and to know how to fulfill and try to exceed their expectations is the task of each efficient economy. Therefore, the banks in the developed economies try to re-orientate organizationally, technologically and informatically their business activities placing the client in the core of this business activity. Significant indicators of quality services that banks offer is measured by the waiting time of clients for the offer of the desirable service and the number of clients who give up to enter the bank due to the long waiting queues. Dissatisfied client is the worst work result and business activity of banks. Following the stated, the great effort is made to improve service qualities, which means professionalism and communication of personnel with whom the clients come in contact, and giving punctual and clear information and short waiting period of standing in the lines. The aim of this work is to present and describe the functioning of bank system under the conditions of establishing quality in offering services to clients and to recognize basic guidelines for quality increase in the work of sub branches. Since the banking is very dynamic and complex system, the conceptual model is carried out for the purpose of optimization of the stated quality parameters for the bank business activity; this model, in further research, will serve for the development of simulation model.

  9. Smart services – characteristics, challenges, opportunities and business models

    Marquardt Katrin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Industry 4.0”, “Digitalization”, “Internet of Things” and “Smart Services” are the today’s buzzwords when tracking economic news. It is to ask about the meaning of those phrases. The world has changed over the last decade from a mainly physical to software controlled economy and the information technology has become an integral part of our industry and society in its entirety. Nowadays it is no longer the product that matters it is the data that are generated by using the product or service. Those usage data collected and analyzed commence new business models and services. The economic future of a company will much more rely on the ability to collect and use the data to generate Smart Services for their customers and to transform from a simple product supplier to an entertainment provider. However there are not only opportunities there are also challenges on the way to that new services which needs to be known and considered. For instance the development cycles need to be faster, the business models need to be adjusted and the positive financial results will not come into the picture on the first day. Based on those thoughts and while there only a handful of researches about that new services exists, the main purpose of the present study is at first, to gain a common understanding about the meaning and the characteristics of Smart Services and their adjacencies. Secondly, the study summarizes the identified challenges and opportunities in relation to them. Thirdly, the author introduce and explain the main business models usable for those Smart Services and the requirements for starting the transformation towards those services. The aim of this paper is to set a basis for this exciting and relatively unsought topic and to produce an interest in further empirical and practical researches in this area. The methodologies used for this research are a systematic literature review and an evaluation of existing studies with the

  10. Small School Reform

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  11. Prototyping an online wetland ecosystem services model using open model sharing standards

    Feng, M.; Liu, S.; Euliss, N.H.; Young, Caitlin; Mushet, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America.

  12. Demand-side management (DSM) in the context of China's on-going power sector reform

    Zhang, Sufang; Jiao, Yiqian; Chen, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    As an approach to manage power demand-side resources, DSM plays an important role in electric power system. Though DSM was introduced into China in the early 1990s, its benefits have been underutilized. Using literature study, interview methods and three data sources, this paper examines the likely impacts of China's on-going power sector reform on its DSM. It finds that the major constraints to DSM in China are the insufficient and improper market-based DSM mechanism, grid companies’ low motivations for DSM due to their traditional business model, the underdeveloped energy service industry, and electricity end-users’ low motivation for DSM. China's on-going power sector reform will change power transmission and distribution pricing and grid companies’ business model and introduce competition into retail-side. Drawing on these findings, it is concluded that the likely impacts of the new reform on DSM are: governments may attach more importance to DSM; grid companies may have more motivations for DSM investment; electricity end-users’ motivations for DSM may be both enhanced and dampened; electricity retailers’ motivations for DSM may be dampened; demand response application may be enhanced, and more DSM business models may be developed. Finally, policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • Mechanism of and constraints to DSM in China are examined. • China’s on-going power sector reform is overviewed. • DSM is likely to be enhanced under China's on-going power sector reform. • Policy implications are provided.

