WorldWideScience

Sample records for service gas trunkline

  1. 78 FR 18970 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... and control systems, and associated infrastructure); [cir] modifications and upgrades at the existing... the system. [cir] ancillary facilities associated with the pipeline. Compression and metering facilities now included as part of the project, include: [cir] a new 59,840-horsepower (hp) compressor...

  2. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  3. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... National Environmental Policy Act requirements had bee satisfied fully. See e.g. Trunkline LNG Company, LLC... the United States will not rise to the levels observed in other parts of the world.\\15\\ TLNG Export...

  4. 76 FR 7189 - Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Ship Shoal T-27 Platform and appurtenant facilities located in Ship Shoal 274, Offshore Louisiana... as more fully set forth in the application, which is open to the public for inspection. The filing...

  5. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  6. Gas Transport Services. West European Gas Transmission Tariff Comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1999, the Dutch gas transmission company, Gastransport Services (GTS), has commissioned an independent consultant to prepare reports comparing gas transportation tariffs across Western Europe on an annual basis. This report describes the tariffs in force at 1 February 2006. The previous report was published in May 2005, and reported on the tariffs which were in force at 1 January 2005. Since then several companies have published revised carriage arrangements, or have adjusted their tariffs (e.g. to reflect inflation, or for other reasons). In this report we compare the GTS tariff with the transportation tariffs in eleven other countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This means that all West European countries with Third Party Access to gas transmission systems (except Finland) are covered in this report. In this main part of the report, we concentrate on showing charts which illustrate the comparisons of tariffs, at various distances, volumes and load factors. This gives an overall picture of the tariffs offered by each company, rather than concentrating on particular cases. The detailed calculations for each of the 45 cases are shown in the Appendix to this report, and the conclusions from the cases are shown in a colour-coded chart in the Summary and Conclusions.

  7. Automation of steam generator services at public service electric & gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, H.; Wray, J.; Scull, D. [Public Service Electric & Gas, Hancock`s Bridge, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Public Service Electric & Gas takes an aggressive approach to pursuing new exposure reduction techniques. Evaluation of historic outage exposure shows that over the last eight refueling outages, primary steam generator work has averaged sixty-six (66) person-rem, or, approximately tewenty-five percent (25%) of the general outage exposure at Salem Station. This maintenance evolution represents the largest percentage of exposure for any single activity. Because of this, primary steam generator work represents an excellent opportunity for the development of significant exposure reduction techniques. A study of primary steam generator maintenance activities demonstrated that seventy-five percent (75%) of radiation exposure was due to work activities of the primary steam generator platform, and that development of automated methods for performing these activities was worth pursuing. Existing robotics systems were examined and it was found that a new approach would have to be developed. This resulted in a joint research and development project between Westinghouse and Public Service Electric & Gas to develop an automated system of accomplishing the Health Physics functions on the primary steam generator platform. R.O.M.M.R.S. (Remotely Operated Managed Maintenance Robotics System) was the result of this venture.

  8. Strategies for contracting gas storage and hub services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auld, J.

    1996-01-01

    The many efficiencies that can be gained by the natural gas industry in effectively using storage, were demonstrated. The circumstances under which the natural gas industry uses storage and how Market Centres or Hub Services can be strategically used in offering companies the highest flexibility in a tough marketplace, were explained. For example, in North America, storage played an important role during the winter of 95/96, which will be remembered for its extreme cold. That year provided the first true opportunity to test the natural gas delivery system since deregulation in 1985. The fact that natural gas supplies continued to be delivered throughout the entire winter was attributed to the use of stored gas held in reserves to meet the severe demand. The companies that did well, relied on storage and also on the services offered by Hub Services which increased margins for all players in the natural gas industry. Using storage, companies can ensure that field deliveries of gas are kept constant by having storage facilities absorb the swings in market demand. The companies that learn to use storage effectively can create competitive edges over their competition and provide more value to their customers. The three main categories of hub services were also described. These are parking (interruptible storage), gas loans (stored gas can be offered to customers on a term basis for low daily rates), and title exchange (the transfer of gas between buyer and seller). The strategic use of parking, loaned gas, title exchange, direct connections, and InterHub Services can provide customers even greater benefits than are provided by storage-based services. 6 figs

  9. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation's largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses

  10. New Commodity Services System increases gas bill for clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch company Gasunie Trade and Supply will replace the Commodity Services System (CDS, abbreviated in Dutch) January 1, 2004. This will result in a higher gas bill for almost all their clients that are expected to use more than 1 million m 3 natural gas per year. An overview is given of the principles of the old and the new pricing system [nl

  11. Staff report on Ontario gas distributor service quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-29

    This report provides the basis for consultation regarding a framework for building principles and minimum standards regarding service quality measures for gas distributors. It begins with a general overview of current concerns expressed by Ontario natural gas consumers regarding service quality. Customer complaints logged with the Ontario Energy Board between 2003 and 2004 include common issues such as slow telephone response time, failure to obtain regular meter reads, inaccurate billing, long payment processing times, long reconnection times, long new connection times, and slow response to emergencies. This report also presents the historical experience in Ontario's energy sector regarding performance monitoring of services within an incentive based rate making framework for electricity and gas distributors. The Ontario Energy Board's Natural Gas Forum report reveals that a service quality framework would ensure that cost saving initiatives are not implemented at the expense of customer service or safe operation of the distribution system. Although the Board intends to implement a service quality framework, it will not include direct financial incentives. Rather, it will monitor service quality performance and utilities will be subject to a compliance process. A brief summary was also included of service quality regulations in the electricity sector and in other jurisdictions such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Pennsylvania, and Alberta. A list of issues that remain to be addressed before implementing a framework in Ontario was then presented. 2 appendices.

  12. Developments in the North American gas services business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughey, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The gas services business sector was briefly defined. Emerging issues of the business were reviewed as seen from the vantage point of Westcoast Gas Services Inc. The traditional gas market was described as one in which marketer's credit was overlooked, formal risk management was not employed, unpriced imbedded options were common, there was little capital investment, and there were no cash trading exchanges. Specific industry forces and customer needs were said to have created a powerful driving force which will fundamentally change this outdated framework of the gas service industry. Two key issues were said to emerge from this renewal. One of these is risk management, the other is the need for major ongoing investments. Skilled people, scale and scope of the business, transactional excellence, credit worthiness and systems technology were the other forces driving the upcoming transformation of the industry during the next few years

  13. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The oil and gas market in Nigeria is being expanded by the Nigerian government over the 2003-2010 period through increased exploration and production (E and P) in new areas. Other measures being implemented are the improvements of structural flaws that hamper industry growth, the modernization of the weak downstream sector, and attempts to attract foreign investment and technologies required for petroleum development. In 2001, it was estimated that the market for oil and gas equipment in Nigeria was approximately 1.03 billion dollars, and is expected to reach 1.15 billion dollars in 2002. In deep-sea areas, major offshore E and P projects are being planned by large oil multinationals. The implementation of several gas-related E and P operations and major liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects are being supported by the government of Nigeria to develop the natural gas sector. Onshore and offshore exploration, surveying and geophysical prospecting, drilling equipment, facilities maintenance, deepwater E and P, equipment for LNG/GTL facilities, enhanced recovery equipment and services, gas re-injection technology, pipelines, and the refinery sector are all areas where Canadian equipment and service suppliers could benefit from opportunities in Nigeria. One of the most prominent foreign player in the Nigerian market is Royal Dutch Shell. As far as the offshore deepwater E and P sub-sector, the three major players are Shell, ChevronTexaco, and ExxonMobil. The Nigerian government advocate in upstream and downstream oil industries in the country is Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). The primary domestic end-users of oil and gas equipment and services are member companies of the Nigerian Association of Indigenous Petroleum Exploration Companies (NAIPEC). Canadian companies are encouraged to form joint venture partnerships in oil and gas projects, as foreign majors operating in Nigeria tend to rely on the skills and expertise of foreign

  14. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-29

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices.

  15. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices

  16. 77 FR 66603 - Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ..., fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Air quality and noise; Endangered and... representatives and agencies; elected officials; environmental and public interest groups; Native American Tribes... are in the User's Guide under the ``e-filing'' link on the Commission's Web site. Additional...

  17. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The economy of Bolivia is based mainly on agriculture and resource extraction, making Bolivia one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Approximately 14 per cent of exports are hydrocarbons. Starting in 1996, the oil and gas sector was privatised, resulting in the domination of multinational corporations. It is estimated that the natural gas reserves of Bolivia stand in excess of 2.2 trillion cubic metres. Equipment, materials, and services used in all stages of the oil and gas production and distribution chain are all in demand in Bolivia. Over the medium term, it is expected that pipelines and equipment required for gas-fired power plants represent the most important opportunity in the country. Incentives for vehicle and industrial conversion were included in the new domestic energy plan, as well as the extension of the domestic gas distribution system to 250,000 homes. Canadian geomatics capability could fill the requirements concerning the Bolivian oil and gas assets still in the exploration, development, and documentation stages. Companies with exploration and development contracts, companies producing from commercial fields, refinery operators, producers in the liquid propane gas and compressed natural gas sub-sector, as well as pipeline operators are all considered key players, in addition to the Bolivian Chamber of Hydrocarbons. The customers are sophisticated buyers who purchase based on technical specifications and price negotiations. There are no significant non-tariff barriers, and Bolivia has adopted liberal trade policies. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Forum shopping for ex-post gas-balancing services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyaerts, Nico; D'haeseleer, William

    2014-01-01

    The patchwork of different imbalance-settlement rules in geographically adjacent gas regions induces shippers to go “forum shopping” to minimize costs of ex-post balancing services. This shopping increases efficiency, and thus welfare of the shippers, on the one hand. The impact on net efficiency is dependent on the relative incentives provided by different balancing mechanisms and the relative system-balancing costs that the transmission-system operators face to offer balancing services to unbalanced shippers, on the other hand. If the gas-balancing mechanism and the system-balancing costs are aligned, net efficiency in the combined gas system will rise. Our results demonstrate that such an outcome is not guaranteed. Hence, market integration without properly checking compatibility of balancing rules can improve shipper efficiency at the cost of reducing overall efficiency. The latter outcome should clearly be avoided by policy makers and European regulators whose primary concern should be overall efficiency as this provides fair and efficient prices for gas consumers and a higher utility for society. - Highlights: • Transnational gas-shipper activity increases shipper profit. • Balancing rules in multi-region gas markets are not always compatible. • Regional TSOs balance less efficiently if wrong incentives are provided. • Net efficiency is dependent on cost reflection of relative imbalance tariffs

  19. Gas fuelled heavy-duty trucks for municipal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, A. (City of Helsinki Construction Services (Finland)); Hietanen, L. (Lassila and Tikanoja, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Nylund, N.-O. (TEC TransEnergy Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Helsinki City Public Works Department (HKR) and the environmental management company Lassila and Tikanoja joined forces to demonstrate the suitability of heavy-duty gas fuelled trucks for municipal services. HKR acquired two and Lassila and Tikanoja five Mercedes-Benz Econic trucks. HKR's trucks are equipped with interchangeable platforms, Lassila an Tikanoja's trucks with refuse collection equipment. The trucks are subjected to a two-year follow-up study to establish reliability, operational costs and exhaust emissions. Diesel trucks representing up-to-date technology are used as reference. If the gas fuelled trucks perform well, this can lead to increased numbers of natural gas trucks in municipal services, and in the long run to the introduction of biogas fuelled trucks. (orig.)

  20. The oil and gas equipment and services market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In terms of purchasing power, India represents the fourth largest economy in the world. In the year April 1, 2001-Mar 31, 2002, it was estimated that India had a 5.4 per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP). Canada experienced a 19.9 per cent increase in exports to India in 2001, reaching 656 million dollars. With the world's six-largest energy consumption, oil demand in India is expected to grow to 179 million tonnes in 2006-2007, while the demand for natural gas is expected to reach 231 million cubic metres per day in the same period. To meet this growing demand, India will require investments in the order of 150 billion dollars over the next 10 to 12 years. The oil and gas industry is being opened to the private sector and foreign direct investment, due to new government policies on exploration, production, distribution, and sales. Foreign involvement in exploration, previously restricted to Indian state-owned firms, is now allowed through the New Exploration Licensing Policy. In exploration and production (E and P) activities, as well as the refinery sector, foreign ownership of up to 100 per cent is now allowed. Two Indian companies which dominate the Indian E and P sector, namely Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Oil India Limited (OIL), will be upgrading their ageing infrastructure, purchasing new equipment and redeveloping existing oil and gas fields, thereby creating opportunities for the supply of equipment and services. Canadian companies possessing the latest technologies and services in exploration, drilling machinery and equipment, directional drilling services, production machinery and equipment, enhanced recovery services, deep-water drilling equipment and services, and equipment for coal methane E and P should benefit from these opportunities. Over 12,000 kilometres of pipelines are being planned across India, as well as private opportunities in the refinery sector which was opened to the private sector in April 2002. Occasional

  1. Brant Prairie : Union Gas customer service centre, Brantford, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, M.J.; Thompson, J. [The Walter Fedy Partnership, Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The four-acre ecological restoration of tall grass prairie, wetland and Savannah ecosystems within the Union Gas Customer Service Centre in Brantford, Ontario is discussed. The restoration of the Brant Prairie site was instigated three years ago through Union Gas` land stewardship and environmental action initiative which tried to encourage the diversity and dynamics of each ecosystem, while creating a community resource for visitors to learn about natural heritage. The Brantford initiative includes: (1) protecting the sedge wetland which contained regionally rare species, (2) maintaining the dynamic water budget while protecting the sedge wetland from roadway contaminants, (3) creating a tall grass prairie similar in diversity and aesthetics to Brantford`s surviving prairie remnants, (4) creating a wildlife habitat for butterflies, birds and aquatic species, and (5) rediscovering partridge pea by uncovering a historic seed bank.

  2. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  3. Gas storage services and regulation in Italy. A Delphi analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacina, Monica; Creti, Anna; Sileo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess to which extent gas market inefficiencies, such as weak competition, import dependence and lack of flexibility tools, affect operation and usage of storage services in Italy in the aftermath of the EU liberalization process. The analysis is supported by the empirical results of a Delphi survey that we have conducted to investigate storage service provision and regulation in Italy. We argue that the Italian storage sector is at a crossroads. The policy-driven phase of liberalization is ending and the market-driven phase has just begun. The former phase has granted fair access to storage, narrowed the likelihood of strategic behaviour by the incumbent and secured residential users against supply disruptions, but it has proved dynamically inefficient. Cost-reflective tariffs and low penalties for unbalances have both lowered incentives to expand the range of flexibility tools and penalized industrial customers demand. The market-driven phase has just started. The expected increase in working capacity and the entry of newcomers in the authorization process for new facilities are a progress towards the commercial use of storage. To this end, however, a further change in gas market design is needed: the creation of a well functioning spot market. (author)

  4. Service with a smile : service companies are enjoying unconventional gas boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presented financial information from Calgary Brokerage House Peters and Co. Ltd. relating to the growth of unconventional gas production in Canada. The long-lived, stable and low-decline resource is expected to offset some of the rapid reservoir decline many producers are experiencing in conventional operations. However, it is anticipated that service companies involved in well drilling, well stimulation and infrastructure needs of the unconventional gas sector will become more profitable than the operations. In an expansive research paper published late last year, the brokerage house also noted that 2004 marked the transition year for coalbed methane (CBM), as the concept moved from experimental to an increasingly important source of natural gas production. It was suggested that CBM activity could represent the biggest growth opportunity for the Canadian oil-field service sector. Companies using newer generations of coiled tubing drilling units were expected to have the greatest success, as the units are extremely agile and can often drill more than one well a day. A review of service companies was presented, with details of financial activities, including revenues, stock market information and economic forecasts. 4 figs

  5. Development of oil and gas service as organizational form of entrepreneurship in post-industrial economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Василенко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of oil and gas service. The transformation of the oil and gas sector with the separation of independent enterprises and organizations providing services in the oil and gas service sector is compared by the author with the trend of rapid development of the service sector in the postindustrial economy. The purpose of the study is to identify the general and specific characteristics of modern oil and gas services and to determine the directions for the transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere under consideration. The growth of quantitative parameters of the oil and gas services market has been analyzed. The classification of this market is proposed depending on the place of services in a single technological cycle in relation to the main oil production process. The positive consequences of the development of oil and gas services for the development of oil and gas production have been systematized. Basic organizational models of entrepreneurship development in oil and gas service are generalized and substantiated. It is shown that the main influence in the market of services is taken by vertically integrated national oil and gas companies, as well as by international companies that provide service support for the work of Russian oil and gas companies. The results of a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of organizational models of entrepreneurship in the field of oil and gas services are presented. It is proved that oil and gas service as an organizational form of entrepreneurship in its development reflects the general trends of the post-industrial economy. Specific features of oil and gas service in Russia are singled out. The revealed directions of transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere of oil and gas service in current conditions can be used in the formation of state programs in the field of industrial

  6. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  7. Support services for the automative gas turbine project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, T. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Support was provided to DOE and NASA in their efforts to inform industry, the public, and Government on the benefits and purpose of the gas turbine programs through demonstrations and exhibits. Tasks were carried out for maintenance, repair, and retrofit of the experimental gas turbine engines being used by NASA in their gas turbine technology programs and in program demonstrations. Limited support testing was conducted at Chrysler in which data were generated on air bearing rotor shaft dynamics, heavy duty variable sheave rubber belts, high temperature elastomer regenerator drive mounting and graphite regenerator seal friction characteristics.

  8. Government policy and access to natural gas service in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.; Ryan, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Canadian energy policy between the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, consumers were encouraged to use fuels alternative to oil. The first set of policy issues involved measures to provide consumers with incentives to switch to non-oil-burning equipment, whereas the second set of. policy papers emphasized the expansion of the natural gas distribution system. More than $1 billion have been spent on the gas pipeline expansion project. Consequences of program expenditures in each province were examined. With the exception of Manitoba, it was found that annual net pipeline additions were higher during the program period, indicating that the program policies induced these activities to occur sooner than if the policies were not in place. Kilometres of gas pipeline per individual constructed was highest in Quebec, where construction proceeded mainly between the more densely populated centres. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the program encouraged natural gas pipeline construction in rural areas with lower populations. Without the program, these areas may not have had access to natural gas for a very long time. It was concluded that, in this, and some other instances, public investment had the effect of accelerating developments, or encouraging the completion of projects that otherwise would not have been undertaken. It was suggested that in the future decision-makers consider the costs of changes in activity patterns prior to designing such programs. 2 figs., 1 table

  9. Sector of the natural gas in Colombia: Toward a bigger backing and dependability of the service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A sketch of the infrastructure requirements and laws is made of the natural gas industry in Colombia, according to the plan of massive use of the gas, settled down by the government in 1991 and the maturity of the market, that which forces to the development of a backing infrastructure to assure the highest levels of quality and continuity of the service of the natural gas for the users

  10. 78 FR 13662 - Kansas Gas Service, a Division of ONEOK, Inc.; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-18-001] Kansas Gas Service, a Division of ONEOK, Inc.; Notice of Petition Take notice that on February 6, 2013, Kansas Gas... fully detailed in the petition. Any person desiring to participate in this rate filing must file in...

  11. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  12. Relative Effects of Daily Feedback and Weekly Feedback on Customer Service Behavior at a Gas Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yongjoon; Lee, Kyehoon; Oah, Shezeen

    2013-01-01

    The relative effects of daily and weekly feedback on customer service behavior at a gas station were assessed using an ABC within-subjects design. Four critical service behaviors were identified and measured daily. After baseline (A), weekly feedback (B) was introduced, and daily feedback (C) was introduced in the next phase. The results indicated…

  13. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 8. Cold utilization and rural service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the investigation presents a summary of material relating to: (1) actual or potential applications for the very large refrigeration effects inherent in the vaporization of liquid natural gas; and (2) rural service gas supplies adjacent to the route of a trunk liquid natural gas line. A variety of concepts for cold utilization are discussed. The Canadian prospects for cold utilization include: electric power generation; oxygen production for integration with a coal gasification project; and the use of refrigeration stages in the petrochemical processing of natural gas, for example, ethane separation and processing to produce ethylene and ammonia.

  14. Improved gas installations and services. Phase 1: Analysis project. Part report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.J.

    1996-05-01

    As Danish gas companies receive a large number of complaints related to the installation and operation of gas installations it was suggested that a course for personnel should be established in order to raise the standard of services and installation requirements. The first phase of the described project was to evaluate the quality of the gas installers' services so as to determine which aspects of installation and services should be emphasized during such a course. Interviews were carried out and questionnaires (illustrated within the document) sent out to installaters etc. Recommendations include that the level of information given to customers should be raised, also in relation to maintenance, and that installation should be improved. Analyses of the degree of customers' satisfaction, of the nature of the quality of services etc. expected, subjects for further training in this area and details of the training system are dealt with

  15. Effects of interruptible natural gas service: Winter 1989--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    During the extreme winter conditions experienced in December 1989, petroleum products showed dramatic price increases. Supply of certain products such as propane reached critical levels. Numerous factors contributed to the heating fuel situation, including well freeze-ups and refinery problems, as well as difficulties associated with delivery of the product. An area of concern identified in the ensuing debates was the impact of customer requirements for petroleum products resulting from curtailment of natural gas purchases under interruptible contracts. The lower rates associated with interruptible contracts make them an attractive choice for electric utilities. However, they require that the customer be prepared to obtain adequate fuel supplies in the event of curtailments. Electric utilities prepare for these contingencies with stocks of alternative fuels. Particularly in cold climates, interruptible has contracts are part of doing business. The extent and duration of the interruptions faced by customers relate principally to weather factors. Previous EIA studies investigated on a national level the causes of the dramatic price increases seen in petroleum product markets in the 1989--1990 heating season. This study is in response to a request from Senator Timothy Wirth, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation, to study in detail the impact of interruptible natural gas contracts as one of the factors cited as contributing to the price increases. A copy of the letter requesting the study is contained in Appendix A

  16. Emerging new services for the gas and electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matas, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on a postgraduate study at the Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, addressing the prospects for new energy technologies and their development, according to bankers, industry managers and international organisations. The study merges macro-economic, financial and technological views and focusses especially on electricity and natural gas including cogeneration and decentralised, small and middle-size energy production units. The world energy market is changing pace, moving from various monopolies to a dynamic system, with growing decentralisation and networking. The study reveals that constraints are changing due to the economy globalization as well as to the growing internet-based economy, and that new prospects for the development of promising energy technologies are emerging. The demand for more specific energy products like for example uninterruptible power supplies will stimulate new sectors in the energy economy. Growing environmental concern will also be an important factor for the energy market remodelling. For the gas and electricity markets, a considerable rise in sales is expected

  17. Characterization and Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Gas Service Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangduan Yimrungruang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas service station workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs sources, such as gasoline vapor emissions, and motor vehicle exhausts, may be exposed to highly elevated VOCs levels. This study investigates air samples from gas service stations in Thailand to evaluate the health risks following inhalation exposure. Personal air samplings were obtained at nine gas service stations in Chonburi, Thailand from October to December 2007. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and hexane in the air from the workplaces were significantly higher than in a control group of office workers (p<0.05. However, all VOCs in these air samples were lower than TWA limit of Thailand and the OSHA standard. Samples of urine, collected after 8-h work periods which were analyzed for VOCs metabolites, including t,t muconic acid, hippuric acid, mandelic acid and m-hippuric acid, demonstrate that the average levels of metabolites in gas service station workers and in controls were close, except for t,t muconic acid of gas service station workers which displayed higher levels than the in the controls. The lifetime cancer and noncancer risks for the workers exposed to VOCs were also assessed. Results show that all nine gas service stations in this study had a elevated lifetime cancer risk ranging from 53 to 630 per million, thus exceeding the normal risk of 1 per million. For noncancer risks, the levels in all gas stations ranged between 0.03 and 0.4, which is well below the reference hazard level of 1.0. Benzene may the most important cause of both cancer and noncancer risk followed by 1,3 butadiene.