  13. A Model for Persistent Improvement of Medical Education as Illustrated by the Surgical Reform Curriculum HeiCuMed.

    Kadmon, Guni; Schmidt, Jan; De Cono, Nicola; Kadmon, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Heidelberg Medical School underwent a major curricular change with the implementation of the reform curriculum HeiCuMed (Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale) in October 2001. It is based on rotational modules with daily cycles of interactive, case-based small-group seminars, PBL tutorials and training of sensomotor and communication skills. For surgical undergraduate training an organisational structure was developed that ensures continuity of medical teachers for student groups and enables their unimpaired engagement for defined periods of time while accounting for the daily clinical routine in a large surgery department of a university hospital. It includes obligatory didactic training, standardising teaching material on the basis of learning objectives and releasing teaching doctors from clinical duties for the duration of a module. To compare the effectiveness of the undergraduate surgical reform curriculum with that of the preceding traditional one as reflected by students' evaluations. The present work analyses student evaluations of the undergraduate surgical training between 1999 and 2008 including three cohorts (~360 students each) in the traditional curriculum and 13 cohorts (~150 students each) in the reform curriculum. The evaluation of the courses, their organisation, the teaching quality, and the subjective learning was significantly better in HeiCuMed than in the preceding traditional curriculum over the whole study period. A medical curriculum based on the implementation of interactive didactical methods is more important to successful teaching and the subjective gain of knowledge than knowledge transfer by traditional classroom teaching. The organisational strategy adopted in the surgical training of HeiCuMed has been successful in enabling the maintenance of a complex modern curriculum on a continuously high level within the framework of a busy surgical environment.

  14. Preparing radiology staff to meet service goals: a training model.

    Ricciardone, E B; Stepanovich, P H; West, V T

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a model used to train radiology staff in customer service relations at a large southeastern medical center. Information about the needs of the radiology department and staff was acquired through quantitative and qualitative assessments. The primary goal of the training was twofold: 1) to develop employee awareness of customer expectations and 2) to develop problem-solving skills to respond to customer service related issues. Instructional methods compatible with adult learning were used and training results were assessed. Positive changes in employee attitudes and behaviors are described and recommendations for training development and implementation are discussed.

  15. An Analysis of Business Models in Public Service Platforms

    Ranerup, Agneta; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Hedman, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Public Service Platforms (PSPs) are a new type of technology platform. They are based in the philosophy of New Public Management (NPM) and support public services for citizens in quasi-markets. This article increases our understanding of the business models behind these PSPs in terms of their Value......” that includes dialogues, user evaluations, long-term perspectives on choice, promotion of the ideal of choice, and self-promotion by public agencies. The article contributes to research with its empirical example of the digitalization of NPM and the underlying business logic of PSPs....

  16. Fast substation service restoration using intelligent petri-nets models

    Yang, H.T.; Peng, P.C.; Jiang, H.L. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    Service restoration of a substation is a stressful and immediate task that must be conducted by system operators following a blackout. Operators, including those of Taiwan Power Company (TPC), normally restore power loads on the basis of their past experiences and engineering heuristics. Due to the significant number of switching operations to be evaluated, a computer-aided decision support system can be quite valuable. In distribution system automation, installation of unmanned substations requires an automated restoration computer system to rapidly devise a switching plan after a fault event. The modeling technique of Petri Nets (PNs) encompasses fault diagnosis of distribution systems, protective scheming of relays, and generic restoration schedule of power transmission systems. Knowledge or configuration about the system concerned can be expressed systematically through a structured model with parallelism and synchronization. This paper proposed a new PNs knowledge representation scheme to achieve a fast, on-line service restoration plan of a substation. The paper described the task of service restoration in a substation as well as the heuristic rules adopted by the dispatchers of the TPC distribution systems. The paper also introduced the topic of Typical PN properties and the proposed matrix operations for PNs reasoning. The proposed basic PNs model for service restoration on the basis of the engineering heuristics were also identified. It was concluded that the proposed approach not only facilitated software programming, but was highly adaptive to the extension or maintenance of the developed programs, arising from the changes of the substation configuration. 18 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  18. Revenue Potential for Inpatient IR Consultation Services: A Financial Model.

    Misono, Alexander S; Mueller, Peter R; Hirsch, Joshua A; Sheridan, Robert M; Siddiqi, Assad U; Liu, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has historically failed to fully capture the value of evaluation and management services in the inpatient setting. Understanding financial benefits of a formally incorporated billing discipline may yield meaningful insights for interventional practices. A revenue modeling tool was created deploying standard financial modeling techniques, including sensitivity and scenario analyses. Sensitivity analysis calculates revenue fluctuation related to dynamic adjustment of discrete variables. In scenario analysis, possible future scenarios as well as revenue potential of different-size clinical practices are modeled. Assuming a hypothetical inpatient IR consultation service with a daily patient census of 35 patients and two new consults per day, the model estimates annual charges of $2.3 million and collected revenue of $390,000. Revenues are most sensitive to provider billing documentation rates and patient volume. A range of realistic scenarios-from cautious to optimistic-results in a range of annual charges of $1.8 million to $2.7 million and a collected revenue range of $241,000 to $601,000. Even a small practice with a daily patient census of 5 and 0.20 new consults per day may expect annual charges of $320,000 and collected revenue of $55,000. A financial revenue modeling tool is a powerful adjunct in understanding economics of an inpatient IR consultation service. Sensitivity and scenario analyses demonstrate a wide range of revenue potential and uncover levers for financial optimization. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  20. Professional Development of Science Teachers: History of Reform and Contributions of the STS-Based Iowa Chautauqua Program

    Dass, Pradeep M.; Yager, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last quarter of a century, it became abundantly clear that the desired reforms in science teaching and learning could not be accomplished without significant professional development of in-service science teachers. Yet, there was a dearth of effective professional development models that could lead to the kind of instructional reforms…

  1. Development of a Comprehensive Energy Service Business Model

    Lee, S.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Traditionally, energy industry has been regarded as supply- oriented and characterized by its vertically integrated structure and monopolized market. In particular, network industries such as electricity, natural gas, and district heating and cooling, because of their large initial capital investments, were inevitably state-owned. As their sizes have ever increased, government-owned corporations are confronted with internal crises such as financial limitations, increasing internal transaction costs, etc. In addition to these internal problems, fundamental changes in the external environment such as advances in communication and modular technologies, globalization, and market liberalization have forced energy industries to undergo a restructuring process. Restructuring in the energy industry is intended to introduce competition in the market by unbundling the energy service into production, transportation, and distribution. The energy service has been vertically as well as horizontally integrated by suppliers. Restructuring, which has been implemented in the United States and the European countries, is now being introduced in Korea. However, energy services have not yet been regulated as a separate industry even in those countries which are well advanced in their restructuring. WTO negotiation is under way to separate the service sector in 'General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT).' Areas that can be categorized as a service sector are 17 subdivided sub-sectors as dispersed in each sector. Energy service business models expected to be emerged in the restructuring process of energy industry include: transmission/trunk pipeline projects, distribution/local pipeline projects, trading, brokerage, metering service, local distribution of natural gas, to name a few, for electricity and natural gas sectors; rational use of energy such as CES business and ESCOs for district heating and cooling, and energy conservation sector. Rational use of energy, in

  2. Modelling Vessel Traffic Service to understand resilience in everyday operations

    Praetorius, Gesa; Hollnagel, Erik; Dahlman, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a service to promote traffic fluency and safety in the entrance to ports. This article's purpose has been to explore everyday operations of the VTS system to gain insights in how it contributes to safe and efficient traffic movements. Interviews, focus groups and an observation have been conducted to collect data about everyday operations, as well as to grasp how the VTS system adapts to changing operational conditions. The results show that work within the VTS domain is highly complex and that the two systems modelled realise their services vastly differently, which in turn affects the systems' ability to monitor, respond and anticipate. This is of great importance to consider whenever changes are planned and implemented within the VTS domain. Only if everyday operations are properly analysed and understood, it can be estimated how alterations to technology and organisation will affect the overall system performance

  3. Library 2.0 A New Service Model For Libraries

    Agnes Erich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of the new information and communication technologies implies a series of changes concerning the libraries. Currently it is spoken more and more about a new type of service offered by them, Library 2.0, which brings in foreground the user who becomes a modeler of the library services and resources. The information structures customer is not satisfied anymore by the unidirectional access to the resources, he wanted to be involved in the evaluation of them, making comments and sharing his ideas with another user. In this sense the library managers are looking for more efficient means to deliver services so that to obtain a proper feedback which enable them to take the best measures to make profitable them. Library 2.0 can be a solution for all these problems.