  18. The oil and gas equipment and services market in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In terms of petroleum exploration investment, New Zealand ranks seventeenth in the world. The oil, gas, and petrochemical industry is mainly concentrated in Taranaki, a province where considerable onshore and offshore exploration and production (E and P) activity is taking place. The largest licensing round in the petroleum industry of New Zealand was recently completed, with 41 applications emanating from 21 companies were submitted, related to 26 new exploration blocks located onshore and frontier Taranaki basin. Starting in 2007, New Zealand is expected to suffer from a natural gas shortfall due to the gradual depletion of the main natural gas field called Maui. As a result, the development of the Pohokura project is being afforded top priority. In 2002, in the province of Taranaki, it is expected that 125 million dollars will be spent in support of exploration activity. The areas of oil and gas exploration such as seismic surveying services, geophysical services, drilling, monitoring and logging, and field management technologies represent potential opportunities for Canadian companies specialized in the provision of oil and gas equipment and services. For the period 2002-2005, New Zealand is planning significant offshore deep-water E and P projects with a view to ensure a secure supply of natural gas. The largest domestic oil and gas E and P company in New Zealand is Todd Petroleum Mining Company, while the largest foreign-owned oil and gas production company operating in the country is Shell Petroleum Mining Company. Responsible for over 90 per cent of oil and gas production, the largest joint oil service company in New Zealand is Shell Todd Oil Service (STOS), 50 per cent owned by Shell Petroleum Mining Company and 50 per cent by Todd Petroleum Mining Company. Canadian equipment and services might be particularly well received by companies such as STOS and Natural Gas Corporation. Partners in oil and gas projects are sought by companies such as Shell. Higher

  19. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to the...

  20. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  1. French gas industry in transition: breach in the public service model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2001-08-01

    France is generally viewed as the European country that most vigorously resists the pressure to liberalize its national gas markets. The moderate reform which has resulted from the transcription of the European gas directive was voted in 2002 after much delay. The main reason is the robustness of the French public service-model which has shaped the gas industry organisation in the same way as most of the network industries. To explain the institutional stability of the French gas industry, this document analyses its institutional trajectory shaped by the public service model and its strong institutional path dependency, marked by the resistance to change. The central hypothesis of the analysis is that, as long as this model demonstrates economic and social efficiency in the development of gas supply in relation to public services obligation and in the control of the import dependence risk in the gas sector, no reform can be brought about by endogenous factors. The analysis of the French gas industry transition consists of four sections. After a survey of its historical development, the author presents its organisation and regulation under the public service model and its performances in terms of social and economic efficiency. In the third section, the minimalist reform for transcribing the European Directive in the French law is presented, in order to identify its potential effects in terms of competition development and public service erosion. Finally, in the fourth section, the industrial policy option to preserve the existence of a French mono-energy company and its consequences in terms of strategic adaptation are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Influence of coating quality on the service life of land-based gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The land-based gas turbine blades operate at severe operating conditions: higher metal temperatures and stresses, and severe duty cycles. Metallic coatings with or without a top ceramic coating have been used to protect the turbine blades. The durability of the coating system is one of the prime life-limiting factors of modem gas turbine blades. The quality of the coating plays a critical role on the coating life. This paper discusses the failure mechanisms of the coatings and describes how the quality of the coating affects the service life of a gas turbine blade. A few case studies are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  3. Influence of in-service degradation on strain localization in steel of main gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Maruschak, Pavlo; Bishchak, Roman; Panin, Sergey Viktorovich; Pylypenko, Andriy; Menou, Abdellah; Danyliuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    General regularities in the failure kinetics of steel of main gas pipelines (17GS) are established using the method of complete stress-strain curves, meanwhile in-service degradation of metals is taken into account. The influence of material degradation on material properties under static tensioning is considered using two independent approaches: the phenomenological model of damage accumulation in metals, and the fractographic analysis method. The accumulation of in-service damage is found t...

  4. A banner year in southern Alberta : shallow gas, CBM drive service houses to record years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbourne, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of increased oil and gas activity on the service and supply industry in Alberta was evaluated. The service and supply industry is benefiting from booms in shallow gas drilling and coalbed methane exploration. Big Country Energy Services is a pipeline installation company that now has over 40 on-going projects with crews ranging in size from 10 to 70 personnel. A shortage of skilled labour has affected the company's ability to meet demand. Manufacturing companies such as Production Control Services, a self-contained parts manufacturer that specializes in plunger lift service and optimizing and servicing gas wells, is also seeing an increase in business, particularly due to recent activity in the coalbed methane sector. The company services both new and existing wells in the region. Managers at Ronco Oilfield Hauling Ltd., who work with many junior companies, believe that this season will be one of the most successful of all time. It was suggested that an increase in energy demand from countries like China will keep the demand for North American oil high. However, trends have indicated a reduction in exploration in Alberta, while new exploration activity appears to be increasing in northern Canada. Officials at Ronco have predicted that in 10 to 15 years most new oil activity will be in the northern regions as well as in northeastern British Columbia. It was also noted that soaring fuel costs have had an impact on the service and supply industry, particularly in businesses responsible for collecting and disposing of drilling fluids from rigs. Companies specializing in gas well optimization in low-pressure situations have also benefited from increased activity. However, issues concerning under-qualified workers and personnel shortages have affected a wide variety of businesses in the industry. 3 figs

  5. Iranian 42/40 inch gas line to central Persia and USSR one of the world's largest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghavi, S; Manoochehri, N

    1969-03-01

    Iran Gas Trunkline consists of 1,120 km of 42 in./40 in. main pipeline, and 675 km of spur lines. It also consists of 104 km gas gathering lines, compression facilities for collection, treatment, and transportation of dry sweet gas to Shiraz, Esfahan and Tehran for industrial purposes in early spring 1970 and export gas to Russia during fall that year. The system will have an ultimate capacity for 1,650 MMscfd of gas equivalent to about 275,000 bpd of crude oil. Distribution will commence in Tehran and Esfahan in 1970, probably to industrial consumers only initially, but later on also to domestic and commercial users. Gas will be used extensively for power generation in these cities, the need for which is increasing rapidly. The source gas used in this pipeline would otherwise be flared to waste.

  6. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    gas emissions per person and year was found to be 78 kg in an optimistic scenario and 25 kg in a pessimistic scenario. Extrapolated to the German metropolitan population, behaviour-related measures alone could result in a 1.8 million ton (optimistic scenario) or 0.6 million ton (pessimistic scenario......This study evaluates potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the passenger transport sector achievable through the use of mobility services. Beside car-sharing and -pooling, six services targeted at improving and encouraging the use of urban public transportation were considered......) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. In order to exploit this potential fully, however, target group specific information should be obtained and communication strategies developed, as addressed in this paper. This study further presents the limitation of reduction potential quantification...

  7. Jerneh gas project challenges and implementation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreau, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Jerneh gas project is part of Peninsular Malaysia's Gas Utilization Project, a mammoth undertaking to provide gas from the offshore fields off Malaysia's East Coast, to power stations and other industrial users throughout Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Prior to 1992, the only customers of the offshore Peninsular Malaysia gas were a local power station, and a steel mill in Terengganu, linked to the Phase 1 pipeline system. The Bekok platform is Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI)'s gas collection platform for existing associated gas fields. The Duyong and Sotong platforms are gas production/compression platforms operated by PETRONAS. In late 1991, the onshore pipeline system was extended by PETRONAS to cover the west and south coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore depicted in the map as the Phase 2 system. With the completion of the Jerneh platform and offshore trunklines, Jerneh became the primary source of supply to an increased number of customers in the wider Phase 2 gas network. Jerneh is estimated to have three TCF of non-associated gas. Phase 1 customers were utilizing about 120 MSCFD and the demand is expected to initially step-up to 400 MSCFD in 1992 and progressively increase thereafter. This paper provides an overview of the US$400 M Jerneh project for which detailed design commenced in 1989 and was commissioned in 1992. The paper describes the technical challenges, project execution, safety record and actions to achieve the fast track schedule for this project

  8. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  9. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades operated in-service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tong, Jinyan [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Gas turbine blades operated in-service have been investigated. • Two primary MC decomposition reactions take place during servicing. • Deformation features during servicing have been analyzed. - Abstract: The nickel based superalloy GH4037 is employed in gas turbine blades because of its high temperature strength and oxidation resistance. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades after 1600 h service have been investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of blade changes according to complex and comprehensive temperature and stress fields applied on it. Microstructural observations show that minor carbide precipitates dispersedly precipitate in the matrix. Two MC decomposition reactions occur: MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + γ′ and MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + η. Blocky, closely spaced M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles continuously distribute along grain boundaries. The main deformation features, such as slip bands, APB-coupled dislocation pairs, stacking faults bound by partial dislocations and deformation twinning, have also been analyzed in terms of fundamental deformation mechanisms and environmental effects.

  10. Investigation of MTBE and aromatic compound concentrations at a gas service station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; Chiang, Song-Bor; Lu, San-Ju

    2005-06-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a fuel additive at levels of 2-11% in Taiwan for the past decade. The purpose of this additive is to enhance the octane, replace the use of lead-based anti-knock gasoline additives and reduce aromatic hydrocarbons. However, it is possible that oxygenated fuel has a potential health impact. To determine the air quality impact of MTBE, measurements were made of ambient MTBE and other gasoline constituents at a service station. Additionally, environmental conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and temperature, etc.) that could affect concentrations of emission constituents were measured. Gas samples were analyzed for target MTBE and volatile organic compounds, e.g., benzene and toluene. Ambient samples were collected using Tenax adsorbent tubes for mass spectrometric analysis at a service station located in Changhua County, Taiwan. The resulting measured ambient air concentrations were compared with Taiwan's regulatory standards for hazardous air pollutants. Subsequently, the factors controlling the formation of high-VOC levels at the service station and in the residential neighborhoods were identified. Additionally, the results can provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Taiwan with useful information and prompt them to mandate this gas service station to install a refueling vapor recovery system.

  11. Testing of ceramic gas turbine components under service-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebmanns, W [Motoren- und Turbinen-Union G.m.b.H., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-08-01

    If all gas turbine components which are in contact with hot gas are manufactured from special ceramics (silicon nitride, silicon carbide), cycle and component temperatures can be increased up to 1600/sup 0/K. MTU is developing various components, such as combustor and turbine wheel, step by step until they are ready for service. At present, combustors are surviving comprehensive service-like cyclic tests in hot gas at atmospheric pressure (1000 h, 1000 starts per component) without damage. Tests above atmospheric pressure (5 bar) are underway. At MTU, a rotor wheel variant consisting of a metallic hub with inserted single blades is being constructed. The step to aerodynamically contoured airfoils will follow, as soon as the stress problems encountered in connection with the blade root are fully under control. The program will be completed in 1980 with a test run of a prototype turbine made from ceramic components developed by various companies under the leadership of the DFVLR (Aerospace Research and Testing Institute).

  12. A labour market study of the manufacturing, oil and gas, and business services industries in Calgary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    A survey was conducted in Calgary in spring 1994 of 861 firms in the manufacturing, oil and gas, and service industries. The main objective of the survey was to collect labor market information to assist in making career and educational decisions. A total of 543 employment vacancies were identified, with the largest number of vacancies reported for electrical contractors, computer operators, petroleum engineers, geologists, and geological technicians. A total of 1,129 new personnel were planned to be hired in the near future. Of the employees covered by the survey, 57.1% were reported as having some post-secondary qualifications. Over 88% of reported employment was listed as full-time. Of the firms surveyed, 56.2% indicated that they would provide training to their employees over the next six months. Of the three industries surveyed, the oil and gas sector reported the largest increase in employment within the past six months. Improved profitability and sales in natural gas was a major factor for the reported increase of 1,648 employees in the oil and gas sector. 16 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  14. Wireless sensing of gas in mining with web service in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mauricio Salamanca

    2014-12-01

    hierarchically in order to transmit the data to the entrance of the mine. Finally, the network configuration is done until the system enters in mode sleep (idle when it is not receiving information, in this way the consuming power decreased, increasing the autonomy of the batteries. This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of a gas monitoring system in mining with web service inreal-time based on a network of Zigbee sensors.

  15. Design and validation of a model to offer environmental consulting services to minimize oil pollution at gas stations: case study: a gas station in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    An environmental consulting service was designed and validated to minimize hydrocarbon contamination at gas stations, to be used by Migliore S.A. in order to strengthen and increase the number of services offered in the market niche of these companies. A matrix was synthesized with tools such as SWOT, deployment of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and international analysis. With the standardized protocols it will be possible to increase in a fluid way, the offer of consulting services. The final validation of the model allowed to verify the functionality of the same, through the generation of solid evaluation criteria that allowed a good knowledge of the gas station, case study, to offer a timely solution to your particular case, in a simple way and harmonious. The company providing environmental consulting services Migliore S.A. can count on a better commercial development, using the designed model [es

  16. 75 FR 26747 - U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New England, Inc; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Docket Nos. ER10-1129-000; ER10-1130-000; ER10-1131-000] U.S. Gas & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., ESPI New England, Inc... & Electric, Inc., Energy Services Providers, Inc., and ESPI New England, Inc.'s application for market-based...

  17. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  18. Report on the service quality incentive regulations for gas network operators and ERDF. 2009-2010 Report Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The latest natural gas transmission network tariffs, called 'ATRT4', and the tariffs for natural gas distribution network, 'ATRD3', as well as the 3. tariffs for using the public electricity networks, 'TURPE 3', constitute a regulatory framework offering incentives to gas transmission and distribution operators, as well as the electricity distributor ERDF, to control their costs and improve the quality of service provided for network users. For gas and electricity distribution system operators (DSO), the incentive-based regulation for quality of service implemented through the tariffs is complementary to the supervision powers of the licensing authorities. It operates by means of concession contracts which imply that the concessionaire has to deliver activity reports and that the licensing authorities have to publish monitoring reports of the concessionaire's activity. The licensing authorities act on the local level, whereas the incentive regulation is of national scope. The actions of the licensing authorities and of the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) contribute together to assess and enhance the quality of service of the DSO. As the service quality monitoring exercises are conducted successively, the analysis will become more refined as a greater data history is acquired. The quality of service from the gas network operators (GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF) and the electricity distributor (ERDF) has been improving gradually over the period of the monitoring, or has stabilised at a satisfactory level for the areas that are most important for the correct functioning of the market. Some objectives set by the tariffs have been met or even exceeded, which earns financial bonuses for the operators in question. This second service quality monitoring report on the gas network operators and ERDF is going to be used by the CRE, in consultation with all the market players, to refine the incentive mechanisms already in place. Contents: 1

  19. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  20. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  1. 3D finite element modeling of in-service sleeve repair welding of gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, Ahmed R.; Shazly, Mostafa; Megahed, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the influence of welding sequence and scheme on residual stresses induced during in-service sleeve repair welding of gas pipelines. For this purpose, a 3D thermo-mechanical FE analysis is conducted on an 8″-Schedule-20, API 5L-X65 steel pipe. Two welding sequences for the sleeve-pipe circumferential fillet welds are compared in the present study: sequential welding in which one side of the sleeve is welded first and then the other side is welded by the same welder, and simultaneous welding in which both sides of the sleeve are welded concurrently by two welders. Within the simultaneous welding sequence, four different welding schemes, designed to investigate the influence of the number of welders and welding directions on residual stresses, are investigated. The results show that the sequential welding sequence induces less residual stresses and distortions. Within the simultaneous welding sequence, the back-step welding scheme is found to induce the least average residual stresses as compared to other welding schemes. - Highlights: • We model in-service sleeve repair welding using 3D FE. • Model was validated through comparison with existing experimental results. • The study presents results on the effect of both welding sequence and welding scheme on the resulting residual stresses. • Sequential welding sequence generates lower residual stresses than simultaneous welding sequence. • Back-step welding scheme generates the lowest average residual stresses along the pipe circumference.

  2. Modernization of the gas utility; La modernisation du service public du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    After a large discussion, the project of law for the modernization of the French gas utility and for the development of gas companies was finally adopted by the government on May 17, 2000. This legislative project aims at modernizing and strengthening the gas public utility and adapting the gas sector to the progressive opening of this market to international competition with keeping up the quality and security of supplies and the position of French gas operators. (J.S.)

  3. The service quality: a stake for the Gas industry?; La qualite du service: un enjeu pour la filiere gaziere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Group Gaz De France wonders on the quality of the service and its consequences for the Enterprise. The ''definition of the Quality Service'' is given taking into account the consumer demand and the proposal marketing tools. (A.L.B.)

  4. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or malfunction) greater than the agitator stuffing box pressure; or (B) Equipped with a barrier fluid... purges the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agitator stuffing box pressure; or (B) Equipped with a barrier fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to... barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service. (iii) Each...

  6. The multi service cable network along a natural gas network for urban distribution; Reseau cable multiservice associe a un reseau de gaz naturel pour la consommation publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, D.; Krsmanovic, Z. [NIS-Energogas (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    The paper discusses parallel construction and development of natural gas and telecommunications projects in Europe, with an emphasis on the situation in FR Yugoslavia. Deregulation of postal services has created an opportunity for joint construction of multipurpose cable networks and gas distribution systems. Advantages are shown of such joint construction of gas pipeline and cable systems, and the strategy of further development of telecommunications and gas supply projects in FR Yugoslavia is presented. (authors)

  7. Report on the incentive regulation regarding the service quality of natural gas network operators and ERDF. Summary report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011. They were used to inform the work conducted to develop the incentive regulation mechanism for service quality in GrDF's ATRD4 tariff (A Third-party access to natural gas distribution networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 July 2012). The conclusions of the report will also be used by the CRE for ERDF as part of the work on TURPE 4 tariff (Tariff for the use of public electricity grids, scheduled to enter into effect during the third quarter of 2013), for natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs) to prepare their ATRD4 tariff (Entry into effect scheduled for 1 July 2013), as well as for GRTgaz and TIGF to define the future ATRT5 tariff (Third-party access to natural gas transmission networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 April 2013). Implemented in 2009 with an initial annual follow- up report on gas network operators Gr

  8. Natural gas at the service of economy and politics; Naturgas i ekonomins och i politikens tjaenst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrmarck, Urban

    2008-06-15

    Sweden is - except Iceland, Cyprus and Malta which have no gas at all - the country in Europe where natural gas plays the smallest role. The report raises and answers the question of why Sweden, unlike the rest of Europe, never built an extended natural gas networks. It also addresses the historical and future development of natural gas in Europe. An effective competition stopped the expansion of natural gas in Sweden. The Swedish gas projects offered state aid that was equivalent to the support given the rest of Europe. But competition and price worked better in Sweden than in many parts of Europe in 1960, the 1970s and into 1980s. It made an investment in a natural gas system unprofitable or in at least involving too large a financial risk to attract investors. Low or no profitability is still factors affecting natural gas futures in Sweden. There is also a political resistance. Therefore, there is hardly any reason to believe that major new gas projects would attract either new owners or funding organizations. Based on a commercial basis, only a specific and strongly limited expansion can come about. Over the next few years, the EU will need to sharply increase imports of natural gas just to maintain current consumption. The domestic European gas production is steadily decreasing. This means that new delivery systems, new contracts and new gas fields have come at a rate close to the border of what is technically, economically and politically possible. There is hardly any other option than increasing imports of Russian gas for the foreseeable future. In the long term, in addition to Russia, the OPEC countries will become major gas suppliers to Europe. In a medium term perspective, the question of whether Europe has time to expand its import capacity. It is also uncertain if the exporting countries Russia, Algeria, the former Soviet republics east of the Caspian Sea, Nigeria and Qatar, can or want expand its capacity to export. The need to achieve a southern

  9. Oil and Gas Development in Southwestern Wyoming - Energy Data and Services for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore current oil and gas energy development in the area encompassing the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative. The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to ensure southwestern Wyoming's wildlife and habitat remain viable in areas facing development pressure. Wyoming encompasses some of the highest quality wildlife habitats in the Intermountain West. At the same time, this region is an important source of natural gas. Using Geographic Information System technology, energy data pertinent to the conservation decision-making process have been assembled to show historical oil and gas exploration and production in southwestern Wyoming. In addition to historical data, estimates of undiscovered oil and gas are included from the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province. This report is meant to facilitate the integration of existing data with new knowledge and technologies to analyze energy resources development and to assist in habitat conservation planning. The well and assessment data can be accessed and shared among many different clients including, but not limited to, an online web-service for scientists and resource managers engaged in the Initiative.