  4. New payment model for rural health services in Mongolia.

    Hindle, Don; Khulan, Buyankhishig

    2006-01-01

    This article describes experiences in Mongolia in designing and implementing a new method of payment for rural health services. The new method involves using a formula that allocates 65% of available funding on the basis of risk-adjusted capitation, 20% on the basis of asset costs, 10% on the basis of variations in distance-related costs, and 5% on the basis of satisfactory attainment of quality of care targets. Rural populations have inferior health services in most countries, whether rich or poor. Their situation has deteriorated in most transition economies, including Mongolia since 1990. One factor has been the use of inappropriate methods of payment of care providers. Changes in payment methods have therefore been made in most transition economies with mixed success. One factor has been a tendency to over-simplify, for example, to introduce capitation without risk adjustment or to make per case payments that ignored casemix. In 2002, the Mongolian government decided that its crude funding formula for rural health services should be replaced. It had two main components. The first was payment of an annual grant by the local government from its general revenue on the basis of estimated service population, number of inpatient beds, and number of clinical staff. The second was an output-based payment per inpatient day from the National Health Insurance Fund. The model was administratively complicated, and widely believed to be unfair. The two funding agencies were giving conflicting types of financial incentives. Most important, the funding methods gave few incentives or rewards for service improvement. In some respects, the incentives were perverse (such as the encouragement of hospital admission by the National Health Insurance Fund). A new funding model was developed through statistical analysis of data from routine service reports and opinions questionnaires. As noted above, there are components relating to per capita needs for care, capital assets, distance

  5. Integrated modelling of ecosystem services and energy systems research

    Agarwala, Matthew; Lovett, Andrew; Bateman, Ian; Day, Brett; Agnolucci, Paolo; Ziv, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The UK Government is formally committed to reducing carbon emissions and protecting and improving natural capital and the environment. However, actually delivering on these objectives requires an integrated approach to addressing two parallel challenges: de-carbonising future energy system pathways; and safeguarding natural capital to ensure the continued flow of ecosystem services. Although both emphasise benefiting from natural resources, efforts to connect natural capital and energy systems research have been limited, meaning opportunities to improve management of natural resources and meet society's energy needs could be missed. The ecosystem services paradigm provides a consistent conceptual framework that applies in multiple disciplines across the natural and economic sciences, and facilitates collaboration between them. At the forefront of the field, integrated ecosystem service - economy models have guided public- and private-sector decision making at all levels. Models vary in sophistication from simple spreadsheet tools to complex software packages integrating biophysical, GIS and economic models and draw upon many fields, including ecology, hydrology, geography, systems theory, economics and the social sciences. They also differ in their ability to value changes in natural capital and ecosystem services at various spatial and temporal scales. Despite these differences, current models share a common feature: their treatment of energy systems is superficial at best. In contrast, energy systems research has no widely adopted, unifying conceptual framework that organises thinking about key system components and interactions. Instead, the literature is organised around modelling approaches, including life cycle analyses, econometric investigations, linear programming and computable general equilibrium models. However, some consistencies do emerge. First, often contain a linear set of steps, from exploration to resource supply, fuel processing, conversion

  6. Creating an innovative youth mental health service in the United Kingdom: The Norfolk Youth Service.

    Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David

    2017-08-04

    Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  8. [Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].

    Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms.