  10. Eco-technology service station: the future of gas station; Posto eco-tecnologico: o posto do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Newton R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Daher, Humberto Antonio S. [PETROBRAS Distribuidora, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS Distribuidora and CENPES have a project to build an eco-technology service station at Ilha do Fundao, to know new technologies for vehicle fuelling, test of new vehicle natural gas compression system, and start projects with new fuels that are not available at Brazilian market. This service station concept shall be aligned with sustainability premise that are being established for both companies, that means, besides a technology focus, it shall have a social focus without any environment damage. PETROBRAS 'Board of Directors approved the expansion of PETROBRAS' Research and Development Center (CENPES) installations, including this service station construction. Some activities that will be developed at the service station are pointed out here: available of new natural gas compression system; micro-generation with micro turbine, fuel cell; and photo-voltaic cell technologies; hydrogen fuelling; oil-water system treatment; biodiesel fuelling. This station will have a show room opened to the public, with panels, videos and a CNG compressor in cut. (author)

  11. Effect of long time service exposure on microstructure and mechanical properties of gas turbine vanes made of IN939 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangiri, M.R.; Abedini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microstructure of service-exposed turbine vanes made of IN939 was investigated. • Mechanical properties of service-exposed alloy were also investigated. • Formation of M 23 C 6 films on GBs and degeneration of MCs are microstructural changes. • Despite its thermodynamic favorability, σ phase is not observed in microstructure. • Microstructural changes lead to a loss in tensile ductility and creep life. - Abstract: In the present study, the effects of long-term service exposure have been investigated on microstructure and mechanical properties of gas turbine vanes made of IN939 superalloy. The major microstructural changes for the investigated service-exposed vanes include the formation of continuous grain boundary carbides and the transformation (degeneration) of MC carbides located at the grain boundaries. The brittle σ phase, which is predicted to be stable on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, is not observed in the microstructure of service-exposed vanes. The microstructural changes during service lead to a loss in room temperature ductility as well as in creep properties of the alloy

  12. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  13. Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

  14. Developing an equitable fee structure for gas processing services: JP-90 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsbury, J.D.; Moller, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint Industry Gas Processing Fee Task Force Report, JP-90, was designed to promote negotiation of gas processing fees that are based on principles of equity and fairness for both natural gas producers and processors. Another purpose of the JP-90 was to develop an effective dispute resolution process for use in those cases where negotiations have failed. At its inception, JP-90 was the only guideline for unregulated fee practices in the oil and gas sector in North America. Today PJVA-95, the revised version of JP-90, is in its final draft. It addresses the changing focus of the gas processing business, and changing regulatory roles in Alberta and British Columbia. A number of other fee mechanisms also have been described, such as the jumping pound formula, fixed fees, fees based on price, wellhead purchases, and others. These mechanisms developed over time to allow the processor and the producer to share the price risk. The changing role of regulatory agencies in fee dispute resolution was also discussed briefly

  15. A case of industrial safety appraisal for extension of service life of GTK-10-4 gas turbines used at gas transmission stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnikov, A. I.; Kovalev, A. G.; Kryukov, I. I.; Leont'ev, S. A.; Moshnikov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    It is shown that the extended life and enhanced operational reliability of parts and subassemblies of the most popular GTK-10-4 gas transmission plants are determined by the enhanced efficiency of the control over technical condition and operational safety of turbine plants in conformity with industrial safety requirements imposed on gas pipeline compressor stations. It has been established that the materials of parts and subassemblies of gas turbine plants with different, especially with maximal operating time, shall be exposed to NDT for the purpose of determining the actual mechanical characteristics of these materials with different operating time and calculating residual life. The analysis of damageability and operating conditions has helped to identify parts and subassemblies for repair or replacement with the highest frequency of unacceptable defects. These parts and subassemblies have been shown to include base members of the axial compressor (AC), a turbine housing, an axial compressor rotor, high- and low-pressure turbine (HPT and LPT) discs, a 12-part holder, the housing of the holder of HPT and LPT guiding blades, a sealed baffler, and working and guiding AC, LPT and HPT blades. The most typical operational defects have been enumerated and analyzed. It has been determined that the primary task of the industrial safety appraisal for extending the life of GTK-10-4 with limit-exceeding operating time is to thoroughly examine HPT and LPT discs with more than 130,000 hours of operating time and establish by DT methods characteristics of materials for evaluation, taking account of their degradation, and residual life of critical turbine elements. In addition, it has been shown that the service life of HP turbine discs can be extended by replacing the disc material (EP-428 12% chromium steel) with a material with a higher linear expansion factor that somewhat exceeds the expansion factor of EI-893 nickel alloy used to melt out working blades.

  16. Decision in the matter of a generic hearing in respect to market issues and conduct related to the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In response to changes in the Gas Distribution Act and the Gas Distributor Marketing Regulation, the New Brunswick Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities (Board), issued an order in June 2003 for a generic hearing regarding the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick. The purpose of the hearing was to have an open discussion among intervenors regarding several issues, such as whether the Code of Conduct provides fair and adequate rules for marketers; should Enbridge Gas New Brunswick (EGNB) be required to follow rules similar to the Code of Conduct; the requirements surrounding letters of credit; the Board's decision on Rules and Regulations regarding the billing conduct of gas distributors and marketers; the information that should be provided by a gas marketer or a distributor to the customer before the customer enters into an agreement for the supply of gas; the need for information on price volatility; the need for EGNB to notify potential customers of all possible suppliers of gas; the removal of automatic renewal clauses from gas retailers' contracts; how the Board should determine if prices are reasonably and sufficiently competitive; financial reporting requirements; the role of the Board in response to customer complaints regarding the sale of gas by a distributor; and, the Board's action regarding Enbridge Atlantic's plan to exit the New Brunswick market. This report provided the response to these issues by 10 intervenors

  17. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional ,

  18. A Comparison of the Impacts of Wind Energy and Unconventional Gas Development on Land-use and Ecosystem Services: An Example from the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kendall M; Nguyen, Michael N; McClung, Maureen R; Moran, Matthew D

    2018-05-01

    The United States energy industry is transforming with the rapid development of alternative energy sources and technological advancements in fossil fuels. Two major changes include the growth of wind turbines and unconventional oil and gas. We measured land-use impacts and associated ecosystem services costs of unconventional gas and wind energy development within the Anadarko Basin of the Oklahoma Woodford Shale, an area that has experienced large increases in both energy sectors. Unconventional gas wells developed three times as much land compared to wind turbines (on a per unit basis), resulting in higher ecosystem services costs for gas. Gas wells had higher impacts on intensive agricultural lands (i.e., row crops) compared to wind turbines that had higher impacts on natural grasslands/pastures. Because wind turbines produced on average less energy compared to gas wells, the average land-use-related ecosystem cost per gigajoule of energy produced was almost the same. Our results demonstrate that both unconventional gas and wind energy have substantial impacts on land use, which likely affect wildlife populations and land-use-related ecosystem services. Although wind energy does not have the associated greenhouse gas emissions, we suggest that the direct impacts on ecosystems in terms of land use are similar to unconventional fossil fuels. Considering the expected rapid global expansion of these two forms of energy production, many ecosystems are likely to be at risk.

  19. Gas industry health services system in far North; Services d'assistance a la sante dans l'industrie gaziere dans l'extreme Nord de la Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, T.N. [Nadymgasprom Ltd. Gasprom Plc. Nadym, YNAR (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The distinctive conditions of production of the gas extracting industry of the Far North, the wide use of rotation labor, the high morbidity level of the workers and connected with all this labor losses at the enterprises stipulated the necessity for creation of the System of Public Health Service of the gas extracting industry of the Far North. According to the resolution of Gasprom Plc., its elaboration and approbation has been carried out since 1995 on the basis of the diversified enterprise Nadymgasprom, which extract and transport natural gas. It has 25-year-old experience of the development of gas condensate deposits in the extreme climatic region. Improvement of the state of health indexes of the members of work teams in conditions of introduction of the industrial medicine system at the gas extracting enterprise with realization of the complex program of prophylaxis and rehabilitation proved the efficiency of the elaborated System of Medico-sanitary Provision Service. (author)

  20. The Effects of Ride Hailing Services on Travel and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Towards the close of the first decade of the 21st Century, ride-hailing services began to enter the transportation market through smart phone applications that allowed consumers to hail and pay for a ride from drivers using their own vehicle. The inf...

  1. Quality standards proposal for the pipeline gas distribution service in the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil; Proposta de padroes de qualidade para o servico de distribuicao de gas canalizado no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Clovis Badaro; Assad, Luiz Sergio [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-12-31

    The Energy Supply Public Utilities Commission of the State of Sao Paulo - CSPE created in April 1998 to regulate the public services of electricity and gas distribution through networks in the State. Within its legal attributions, the future staff of CSPE, still in the Sao Paulo Secretary of State of Energy, put forward standards to regulate the quality of service in the distribution of electricity and pipeline gas in the State. This paper summarises the current, still preliminary, version of these gas standards, that take into account the current practice of COMGAS, international, well proven, standards as well as COMGAS capacity to achieve quality of service gains favoring the consumers. (author) 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Alliances and partnering: A new relationship between oil/gas producing companies and service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazi, N.H.; Hottman, W.E.; Logan, J.L.; Verrett, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The current state of the energy industry finds both operating and service companies squeezed by lower prices and higher costs. Investment in exploration, equipment, and technology has been severely restricted. Many operators are responding to these harsh market conditions by re-engineering their work processes and focusing on core business activities. Re-engineered work processes encourage operators and service companies to work closely together. This motivates both to eliminate duplication, simplify processes, increase efficiency and capitalize on combined expertise to enhance production and optimize total system cost. Alliances and partnering are based on mutual trust and the commitment to add value to both organizations. Aligning interests is fundamental in establishing a lasting and mutually beneficial relationship. This paper presents an overview of these new relationships. The benefits and concerns of changing from traditional bidding agreements to new business arrangements between producing companies and service companies is discussed. Evaluation criteria for potential candidates, how to structure an alliance or partnering agreement, and a discussion of the key issues in the application of incentive contracts is presented

  3. Unintended greenhouse gas consequences of lowering level of service in urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Cheng, Han; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Public transit is often touted as a ‘green’ transportation option and a way for users to reduce their environmental footprint by avoiding automobile emissions, but that may not be the case when systems run well below passenger capacity. In previous work, we explored an approach to optimizing the design and operations of transit systems for both costs and emissions, using continuum approximation models and assuming fixed demand. In this letter, we expand upon our previous work to explore how the level of service for users impacts emissions. We incorporate travel time elasticities into the optimization to account for demand shifts from transit to cars, resulting from increases in transit travel time. We find that emissions reductions are moderated, but not eliminated, for relatively inelastic users. We consider two scenarios: the first is where only the agency faces an emissions budget; the second is where the entire city faces an emissions budget. In the latter scenario, the emissions reductions resulting from reductions in transit level of service are mitigated as users switch to automobile. (letter)

  4. Operational Excellence in Manufacturing, Service and the Oil & Gas: the Sectorial Definitional Constructs and Risk Management Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazu Hassan Muazu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global business climate has not been favorable to most firms irrespective of industry affiliation. That condition necessitated companies to adopt operational excellence as a strategy for optimising output with little resources, reducing lead time with the efficient use of assets and employees and avoiding safety and health issues to people and the environment. As a result of the need for operational excellence, many kinds of literature defined the concept based on the context of industry or sector. Industries such as manufacturing, services, oil and gas, mining and so many industries to mention a few, have their unique construct in the definition and therefore causing dilemma on which dimension to hold on to. It is against this backdrop that this paper synthesizes and integrate all the varying dimensions and fuses out similarities, differences and the antecedence of research directions taken on the few mentioned sectors. The paper thus concludes that the unique construct among all the definitions is continuous improvement, cost reduction, quality, time utilization, operational efficiency, staff involvement and output optimisation. However, they varied on risk management, staff health, safety and the concern for the environment, which is unique to oil and gas industry and that can affect the choice of research variables.

  5. Developing consumption-based greenhouse gas accounts : the carbon footprint of local public service provision in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hogne Nersund

    2011-07-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of a tool to assess and document the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities and other public-service providers. The model is linked to the financial accounting system of municipalities and counties to calculate the Carbon Footprint (CF) of all purchases/activities made. In particular indirect emissions (Scope 3 according to the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol) will effectively be accounted for with this system. One of the main findings of the thesis is indeed the importance of Scope 3 emissions to the total CF of the cases investigated. Within the local climate action framework, this thesis focuses on the CF resulting from the activities of the municipal/county administration. This will largely be the provision of services. Insights in the structure of the CF of services will therefore be provided in the papers presented in the thesis. Results show that direct GHG emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are not very significant. At the same time, indirect GHG emissions embodied in the purchase of products and services from sub-suppliers are very significant. Furthermore, when time series are investigated, we identify a shift from direct emissions (e.g. the combustion of diesel in municipal vehicles) to indirect Scope 3 emissions (e.g. the purchase of transportation services from a private company). This outsourcing of activities indicates a necessary shift to complete consumption-based inventories that include all direct and indirect GHG emissions in developing comparable indicators of sustainability. The comparability of municipal CFs is the focus of one of the papers in the thesis. In the paper, we investigate how the CF of all Norwegian municipalities compares to a set of key characteristics. The main finding here is that the CF is highly dependent on both municipal wealth and municipal size. Small and wealthy municipalities tend to have a significantly higher CF per capita relating to the

  6. Developing consumption-based greenhouse gas accounts : the carbon footprint of local public service provision in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hogne Nersund

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of a tool to assess and document the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities and other public-service providers. The model is linked to the financial accounting system of municipalities and counties to calculate the Carbon Footprint (CF) of all purchases/activities made. In particular indirect emissions (Scope 3 according to the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol) will effectively be accounted for with this system. One of the main findings of the thesis is indeed the importance of Scope 3 emissions to the total CF of the cases investigated. Within the local climate action framework, this thesis focuses on the CF resulting from the activities of the municipal/county administration. This will largely be the provision of services. Insights in the structure of the CF of services will therefore be provided in the papers presented in the thesis. Results show that direct GHG emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are not very significant. At the same time, indirect GHG emissions embodied in the purchase of products and services from sub-suppliers are very significant. Furthermore, when time series are investigated, we identify a shift from direct emissions (e.g. the combustion of diesel in municipal vehicles) to indirect Scope 3 emissions (e.g. the purchase of transportation services from a private company). This outsourcing of activities indicates a necessary shift to complete consumption-based inventories that include all direct and indirect GHG emissions in developing comparable indicators of sustainability. The comparability of municipal CFs is the focus of one of the papers in the thesis. In the paper, we investigate how the CF of all Norwegian municipalities compares to a set of key characteristics. The main finding here is that the CF is highly dependent on both municipal wealth and municipal size. Small and wealthy municipalities tend to have a significantly higher CF per capita relating to the

  7. Report on the quality of service of the gas network operators GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF. Report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, publishes the first annual report on the quality of service of the gas networks operators, GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF. The monitoring of GrDF's quality of service covers a one-year period, from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009; that of GRTgaz and TIGF covers a 6-month period, from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2009. The first finding of this report is that the three operators took the necessary measures in terms of tools and resources to implement the mechanisms required by the tariffs rules. Furthermore, almost all indicators are now monitored and published regularly by the gas networks operators. The whole picture is that the quality of service of GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF progressively improved over the monitoring period in the most significant areas related to a proper functioning of the market. However, the objectives set by the tariffs rules were not all met. This led to financial penalties for the gas networks operators. During the tariff period, the tariff rules allow to revise the monitoring mechanism, as the tariffs in force provide the possibility to update the indicators. Consequently, and based on this first report, CRE will be working with the gas networks operators and the market players to improve the monitoring mechanism implemented, focusing more on the quality of services provided to end users

  8. Strategies for the goods and services market development: a new approach for the natural gas industry in Brazil; Estrategias para o desenvolvimento do mercado de bens e servicos: uma nova abordagem para a industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Paulo S.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Fonseca, Marcus V. de A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao; Pinto, Maria C.L.F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    This work approaches the issue of developing the national goods and services market for the natural gas area, analyzing the constraints that exist today to the growth of the supply of goods and services and proposes innovative strategies and actions to accelerate the emergence of this supply. The suggested strategies and actions are presented in the form of two management models: the first aimed towards the development of pioneering equipment and the other directed to augmenting the supply of services within the country, focusing on human training programs, technological assistance to companies and the development of applied research projects. The models may be adopted by a company that intends to assume the leadership in the commercialization of natural gas, offering its clients not only a commodity but an energy solution. The innovation strategies applicable to each model are analyzed, discussing the advantages in the adoption of each one by the natural gas industry. The social profits resulting from the proposed actions and the general results expected from the adoption of the two models are presented focusing the contribution to foster the share of natural gas in the Brazilian Energy Matrix. (author)

  9. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  10. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. System development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company, interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Yudow, B.D.; Sala, D.L.; Donakowski, T.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1979-08-01

    Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems are energy systems for communities that provide heating, cooling, and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer a significant potential for energy savings. Results of the System Development Phase of the HP-ICES Project are given. The heat-actuated (gas) heat-pump incorporated into this HP-ICES concept is under current development and demonstration. The concurrent program was redirected in September 1977 toward large-tonnage applications; it is currently focusing on 60- to 400-ton built-up systems for multi-zone applications. This study evaluates the performance of a HAHP-ICES as applied to a community of residential and commercial buildings. To permit a general assessment of the concept in non-site-specific terms, the sensitivity of the system's performance and economics to climate, community size, utility rate structures, and economic assumptions is explored. (MCW)

  11. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems. Following a market survey carried out among 48 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2818/ST) was sent on 15 December 2000 to four firms and three consortia, each consisting of two firms, in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from one firm and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SCHRACK SECONET (AT) - SOTEB (FR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 October 2001 for an amount not exceeding 5 800 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: AT-50%, FR-50%.

  12. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  13. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  14. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators in 2015. Follow-up Report, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator (Enedis, former ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and Enedis is made according to these indicators. An annex contains all individual quality reports of Enedis, DSOs and TSOs

  15. Effects of Security and Privacy Concerns on using of Cloud Services in Energy Industry, an Oil and Gas Company: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Poorebrahimi; Fatemeh SoleimaniRoozbahani

    2015-01-01

    The topic of ‘‘the cloud’’ has attracted significant attention throughout the past few years. It allows resource sharing that includes software, platform and infrastructure by means of virtualization. Cloud Adoption in Oil & Gas companies have approached cloud with caution, but they are increasingly deploying cloud services. Energy companies have carefully weighed whether they should opt for a public cloud versus a private one, and which applications are fit for deployment via the cloud. For ...

  16. Excellent impact performance of PVC pipeline materials in gas distribution networks after many years of service (CD-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Hermkens, R.M.J.; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, J.; Warnet, Laurent; Beckervordersandforth, C.; Verberg, G.H.B.; Kramer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been about fifty years ago since the first unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes were installed for use in gas distribution purposes. Currently, about 22,500 km of uPVC is still in use in the Dutch gas distribution network. The pipes were originally designed for a lifetime of 50

  17. How competitive gas air-conditioning is being offered to domestic users by means of attractive energy selling services?; Une climatisation au gaz concurrentielle pour le marche residentiel via des services de vente d'energie attractifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane, R.; Raventos, M. [Gas Natural, SDG, S.A. (Spain); Naval, J.; Martinez, J.A. [Gas Serviconfort S.A. (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    With the object of responding to the progressive increase in the demand for air-conditioning in the domestic sector with the presentation of gas as a competitive alternative to the electric systems currently available, and in order to avoid not only the loss of this specific market but also of the heating and hot water markets in the new-build residential sector, a new individualized energy selling service has been developed. This new option incorporates the advantages of the individualized and centralized systems of air-conditioning thanks to the utilisation of the medium-size gas air-conditioning systems currently available and to the geNie system as an instrument for totally individualizing the service and offering truly innovative features that will be attractive to the consumer. This new line of activity, implemented by the Serviconfort, a subsidiary company off the Gas Natural Group, has proven its viability both in technological and in service-definition terms in a series of demonstrations with more than 800 clients, which have served to indicate the considerable interest of the new-build residential sector in Spain and the expectations for the potential market over the next few years. (authors)

  18. Strategies of materials sourcing and services in the oil and gas industry; Estrategias de suprimentos de materiais e servicos na industria de oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aun, Rogerio [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Strategic Sourcing is a procurement management technique that aims to establish a globally competitive supply base. By setting an appropriate sourcing strategy to specific sourcing groups considering the purchasing volume and the sourcing complexity, significant savings can be achieved in the total company expenditures. There are four basic sourcing strategies that can be used: purchasing process simplification, purchasing volume leverage, strategic relationship with suppliers, supply assurance. E-procurement is a valuable tool for Strategic Sourcing implementation and can be used to simplify and reduce the cost of the purchasing process. Strategic Sourcing can be applied in most industries, as well as in Oil and Gas Industry. Recently Arthur Andersen was engaged in a Strategic Sourcing project for an Oil and Gas Company resulting in savings of 10% cost reduction on the expenditures analyzed. (author)

  19. Integration of the commercial and operational systems for the supply of services related to the transportation of natural gas; Integracao entre sistema comercial e operacional para prestacao de servicos de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faria, Jose Aurelio Carvalho de; Silva, Mauricio dos Santos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Varon, Rene [Energy Solutions International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil S.A. - TBG, In order to perform with efficiency and quality, has always been committed to providing its customers with the best services and support. This commitment has been materialized with the recent implementation of a state-of-the-art technology that allows TBG to automatically manage all of its requests for services and to guarantee the delivery of gas to its customers is done in a safe way, optimizing pipeline capacity. To offer these levels of service, it was necessary to acquire a field proven solution capable of managing all commercial procedures as well as providing the right tools to operation to evaluate the capacity to move gas throughout the pipeline. Therefore the solution also was required to be easily integrated with existing operational and commercial tools such as the SCADA system and SAP R3 software. Reductions of fuel consumption and mitigation of risks against contractual penalties are some of the benefits reached. (author)

  20. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  1. Multiple fractures of used in-service disc springs in a stationary gas turbine engine; Multiple Brueche an betriebsbeanspruchten Tellerfedern fuer stationaere Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Cagliyan, Erhan [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Berlin (Germany). Werkslaboratorien

    2013-06-01

    Multiple cracking was observed in disc springs made from an austenitic stainless steel and used in large stationary gas turbine engines. It was determined that they failed in service by bending overload. The metallurgical cause of the cracking was found to be grain boundary embrittlement by secondary chromium carbide precipitates. They formed upon heat treatment during manufacture of the components. It was recommended to either alter heat treatment parameters to avoid embrittlement, or to select a different spring steel that does not require heat treatment. (orig.)

  2. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  3. Tough sell : forgetting and forgiving are not on the financial service sector's oil and gas investment agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, A.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the recovery from the year-long low on the oil-price cycle was presented, with special emphasis on the growth potential within the petroleum sector. Although the mood was optimistic at this year's Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers' annual Oil and Gas Investment Symposium, scrutiny from analysts and investors was severe. In today's dynamic market investors are less loyal and companies can no longer ride out the lows. When companies fell short of high investor expectations, they were faced with plunging stocks when investors left. This forced firms to sell assets or to merge with other, more solvent companies. It was noted that the oil and gas industry is among the best of any industrial sector in quality and standardization of disclosure. The advantage of this is that a high degree of disclosure reduces uncertainty which could benefit stock prices. 2 figs

  4. 78 FR 60208 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Adjustment of Service Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... the IPD-GDP from 2007 through 2012, thus reflecting the rate of inflation over 5 years. The inflation... establish the 2013 cost recovery service fee. While BEA may revise the inflation rate in the future, BSEE... will periodically adjust fees for inflation according to changes in the Implicit Price Deflator for...