  9. Analyzing the Effects of the Iranian Energy Subsidy Reform Plan on Short- Run Marginal Generation Cost of Electricity Using Extended Input-Output Price Model

    Zohreh Salimian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsidizing energy in Iran has imposed high costs on country's economy. Thus revising energy prices, on the basis of a subsidy reform plan, is a vital remedy to boost up the economy. While the direct consequence of cutting subsidies on electricity generation costs can be determined in a simple way, identifying indirect effects, which reflect higher costs for input factors such as labor, is a challenging problem. In this paper, variables such as compensation of employees and private consumption are endogenized by using extended Input-Output (I-O price model to evaluate direct and indirect effects of electricity and fuel prices increase on economic subsectors. The determination of the short-run marginal generation cost of electricity using I-O technique with taken into account the Iranian targeted subsidy plan's influences is the main goal of this paper. Marginal cost of electricity, in various scenarios of price adjustment of energy, is estimated for three conventional categories of thermal power plants. Our results show that the raising the price of energy leads to an increase in the electricity production costs. Accordingly, the production costs will be higher than 1000 Rials per kWh until 2014 as predicted in the beginning of the reform plan by electricity suppliers.

  10. Experimental, kinetic and numerical modeling of hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial catalyst in packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane reactor

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Akande, Abayomi; Idem, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    The demand for hydrogen energy has increased tremendously in recent years essentially because of the increase in the word energy consumption as well as recent developments in fuel cell technologies. The energy information administration has projected that world energy consumption will increase by 59% over the next two decades, from 1999 to 2020, in which the largest share is still dominated by fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal). Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the combustion of these fossil fuels currently are estimated to account for three-fourth of human-caused CO 2 emissions worldwide. Greenhouse gas emission, including CO 2 , should be limited, as recommended at the Kyoto Conference, Japan, in December 1997. In this regard, hydrogen (H 2 ) has a significant future potential as an alternative fuel that can solve the problems of CO 2 emissions as well as the emissions of other air contaminants. One of the techniques to produce hydrogen is by reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass. Crude ethanol (a form of biomass, which essentially is fermentation broth) is easy to produce, is free of sulphur, has low toxicity, and is also safe to handle, transport and store. In addition, crude ethanol consists of oxygenated hydrocarbons, such as ethanol, lactic acid, glycerol, and maltose. These oxygenated hydrocarbons can be reformed completely to H 2 and CO 2 , the latter of which could be separated from H 2 by membrane technology. This provides for CO 2 capture for eventual storage or destruction. In the case of using crude ethanol, this will result in negative CO 2 , emissions. In this paper, we conducted experimental work on production of hydrogen by the catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial promoted Ni-based catalyst in a packed bed tubular reactor as well as a packed bed membrane reactor. As well, a rigorous numerical model was developed to simulate this process in both the catalytic packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane

  11. A Model for the Growth of Network Service Providers

    2011-12-01

    Service Provider O-D Origin-Destination POP Point of Presence UCG Unilateral Connection Game xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv EXECUTIVE...xvi We make use of the Abilene dataset as input to the network provisioning model and assume that the NSP is new to the market and is building an...has to decide on the connections to build and the markets to serve in order to maximize its profits. The NSP makes these decisions based on the market

  12. MEASURING AND MODELLING INTERNET BANKING SERVICE QUALITY IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Redda, Ephrem Habtemichael; Surujlal, Jhalukpreya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measuring and modelling instrument of Internet banking service quality (IBSQ) for the South African banking sector. Snowball and convenience sampling, both non-probability techniques were used to recruit participants for the study. A total of 310 Internet banking customer responses were utilised in the analysis. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), eight determinant factors that explained IBSQ were extracted. Following this, the study...

  13. Denitrification and Ecosystem Services: Mapping and Modeling Conservation Effects

    Morris, C. K.; Walter, T.

    2012-12-01

    Precision conservation is the latest effort to increase higher efficiency in agricultural best management practices by considering the spatial and temporal variability in agroecosystems. The authors have developed a framework for incorporating the ecosystem service of denitrification into an existing precision conservation mapping tool. The model identifies areas of denitirification and quantifies potential denitrification when a conservation practice is adopted. The methodology is being tested in a small subwatershed in the Upper Susquehanna Basin of New York State.

  14. MATURITY MODEL FOR IT SERVICE OUTSOURCING IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Victoriano Valencia García; Dr. Eugenio J. Fernández Vicente; Dr. Luis Usero Aragonés

    2013-01-01

    The current success of organizations depends on the successful implementation of Information and Comunication Technologies (ICTs). Good governance and ICT management are essential for delivering value, managing technological risks, managing resources and performance measurement. In addition, outsourcing is a strategic option which complements IT services provided internally in organizations. This paper proposes the design of a new holistic maturity model based on standards ISO/IEC 20000 and I...

  15. A Flexible Collaborative Innovation Model for SOA Services Providers

    Santanna-Filho , João ,; Rabelo , Ricardo ,; Pereira-Klen , Alexandra ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: Innovation Networks; International audience; Software sector plays a very relevant role in current world economy. One of its characteristics is that they are mostly composed of SMEs. SMEs have been pushed to invest in innovation to keep competitive. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a recent and powerful ICT paradigm for more sustainable business models. A SOA product has many differences when compared to manufacturing sector. Besides that, SOA projects are however very complex, ...

  16. PROFESSIONAL COMPETITIVE EVOLUTION AND QUANTIFICATION MODELS IN ACCOUNTING SERVICE ELABORATION

    Gheorghe FATACEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article consists in using an assessment framework of the accounting service elaboration. The purpose of this model is the identification and revaluation of an elite group of expert accounts from Romania, which should provide solutions to solve the most complex legal matters in the legal field, in the field of criminal, tax, civil, or commercial clauses making the object of law suits.

  17.  Railway Reforms

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  18. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  19. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  20. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  1. Verification of communication protocols in web services model-checking service compositions

    Tari, Zahir; Mukherjee, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Gathers recent advancements in the field of self-organizing wireless sensor networks and provides readers with the essential, state-of-the-art information about sensor networking. In the near future, wireless sensor networks will become an integral part of our day-to-day life. To solve different sensor networking related issues, researchers have put a great deal of effort into coming up with innovative ideas. Verification of Communication Protocols in Web Services: Model-Checking Service Compositions gathers recent advancements in the field of self-organizing wireless sensor networks and provides readers with integral information about sensor networking. It introduces current technological trends, particularly in node organization, and provides implementation details of each networking type to help readers set up sensor networks in their related job fields. In addition, it identifies the limitations of current technologies, as well as future research directions.

  2. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  3. Economic modelling of energy services: Rectifying misspecified energy demand functions

    Hunt, Lester C.; Ryan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that energy demand is derived, since energy is required not for its own sake but for the energy services it produces – such as heating, lighting, and motive power – energy demand models, both theoretical and empirical, often fail to take account of this feature. In this paper, we highlight the misspecification that results from ignoring this aspect, and its empirical implications – biased estimates of price elasticities and other measures – and provide a relatively simple and empirically practicable way to rectify it, which has a strong theoretical grounding. To do so, we develop an explicit model of consumer behaviour in which utility derives from consumption of energy services rather than from the energy sources that are used to produce them. As we discuss, this approach opens up the possibility of examining many aspects of energy demand in a theoretically sound way that have not previously been considered on a widespread basis, although some existing empirical work could be interpreted as being consistent with this type of specification. While this formulation yields demand equations for energy services rather than for energy or particular energy sources, these are shown to be readily converted, without added complexity, into the standard type of energy demand equation(s) that is (are) typically estimated. The additional terms that the resulting energy demand equations include, compared to those that are typically estimated, highlight the misspecification that is implicit when typical energy demand equations are estimated. A simple solution for dealing with an apparent drawback of this formulation for empirical purposes, namely that information is required on typically unobserved energy efficiency, indicates how energy efficiency can be captured in the model, such as by including exogenous trends and/or including its possible dependence on past energy prices. The approach is illustrated using an empirical example that involves

  4. A Multi Agent Based Model for Airport Service Planning

    W.H. Ip

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aviation industry is highly dynamic and demanding in nature that time and safety are the two most important factors while one of the major sources of delay is aircraft on ground because of it complexity, a lot of machinery like vehicles are involved and lots of communication are involved. As one of the aircraft ground services providers in Hong Kong International Airport, China Aircraft Services Limited (CASL aims to increase competitiveness by better its service provided while minimizing cost is also needed. One of the ways is to optimize the number of maintenance vehicles allocated in order to minimize chance of delay and also operating costs. In the paper, an agent-based model is proposed for support decision making in vehicle allocation. The overview of the aircrafts ground services procedures is firstly mentioned with different optimization methods suggested by researchers. Then, the agent-based approach is introduced and in the latter part of report and a multi-agent system is built and proposed which is decision supportive for CASL in optimizing the maintenance vehicles' allocation. The application provides flexibility for inputting number of different kinds of vehicles, simulation duration and aircraft arrival rate in order to simulation different scenarios which occurs in HKIA.