  5. Decision in the matter of a generic hearing in respect to market issues and conduct related to the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick; Decision en l'affaire concernant une audience generale en ce qui touche les preoccupations du marche et la conduite relative a la vente de gaz et de services a la clientele dans l'industrie du gaz naturel au Nouveau-Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-02

    In response to changes in the Gas Distribution Act and the Gas Distributor Marketing Regulation, the New Brunswick Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities (Board), issued an order in June 2003 for a generic hearing regarding the sale of gas and customer services in the natural gas industry in New Brunswick. The purpose of the hearing was to have an open discussion among intervenors regarding several issues, such as whether the Code of Conduct provides fair and adequate rules for marketers; should Enbridge Gas New Brunswick (EGNB) be required to follow rules similar to the Code of Conduct; the requirements surrounding letters of credit; the Board's decision on Rules and Regulations regarding the billing conduct of gas distributors and marketers; the information that should be provided by a gas marketer or a distributor to the customer before the customer enters into an agreement for the supply of gas; the need for information on price volatility; the need for EGNB to notify potential customers of all possible suppliers of gas; the removal of automatic renewal clauses from gas retailers' contracts; how the Board should determine if prices are reasonably and sufficiently competitive; financial reporting requirements; the role of the Board in response to customer complaints regarding the sale of gas by a distributor; and, the Board's action regarding Enbridge Atlantic's plan to exit the New Brunswick market. This report provided the response to these issues by 10 intervenors.

  6. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs

  7. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  8. Shale gas, wind and water: assessing the potential cumulative impacts of energy development on ecosystem services within the Marcellus play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeffrey S; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Global demand for energy has increased by more than 50 percent in the last half-century, and a similar increase is projected by 2030. This demand will increasingly be met with alternative and unconventional energy sources. Development of these resources causes disturbances that strongly impact terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The Marcellus Shale gas play covers more than 160,934 km(2) in an area that provides drinking water for over 22 million people in several of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g. New York City, Washington DC, Philadelphia & Pittsburgh). Here we created probability surfaces representing development potential of wind and shale gas for portions of six states in the Central Appalachians. We used these predictions and published projections to model future energy build-out scenarios to quantify future potential impacts on surface drinking water. Our analysis predicts up to 106,004 new wells and 10,798 new wind turbines resulting up to 535,023 ha of impervious surface (3% of the study area) and upwards of 447,134 ha of impacted forest (2% of the study area). In light of this new energy future, mitigating the impacts of energy development will be one of the major challenges in the coming decades.

  9. Radon Gas in Ireland Joint Position Statement by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Health Service Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part, A.M.; Colgan, P.A.; Fenton, D.; Kelly, I.; Long, S.; O'Mahony, M.; Pollard, D.

    2010-04-01

    This position statement is written by the Health Service Executive and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland with a view to forming and influencing policy in this area. It provides a summary of the health risks associated with radon exposure in Ireland and the steps that can be taken to reduce those risks. It outlines suggested ongoing work to reduce both the population dose from radon and the individual dose to those most at risk and considers future work needed to improve national policy to achieve these objectives

  10. Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emission of a purchase in the retail park service sector: An integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farreny, Ramon; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the energetic metabolism of a retail park service system under an integrative approach. Energy flow accounting was applied to a case study retail park in Spain, representative of the sector across Europe, after redefining the functional unit to account for both direct energy use (buildings, gardens and outdoor lighting) and indirect energy use (employee and customer transportation). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was then undertaken to determine energy global warming potential (GWP) and some energy intensity and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission indicators were defined and applied. The results emphasise the importance of service systems in global warming policies, as a potential emission of 9.26 kg CO 2 /purchase was obtained for the case study, relating to a consumption of 1.64 KOE of energy, of which 21.9% was spent on buildings and 57.9% on customer transportation. Some strategies to reduce these emissions were considered: increased supply, energy efficiency, changes in distribution of modes of transport, changes in location and changes in the mix of land uses. A combination of all of these elements in a new retail park could reduce GHG emissions by more than 50%, as it is planning strategies, which seem to be the most effective. (author)

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hypothetical Electric Airport Transportation Services in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwanit, J.

    2018-05-01

    Global warming is an increase of average temperature in the atmosphere, which causes adverse effects on the environment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from transportation sector is one of the main contributors of the overall greenhouse gases (GHG). To cope with this issue, electric car services are increasingly seen as popular alternative modes of green transportation especially for urban cities as it is more flexible, more environmentally-friendly, and less expensive than the use of conventional vehicles. The study analyses and compare the hypothetical electric car systems from airport transportation services. Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) 2001, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method, is applied to convert life cycle inventory data into environmental impacts. The observed results showed that the electric shuttle bus had the highest impact in global warming potential (GWP) compared to other transportation types. Alternatively, this Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study that evaluated different transportations provided important information for decision makers on quantifying the differences between each scenario.

  12. We can do it : a salute to women in oil and gas services, from roughnecking to entrepreneurship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-04-15

    The petroleum industry will face labor shortages as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. The petroleum industry is becoming a more attractive environment for female workers as a result of improvements in drilling rig technology. This article presented profiles of 5 female workers currently employed within the energy sector. Profiles included a female heavy equipment operator in the oil sands industry who started her career as a labourer; a rig hand who graduated from university as an English major; a field personnel recruiter; an entrepreneur and CEO of a health and safety service company; and an instrument mechanic. The profiles included biographical details as well as summaries of each worker's previous training and experience. Issues related to the recruitment of female workers were discussed, and methods of improving the workplace environment were reviewed. 11 figs.

  13. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  14. An application by Centra Gas Manitoba Inc. for an order of the Manitoba Public Utilities Board approving: Rates for the sale of natural gas and the provision of transportation services, to be effective with respect to all gas consumed on and after January 1, 1994; determination of a year-end rate base, rate of return and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year including new gas supply arrangements; confirmation of interim ex parte order 113/93 related to franchise agreements with the rural municipality of Elton and the rural municipality of Grey; and other related matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-28

    Centra Gas Manitoba, a gas utility, applied before the Manitoba Public Utilities Board for an order approving a year-end rate base, rate of return, cost of service, and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year and increased rates to be effective in 1994. A hearing was held to consider matters related to Centra's application, and views of intervenors at the hearings, the utility, and the Board are summarized along with the Board decision. Issues considered at the hearings include year-end net plant values, computer expenditures, working capital allowance, capital structure and risk, cost adjustments, gas sales and cost of gas, operating and maintenance expenses, financial expenses, cost allocation, rate design, and other matters including service policies. The revenue requirement increase approved was $30.4 million, which included a $24.8 million increase in the commodity cost of gas. The allowed overall rate of return was 10.17%. 2 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  16. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  17. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  18. The 'new' gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Vornel

    2000-01-01

    The use of computer-aided 3-dimensional design tools to overcome problems associated with extraction of gas from unconventional gas deposits such as shale, sand and coal gas fields in landlocked nations is examined, and the economics of land based gas exploration in the USA, and the transport of the product to market are considered. The use of 3D design tools by the Pearl Development Company for providing engineering solutions for the recovery of natural gas liquids (NGL) for the Thunder Creek Gas Services company servicing the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and utilisation of the CADWorx/PIPE 3D piping design tool are reported. The benefits of the software package which allows easy visualisation of designs and produces 2D drawings from multi-discipline plant models are outlined

  19. TBG's equipment for gas pipeline repair and bypass in service; Equipamentos da TBG para execucao de reparos e bypass em operacao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemgruber, Nelson Arthur Pinto; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Frota, Cristiane Souto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the main available resources in TBG for repair of the gas pipeline, as clamps for small repairs, bolt-on clamps, equipment for hot tapping and execution of by pass in-service, cold cutter machine, air movers for removal the gas of the line, and movable systems of emergency illumination. The location of the equipment is detailed, the main technical and operational characteristics, as well as aspects observed in simulated accomplished in the operational units of TBG and presents the planning for acquisition of new equipment. (author)

  20. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  1. The impact of the fuel chemical composition on volatile organic compounds emitted by an in-service aircraft gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, A.; Kuo, Y. Y.; Brem, B.; Durdina, L.; Gerecke, A. C.; Heeb, N. V.; Haag, R.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aircraft emissions received increased attention recently because of the steady growth of aviation transport in the last decades. Aircraft engines substantially contribute to emissions of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the upper and lower troposphere. Among all the pollutants emitted by aircrafts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are particularly important because they are mainly emitted at ground level, posing a serious health risk for people living or working near airports. A series of measurements was performed at the aircraft engine testing facility of SR Technics (Zürich airport, Switzerland). Exhausts from an in-service turbofan engine were sampled at the engine exit plane by a multi-point sampling probe. A wide range of instruments was connected to the common sampling line to determine physico-chemical characteristics of non-volatile particulate matter and gaseous pollutants. Conventional Jet A-1 fuel was used as the base fuel, and measurements were performed with the base fuel doped with two different mixtures of aromatic compounds (Solvesso 150 and naphthalene-depleted Solvesso 150) and an alternative fuel (hydro-processed esters and fatty acids [HEFA] jet fuel). During this presentation, we will show results obtained for VOCs. These compounds were sampled with 3 different adsorbing cartridges, and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS, for Tenax TA and Carboxen 569) and by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS, for DNPH). The total VOC concentration was also measured with a flame ionization detector (FID). In addition, fuel samples were also analyzed by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared to the VOCs emitted via engine exhaust. Total VOCs concentrations were highest at ground idle (>200 ppm C at 4-7% thrust), and substantially lower at high thrust (engine were mainly constituted of alkanes, oxygenated compounds, and aromatics. More than 50 % of the

  2. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  3. Study of the failure in service of a linepipe, helicoidally welded, quality API SL GrB wich conveyed natural gas. Estudio del fallo en servicio de una tuberia soldada helicoidalmente de calidad API SL SrB que transportaba gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez de Saiz-Solabarria, S.; Elices, M.A. (Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The possible causes are studied which have incidentally provoked a failure in service on a natural gas linepipe run. This pipe has been manufactured with 6 mm-thick-plate-coil helicoidally welded to 273 mm external diameter. The quality of the material is up to standard API 5L for Grade B and an automatic-helicoidally welding procedure has been with simultaneous inflow at both internal and and external surfaces. The failure appears together with deformations and fracture. (Author)

  4. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  5. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  6. Status, remaining service-life and quality assurance of PP-materials in flue-gas applications; Status, kvarvarande livslaengd och kvalitetssaekring av PP-material i anlaeggningar foer rening och kondensering av roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Karin

    2011-10-15

    Background: The project is intended to provide a better understanding of how the service life of PP-materials is affected when used in flue-gas applications. It intends to form a basis for the development of relevant techniques and a methodology from which it is possible to give advice and guidance so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. In addition it aims as being able to assess the status and remaining life of PP-materials in current components. Project outline - An inventory, contact and choice of facilities for closer cooperation. Plants with high proportions of PP in the equipment have been prioritised. - Visits to the chosen sites during shut-down periods for inspection and collection of samples from different PP details for further analysis in the laboratory. Collection of operating data and experiences of the use of PP (operating time/exposure conditions in different parts, component substitutions that have been made, etc.). - Systematic studies of the processes and mechanisms for stabiliser consumption over time. - Developing methods and methodology on which advice and guidance can be based so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. The goal is to be able to assess the status and remaining service-life of the PP-materials in flue-gas applications. Results and Conclusions: It has been found that corrosion is relatively rare and that the main factors limiting the use and longevity of polypropylene are the thermal properties (thermal expansion and heat distortion). Leaching of stabilisers from the material is also commonly found but only a few cases of oxidative degradation, as a result of this, have been observed. An important part of the project has been to develop techniques and methodologies to assure the quality PP-material for a desired service life, and to assess the status and remaining life of the PP- materials in flue-gas applications. To do this, samples that

  7. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  8. Competitive landscape for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990s, natural gas will be the critical pressure point for energy and environmental developments in North America, according to the author of this paper. The author points to the forces bearing on natural gas, including the need for new power generation capacity, tightening environmental standards, growing concerns about energy security, cyclical factors in U.S. oil and gas exploration, and changes in the oil services industry. This paper discusses how these external factors will shape gas markets in the 1990s. First, it states that gas will gain market share in power generation through greater use of both existing gas-fired facilities and new turbines by electric utilities. Second, it predicts that the cumulative impact of the Clean Air Act and other environmental legislation having significant consequences for the relative roles of coal and natural gas, particularly during the late 1990s. Third, it points to the eventual reawakening of energy security concerns, focusing attention on developing North America's sizeable gas reserves. Finally, it states that while the long-term view of a gas supply crisis without a rebound in drilling activity is accurate, it has been disastrously wrong in the short term. This had led to underestimation of the amount of extra gas that can be provided in the interim from conventional areas at relatively low cost

  9. Assessment and the feasibility of improving the artificial lighting system in technical services workshop located in the Fourth South Pars Gas Refinery

    OpenAIRE

    masoud shafiee motlagh; Mohsen Aliabadi; Reza Shahidi; Amin Kahani

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Desirable and ergonomic lighting in the workplaces has a significant impact on the visual effects and improve the efficiency and productivity of employees. This study aims to evaluate the lighting system and feasibility of improving the artificial lighting system for comfort lighting in the workshop of the Fourth South Pars Gas Refinery. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the environmental conditions of the studied workshop were evaluated and the illum...

  10. Gas information campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, D.

    The second Federal German experts' meeting on Gas Consulting from 2nd to 5th June 1981 in Saarbruecken documents the importance attached by the gas industry to a qualified energy consulting. The consumers are informed of natural gas by country-wide and regional PR- and marketing activities. This information is the basis for sales promotion measures in the regional and local sphere. All communicative measures end with the consulting. It is the most important sales-political instrument which helps the supply companies to win interested and informed customers. The action gas consulting shows possibilities of how to effect an advisory service in cooperation between Information on Natural Gas and local suppliers.

  11. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  12. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  13. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  14. Brazilian oil and gas supply and service industry's: context and perspectives; Contexto e perspectivas do segmento para-petrolifero brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Ricardo Pimentel de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the goods and services supply oil segment, as different than the oil companies segment itself. It points to the transformations in the goods and services supply segment from the 1980s until now. At that time with low international oil prices, the oil companies induced the goods and services firms to assume a major role in development of technology. Inside the country here, the goods and services segment had high local content performance but it was associated to low technology intensity or to branches of large multinational firms installed in the Brazilian market. The paper points the French approaching on this same oil segment and its applicability to the Brazilian case, giving one example of financial R and D resources for supporting such a target. Otherwise than in France some specific obstacles can be found here in that development purpose. As alternative some others scenarios were finally explored in the paper for further suggestions for institutional approaching in this Brazilian industrial oil segment. (author)

  15. Gas manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J W

    1915-05-03

    Retorts for the distillation of shale or coal for the production of oil or illuminating-gas are heated by gas from a generator or a gas-holder, and a portion of the gas from the flue leading to the heating-flues is forced by a steam jet through a by-pass and is injected into the bottom of the retorts. If the gas to be admitted to the retort is cold, it is first heated.

  16. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  17. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  18. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  19. Sophisticated lean gas management. A lot of synergies at the dry fermentation of the waste management services Uelzen; Ausgekluegeltes Schwachgasmanagement. Viele Synergien bei der Trockenfermentation des Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Uelzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2013-04-01

    As part of the need for renewal of the composting facility of the waste management services Uelzen (Federal Republic of Germany), a biogas plant was planned which has to be low-emission and suitable for inhomogeneous biological wastes. The newly built biogas plant processes 12,000 tons of biological waste and green waste per year and is used for the heating of factory buildings, for composting and as a water treatment plant.

  20. Evaluation of radiological safety in industrial gammagraphy services during the construction of Bolivia-Brazil gas transmission lines (GASBOL), by regulatory inspections from brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto O. de; Silva, Francisco Cesar A. da; Leocadio, Joao Carlos; Pinho, Adaugoberto S. de; Souza, Luiz Antonio C. de; Lourenco, Manoel J.; Nicola, Marcello S.; Melo, Ivan F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the Brazilian Regulatory Authority's (National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN) action about safety control on industrial radioactive installations. It shows some specific radiation safety inspections that were done during the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Transmission Line (GASBOL). In this GASBOL work, it was used industrial radiography sources for weld quality control. During two years were done thirty regulatory safety inspections in these movable installations that use gamma radiography devices. As final result, it was noticed that the national system of inspection to control the safe use of radioactive sources in industrial activities is really efficient because none overexposure was detect and every CNEN's recommendations were applied by the operators. Some result about the gamma devices and violations are also showed. (author)

  1. Which services, for which customers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the discussions that took place during the first round table of the congress about the progresses made by French gas companies in the services proposed to consumers. The different topics discussed concern: the gas tariffs and the monopoly of Gaz de France company, the services offered to consumers and industries, the energy mastery in local organizations, the coordination of works, the development of gas-fueled vehicles and the safety of domestic installations and appliances. (J.S.)

  2. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Assessment and the feasibility of improving the artificial lighting system in technical services workshop located in the Fourth South Pars Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoud shafiee motlagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Desirable and ergonomic lighting in the workplaces has a significant impact on the visual effects and improve the efficiency and productivity of employees. This study aims to evaluate the lighting system and feasibility of improving the artificial lighting system for comfort lighting in the workshop of the Fourth South Pars Gas Refinery. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the environmental conditions of the studied workshop were evaluated and the illuminance was measured in both day and night times at 216 points. Based on lighting measurements, a site map was provided. Further, based on current conditions of the workshop, illuminance was estimated using DIALux 4.12 lighting calculations software. In regard to the national recommended limits for industrial lighting and the current luminaires, the different practical, accessible and low cost solutions were presented. Using the mentioned software, the share of each proposed solutions for improving workshop lighting were estimated. Results: The results showed that illuminance of the workshop in day and night times were equal to 197±71.5lx and 160±50.6 lx, respectively. The same results were also acquired by software calculations. Based on the results, lighting system was considered as undesirable lighting system along with need to modifications. Workshop lighting can increase between 260 lx to 405 lx through employing the proposed solutions based on the software predictions. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the low cost and simple solutions can significantly be improved the ergonomic and comfort lighting in the workplace. The use of the specialized tools calculations by experts and designers can be also facilitated the conducting feasibility reliable.

  4. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  5. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  6. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  7. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  8. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  9. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  10. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  11. Historical case - welding on service in Brazil Bolivia gas pipeline at 92 Bar of pressure, in Tres Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Caso historico: execucao de soldagem em operacao no gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil a pressao de 92 BAR, em Tres Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lobao Filho, Jesualdo Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alcatrao, Mauro dos Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the steps for the qualification the welding procedure and the jobs for the welding in service at 92 bar of pressure, the measures to guarantee the integrity of the gas pipeline, including lines support, requirements for hydrostatic testing and the main equipment used during the jobs. It is made reference to an accident happened several month after in service welding in gas pipeline and presents the respective cause. (author)

  12. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  13. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1947-05-01

    A short description of the process is given, with gas yields from various feedstocks, and the composition of the gas. Short descriptions of several batch digester designs are given: Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofta, and Somagaz. The utilization and the economics of the process are discussed. Two diagrams of Ducellier and Isman designs are included.

  14. Biological flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H.; Wijte, G.; Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P.; Hartog, H.A.J. den [Paper B.V. Blak (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    A new biological flue gas desulfurization process (BIO-FGD) producing sulphur as a by-product was invented by Paques BV and Hoogens Technical Services in 1993. Sulphur dioxide is absorbed from flue gas using a combination of a sodium based scrubber and two biological reactors, an anaerobic and an aerobic biological reactor. The article describes the process and its evaluation in a pilot plant at 2 MW scale, designed to remove 6 kg/hr SO{sub 2} of the 2 million m{sup 3}/hr of flue gas produced at the 600 MW coal fired power station Amer-8 situated in Geertruidenberg in the south of the Netherlands. Research so far has proved the process works successfully and at low cost. A second pilot plant due to start-up in May 1995 will provide data on scale up and further information on sulphur recovery. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. East, West German gas pipeline grids linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ruhrgas AG, Essen, has started up the first large diameter gas pipeline linking the gas grids of former East and West Germany. Ruhrgas last month placed in service a 40 in., 70 km line at Vitzeroda, near Eisenach, linking a new Ruhrgas pipeline in Hesse state with a 330 km gas pipeline built last year in Thuringia and Saxony states by Erdgasversorgungs GmbH (EVG), Leipzig. The new link enables pipeline operator EVG to receive 70 bcf/year of western European gas via Ruhrgas, complementing the 35 bcf/year of gas coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States via Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig

  16. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  18. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  19. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  20. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  1. The new East Coast natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, I.; Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  2. Volcanic Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive ... the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash -producing eruption, ash particles are ...

  3. Gas - flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and other symptoms such as stomach pain, rectal pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fever, or ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  4. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  5. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  6. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft 3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  7. Tolley's industrial and commercial gas installation practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hazlehurst, John

    2010-01-01

    This is the third of three essential reference volumes for those concerned with the installation and servicing of domestic and industrial gas equipment. This volume explains the basic principles underlying the practical and theoretical aspects of installing and servicing gas appliances and associated equipment, from the basics of combustion, to burners, pressure and flow, transfer of heat, controls, as well as materials and processes, electrical aspects, and metering and measuring devices. Covering both Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas, the many illustrations and worked examples include

  8. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  9. Report of the Mechanics Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, A.

    2003-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  10. Annual report 2006 - IBP - Brazilian Institute of Petroleum and Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document the activities of Brazilian Petroleum and Gas Institute during 2004 as follows: economic and energy policy; supply, natural gas, support and services, certification, courses, events and normalization managing

  11. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  12. Gas attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D.

    1977-08-01

    Consumersfirst Ltd. is reacting to deregulation with a massive advertising campaign. The gas utility is owned by Consumers Gas Energy Inc., and is struggling to hold onto its 35 per cent share of Ontario`s two million residential natural gas buyers. An industry analyst pointed out that deregulation could mean that Consumers` Gas has much to lose: customers, market share, control of the assets and control of the process. The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) however, had specified that Consumersfirst is not to proceed with paperwork to sign up new customers until the OEB issues a draft code-of-conduct that would prevent cross-subsidizing between regulated franchise holders. This has now been done, and several heavyweights such as Calgary-based Suncor Energy Inc., Union Gas of Chatham, Ontario, and the US-based Enron Corp. of Houston, have started campaigns to sign up potential consumers. It is predicted that brand loyalty will be a factor, but in the end, like long distance telephone rates, it will all come down to pricing, and a winning formula is not easy to find.