  5. What Is the “China Model” of Financial Reform?

    应展宇

    2008-01-01

    Based on a comparative study of China’s three-decade financial system reform and the financial reform model of Russia and selected Eastern European countries, we found noticeable discrepancies between China and other transitional countries in respect to objective setting, path and sequence selection, power sources and advancement strategy. We conclude that a "China model" of nancial system reform does exist. The formation and evolution of the "China model" is closely related to China’s special political and economic environment. More importantly, it is significantly influenced by China’s overall economic reform model as well.

  6. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  7. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  8. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Sachin eApte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value-based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty which blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multi-disciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform which can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the

  9. INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE OF INSURANCE SERVICES CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Irina P. Khominitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the current compensationand guarantee mechanisms of policyholders’protection in the context of reforms inregulation and supervision of insurancecompanies. Models and fi nancing sourcesof insurance services consumer protectionfunds, their features in different countries as well as order and size of compensationpayments are identified in this article.

  10. The health care journeys experienced by people with epilepsy in Ireland: what are the implications for future service reform and development?

    Varley, J

    2012-02-01

    Opportunities exist to significantly improve the quality and efficiency of epilepsy care in Ireland. Historically, epilepsy research has focused on quantitative methodologies that often fail to capture the invaluable insight of patient experiences as they negotiate their health care needs. Using a phenomenological approach, we conducted one-to-one interviews with people with epilepsy, reporting on their understanding of their health care journey from onset of symptoms through to their first interaction with specialist epilepsy services. Following analysis of the data, five major themes emerged: delayed access to specialist epilepsy review; uncertainty regarding the competency and function of primary care services; significant unmet needs for female patients with epilepsy; disorganization of existing epilepsy services; and unmet patient information needs. The findings reveal important insights into the challenges experienced by people with epilepsy in Ireland and identify the opportunities for future service reorganization to improve the quality and efficiency of care provided.

  11. The health care journeys experienced by people with epilepsy in Ireland: what are the implications for future service reform and development?

    Varley, J

    2011-02-01

    Opportunities exist to significantly improve the quality and efficiency of epilepsy care in Ireland. Historically, epilepsy research has focused on quantitative methodologies that often fail to capture the invaluable insight of patient experiences as they negotiate their health care needs. Using a phenomenological approach, we conducted one-to-one interviews with people with epilepsy, reporting on their understanding of their health care journey from onset of symptoms through to their first interaction with specialist epilepsy services. Following analysis of the data, five major themes emerged: delayed access to specialist epilepsy review; uncertainty regarding the competency and function of primary care services; significant unmet needs for female patients with epilepsy; disorganization of existing epilepsy services; and unmet patient information needs. The findings reveal important insights into the challenges experienced by people with epilepsy in Ireland and identify the opportunities for future service reorganization to improve the quality and efficiency of care provided.