  13. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  14. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  15. Biological (flue) gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [PAQUES, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar CV, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Groep BV, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Biotechnological research has been carried out to find new micro-organisms and processes to make useful products, and to reveal new ways and biotechnological mechanisms to produce elemental sulfur in waste water treatment. Biotechnological development work has been carried out and the first commercial installation (on 300 m{sup 3}/hr scale) to produce sulfur from polluted waste water was started up in 1992. The importance of this recent research and development in the area of waste water treatment was recognized. In an intensive cooperation between Hoogovens Technical Services and PACQUES the concept for a totally new Biological Flue Gas Desulfurization process (BIO-FGD), producing sulfur as by-product, was invented. It consists of the combination of a sodium scrubber with two biological reactors resulting in a very attractive new concept for a gas cleaning process. A description of the process is given and the pilot plant results are outlined. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  16. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  17. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  18. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  19. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1948-11-01

    Descriptions are given of several batch digesters: the Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofla, and Somagaz designs. Sketches of two Ducellier and Isman designs are given with a photograph of an installation consisting of four contiguous, rectangular concrete tanks. There are short explanations of the fundamentals and economics of the process, and of the use of the gas.

  20. The changing roles of natural gas aggregators - a Pan-Alberta Gas perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional roles played by the various forms of natural gas marketing entities (margin-marketers, aggregators, brokers) and the factors that influence a producer of natural gas to market its gas through one or more of these entities are the subject of this paper. The author also reviews current developments in the natural gas marketing industry, focusing on changes from the perspective of the gas aggregator.The most significant change has been the trend by aggregators to branch out to provide a broad range of services that meet the needs of individual producers including gas management services for non-pool gas supply, transportation management, fixed and indexed pricing for both pool and non-pool supply, market based pricing, financial services for producers, short-term sales arrangements and streaming specific supply sources to specific markets. As aggregators continue to move away from offering only the traditional aggregator services, the distinction between aggregators and margin-marketers and the services they provide is becoming less distinct. The principal differences that will remain will be the differences in corporate structures and the shareholders who share the costs and receive the benefits generated by business activities of the aggregator. Another difference that will continue to exist is that margin-marketers offer North American-based services whereas aggregators focus on marketing natural gas primarily in Western Canada

  1. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  2. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  3. Gas system 2016: Press conference 17 January 2017 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2016: A first part presents the national data about gas consumption, production of gas-fired power plants, new gas uses (diesel-gas substitution, biomethane..) and their environmental impacts, and the development of the Internet open-data platform. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions with a focus on industrial clients

  4. Current gas storage R and D programmes at Gas Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikari, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is currently involved in the development of concepts aimed at an enhancement of natural gas service to the consumer. In order to maintain the attractiveness of the gas options to industrial consumers and to reinforce the ''value-in-use'' of natural gas to residential as well as commercial customers, it is essential to develop efficient, economical, and safe means of reducing the ''cost-of-service'', including that of natural gas storage in underground formations. Specifically, research and development (R and D) is needed to explore ways to better utilize existing storage fields and also to develop new storage facilities at minimum cost. GRI is currently sponsoring research projects aimed at controlling gas migration in underground gas storage reservoirs, reducing base (or cushion) gas requirements, understanding the gas-gas phase mixing behaviour via laboratory experiments and reservoir models, developing cost-effective gas separation processes using membranes, and optimizing the operation and maintenance (O and M) costs of underground gas storage operations. This paper provides an overview of the GRI's Gas Storage R and D Programme and highlights key results achieved to date for selected research projects. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Gas industries in Europe and America and trends of deregulation; Obei no gas jigyo to kisei kanwa no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Y [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes an outline of natural gas industries in Europe and America, introduction of competition to gas industry in the USA, introduction of competition to gas industry in the UK, and gas industries in the continental Europe. For the new gas distribution system in the USA, pipeline enterprises are permitted to do only transportation services. Sale of gas is based on the direct contract between producers and distributors. In the UK, the British Gas Corporation (BGC) was converted into the private British Gas plc (BG) in 1986. With introducing the competition conditions, the BG has drastically modified its organization, to divide it into the domestic gas division, overseas gas division and the division of development and production of gas. As a consequence of the introduction of competition conditions, the market share of BG has drastically decreased. Moreover, gas industries in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Austria and the Netherlands are briefly described. 4 figs.

  6. Innovative gas offers; Les offres gazieres innovantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Chatelain, F. [Primagaz, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-07-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  7. Natural gas deregulation: have the handcuffs really been removed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The natural gas market in New York State was reviewed and characterized as being very competitive. A brief description of the New York State Electric and Gas Corp. (NYSEG) was given. As regards recent developments, in October 1993, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) instituted a proceeding (93-G-0932) on the restructuring of the gas market. Several guidelines for market restructuring were established as a result. The guidelines were in respect to service to consumers, safety of distribution, environmental implications, consumer concerns, gas rates, regulation, and access for core customers. The speaker noted that these guidelines did not promote deregulation. Competitive issues faced by local gas distributors were enumerated. Among these were (1)service to core and non-core customers (2)transition costs, (3)streaming, (4)unbundling and repackaged services, (5)price differentiation, and (6)small customer aggregation. It was expected that marketers would oppose the Public Service Commission giving local gas distributors additional pricing flexibility

  8. The transition to open-access storage in U.S. natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, L.S.; Schlesinger, B.

    1990-01-01

    In their traditional role as merchants, interstate natural gas pipelines in the U.S. sold natural gas at an aggregate price that incorporated all gathering, storage, transmission, and gas costs in a bundled service. As a result of movements toward deregulation, U.S. gas users now enjoy open-access transportation on most interstate pipeline systems as an unbundled service at a relatively unbundled price, allowing them to contract for their own gas supplies, separate and apart from the system sales gas of traditional pipeline supplier(s). Open-access storage has been slower than open-access transportation service in evolving; its limited availability is a major factor limiting the comparability of service between transportation gas and system sales gas. Open access to storage offers gas users an important tool in managing gas costs, timing of gas purchases, and deliverability imbalances

  9. Benefits of real-time gas management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolty, R.; Dolezalek, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In today's competitive gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation business environment, the requirements to do business are continually changing. These changes arise from government regulations such as the amendments to the Clean Air Act concerning the environment and FERC Order 636 concerning business practices. Other changes are due to advances in technology such as electronic flow measurement (EFM) and real-time communications capabilities within the gas industry. Gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation companies must be flexible in adapting to these changes to remain competitive. These dynamic requirements can be met with an open, real-time gas management computer information system. Such a system provides flexible services with a variety of software applications. Allocations, nominations management and gas dispatching are examples of applications that are provided on a real-time basis. By providing real-time services, the gas management system enables operations personnel to make timely adjustments within the current accounting period. Benefits realized from implementing a real-time gas management system include reduced unaccountable gas, reduced imbalance penalties, reduced regulatory violations, improved facility operations and better service to customers. These benefits give a company the competitive edge. This article discusses the applications provided, the benefits from implementing a real-time gas management system, and the definition of such a system

  10. International performance indicators: gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of Australian's natural gas utilities against world best practice. In particular, it examines whether Australia's traded goods sector is disadvantaged by the performance of domestic infrastructure service industries. It reports on the operating efficiency of the natural gas industry using Data Envelopment Analysis. It concludes that the Australian gas industry as a whole is performing relatively well in term of operating efficiency and that its prices are comparable with prices in North America, once differences in consumption per customer are taken into consideration. Appendixes 1 and 2 provide a summary of the structure and regulation of the gas supply industry in Australia and selected overseas countries, while the Appendix 3 gives an econometric analysis of the relationships between consumption per customer and residential price-cost margins. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  12. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  13. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. FAX SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Telephone Service

    2002-01-01

    As from 1st of July 2002, responsibility for running the Fax Service will be transfered to the Printer Service. Future requests for machines, toner and breakdown should be sent to Printer.Support@cern.ch - tel 78888. Telephone Service

  15. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  16. Gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.P.; Risby, T.H.; Field, L.R.; Yu, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to the published literature for the years 1978 - 79, this review of developments in the field of gas chromatography includes earlier articles of particular significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature which was not available at the time of the previous review. The articles cited were selected as presenting the most fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation. Some applications are cited if they reflect an advance in the state-of-the-art or have particular relevance to new developments. 1149 references are cited

  17. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  18. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  19. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  20. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  1. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  2. Integrating gas and electric markets and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The issues determining what energy companies must do to compete in an increasingly competitive energy market and what regulators must do to ensure fairness in competition were discussed. The similarities of gas and electric markets, and the factors driving their integration were highlighted. The importance of communications and customer service in the energy market and the nature of market power in the gas and electric industries was described. Three reasons were given why gas/electric mergers will be beneficial: (1) operating efficiency, (2) applying gas experience to electric markets, and (3) opportunity to exercise market power. Potential regulatory problems were also reviewed

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  4. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  5. Shippers and Network Capacity Booking in the Dutch Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucura, C.; Lukszo, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the Third Gas Directive (2009/73EC) approved by the European Union are: unbundling, creating an independent Transport Service Operator (TSO) and ensuring free access to the market. The separation of gas trading from transportation activities required new market rules and gas

  6. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...] Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines October 21, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... comments on whether and how holders of firm capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and...

  7. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-23-001] Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the...

  8. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-23-000] Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the...

  9. 77 FR 21748 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel... Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing an Executive-led Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel.... The purpose of the mission is to introduce U.S. firms to Israel's rapidly expanding oil and gas market...

  10. Public utility service in energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abenante, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under the current legislation, the idea of public utility service is thoroughly expressed and settled within that of public service. Lacking a new definition, not all businesses in the electricity and gas industries are subjected to the authoritative and regulatory opinions of the Authority established by act 481/95 which can only be expressed in matters strictly concerning public services [it

  11. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  12. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013 FE Docket Nos. NEXEN ENERGY MARKETING SERVICES NG U.S.A. INC... SOLUTIONS TRANSPORT 13-40-LNG MIECO INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING...

  13. European Gas Appliances Directive and the Dutch Decree on Gas Appliances. Special section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, B.; Venhorst, T.; Van Tricht, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Gas Appliances Decree is the Dutch translation of the European Gas Appliances Directive. The Decree and the EU Directive contain substantial information, provided they will be read carefully. The EU Directive lays down general safety requirements for gas appliances. They serve as a practical tool for manufacturers and service engineers. In two articles, the Directive is explained, addressing uncertainties and answering important questions. 5 ills

  14. Natural gas and electricity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calger, C.

    1998-01-01

    Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs

  15. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  16. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  17. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  18. Union Gas Limited 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Financial information from Union Gas was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000. Union Gas is a major Canadian natural gas utility providing energy services to more than 1.1 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in more than 400 communities in Ontario. The company also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the United States. Revenue for 2000 was reported to be $1.6 billion, net income was $113 million and assets totaled $3.9 billion. Total throughput for 2000 was 35.8 billion cubic meters. Union Gas is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Inc. of Vancouver, British Columbia. In 2000, progress was made toward the introduction of performance-based regulation to replace the cost of service regulation currently in use. This initiative will enable the company to provide competitively priced services to customers, allowing them, along with shareholders to benefit from efficiency enhancements and new service offerings. tabs., figs

  19. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  1. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  2. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  3. Assessment and perspectives for the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Ali; Bouchard, Georges; Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Delamare, Monique; Remont, Sophie; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed by contributors at the 2015 AFG Convention. These contributions comment the data published in the World Energy Outlook 2014 with a focus on gas (shares, sources of demand, unconventional gas production, share and evolution of LNG, competitiveness versus coal, gas to coal switching in Europe), propose an overview of the world gas market with a focus of European gas demand on the medium term, comment the evolution of the gas market on the short term in a context of oil price decrease (evolution of demand, of storage, of production and of imports in Europe), discuss an outlook for gas demand for power, comment recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (prices, supply/demand balance, influence of price evolution on delivery destinations), propose an assessment of the French gas market (competition in the retail market, world trends, creation of a unique market zone in France, European challenges, regime of access to storage, challenges of energy transition), discuss the role of storage as a tool for supply security, propose an analysis of gas supply safety (its pillars in the perspective of public authorities, associated prospective, aspects related to public service, problems related to storage, safeguard measures, European regulation), propose an overview of the present status and perspectives for the European gas supply, and discuss stress tests and measures on a short term aimed at improving supply security

  4. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  5. Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic data in XML format. Using the Web service, software developers can build applications that utilize MedlinePlus health topic information. The service accepts keyword searches as requests and returns relevant ...

  6. Service Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges in relation to an ongoing project named converged advanced mobile media platform (CAMMP), where all the different stakeholders need to have a saying in the service development for the upcoming rich, mobile broadcasting services....

  7. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  8. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  9. Law no. 2004-803 from August 9, 2004 relative to electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Loi no. 2004-803 du 9 aout 2004 relative au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  10. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  11. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  12. Integrated services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M.; Clark, G.; Cosad, C.; Forbes, K.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  13. Integrated services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafcouloff, S.; Michel, G.; Trice, M. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Montrouge (France); Clark, G. [Schlumberger Testing Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Cosad, C.; Forbes, K. [Schlumberger Integrated Project Management Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Integrated services is the name given to several services grouped together under a single contract. Four key factors determine the success of integrated services projects: teamwork, common objectives, technology, and shared benefits. For oil companies, integration means smoother, more efficient operations by bringing service companies on board as part of the team. For the service industry, it means a radical change in the way business is conducted, taking on more responsibility in return for greater incentives. This article reviews the need for change and the approach Schlumberger has adopted to meet this challenge. 20 figs., 20 refs

  14. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, A.

    2003-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  15. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1998-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  16. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1996-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  17. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  18. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  19. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1990-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  20. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  1. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    2000-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  2. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    2002-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  3. Report of the Mechanics Service - Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulem, B.

    1986-01-01

    Service for mechanical components at the RA reactor includes: control and maintenance of utility components, mechanical workshop, hot cells and storage. Control and maintenance of main components covers: reactor core, heavy water system, technical water system, gas system. This service is responsible for the following auxiliary systems: transportation units; spent fuel storage pool; special ventilation system; personal protection appliances; hot cells. Maintenance of the reactor building, ventilation, heating, water supply, sewage, fire protection devices, gas and compressed air systems are included [sr

  4. New generation of gas infrared point heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schink, Damian [Pintsch Aben B.V., Dinslaken (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    It is more than thirty years since gas infrared heating for points was introduced on the railway network of what is now Deutsche Bahn. These installations have remained in service right through to the present, with virtually no modifications. More stringent requirements as regards availability, maintainability and remote monitoring have, however, led to the development of a new system of gas infrared heating for points - truly a new generation. (orig.)

  5. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  6. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  7. To create a gas culture, national purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    In 1986 it began to speak for the first time of the gas like substitute of the energy in the capital, to toast this way a better energetic option. The business of the gas in Colombia has a great expansion potential, judging by the millionaire transactions that have been carried out recently, in which have participated with signal interest investors of all the continents and it is that the future tendency is the substituting the electric devices for gas devices, at least in that that to cooking of foods and heating of water refers, given the economic and environmental benefits that it represents the overcrowding of the consumption of combustible gases (natural gas and liquefied gas of the petroleum). The economic importance of the investment in the plan of overcrowding of the natural gas in Colombia, represents a very important aspect proposed by the government and of all the actors involved inside the gas industry and it is the one of benefiting economically to the whole community, through the social investment, advanced in each region to or release and wide of the whole country. This promissory panorama for the nascent Colombian gas industry, supported by the discoveries of gas carried out in the decade of the 90, in increasing the reserves of natural gas, to build a great gas pipeline and urban nets, to carry out complementary works and of conversion to gas, to supply thermoelectric that will generate near additional 1500 MW of energy, it also seeks to benefit with the domiciliary gas service, in next four years to more than three million homes distributed in for the less 300 municipalities of the national geography

  8. Union Gas Ltd. : 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Consolidated annual financial information from Union Gas Ltd. was presented along with a review of their 1998 operations. On January 1, 1998, Union Gas Ltd. amalgamated with Centra Gas Ontario Inc. Both are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Westcoast Energy Inc., and had operated under a shared services arrangement since 1994. The assets, liabilities and shareholders equity of Union and Centra were combined and accounted for at their carrying amounts. In 1998, the customer base grew by 3.3 per cent. The distribution service area of Union Gas extends across northern Ontario from the Manitoba border to the North Bay/Muskoka area and through certain parts of southern Ontario. The company also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the United States. This report gives full account of the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed operations review as well as the company's consolidated financial statements. Revenue for 1998 was $1.6 billion, net income was 109 million, and assets were $4 billion. Total throughput for 1998 was 31.8 billion cubic metres of natural gas. tabs., figs

  9. Nova Gas`s pipeline to Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia`s peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI`s success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI`s ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners.

  10. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  11. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  12. Pressure in the natural gas pipe. Coherence between tariffs for natural gas transport, and congestion in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boots, M.G.; De Joode, J.; Lise, W.

    2005-11-01

    Using GASTALE (Gas mArket System for Trade Analysis in a Liberalizing Europe), a comprehensive computational game theoretic model of the European gas market, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) conducted at the request of Gas Transportation Services (GTS) a study on the relationship between gas transport tariffs, the demand for gas transport and possible re-routing of gas flows in Northwestern Europe. We find that lowering the average Dutch transport tariff compared to the average German transport tariff induces a re-routing of gas flows from the German network to the Dutch network. In periods of high gas demand, such as the peak winter season, the lower transport tariffs lead to a high potential demand for gas transport which cannot be fulfilled by the limited capacity of the Dutch gas transport network. This will probably even lead to congestion in the Dutch network as a 'first-come first-served' regime is currently applied in the Netherlands. So Dutch gas transport tariffs being out of line with the gas transport tariffs neighbouring countries, implies that there is a real chance that transit flows are crowding-out gas flows destined for Dutch final consumers of gas. Hence, the security of gas supply for the Netherlands is seriously threatened. These findings are robust for variations in the model assumptions as shown by a number of sensitivity analyses [nl

  13. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  14. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  15. Future of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Widdershoven, C.; Nicola, S.; Cragg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles and two columns in this section on the future of natural gas. In the first article attention is paid to the possibility that large natural gas producers are setting up a cartel a la OPEC. Most experts argue that the structure of gas markets makes the gas business much less amenable to cartelisation than the oil business. If that is true, why are so many people in the gas industry afraid of a gas cartel? The second article focuses on the future role of North Africa in the supply of natural gas

  16. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  17. Management services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, S.K.; Alford, D.R.; Barnette, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Management Services Section provides coordinated professional administrative services to the Fusion Energy Division (FED), allowing the work of technical professionals to be more fully concentrated in their areas of specialty. Services are provided in general administration, personnel, financial management, communications (including text and graphics generation), management information, library, safety, quality assurance, and nonprogrammatic engineering services. Highlights of the past year included adoption of the Procurement Module in the FED Management Information System (MIS) for use by the entire Laboratory, completion of the Personnel Module of the MIS, greatly increased personnel recruiting activity, and increased industrial subcontracting activity

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. Hit the gas: go green!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Just one year ago, CERN took delivery of its first bi-fuel vehicles (see article in Bulletin 07-08/2011). Today, the fleet comprises 100 vehicles capable of running with petrol or natural gas. At that time, Véronique Marchal, head of the Site Services section in the GS Department, told us: “We are counting on CERN car users’ environmental awareness to use natural gas fuel whenever possible.” Observations one year later show that... well, let’s say there is still plenty of room for improvement. A new awareness campaign has therefore been launched.   “Running on natural gas reduces carbon dioxide emissions by some 40%,” explains Serge Micallef of the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG), CERN’s partners for this green mobility project. CNG contains 20% biogas, which is carbon-neutral. CNG produces 60 to 95% less pollution overall than ordinary petrol, and it is entirely soot-free. It is true that filli...

  20. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES General Provisions and Conditions § 284.9 Interruptible transportation service. (a...

  1. Rehabilitation of the gas pipeline that had a rupture in service caused by SCC (Stress Corrosion C raking); Rehabilitacion al servicio de un gasoducto que ha sufrido una ruptura en servicio por SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando; Carzoglio, Eduardo; Hryciuk, Pedro [TGN - Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina). Depto. de Integridad

    2003-07-01

    TGN had a rupture in service on Gasoducto Troncal Norte. After initial evaluation of the causes of the rupture it was concluded that it had been caused by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Subsequent investigation in the area of the rupture revealed that colonies of cracks, typical of SCC were found in pipes located near the rupture. In order to put back in service the pipeline in a safety condition, SCC mitigation activities were performed. A decision was made to conduct a hydro test along approximately 30 kilometers of pipe. The stages of the works, the problems faced and the solutions found are dealt with, as well as the conclusions reached upon completion of the works which allowed a better understanding of SCC phenomenon. The methodology for the identification of those areas susceptible to SCC is also described. (author)

  2. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Worldwide gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas is an important source of energy throughout the world due to its availability and clean burning characteristics. From liquefied natural gas being shipped via tanker from Alaska to Japan, to natural gas via pipeline from Canada to the US, to inter-country natural gas shipment within the European continent, natural gas continues to expand and justify its place of honor in the world energy picture

  4. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  5. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  6. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  7. Law project modified by the Senate after urgency declaration relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the modifications made by the French Senate after the first reading of the law project adopted by the House of Commons and relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The document lists the modifications made by the Senate article by article. (J.S.)

  8. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  9. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale 'city-gate' price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply

  10. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  11. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  12. Gas theft: Prevention and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of gas theft is discussed. Roughly 2% of gas and power customers in the United States either steal or attempt to steal service. Most diversion programs focus on theft from a revenue protection viewpoint, however there is often insufficient money recovered to justify an anti-theft program. Successful action often involves focusing on large volume users. Safety should be a prime consideration in searching out gas theft, as many people have been killed or injured as a result of careless theft. A brief review is presented of anti-theft devices such as locks and seals; automated meter reading can also help reduce theft. The best defence against theft is a highly trained and motivated field staff, especially meter readers, and a computer billing program that monitors changes in gas usage. Fixed bypasses may be unlocked and used at will; fraud is also common. Investigation and prosecution should be carried out by trained personnel following a carefully developed procedure. Safety issues should be stressed, and every effort should be made to avoid the appearance that the justice system is being used as a bill collector. 3 refs

  13. Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, James

    Newspaper librarians discussed the public use of their newspapers' libraries. Policies run the gamut from well-staffed public information services, within or outside the newspaper library, to no service at all to those outside the staff of the paper. Problems of dealing with tax and law enforcement agencies were covered, as well as cooperative…

  14. Registration Service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Following a reorganization in Building 55, please note that the Registration Service is now organised as follows :  Ground floor: access cards (76903). 1st floor : registration of external firms’ personnel (76611 / 76622); car access stickers (76633); biometric registration (79710). Opening hours: 07-30 to 16-00 non-stop. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  15. Telephone Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN exchange switches will be updated on Thursday 2 June between 7.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be affected and possibly even disrupted during this operation. 

  16. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  17. LNG and LPG total involvement of Pullman Kellogg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A discussion of Pullman Kellogg activity covers a new LNG terminal in Belgium; construction of LNG 2 for Sonatrach in Algeria; an LPG recovery system in Kuwait; the Trunkline Gas Co. LNG project at Lake Charles, La.; and the Cove Point, Md., facility for Columbia Gas System Inc. and Consolidated Natural Gas Co., which will be capable of mooring two 750,000 bbl LNG tankers simultaneously.

  18. Service Modeling for Service Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Yoshiki; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    Intensification of service and knowledge contents within product life cycles is considered crucial for dematerialization, in particular, to design optimal product-service systems from the viewpoint of environmentally conscious design and manufacturing in advanced post industrial societies. In addition to the environmental limitations, we are facing social limitations which include limitations of markets to accept increasing numbers of mass-produced artifacts and such environmental and social limitations are restraining economic growth. To attack and remove these problems, we need to reconsider the current mass production paradigm and to make products have more added values largely from knowledge and service contents to compensate volume reduction under the concept of dematerialization. Namely, dematerialization of products needs to enrich service contents. However, service was mainly discussed within marketing and has been mostly neglected within traditional engineering. Therefore, we need new engineering methods to look at services, rather than just functions, called "Service Engineering." To establish service engineering, this paper proposes a modeling technique of service.

  19. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  20. Moving Canadian gas - options or confusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, R.

    1997-01-01

    The question of whether and how much gas carrying capacity is required beyond Chicago was examined. Assuming that the answer is 'yes', how much of the gas should be moved beyond Chicago, and which of the many pipeline options currently available should be chosen, was discussed. PanEnergy, one of the United States' five-largest transporters of natural gas and producers of natural gas liquids, with a base of 37,000 miles of natural gas pipelines, decided to get involved with Spectrum which takes gas away from Chicago, and Excelsior which gets gas into New York City. The Spectrum pipeline is designed to phase-in transport of up to 500,000 Dth/d from the Chicago area to the east coast and other markets served by the PanEnergy pipelines, such as southern Ontario, Kansas City and Memphis. The Excelsior pipeline project has been proposed to get gas into New York City. It is a long term solution designed to meet several years of strong historical and forecasted market growth. At the same time, it is not a new pipeline; it is backed by existing assets and will provide service as early as 1998. 15 figs

  1. Canadian conventional gas at a crossroads : a Ziff Energy white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziff, P.

    2010-01-01

    The current low price of natural gas may have a significant and lasting impact on Canada's natural gas industry. This paper discussed the future of Canada's conventional gas industry and presented recommendations for ensuring a competitive and successful industry. Canada's oil and gas producers are increasingly shifting drilling activity towards oil production. The ratio of proven gas reserves to current production is now less than 8 years. As the conventional gas drilling reserve base shrinks, investment levels will also decline. Gas production in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is expected to decline a further 15 per cent by 2020. The strong Canadian dollar has resulted in extensive monetary losses to Canadian gas producers. Service costs to the industry are also high. Recommendations included increased government involvement, new royalty rates, investment in unconventional gas, and regulatory reviews, and low gas production costs. Industry approaches will require involvement from operators, service companies, mid-stream processors, and transporters. 15 figs.

  2. Natural gas prices in Italy. Tariffs geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrocchelli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The annual report on services and activity carries at some evaluations of data concerned the natural gas market: total consumption, costs and prices in Italy and comparative evaluations with other european countries [it

  3. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Trends in gas marketing: the role of public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegrad, A.

    1978-01-01

    By effectively communicating company policies and relevant information concerning the energy situation both to the general public and to employees, public-relations efforts can make a substantial contribution to the success of marketing gas supplies in the future, according to the British Gas Corp. The public's perception of such issues as the availability of gas, assuredness of supply, cost relative to competing sources of energy, environmental impact of gas-industry operations, security of the consumer's investment in major appliances, fairness of pricing policies, quality of the gas product, and efficiency of service will significantly influence the industry's ability to retain a rasonable share of the energy market. To maintain credibility with the public, gas-industry public-relations personnel will have to explain the dimensions and complexity of industry operations while meeting the consumer's expectations for increasing levels of service.

  5. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  6. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  7. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  8. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  9. Gas marketing: Does size equal survival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The thought is enough to make many homeowners cringe: competing natural gas marketers calling them at home in the evening, pushing their brands and services much like AT and T, MCI and Sprint hawk long-distance telephone service today. Another thought is enough to make many gas marketers cringe: a half-dozen or fewer giant mega-marketers selling virtually all the natural gas in the US, and they and their company are not among them. Yet both thoughts are likely to become realities, say many in the natural gas industry. If so, each would represent an intriguing turn of events for the newest segment of the industry, one that barely existed 10 or 15 years ago. The paper discusses the recent history of the gas marketing sector, the changes taking place in the industry, and the biggest problem--the lack of a uniform electronic standard or bulletin board system for dispatching, nominating, and monitoring gas purchase as they move across the country

  10. Electricity/natural gas competition in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of energy market shares (electricity, natural gas and oil products) in Quebec's residential and commercial sectors in the 1980s shows that energy source relative prices have influenced consumer behavior as expected. A set of comparisons from space and water heating markets in these sectors with regard to prices paid by consumers and costs incurred by society in general is presented. For the residential sector, it is seen that consumers pay only a fraction of the cost for electric space and water heating; the same service could be provided at smaller cost by natural gas. For the commercial sector, the electricity and natural gas tariffs convey the appropriate message with respect to the cost incurred in providing the service. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  11. Gas market distorting effects of imbalanced gas balancing rules: Inefficient regulation of pipeline flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyaerts, Nico; Hallack, Michelle; Glachant, Jean-Michel; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the value and cost of line-pack flexibility in liberalized gas markets through examination of the techno-economic characteristics of gas transport pipelines and the trade-offs between different ways to use the infrastructure: transport and flexibility. Line-pack flexibility is becoming increasingly important as a tool to balance gas supply and demand over different periods. In the European liberalized market context, a monopolist unbundled network operator offers regulated transport services and flexibility (balancing) services according to the network code and balancing rules. Therefore, gas policy makers should understand the role and consequences of line-pack regulation. The analysis shows that the line-pack flexibility service has an important economic value for the shippers and the TSO. Furthermore, the analysis identifies distorting effects in the gas market due to inadequate regulation of line-pack flexibility: by disregarding the sunk costs of flexibility in the balancing rules, the overall efficiency of the gas system is decreased. Finally, the analysis demonstrates that the actual costs of line-pack flexibility are related to the peak cumulative imbalance throughout the balancing period. Any price for pipeline flexibility should, therefore, be based on the related trade-off between the right to use the line-pack flexibility and the provision of transport services. - Research Highlights: →Line-pack flexibility is a main gas balancing instrument. →Capacity related costs of line-pack flexibility depend on peak cumulative imbalances. →Line-pack pricing rules determine choice between ex ante and ex post balancing. →Inefficient line-pack regulation causes gas market distortions.

  12. Electronic data interchange in the Canadian natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of electronic data interchange (EDI) in the gas industry was discussed. EDI as a champion of costumer service and as a powerful management tool was defined, and the process of electronic information transfer was explained. EDI was then placed in the context of the business process, and its benefits in providing efficient service and product improvement were enumerated. North American Gas EDI standards, and industry initiatives were explored in detail

  13. Aeroderivative gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.W.; Thames, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft jet engine derivative gas turbines have gained acceptance for cogeneration applications through impressive advances in technology and especially in maintainability and reliability. The best advantages of heavy industrial turbines and of reliable commercial airline jet engines have been successfully joined to meet the requirements for industrial cogeneration service. The next generation is under development and offers improved thermal efficiencies, alternate fuel capabilities, low environmental emissions, flexibility of operation and improved competitive system economics. This paper summarizes the current aero-derivative engine features and advantages with various systems, and discusses advanced features under consideration at this time

  14. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  15. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  16. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  17. Geology knowledge application in civil engineering realization: Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Company manager for the building project of south gas pipeline contracted technical services to National Direction of Geology and Mining DINAMIGE for study the geology.It studied Colonia-Montevideo stretch s and then Colonia-Porto Alegre stretch s of gas pipeline.The main purpose was determine the physical and mechanics earthly characteristic for in a future to bury the gas pipe

  18. THE GAS SENSORS BASED ON ZINC OXIDE (THE REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Bugayova, M. E.; Koval, V. M.; Lashkarev, G. V.; Lazorenko, V. I.; Karpina, V. A.; Khranovskyy, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    The wide range of gas sensor application, in particular, in a mining industry for detection of outflow of gases, the control of gas emissions over an atmosphere at the industrial enterprises, in housing and communal services, in home appliances makes actual the review. As the systematized analysis of gas sensor based on ZnO has not being carried out — this work is of interest for development of chemical sensors based on zinc compound with high sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The resis...

  19. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... equipment and services, 8. Compressors, turbines, measuring meters, SCADA systems, and pumps for pipelines... gas drilling and production equipment and services; Turbines, compressors and pumps for pipeline applications; Measurement and process control equipment for pipeline operations; Industrial automation, control...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1720 - Oxygen gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gases by techniques such as mass spectrometry, polarography, thermal conductivity, or gas chromatography... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen gas analyzer. 868.1720 Section 868.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mixture during pulmonary function testing. The device may use techniques such as thermal conductivity, gas... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  2. Sector report: Malaysia. Upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market in oil and natural gas. The report includes Malaysia's oil and gas reserves, production, exploration, major profits upstream, production sharing contracts, pipeline construction, operators in production, service sector, and Petronas. (UK)

  3. IT Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks. The term 'service' is...

  4. Service modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.W.A.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Lankhorst, M.M.; Jonkers, H.; Zoet, M.; Engelsman, W.; Versendaal, J.; Proper, H.A.; Debije, L.; Gaaloul, K.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of enterprise services involves making design decisions at different levels, ranging from strategic to infrastructural choices, and concerning many different aspects, ranging from customer interaction to information registration concerns. In order to support an agile development

  5. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  6. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  8. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  9. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster describes the development process of an electro-optical based solution for detecting and locating SF6 gas leaks at gas insulated switch gear. The principal technologies that were researched are explained with their advantages...

  10. Activities report - IBP - Instituto Brasileiro do Petroleo e Gas - 2006; Relatorio de atividades - IBP - Instituto Brasileiro do Petroleo e Gas - 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the activities of IBP- Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas (Brazilian Institute of Oil and Gas) in the year of 2005 as follows: economic and energy policy; supply, natural gas, support and services, certification, standardization, courses, events and normalization managing.

  11. Activities report - IBP - Instituto Brasileiro do Petroleo e Gas - 2007; Relatorio de atividades - IBP - Instituto Brasileiro do Petroleo e Gas - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of IBP- Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas (Brazilian Institute of Oil and Gas) in the year of 2005 as follows: economic and energy policy; supply, natural gas, petroleum, biofuels, support and services, environment, licensing, certification, standardization, courses, information system, events and normalization managing.

  12. Activities report - IBP - Instituto Brasileiro do Petroleo e Gas - 2005; Relatorio de atividades - IBP - Instituto Brasileiro do Petroleo e Gas - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the activities of IBP - Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas (Brazilian Institute of Oil and Gas) in the year of 2005 as follows: economic and energy policy, supply, natural gas, support and services, certification, courses, events and normalization managing.

  13. Development of service-relevant materials data and economic quality assurance and machining procedures for gas turbine blades. Final report; Entwicklung betriebsrelevanter Werkstoffkennwerte und wirtschaftlicher Qualitaetssicherungs- und Bearbeitungsverfahren fuer GT-Schaufeln. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergel, R.; Rechtenbacher, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of the reported project, together with the programme partners, optimization of service relevant properties as well as modification of manufacturing procedures for the forged alloy Nimonic 101 were achieved. These results are directly implementable into serial production and cause improved service reliability and economic benefit. For the forged alloy Udimet 720 materials data were generated in accordance with the programme plan. The final evaluation for this alloy will be performed by the project partner Siemens-KWU. The qualification of fine-grained investment cast blades of IN 792 for large rear=stage blading is not yet fully completed. Three major questions are lacking final answers: - Does a stress rupture strength advantage exist over the forged alloy Udimet 720/coarse/grained? - Can a high cycle fatigue strength as high as that for Udimet 720/coarse-grained be met reproducibly? - Does the investment cast blades offer a cost advantage over the forged ones - technical qualification assumed? The programme helped significantly in preparing the right answers to these questions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des berichteten Teilvorhabens ist es in Zusammenarbeit mit den Projektpartnern gelungen, fuer die Schmiedelegierung Nimonic 101 die betriebsrelevanten Eigenschaften zu optimieren, sowie die Schaufelherstellung so zu modifizieren, dass die Betriebszuverlaessigkeit verbessert wird. Diese Ergebnisse sind direkt in die Serienfertigung implementierbar und damit wirtschaftlich nutzbar. Fuer die Schmiedelegierung Udimet 720 wurden im Rahmen des Projektverbundes Werkstoffkennwerte ermittelt. Die Gesamtauswertung fuer diesen Werkstoff erfolgt von Projektpartner Siemens-KWU. Das Bild zur Qualifikation feinkoerniger Feingussschaufeln ist noch nicht restlos klar. Drei wesentliche, noch abschliessend zu beantwortende Fragen sind: - Ergibt sich ein Zeitstandfestigkeitsvorteil gegenueber der Schmiedelegierung Udimet 720/Grobkorn? - Laesst sich reproduzierbar eine

  14. The European Market for Seasonal Gas Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, A.

    2006-02-01

    European demand for gas will grow in the years to come. Simultaneously, gas production in Europe will decrease and imported gas will be needed to replace indigenous production. Gas demand is not constant during the year. There are variations in demand on different timescales ranging from seasonal to hourly. Variations in demand are characterised by two main parameters: working volume and deliverability. Working volume - the amount of gas that can be supplied above the baseload production volume during a long (cold) period- is primarily needed to cope with the summer-winter pattern of gas consumption. Most of the summer-winter pattern comes from the temperature sensitive gas consumption by households and service industries. Gas usage by industry and the power sector are more evenly spread throughout the year and need less working volume. Deliverability - the amount of gas per hour that can be generated on a (very) cold day above the baseload capacity - is the ability to produce large volumes during short periods, e.g. for extremely cold days, or during peak periods during a day. In this paper we argue that a large amount of additional working volume will be required over the coming years. First, flexible European production will be replaced by long-distance import gas, and second, the gas market is expected to grow further. Todays market appears focus mainly on cavems for storage volume. Cavems have little working volume but are ideal for trading purposes. Consequently, Europe may be facing a deficit in working volume, i.e. the ability to cope with seasonal changes in demand. This paper aims to widen the discussion of this matter and give rise to this concern by setting out a broad analysis, exploring the market drivers for seasonal storage and identifying the public interest issues for this market. Chapter 2 gives an overview of demand for and supply characteristics of gas flexibility. Chapter 3 describes the role of gas storage facilities in the gas market

  15. Accounting for gas in a de-regulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawalykut, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the natural gas industry was deregulated, the method of buying, selling and moving gas has changed significantly. Post-deregulation, the pipeline company moves the gas but does not acquire ownership. The full impact of deregulation is seen in opening up the market for buying and selling gas. Tracking of gas has become critical. The service customer is now buying and moving gas. The end-use customer nominates to the distribution company a quantity of gas to be transported. Responsibility is placed on the customer to estimate loads as accurately as possible to avoid possible charges. The distribution company passes the end-user nomination to the upstream transmission company, which in turn passes it along, a process that is repeated until the nomination reaches the production company. Authorizations for gas follow a similar path. The major difference between sales and service gas is the accounting and tracking. As the customer will not consume the exact amount nominated, there will be an imblance between what was nominated and metered. There will also be imbalances between what the producer places into the pipeline and what was nominated. These processes can cause administrative problems, and many customers are moving from sales to service

  16. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  17. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  18. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.

    1994-01-01

    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  19. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  20. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  1. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  2. Gas system 2015: Press conference 21 January 2016 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2015: Gas consumption resumed despite warm conditions in 2015. Gas demand for power generation in gas-fired power plants has strongly increased, due to favourable economic conditions. 2015 was characterised by the lowest LNG imports to France ever, which entailed a still intensive use of the North-South link, despite transits to Spain and Italy back to 5 year average level. New gas uses and biomethane permitted to avoid 490,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions in 2015. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions by administrative regions

  3. Natural gas utilization in Santa Cruz thermal-electric power; A utilizacao de gas natural em Santa Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Mauricio F. de.; Lundeqvist, Carl G; Gomes, Gerson; Almeida, A E

    1994-12-31

    Use of natural gas as an alternative energy source on the thermo electric power plant of Santa Cruz are presented. Economic studies on hydroelectric power plants to use thermal generators during low water supply periods, costs of natural gas as a alternative energy fuel, and the engineer services to the conversion of fuel oil system, are discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  5. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  6. Water into gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodord, Julian.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the move by water utilities into the gas market and potentially into the electricity supply market. Operation by Dee Valley Holdings, York Waterworks, York Gas, and North Wales Gas are reported, and investment, use of mail campaigns and telemarketing to secure customers, and the opportunities offered by diversification are considered. (UK)

  7. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  8. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  9. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  10. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  11. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  12. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  13. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  14. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  15. Onsite gas storage for industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikari, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The changing pattern of industrial gas marketing in the United States and other countries has placed new pressures on industrial users to assume responsibility for assuring their own supply. Technological changes in manufacturing processes have placed greater emphasis on assuring fuel quality and many processes can no longer tolerate near-substitutes such as distillate fuel oil and LPG. One way to take advantage of lower cost interruptible gas service contracts is to provide stand-by sources of gas onsite which can be used when the primary supply is curtailed. This paper describes the methods which an industrial gas consumer could use to store gas onsite (or close by an industrial factory) and their technical and economic advantages or limitations. The regulatory factors such as environmental and safety issues are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are described. The application of emerging technologies such as storing natural gas on adsorbents at low pressure and solid absorption in LPG are reviewed and the research needed to make them acceptable is discussed. The potential applications in the marketplace are also discussed and the economics of onsite storage of natural gas is compared to other alternatives. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  17. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  18. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  19. The Gas Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document is published before a congress which will address the struggle against climate change, the security of the gas supply chain, the responses of energy groups to environmental and economic challenges, the opening of the gas market, the European energy policy, the future role of gas in the third industrial revolution, and the security of gas supplies. After an introduction briefly discussing these issues and the impacts of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and the struggle against climate change for gas production and consumption, several interviews are proposed with actors belonging to the AFG (Association Francaise du Gaz), ADEME, European Commission, Total, GDF Suez, other professional bodies, or local communities

  20. Gas: the great depression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the worrying situation of gas industry: thermal plants are being closed one after the other because of the concurrence of renewable energies and of consumption decrease. European gas industries outline that gas plants could be used for back-up production in case of consumption peaks, and criticize subsidies awarded to renewable energies. Several factors impact this situation: decrease of gross prices, decrease of energy consumption due to a better energy efficiency, development of shale gas production in the USA and in Canada, revival of coal plants (coal is now competitive with respect to gas, and CO 2 is very cheap on the ETS)

  1. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  2. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  3. Venezuelan gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Venezuelan natural gas industry. The structure of PDVSA, the Petroleos de Venezuela Organization, its foreign and domestic affiliates, and its subsidiaries are discussed. Natural gas resources in Venezuela total 290 trillion cubic feet, and Venezuela's share of world, OPEC and latin American production and reserves are 1%, 11% and 26%, respectively for production and 3%, 6% and 49% for reserves. Venezuela's gas pipeline network, plants, production, and marketing are described. Natural gas production and demand forecasts to 2002 are presented. Gas resources are largely located in eastern Venezuela, and large volumes of natural gas non-associated with crude oil will start to become important in the Venezuelan natural gas industry. 19 figs

  4. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  5. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  6. Documentation Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnay, J.; Chosson, L.; Croize, M.; Ducloux, A.; Flores, S.; Jarroux, D.; Melka, J.; Morgue, D.; Mottin, C.

    1998-01-01

    This service assures the treatment and diffusion of the scientific information and the management of the scientific production of the institute as well as the secretariat operation for the groups and services of the institute. The report on documentation-library section mentions: the management of the documentation funds, search in international databases (INIS, Current Contents, Inspects), Pret-Inter service which allows accessing documents through DEMOCRITE network of IN2P3. As realizations also mentioned are: the setup of a video, photo database, the Web home page of the institute's library, follow-up of digitizing the document funds by integrating the CD-ROMs and diskettes, electronic archiving of the scientific production, etc

  7. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  8. Availability/reliability of gas supplies are concerns for utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that long-term economical and reliable fuel contracts are imperative for increased use of natural gas. Demand for natural gas grew by 3.3% in 1991 to 19.3 trillion cubic feet (tcf) according to the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA). during 1992, EIA expects natural gas demand to grow about 1.8%. However, EIA predicts that natural gas demand will be down slightly in the electric power sector. This is despite the potential for continuing lower gas prices and availability. wellhead prices for natural gas fell by more than 9% in 1991. Although EIA forecasts a decline in natural gas use by electric utilities, a study undertaken by ICF Resources for Enron Power Services, Inc. expects natural gas consumption in the power industry to increase in the 1990s. ICF says that the growth will occur because many new plants will be gas-fired, many existing electric utility power plants designed for oil and/or natural gas operation will use natural gas, and about half of new non-utility power plants will be gas-fired

  9. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  10. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  11. 76 FR 36526 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ....47-mile of 20-inch pipeline to transport natural gas for Virginia Power Services Energy Corp., Inc...- fired electric generation facility being constructed by Virginia Electric and Power Company d/b/a... expects to complete the construction and place the electric generation facility in service during 2014...

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury service (TBI) Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This Service provides access to Tramatic Brain injury patient data consult notes. The service also provides one write service method writeNote. The Service supports...

  13. Mail Service

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM Group

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 19 October 2004 Please note that the distribution and collection of mail are likely to be disrupted on Tuesday, October 19, 2004, because of traffic and other restrictions enforced on that day in connection with CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The service may be completely interrupted in certain areas. Group TS-FM, Tel. 77551

  14. PFInancial services

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Briti ettevõttest International Financial Services, mis viib maailmas läbi kampaaniat PPP (Public Private Partnership) ja PFI (Private Finance Initiative) - erasektori ja avaliku sektori vahelise koostöö reklaamimiseks ja edendamiseks. Firma esindajad kohtusid Eesti ametnikega

  15. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  16. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  17. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  18. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  19. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  20. Innovation in Services: From Service Concepts to Service Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Fynes, Brian; Lally, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying the nature of service experiences is recognised As being of primary importance in the shaping of an enhanced competitive position for industry; however service managers often have difficulty articulating the true nature of their service concept. The definition of service concept is a fundamental part of the strategic advantage seeking Processes of service design, service development and service innovation. In response to the competitive Imperative for improved product/...