  12. Care Models of eHealth Services: A Case Study on the Design of a Business Model for an Online Precare Service.

    van Meeuwen, Dorine Pd; van Walt Meijer, Quirine J; Simonse, Lianne Wl

    2015-03-24

    With a growing population of health care clients in the future, the organization of high-quality and cost-effective service providing becomes an increasing challenge. New online eHealth services are proposed as innovative options for the future. Yet, a major barrier to these services appears to be the lack of new business model designs. Although design efforts generally result in visual models, no such artifacts have been found in the literature on business model design. This paper investigates business model design in eHealth service practices from a design perspective. It adopts a research by design approach and seeks to unravel what characteristics of business models determine an online service and what are important value exchanges between health professionals and clients. The objective of the study was to analyze the construction of care models in-depth, framing the essential elements of a business model, and design a new care model that structures these elements for the particular context of an online pre-care service in practice. This research employs a qualitative method of an in-depth case study in which different perspectives on constructing a care model are investigated. Data are collected by using the visual business modeling toolkit, designed to cocreate and visualize the business model. The cocreated models are transcribed and analyzed per actor perspective, transactions, and value attributes. We revealed eight new actors in the business model for providing the service. Essential actors are: the intermediary network coordinator connecting companies, the service dedicated information technology specialists, and the service dedicated health specialist. In the transactions for every service providing we found a certain type of contract, such as a license contract and service contracts for precare services and software products. In addition to the efficiency, quality, and convenience, important value attributes appeared to be: timelines, privacy and

  13. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  14. Validation of Service Blueprint models by means of formal simulation techniques

    Estañol Lamarca, Montserrat; Marcos, Esperanza; Oriol Hilari, Xavier; Pérez, Francisco J.; Teniente López, Ernest; Vara, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    As service design has gained interest in the last years, so has gained one of its primary tools: the Service Blueprint. In essence, a service blueprint is a graphical tool for the design of business models, specifically for the design of business service operations. Despite its level of adoption, tool support for service design tasks is still on its early days and available tools for service blueprint modeling are mainly focused on enhancing usability and enabling collaborative edition, disre...

  15. The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton's Apology.

    Mays, Vickie M

    2012-11-01

    This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the "cultural paranoia" of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform.

  16. IRI related data and model services at NSSDC

    Bilitza, D.; Papitashvili, N.; King, J.

    NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) provides internet access to a large number of space physics data sets and models. We will review and explain the different products and services that might be of interest to the IRI community. Data can be obtained directly through anonymous ftp or through the SPyCAT WWW interface to a large volume of space physics data on juke-box type mass storage devices. A newly developed WWW system, the ATMOWeb, provides browse and sub-setting capabilities for selected atmospheric and thermospheric data. NSSDC maintains an archive of space physics models that includes a subset of ionospheric models. The model software can be retrieved via anonymous ftp. A selection of the most frequently requested models can be run on-line through special WWW interfaces. Currently supported models include the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) atmospheric model, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the AE-8/AP-8 radiation belt models. In this article special emphasis will be given to the IRI interface and its various input/output options. Several new options and a Java-based plotting capability were recently added to the Web interface.

  17. Reforming Organizational Structures

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  18. Experimental analysis of an autothermal reformer for automotive purposes

    Caners, C.; Peppley, B.; Harrison, S.; Oosthuizen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental analysis, concomitant with modeling research, to determine improved operating parameters and design of an autothermal reformer. The reformer, utilizing both partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions, along with the water gas shift phenomena is well suited for the mobile application of transportation. This is due to the novel geometry of the autothermal reformer, which seeks to improve the heat transfer characteristics of the process, whereby the exothermic partial oxidation reaction provides the heat energy required to drive the steam reforming reaction, to the point of a thermally neutral system. The paper will present data from the experimental results of reforming iso-octane as a surrogate for gasoline in the form of reformate composition, iso-octane conversion percentages and efficiencies in terms of hydrogen realized per mol of fuel input. (author)

  19. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  20. Modeling of an axial flow, spherical packed-bed reactor for naphtha reforming process in the presence of the catalyst deactivation

    Iranshahi, D.; Pourazadi, E.; Paymooni, K.; Bahmanpour, A.M.; Rahimpour, M.R.; Shariati, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Improving the octane number of the aromatics' compounds has always been an important matter in refineries and lots of investigations have been made concerning this issue. In this study, an axial-flow spherical packed-bed reactor (AF-SPBR) is considered for naphtha reforming process in the presence of catalyst deactivation. Model equations are solved by the orthogonal collocation method. The AF-SPBR results are compared with the plant data of a conventional tubular packed-bed reactor (TR). The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on aromatic and hydrogen production rates and catalyst activity have been investigated. Higher production rates of aromatics can successfully be achieved in this novel reactor. Moreover, results show the capability of flow augmentation in the proposed configuration in comparison with the TR. This study shows the superiority of AF-SPBR configuration to the conventional types. (author)