  1. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  2. 78 FR 3893 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... any natural gas service; however, Columbia would terminate service to one free gas customer pursuant to the terms of the lease agreement between the customer and Columbia. Columbia estimates that it... contact FERC Online Support at FERC Online[email protected] or call toll-free at (866) 206-3676, or, for...

  3. The natural gas guideline... Finally a good agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrame-Devoti, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    After 18 months of intense negotiations, the European Energy Council came on December 8, 1997 to an agreement about the internal gas market. The essential point of this guideline is the possibility for some customers to deal with the supplier of their choice. This opening of national gas markets will lead to the disappearance of gas importation monopolies. This paper summarizes the final option retained for the opening of the European gas market, its schedule, the protection of take or pay contracts, and the future perspectives for industrialists (new operators for the storage, transport, terminals management, distribution and trade, diversification of services, competition..). (J.S.)

  4. The opening of the domestic gas market in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1998-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas market in the UK raises several difficulties. The door-to-door canvassing which has been used to incite customers to change their suppliers has led sometimes to complaint actions. Thus, price reductions were preferentially attributed to direct-debit customers and not to those that use gas meters with pre-payment tokens. In this context, the commercial reaction of British Gas company has been to propose new services concerning not only natural gas but also electric power and water distribution and sometimes also telephone. (J.S.)

  5. Problems of gas marketing, particularly with respect to Swiss conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunzinger, W

    1981-07-01

    Rising gas prices have required a change in Switzerland's marketing strategy to a greater emphasis on the residential, commercial, and service sectors. A Swiss committee on energy in 1978 reported on three different scenarios for Swiss energy development. Excluding district heating and cogeneration use, natural gas consumption, though modest by world standards, grew 13.3% in 1979 to reach 7848 GWhr, or 4.2% of the total energy consumption. The Swiss gas industry association in 1979 began an information campaign to send out a series of six letters about gas.

  6. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  7. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands unless...

  8. Quick response to growth opportunities makes a winner of Piedmont Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    Diversification became a necessity to Piedmont Natural Gas Co. as it increasingly faced curtailments and restrictions on supplies from its single energy source, Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp. Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 marked the beginning of a turnaround in Piedmont's sharply curtailed gas supplies, keeping Piedmont totally involved in both conventional marketing and construction and expansion into diversified operations. Its diversifications include (1) a program of energy-saving conservation services, (2) formation of a propane gas division, and (3) distribution of fuel oil, all of which helped Piedmont become a full-service energy-distribution system.

  9. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  10. U.S. gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. gas producers won't see much price relief in 1991, barring a Persian Gulf war that interrupts crude supply which might be replaced by gas on short notice. Besides the current supply surplus, natural gas futures have added yet another dimension to the process of setting gas prices. Spectators (read speculators) having no intention of ever buying one cu ft of gas now have a hand in setting the forward price of gas. That doesn't necessarily mean something bad; it simply means that there is a new game with new rules and new players. All things considered, look for an average spot price of $1.70 this year. Exploration should pick up modestly, but production from conventional sources is expected to decline slightly in the '90s. Technological developments that enhance deliverability and reduce finding costs will moderate the decline, but not halt it

  11. The gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part proposes an overview of the current situation of the gas market and predictions regarding gas consumption and turnovers of gas producers and dealers, indication of important recent events, and a dashboard of the sector activity. A second part proposes an annual report on trends and on the competition context. It describes the activity structure (sector organisations, gas types, main customers, heating modes in French housing, tariff offers), indicates the main determining factors for the sector activity, describes the context (temperature evolution, thermal electricity production, production of the chemical industry, housing stock, natural gas consumption), analyses the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators), describes the sector economic structure (upstream sector, gas supply), and gives an overview of actors: historical suppliers, alternate suppliers, highlights of the sector, company rankings, and financial performance

  12. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  13. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  14. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  15. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  16. New gas turbine technology 2012-2014 - Gas Turbine Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [LTH, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    an important verification that the plant fulfills the expectations. One important thing, however, is not to accept the test uncertainty as a test tolerance since it will provide the manufacturer overwhelming and unfair odds. Nowadays, it is common to have a maintenance agreement at some level for risk mitigation. There are different levels of contractual services ranging from parts agreement to full coverage 'bumper-to-bumper' LTSA services. One can chose to use either the OEM or another (third party) service provider. In many cases, the financing organs or insurer requires an LTSA (or better) for risk mitigation to level the insurance cost at a reasonable level. There are ways of potentially reducing the maintenance spending and one should always avoid lumped methods with equivalent hours. The word 'lumped' is used in a sense that the two different ageing mechanisms (creep, oxidation, regular wear and tear and stresses related to thermal gradients during start and stop) are evaluated as equivalent time by e.g. assuming that a start consumes time rather being a low cycle. A competent monitoring system can be a good investment - even if only a single failure can be avoided. The total world-wide gas turbine fleet is in the order of 47 000 units and the total value of the gas turbine after market was 2009 13.8 BEuro (13.8x10{sup 9} Euro). The after-market is, indeed, valuable to the manufacturers since all 47 000 units requires maintenance on a regular basis. Certain in-house produced parts may be offered with several hundred percent's margin - in contrast to about ten percent for a complete new turn-key power plant. The reward for the user, by having a LTSA, is discounted parts and prioritized treatment by the supplier. The combined cycle has about half the carbon dioxide emission compared to a coal fired plant. The large difference is driven by the higher efficiency and the higher hydrogen content in natural gas. This in combination with the

  17. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  18. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  19. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  20. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  1. Valve for gas centrifuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  2. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  3. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  4. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  5. Gas in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) can be thought of as the galactic atmosphere which fills the space between stars. When clouds within the ISM collapse, stars are born. When the stars die, they return their matter to the surrounding gas. Therefore the ISM plays a vital role in galactic evolution. The medium includes starlight, gas, dust, planets, comets, asteroids, fast moving charged particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields. The gas can be further divided into hot, warm and cold components, e...

  6. Upstream oil and gas. Subsector no. 7: Oil and gas exploration and development 1995 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Prepared by the Alberta Human Resources and Employment, this report provides a summary of the lost-time injuries and disease descriptions of workers injured while employed in the upstream oil and gas industries in Alberta during the period 1995 to 1999. The report includes the characteristics of the injured worker and the risk of injury to workers in the industries in Alberta, as well as the cost of injuries and revenue by means of total premiums paid by the employers. The occupational fatalities that were accepted by the Workers Compensation Board and investigated by the Occupational Health and Safety were summarized in the report along with a brief description of the injuries. The aim was to provide information concerning health and safety issues to government, employers, workers, and health and safety officers in the industries in Alberta about health and safety issues. The focus was placed on the oil and gas exploration and development sub-sector. Defined as all upstream oil field activities of employers which generate revenue from the production and sale of crude oil and/or natural gas, the sub-sector comprises major integrated oil and gas companies and small independent producers. In those cases where the owner/producer operates its own upstream production/processing facilities, they form an integral part of this sub-section. In addition, oil and gas marketing firms are included. Oil/gas well, well head equipment; flow lines/gathering systems tied into field processing facilities; battery sites/compressors stations; crude oil separators and natural gas dehydrators/treaters; natural gas/sulfur processing plants; heavy oil projects including steam generation; and other enhanced recovery methods are all included in the sub-sector. The other sub-sectors in the upstream oil and gas industries are: exploration, oilfield maintenance and construction, well servicing with service rigs and power swivels, drilling of oil and gas wells, oilfield downhole and other

  7. ITER diagnostics ex-vessel engineering services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, A.P., E-mail: arun.prakash@iter.org; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Beltran, D.; Bertalot, L.; Dammann, A.; Direz, M.F.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Giacomin, T.; Hourtoule, J.; Kuehn, I.; Lanza, R.; Levesy, B.; Maquet, P.; Patel, K.M.; Patisson, L.; Pitcher, C.S.; Portales, M.; and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes about the ITER diagnostics ex-vessel engineering services. • It describes various diagnostics systems, its location and its environment. • Diagnostics interfaces with other services such as the buildings, HVAC, electrical services, cooling water, vacuum, liquid and gas distribution. • All the interfaces with these services are identified and defined. • Buildings services for diagnostics, such as penetrations, local shielding, embedment and temperature control are discussed. -- Abstract: Extensive diagnostics systems will be installed on the ITER machine to provide the measurements necessary to control, evaluate and optimize plasma performance in ITER and to further the understanding of plasma physics. These include measurements of temperature, density, impurity concentration, and particle and energy confinement times. ITER diagnostic systems extend from the center of the Tokamak to the various diagnostic areas, where they are controlled and acquired data is processed. This mainly includes the areas such as ports, port cells, gallery, diagnostics enclosures and cubicle areas. The diagnostics port plugs encloses the front end of the diagnostic systems and the diagnostics building houses the diagnostics equipment, instrumentation and control cubicles. There are several systems providing services to diagnostics. These mainly include ITER buildings, electrical power services, cooling water services, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), vacuum services, liquid and gas distribution services, cable engineering, de-tritiation systems, control cubicles, etc. Requirements of these service systems have to be defined, even though many of the diagnostics are at an early stage of development. It is a real challenge to define and to design diagnostics systems considering the constraints imposed by these service systems. This paper summarizes the provision of these services to the individual diagnostics and diagnostics areas

  8. ITER diagnostics ex-vessel engineering services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, A.P.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Beltran, D.; Bertalot, L.; Dammann, A.; Direz, M.F.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Giacomin, T.; Hourtoule, J.; Kuehn, I.; Lanza, R.; Levesy, B.; Maquet, P.; Patel, K.M.; Patisson, L.; Pitcher, C.S.; Portales, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper describes about the ITER diagnostics ex-vessel engineering services. • It describes various diagnostics systems, its location and its environment. • Diagnostics interfaces with other services such as the buildings, HVAC, electrical services, cooling water, vacuum, liquid and gas distribution. • All the interfaces with these services are identified and defined. • Buildings services for diagnostics, such as penetrations, local shielding, embedment and temperature control are discussed. -- Abstract: Extensive diagnostics systems will be installed on the ITER machine to provide the measurements necessary to control, evaluate and optimize plasma performance in ITER and to further the understanding of plasma physics. These include measurements of temperature, density, impurity concentration, and particle and energy confinement times. ITER diagnostic systems extend from the center of the Tokamak to the various diagnostic areas, where they are controlled and acquired data is processed. This mainly includes the areas such as ports, port cells, gallery, diagnostics enclosures and cubicle areas. The diagnostics port plugs encloses the front end of the diagnostic systems and the diagnostics building houses the diagnostics equipment, instrumentation and control cubicles. There are several systems providing services to diagnostics. These mainly include ITER buildings, electrical power services, cooling water services, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), vacuum services, liquid and gas distribution services, cable engineering, de-tritiation systems, control cubicles, etc. Requirements of these service systems have to be defined, even though many of the diagnostics are at an early stage of development. It is a real challenge to define and to design diagnostics systems considering the constraints imposed by these service systems. This paper summarizes the provision of these services to the individual diagnostics and diagnostics areas

  9. Policy statement on gas distribution in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-30

    This paper presented Nova Scotia's policy related to gas distribution. The government of Nova Scotia views natural gas as an economic enabler and is committed to ensuring that natural gas is available and accessible to Nova Scotians where it is economically feasible. Natural gas will give the province an efficient and clean burning energy supply that will make existing businesses more competitive. The province will support and facilitate the construction and operation of a gas distribution system by the private sector and will ensure that there is regulatory oversight by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board to protect the public interest. The government will also develop a plan for early conversion of government buildings to natural gas. This paper described the province's policy on gas distribution in relation to: (1) a province-wide franchise, (2) a supplemental franchise, (3) cost of service/performance based rates, (4) postage stamp rates, (5) a Maritimes and Northeast lateral policy, (6) direct access/bypass, (7) existing direct access user, (8) bundling of gas sales and other products and services, (9) licensing of gas marketers, (10) benefits, (11), regulatory efficiency, (12) municipal taxes, and (13) municipal operating agreements.

  10. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  11. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  12. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  13. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  15. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  16. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  17. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  18. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  19. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  20. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  1. 2017 Gas Congress special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Patrick; Ferrier, Jerome; Holleaux, Didier; Vivier, Laurent; Gattaz, Pierre; Delga, Carole; Carenco, Jean-Francois; Sadamori, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of 'Gaz d'Aujourd'hui' journal is entirely devoted to the 2017 Gas Congress proceedings. The congress was organized in 5 round tables and 12 workshops: Round table 1 - COP 21 2 years after, workshops 1-6: 1 - digital transformation: what are the challenges for the gas sector? 2 - Which actors and what policies to fight against energy insecurity? 3 - Natural gas development: what fiscal signs? 4 - Terrestrial transportation: current situation and prospects; 5 - Consumers' perception of gas; 6 - industrial uses; Round table 2 - Maritime and fluvial LNG perspectives; Round table 3 - Territories, the new decision-makers, workshops 7-12: 7 - What energy regulation for tomorrow? 8 - How to succeed in injecting more and more green gas? 9 - Digital, data and emerging technologies (drones, blockchain..): challenges and applications for gas networks? 10 - Underground storage: a promising infrastructure? 11 - Security of supply: what new cooperation? 12 - Power-to-gas: a new way of energy valorization; Round table 4 - Gas and electricity, winning synergies; Round table 5 - The Europe of gas

  2. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  3. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  4. What's ahead for the gas industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of what is in store for the North American electricity and gas markets was discussed. The electric power and gas industry are moving towards competition which will benefit the majority of market participants and will create a more level playing field. Deregulation in the U.S. natural gas industry is also building momentum. The steps that companies wishing to be successful must take before they can take full advantage of new and emerging opportunities are to: (1) know their business, and recognize that they are in the energy business, not only in the natural gas or electricity business, (2) organize for success by planning for mergers, acquisitions and alliances, (3) manage for change, and (4) know their markets and customers. Deregulation and converging energies were seen as the two major issues that the energy sector in Canada will be facing in the near future. Natural gas and electric utilities will survive beyond the year 2000 if they are flexible, provide a wide range of services, and offer new rates. Ontario Hydro's move to diversify their existing power generation and to burn natural gas for power generation to meet energy demand was considered to be a good example of how to manage for change. tabs., figs

  5. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  6. Impact of State and Federal regulatory policy on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents information which demonstrates the decline in the use and subsequent demand of natural gas as the result of regulatory constraints. These regulations have allowed for a 10 percent decline in the use of natural gas in the last 20 years. The author believes that the major reason for this decline is the existence of State and Federal regulatory requirements which prevent the natural gas industry from effectively responding to new market opportunities. The paper goes on to discuss historical regulations such as the Fuel Use Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act which caused severe impacts to development in the gas industry by placing incremental price controls on natural gas. The author then discusses the effect of deregulation and how it has boosted the gas industry. He specifically discusses the US Canada Free-Trade Agreement and the new negotiations which would greatly enhance the gas sales to Mexico. Finally the author goes on to discuss deregulatory stances proposed as part of the National Energy Strategy regarding natural gas. These include the removal of obstacles to building new pipeline capacities; reformation of rates policies; assurances of nondiscriminatory access to natural gas pipeline services and facilities; and removal of impediments to free and open international trade in natural gas

  7. Financial instruments help producers hedge gas deals in volatile market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawnin, J.N.; Kupiec, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978 and more recently the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636 have changed gas marketing from a totally regulated industry to one that responds to free-market forces. The stable but controlled market in which producers once sold gas has become highly competitive and more efficient. Consequently, prices have become more volatile; they respond more quickly than they did before to changes in supply of and demand for natural gas. Prior to deregulation of the natural gas industry, producers had fewer marketing options than they do today. Under a typical gas sales contract, producers sold gas to the nearest pipeline at regulated prices, which remained relatively stable along the interstate distribution chain. The system, however, failed to generate adequate supply of gas. In an effort to realign supply and demand, Congress initiated the deregulation of natural gas with NGPA, which phased out most wellhead price controls. A series of FERC actions culminating in Order 636 extended the process. Now, independent producers can sell gas directly to end users. Under Order 636, interstate pipelines no longer offer merchant services to gas customers. The paper discusses the change in risk profiles, price protection, futures and options, hedged exposure, setting price floors, off-exchange contracts, risk considerations, types of risks, business controls, back office controls, and credit monitoring

  8. Our services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this video-films services of the VUJE, a. s. are presented. The company VUJE provides reconstruction and modernization of nuclear installations, research, development and production of equipment for nuclear power plants and electric industry, development of diagnostic methods, training on simulator of reactor, increase of reactor safety, preparation of documentation about NPP for the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, measures for radiation protection and protection of the environment as well as development and application of information technologies.

  9. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1919-07-01

    and to the fact that it affects the skin, the eyes, the throat and lungs, as well as the digestive’ tract if’ food be eaten that has been exposed to...zfYx~r its firat uzje by the Germanic before tile first Allied mustard gas at- $ack took place, This was made by the Franch in the vicinity of Com...of bicarbonate of soda &Uxr and their eyes, ears, mouth and nasal pasa gee washed with the same, PROTECTING FOOD FROM MUSTARD GAS, ‘9 It was very

  10. Using Service Scenarios to Model Business Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate the notion of service scenarios. A service is work done by a service executor in interaction with a service consumer. A service scenario is a model of a service system and the roles that are played by the actors participating and interacting...... during the execution of a service. The model represents the roles and the interactions between the participants. Service scenarios can be used to model specific services and roles played by human beings and IT systems in the execution of services. The use of service scenarios is demonstrated by means...... of a case study in a public library. The case study indicates that service systems should be understood as socio-technical systems in which service executors and service consumers co-create value in mutual interaction with each other and with a set of shared resources....

  11. Role of technology in the U. K. gas industry. past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J W

    1979-06-01

    A discussion covers the beginning of public gas supply in the U.K.; the production of gas during coal combustion and the oil era; the development of LNG transport technology; the development of the Dent processes for producing gases from hydrocarbon feedstocks including the Catalytic Rich Gas and the Gas Recycle Hydrogenation processes; the growth of the natural gas transmission and distribution industry; the organization and functions of the British Gas Corp. Research and Development Division and Scientific Services; the various technological innovations being used in the transmission, distribution, domestic and industrial utilization sectors of the gas industry; the various efforts leading to the development of a commercial SNG process, based on the Lurgi coal gasifier operated under slagging conditions, that can handle a wide range of coals; and the outlook for future gas supply and demand, a hydrogen economy-based gas industry, and new developments affecting gas transmission and distribution, conservation and utilization.

  12. ''Infomobile'' in action: customer advisory service on site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.

    1994-01-01

    Gas supply companies have since 1991 been using the ''infomobiles'' of the Wirtschafts- und Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser mbH with great success. Whereas in the new Laender the ''infomobiles'' are mainly used for flanking customer advisory services and for facilitating educational work prior to conversion to natural gas and to gas exploitation measures, their deployment in the old Laender is oriented to winning new customers in areas still without a gas supply and enhancing grid density in existing supply areas. (orig.) [de

  13. The logic of natural gas penetration in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardet, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is trying first to bring out some characteristic lines from the thirty years period of natural gas market growth in Europe: triggering role of domestic gas resources, relay by imports, background from an existing manufactured gas industry. The different roles of bulk usages and scattered ones are underlined. Through an example it is showed that market conditions are relying on a rapid shift of the gas prices competitiveness and on the historical opportunity of space heating growth. In a second part, this paper analyses in each great sector of consumption that could sustain the growth to come of natural gas in Europe. This development relies on marketing forces and on the disposal of new usages for gas and new services for customers, with the benefit from technological headway. 8 figs

  14. Approaching the millennium - strategies for the gas buyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.; Kelton, F.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of what is in store for gas purchasing in Ontario's new deregulated market was presented. Basically, responsibilities will shift from the utility to market players. The impact of this shift on marketers, on end-users and on the utility were assessed. In the new millennium, Consumers Gas, which is Canada's largest and oldest natural gas distributor, will be operating under a new name, Enbridge. The company will focus on developing marketing programs to position natural gas as the number one fuel choice for residential, commercial, apartments, vehicles, cogeneration and industrial markets. The evolution of the 200 customer market model( i.e. large volume customers, gas marketers, commercial customers and residential customers as a group), what each of these groups want from Enbridge, and what Enbridge can deliver as the wholesale provider of natural gas delivery services rounded out the discussion. figs

  15. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  16. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenberg, B.

    1994-01-01

    The financial outlook for the Canadian natural gas industry is discussed in terms of the price of Canadian gas and its production and transportation costs. Demand growth for natural gas is fairly steady, reflecting economic growth and technological advances. Supply growth is more volatile, overshooting demand growth in an up market and undershooting in a down market. In the past year and a half, gas prices have improved as the supply deliverability surplus has eroded. It is predicted that supply will again exceed demand and prices will decline, the length of this price cycle being a few years. Production costs for western Canadian gas had been declining during the mid-1980s to 1991, and current replacement costs average ca $1.87/GJ. It is doubtful that fieldgate costs will increase to overtake fieldgate market prices and the Canadian gas industry will remain in a healthy state. The availability and cost of gas transport, however, is critically important. The major costs of pipeline transport are fixed demand charges and the value of transport services out of western Canada is determined by the demand and the supply (the location and size of the pipeline infrastructure, which is essentially fixed over short to medium time frames). This value can vary significantly as the demand for pipeline space varies both daily and seasonally. Excess pipeline capacity is generally good for the Canadian producing industry since it lowers transport costs, but excess capacity also plays a role in linking producing-basin and market area prices to one another. This is illustrated for the case of Alberta and Texas gas prices, which show higher correlation with falling load factors on ex-Alberta pipeline capacity. 5 figs

  17. Gas conditioning and gas balance in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Bonnel, P.; Grosman, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Bardon, J.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate barometry is very helpful in analysing the plasma wall interaction processes in controlled fusion devices. In Tore Supra, residual gas analysis and various types of pressure gauges allow to monitor the various conditioning processes and the global particle balance. In this paper, measurements are described and analysis of two examples is given [fr

  18. Tight gas sand tax credit yields opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.W.; Osburn, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Internal Revenue Service on Apr. 1, 1991, released the inflation adjustments used in the calculations of Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits for 1990. The inflation adjustment, 1.6730, when applied to the base price of $3/bbl of oil equivalent, adjusts the tax credit to $5.019/bbl for oil and 86.53 cents/MMBTU for gas. The conversion factor for equivalent fuels is 5.8 MMBTU/bbl. Unfortunately, the tax credit for tight formation gas continues to be unadjusted for inflation and remains 52 cents/MMBTU. As many producers are aware, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 expanded the dates of eligibility and the usage for-Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits. Among other provisions, eligible wells may be placed in service until Jan. 1, 1992, and once in place may utilize the credit for production through Dec. 31, 2002. Both dates are 2 year extensions from previous regulations

  19. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  20. Fission gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by failed fuel rods which device uses a filter adapted to pass coolant but to block passage of fission gas bubbles due to the surface tension of the bubbles. The coolant may be liquid metal. (author)

  1. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  2. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  3. 1962 : Bay City gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1962, a major natural gas export system from Alberta to San Francisco was brought online. The $300 million, 2,200 km Alberta and Southern system was expected to transport 584 million cubic feet daily in its first year of operation, more than one-third the total volume of gas sold by Canadian producers the previous year. The new gas export market also served to create more gas for the Canadian market because the incentive to serve a large export market also encouraged producers to explore for and develop more gas. The pipeline system started in the foothills belt 200 km northwest of Edmonton, and spanned through Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. One month before its official opening, a gas line explosion occurred during pressure testing of a lateral line. The Alberta portion of the Alberta and Southern system was also used 2 decades later as a tie-in to the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project. Other key events in 1962 included approval of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited; the manufacture of the first rock drill bits in western Canada; production of 90 million cubic feet of natural gas from 12 wells in Quebec; and, an increase in oil production from the Soviet Union. 1 tab., 1 fig

  4. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  5. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  6. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  7. GasAttack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQuillin, I.

    1998-01-01

    A recent Landfill Directive, which aims to reduce the amount of biodegradable materials being disposed of in landfill sites, must necessarily, it is argued, cause gas supply problems for the fledgling landfill gas industry in the United Kingdom. Prospects for the new industry over the next twenty years are explored in the light of this setback. (UK)

  8. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail

  9. Natural gas information 2004. With 2003 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only the OECD countries but also the rest of the world, this publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices. The main part of the book concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: North America, Europe and Pacific, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end-user. Import and export data are reported by source and destination. The CD-Rom and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 (1971 for some countries) to 2003. End-use data are available up to 2002

  10. Natural gas information 2006 - with 2006 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only the OECD countries but also the rest of the world, this publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices.The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: North America, Europe and Pacific, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end-user. Import and export data are reported by source and destination. This publication is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources. The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 (1971 for some countries) to 2004. End-use data are available up to 2003

  11. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  12. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  13. Electric Engines to Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental pollution and specially air pollution, it is produced in a wide range by exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, those which are used to generate energy. Direct use of fossil combustibles as petroleum derivatives and coal produces large quantities of harmful elements to ecology equilibrium. Whit the objective of reducing this pollutant load has been development thermoelectric plants whit turbine to gas or to steam, those which are moved by internal combustion engines. Gas engines can burn most of available gases, as both solid waste and wastewater treatment plants biogas, propane gas, oil-liquefied gas or natural gas. These gases are an alternative and clean energy source, and its efficiency in internal combustion engines is highest compared whit other combustibles as gasoline-motor or diesel

  14. Having the last gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, N P; Phillips, P S; Hall, R [Nene College of Higher Education, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Millions of visitors to the 1985 International Garden Festival in Liverpool were probably unaware that the landscape gardens they had come to enjoy were on top of approximately 10m t of domestic rubbish. Nor were they aware that this rubbish was generating a methane-rich gas that had necessitated installing a special extraction system to remove it from the site. At first this gas - landfill gas - was simply flared (burnt), but once it was realised that extraction would be need for at least 15 years it was decided to use the gas to generate electricity. This development is a good example of the potential, especially in the developed world, for using landfill gas produced in refuse tips as an additional and versatile energy source. This potential is analysed and the problems of exploitation examined. (2 figures). (author)

  15. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  16. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  17. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  18. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  19. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  20. Emergency gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruishi, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the reduction of radioactive substances released out of reactor buildings irrespective of the aging change in the buildings. Constitution: There are provided an exhaust gas flow channel for cleaning contaminated airs within a reactor building by way of a series of filters and exhausting the cleaned airs by means of exhaust fans to the outside and a gas recycling flow channel having a cooler in connection with the exhaust gas flow channel at a position downstream of the exhaust fans for returning the cleaned airs in the exhaust gas flow channel to the inside of the reactor buildings. The pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the reactor buildings is made constant by controlling the air flow channel within the gas recycling flow channel by a flow control valve. The airs cleaned by the series of the filters are recycled to the inside of the buildings to decrease the radioactive substance within the buildings. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  2. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  3. The Ikhil Gas Project: developing the first commercial natural gas project north of the Arctic Circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, G. [AltaGas Services Inc., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Development of the Ikhil Natural Gas Project by the Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation in partnership with Enbridge and AltaGas Services are described in a step-by-step fashion. A minimum of 11 Bcf of recoverable natural gas reserves have been established to date. The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is committed under a 15-year take-or-pay contract to take the gas, and the Town of Inuvik also has a franchise agreement with the project owners for a 15-year period. Challenges faced and overcome in adapting to the regulatory process, the engineering problems that required special solutions (e.g. ice/snow roads, gravel pad to support wellhead and production facilities, reducing temperature of gas to avoid disturbing the permafrost, sand-padding pipeline to supplement high ice/content material), converting a diesel town to a natural gas town, and installing an underground distribution system in ground that is constantly shifting due to permafrost, are some of the examples discussed. Benefits accruing to local people and businesses during construction and the production phases of the project are described, along with details of an assessment and discussion of lessons learned after two years of operation. Overall, the project is considered to have been an engineering success. Financially, it is too early to judge, but it is expected that with economic development in Inuvik taking off, demand for natural gas and electricity will develop and justify the confidence of the developers.

  4. Service Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Andersen, Kim Normann

    The position presented in this paper is that in order to understand how service robots shape, and are being shaped by, the physical and social contexts in which they are used, we need to consider both work/organizational analysis and interaction design. We illustrate this with qualitative data...... and personal experiences to generate discussion about how to link these two traditions. This paper presents selected results from a case study that investigated the implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish eldercare. The study demonstrates interpretive flexibility with variation...

  5. The 2003 guidebook of petroleum, gas and LPG. Every professional and web site in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.

    2003-01-01

    This guidebook is a joint special issue of 'Petrole et Gaz Informations' and 'GPL Actualites' journals. It is a complete and practical information tool which takes stock of: the economical activity during 2001 and 2002 (exploration/production, deep offshore activities, maritime transport and tanker-ships, European refining and new specifications, automotive fuels and future engines, lubricants, maritime transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), storage facilities and capacity, new standards for bitumen binders, natural gas prospects, sustainable development and ethical investment, air pollution abatement etc..); the 2002 economical key-data of oil and gas summarized in an atlas of maps and statistical tables; a list of public organizations and associations, and of oil and gas companies settled in France; a list of companies involved in oil and gas equipments, services and products sorted by sector; and a yearbook of the oil and gas professionals with their corporate and web sites. (J.S.)

  6. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  7. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič

    2017-01-01

    In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...

  8. The service Ouroboros: Designing personas service cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Sune Klok; Brandt, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Many companies investigate new business opportunities in a turn from product to service design. As service offerings expand over time and space, such notions as ‘customer journey’ or ‘service blueprint’ have been suggested to grasp and design the nature of the emergent services. However, we find ...... various customers’´service cycles....

  9. Service registry design: an information service approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Pires, Luis; Wang, J.; van Oostrum, Arjen; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A service registry is a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) component that keeps a ‘catalogue’ of available services. It stores service specifications so that these specifications can be found by potential users. Discussions on the design of service registries currently focus on technical issues,

  10. Practical consequences of the liberalization of the natural gas market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenis, F.T.C.; Rouwhorst, H.; Kop, L.

    2000-01-01

    In four articles a first overview is given of the consequences for the Dutch natural gas industry of the liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe. In the first article attention is paid to the consequences for the organization and operation of the natural gas sector. In article 2 some (new and mainly financial) services that can be offered by natural gas trading companies in a liberalized market are discussed. In the third article technical consequences for the organization and management of the natural gas distribution system are outlined, while in article 4 the subject is the development of an open standard for gas meters

  11. Gas and electricity 2001: new market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This document brings together 15 testimonies of experts about the opening of gas and electricity markets: 1 - from the opening of the electricity market to the future deregulation of the gas market: what are the new rules of the world energy market? Gaz de France's strategy in front of the opening of the market. The problem of the gas supplies in Europe in the framework of the opening of markets; 2 - Is the access to the network the same for everybody: the regulation authority as catalyst of the electricity market; the technical network constraints and the conditions of access to the transport and interconnections; the regulatory and contractual framework of the access to interconnections; how a foreign producer can warrant the supply of electricity in France; 3 - which global offer and which new services to be supplied to clients today: what is the global offer of a new actor? Power supply and associated services: what is the global offer of new actors to answer the client's needs? 4 - What are the expectations and choices of consumers in a de-regulated environment; definitions and implementations of new European strategies of purchase: how the purchaser work has changed? 5 - What is the place of the energy trade: the implementation of the electricity stock exchange in France: Powernext. How to manage risks associated to a gas/electricity assets portfolio? (J.S.)

  12. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  13. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  14. South American natural gas trade: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.; Peacey, D.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future prospects for the natural gas sector in South America were examined, including the ability of the natural gas resource base to meet potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). The physical, legal, fiscal, regulatory and political developments in the hydrocarbon-producing countries in the Southern Cone region were reviewed. For example, in Colombia, the domestic gas market potential and resource base argue in favor of a closed domestic gas sector development policy. In contrast, Venezuela, a country that already has a well developed domestic gas sector, is pursuing offshore market development through both petrochemical and liquefied natural gas initiatives. Following a comprehensive description of individual gas resources, markets and market potential, and legal, institutional and political environments, the study reports on a number of alternative scenarios concerning natural gas integration in the Southern Cone region, developed by using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The following scenarios were reviewed: (1) closure and confinement, (2) integration and expansion, and (3) gains from technology. It was estimated that potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region is projected to grow from 900 billion cubic feet per year in 1994 to over 5.3 trillion cubic feet in 2021. The majority of growth is expected in Brazil. The overall conclusion of the study was that regardless of the scenario, Southern Core gas sector integration has strong economic and commercial merit, and that the natural gas resource base in the Southern Cone, as represented by the gas reserves database, is more than adequate to service potential demand. 100 refs., 50 tabs., 54 figs

  15. Electric power geneation and other gas market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The future market for natural gas in the northeast USA is discussed. A strong market demand for natural gas is foreseen to continue because of the need for clean burning electric generation facilities and the low saturation of overall natural gas use in the northeast. Although total gas sales increased 30% in the northeast from 1978 to 1989, and conversion of commercial businesses and houses to natural gas use is increasing, the northeast still remains highly dependent on oil as an energy source. For example, nearly 60% of all the oil used to generate electricity and ca 70% of all the home heating oil used the USA is burned in the northeast. The northeast currently receives ca 4.3 billion ft 3 /d of gas, 80% from Louisiana and Texas. With the addition of a number of pipeline projects, another 4.2 billion ft 3 /d will be added by 1992. Power demand is growing, and many New England generation plants are 30 years old or more and in need of upgrading. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for new installations because of pollution regulations, low capital costs, competitive gas pricing, and other factors. A recent report projects that ca 68% of the planned cogeneration capacity in New England will be fuelled by natural gas, requiring an additional 200.7 billion ft 3 /d in the northeast. Another market with strong potential for continued growth is the residential sector, where only 61% of households with gas service use gas for heating. Natural gas vehicle development is being stimulated by mandates for alternative fuelled vehicle fleets; an increase in gas demand of 600 billion ft 3 by 2005 is projectd, based on increased use of natural gas vehicles. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  17. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  18. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  19. Nova Scotia's new gas distribution regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIsaac, J.B. [Cox Hanson O' Reilly Matheson, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The most recent amendments to Nova Scotia's gas distribution regime were described in detail. The amended legislation includes: (1) elimination of mandatory service targets, (2) franchise terms of 25 years, (3) a 10 year prohibition on industrial by-pass, (4) gas sales licenses are now required to market gas in Nova Scotia, (5) distributors can offer bundled services, (6) the elimination of province wide uniform tolls for low volume customers, (7) public utilities are permitted to apply for a distribution franchise and to market natural gas, (8) ex-party filing of interim rates, (9) the Pipeline Act applies to the construction of gas distribution systems, (10) socio-economic studies are required for parties seeking a single-end user franchise outside a franchise area, and (11) regulations for underground gas storage have been removed from the legislation. It was noted that these significant changes to the statutory framework of Nova Scotia's delivery of natural gas are sending encouraging signals to parties considering investing in the distribution network in the province. It was also noted, that as in any industry, success of natural gas distribution in Nova Scotia will depend on economics and not on structural changes. 66 refs.

  20. Controlling service delivery in service triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwaarden, van J.; Valk, van der W.; Aalders, L.; Virolainen, V.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly sourcing services that are directly delivered to their (end) customers by external providers. Buying organization, supplier and (end) customer operate in a triadic service relationship. In these triads, the buying organization lacks direct control over service delivery

  1. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  2. Russian gas in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas output in Russia fell by 3.5% in 1993. This followed decades of rapid growth in production reaching a peak in 1991 and a minor fall in 1993. Gas consumption also peaked in 1991 and fell by 5% over the two following years. The major cause of the decline in consumption is the fall in electricity demand which has accompanied the economic recession. Gas has accounted for about 60% of the reduction in fuel consumption by power stations. Gas consumption by industrial and municipal boilers has also dropped steeply although household and other municipal consumption has increased. The fall in demand does not wholely account for the fall in production, however. Apart from Yamburg, all operational gas fields have now reached the stage of declining production. Government officials are talking tentatively of 1997 as the turning point for the Russian economy and following this, the demand for gas will rise again. It is not certain, however, that the industry will be able to meet the increased demand which is anticipated. Most of the increased production will have to come from new fields in the Yamal Peninsular the development of which is proceeding much more slowly than planned. In the longer term, possibly in the early years of the next century, the Shtokmanovsk gasfield in the Barents Sea may be developed. Other aspects of the Russian gas industry briefly covered are reserves, financing of exploratory drilling, investment, intra-CIS trade and exports and privatisation of the state owned company Garyprom. (UK)

  3. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  4. Kara-Kum gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudz, A.

    1975-05-01

    Natural gas from the Shatlyk gas field in the Kara Kum Desert, Turkmenia, U.S.S.R., will soon be available to the European section of the U.S.S.R. with the recent completion of the 291-mi Shatlyk-Khiva gas pipeline and the completion of all associated production units by the end of the year. The gas field, with explored reserves of (1.5 trillion m/sup 3/), is expected to be producing (100 million m/sup 3//day) at the end of 1975. Diagonal profiling was used in the exploration stage to reduce the number of boreholes required from 16 to 11, saving about $6.7 million (5 million rubles) and cutting the exploration time by almost 2 y. Most of the boreholes, drilled within the contour of the gas-bearing structure, can be used for gas production. The gas, produced at 2352 psi and 205/sup 0/F, is cooled to 113/sup 0/F, stripped of condensate and moisture, metered, and treated before transmission.

  5. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  6. Gas supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: When injecting gas during plasma discharge, to prevent erronous operation of the piezoelectric valves due to vibrations and to inject gas into the vacuum vessel by accurately controlling gas flow. Constitution: The piezoelectric valve designed to control the flow of gas when charging vacuum vessels is installed between the vacuum vessel and the gas cylinder and a pulse voltage generator to control the valve (open/close) and the reverse voltage generator to apply a reverse current to the valve element are also provided. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric element, the piezoelectric element bends. However, when the polarity is changed, the direction of the bend is also reversed. The seat portion is pressed in proportion to the degree of bending. When gas is injected while plasma is being discharged, the gap created, due to vibrations, between the piezoelectric element and the sealing material is prevented by the application of a reverse current. This allows precise control of the gas injection volume as well as the injection interval. This assures maintenance of precise test conditions when testing thermonuclear devices. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  9. Production of inert gas for substitution of a part of the cushion gas trapped in an aquifer underground storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, L.; Arnoult, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a natural gas storage reservoir operating over the different seasons, a varying fraction of the injected gas, the cushion gas, remains permanently trapped. This cushion gas may represent more than half the total gas volume, and more than 50% of the initial investment costs for the storage facility. Studies conducted by Gaz de France, backed up by experience acquired over the years, have shown that at least 20% of the cushion gas could be replaced by a less expensive inert gas. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or a mixture of the two, satisfy the specifications required for this inert gas. Two main production methods exist: recovery of natural gas combustion products (mixture of 88% N 2 and 12% Co 2 ) and physical separation of air components (more or less pure N 2 , depending on industrial conditions). For the specific needs of Gaz de France, the means of production must be suited to its programme of partial cushion gas substitution. The equipment must satisfy requirements of autonomy, operating flexibility and mobility. Gaz de France has tested two units for recovery of natural gas combustion products. In the first unit, the inert gas is produced in a combustion chamber, treated in a catalytic reactor to reduce nitrogen oxide content and then compressed by gas engine driven compressors. In the second unit, the exhaust gases of the compressor gas engines are collected, treated to eliminate nitrogen oxides and then compressed. The energy balance is improved. A PSA method nitrogen production unit by selective absorption of nitrogen in the air, will be put into service in 1989. The specific features of these two methods and the reasons for choosing them will be reviewed. (author). 1 fig

  10. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  11. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  12. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  13. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  14. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  15. Opening up to gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing number of gas-fired generation projects in Eastern Europe, and the need for the different countries who wish to join the European Union to approximate their laws with EU legislation which requires the opening up of each member's gas market. Projects in Poland, Croatia, Turkey, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are considered, and project financing, the financial backing provided by the European Bank for Restructuring and Development (EBRD), and the anticipated growth in gas are discussed. (uk)

  16. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  17. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  18. Law no. 2003-8 from January 3, 2003 relative to the gas and electricity markets and to the energy public utilities; Loi no. 2003-8 du 3 janvier 2003 relative aux marches du gaz et de l'electricite et au service public de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This law adopted by the French house of commons and senate defines the conditions of opening of the French natural gas market to the international competition. In particular it defines: the conditions of access to the natural gas distribution networks (eligible clients, suppliers, assignees, contracts, right of access, derogations..); the transparency and the regulation of the natural gas sector (tariffing, book keeping, controls..); the gas public utility (obligations, conventions, national observatory of the gas and electric utilities); natural gas transport and distribution (network safety and maintenance, technical specifications, concessions, authorizations etc..); the underground storage (facilities, concessions, exploitation, safety, permits); the controls and sanctions; the dispositions relative to the electric public utility (funds of amortization, electrification charges, competition, contracts, renewable energy sources); the fees for electricity and gas transportation and distribution. (J.S.)

  19. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Report of the Technology Service - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.; Stosic, T.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the organisational structure of the technology service and its activities and tasks: routine control of reactor parameters and cooperation with the reactor users; development of methodology of reactor control and its application; control of heavy water and gas system operation; dosimetry measurements of contamination in the reactor building; technical aspects of radiation protection; decontamination and accident analysis [sr

  1. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  2. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  3. China Oil and Gas Market Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yu

    2004-08-01

    China, with one-fifth of the world's population and one of the fastest rates of economic growth, is experiencing a boom in its energy requirements. China has been identified as a high priority market for the oil and gas sector. This priority has resulted in the high level of investment and many large-scale projects related to the oil and gas industry. Oil production from existing fields is expected to increase, new oil and gas fields will be developed, and the country's oil and gas transmission infrastructure will be extended to meet domestic demands. In addition, total domestic investment needs for the next three decades till 2030 are estimated at around $119 billion, and upstream exploration and development will account for about $69 billion. China's oil and gas exploitation business has been the biggest beneficiary of the bearish crude oil prices, national oil stockpile and the need of infrastructure. In the first six-month period of 2005, this industry has gained a profit of USD16.5 billion, up 73.4 per cent year-on-year. The country is becoming increasingly open to international oil companies, contractors and equipment suppliers, who can bring advanced technology, equipment, and management experience. In this context, considerable opportunities in the supply and service sectors are open to Dutch companies. This report analyses the present situation and market prospect of China upstream oil and gas industry, including: Current status of Chinese oil and gas industry analysis and future development forecast; Potential customers analysis, such as three stated-owned oil companies and their foreign partners;Domestic and foreign competitors analysis; Potential opportunities and challenges analysis; Providing contacts and information on main ongoing oil exploration and development projects, and business practices

  4. DETERMINING THE DYNAMICS OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN NATURAL GAS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Güliz UĞUR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factors affecting customer satisfaction of the offered services in the natural gas distribution industry. Defining the factors affecting the satisfaction of the offered services are among the instruments which will be used to cope with increased competition and become a preferred institution. For this purpose a questionnaire is developed and implemented with 2043 participants in order to determine the factors of customer satisfaction in the natural gas sector. Within this research, the factors are examined according to several demographic variables to analyze if they differ depending the variables. Findings reveal that, in natural gas industry, customer satisfaction of the offered services vary according to ownership, age, gender, level of education and subscription period satisfaction.

  5. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Ryan, David; Anthony, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO 2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO 2 than the equivalent CO 2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO 2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO 2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  6. Shale Gas Exploration and Development Progress in China and the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghua

    2018-02-01

    Shale gas exploration in China started late but is progressing very quickly with the strong support from Central Government. China has 21.8 tcm technically recoverable shale gas resources and 764.3 bcm proved shale gas reserve, mainly in marine facies in Sichuan basin. In 2016, overall shale gas production in China is around 7.9 bcm, while it is set to reach 10 bcm in 2017 and 30 bcm in 2020. BP is the only remaining IOC actor in shale gas exploration in China partnering with CNPC in 2 blocks in Sichuan basin. China is encouraging shale gas business both at Central level and at Provincial level through establishing development plan, continuation of subsidies and research funding. Engineering services for shale gas development and infrastructures are developing, while the overall cost and gas marketing conditions will be key factors for the success in shale gas industry.

  7. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  8. Ole for Spanish gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a new gas market in Europe. Relative to other EC countries, gas use is still low at 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) or around 6 percent of total primary energy demand (TPED) in 1992 against an EC average of almost 20 percent. The historic reasons for this are Spain's lack of major domestic gas fields and the ready existence of alternative energy sources in the form of coal and hydroelectric power. But gas use is now growing fast, having more than quadrupled since 1980 and with usage predicted to double again in volume terms, rising to 12 percent of TPED by 2000. Only the low population density, which adds to distribution costs, is likely to stop Spain reaching the EC average. (author)

  9. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  10. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  11. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  12. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  13. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  14. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  15. INFORMATION FOR GAS USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested : to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible, to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact Gas.Store@cern.ch by e-mail or call 72265. Thank you for your co-operation.

  16. Information for gas users

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested: - to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible - to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact "Gas store" by e-mail. Thank you for your co-operation. Logistics Group SPL Division

  17. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  18. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  19. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  20. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others